You are on page 1of 12

Spread Spectrum


Udit Chauhan

We will speak about:
• Introduction to WIRELESS. • Spread Spectrum Systems • Antenna Basics. • Antenna Types. • Power Budget.
– Direct Sequence (DSSS) – Frequency Hopping (FHSS)

Why to go WIRELESS?

Temporary Installation.
 

Emergency Networks. Disaster Recovery Network. Exhibitions.

Difficult Access Locations.
  

Historical Buildings. Remote Areas. Places inaccessible by wires.

Permanent Systems.

Wireless Technology

– –

Narrow Band Spread Spectrum
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum  Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


Spread Spectrum
 

Spread spectrum is a coding technique for digital transmission. Spread Spectrum is a methods by which energy generated at one or more discrete frequencies is deliberately spread or distributed in time or frequency domains. Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a signal structuring technique that employs direct sequence, frequency hopping, or a hybrid of these, which can be used for multiple access and/or multiple functions.

Frequency Hopping SS.

It is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission, often to minimize the effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. Current FCC regulations require manufacturers to use 75 or more frequencies per transmission channel with a maximum dwell time (the time spent at a particular frequency during any single hop) of 400 ms.

Frequency Hopping SS.

Frequency Hopping SS.

^ ^ P o w e r

Frequency >>

Direct Sequence SS.

In direct sequence systems, the carrier phase of the transmitter abruptly changes in accordance with a pseudo-random code sequence. At the receiver, the information signal is recovered by remultiplying with a locally generated replica of the spreading code. The amount of spreading is dependent on the ratio of “chips per bit”.

Direct Sequence SS.

Direct Sequence SS.