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Power flow studies, commonly known as load flow, are the important part of power system analysis and design. They are necessary for planning, operation, economic scheduling and control of an existing system as well as planning its future expansion. In addition, power flow analysis is required for many other analyses such as transient stability and contingency studies.
The power flow solution is used to evaluate the bus voltage, branch current, real power flow, reactive power flow for the specified generation and load conditions. The results are used to evaluate the line or transformer loading and the acceptability of bus voltages.
One bus, known as slack or swing bus, is taken as reference where the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage are specified. This bus makes up the difference between the scheduled loads and generated power that are caused by the losses in the network.
They are also known as voltage-controlled buses. At these buses.1 Six bus system . The phase angles of the voltage and reactive power are to be determined. These buses are called P-Q buses.1. The magnitude and the phase angle of the bus voltages are unknown. 3. The limits on the value of the reactive power are specified.3 Regulated Buses These buses are the generator buses. the real power and voltage magnitude are specified.3. 3.2 Load Buses At these buses the active and reactive powers are specified.2 Test System G 1 Load 4 Load 3 6 5 2 Load Load G Figure 3.1. These are called P-V buses.
2 that is the bus data and line data for six bus system. one slack bus and one generator bus which can be seen from Figure 3.1.The technique for this project is tested on a six bus test system which was obtained from IEEE as shown in Figure 3. The bus consists of four load buses.2 Bus data and line data for six bus system . Figure 3.
accel and maxiter. busout and lineflow programs. the buses need not be entered in sequence. bus data file.3. = 1. the following variables must be defined: power system base MVA.2 Bus Data File The format for the bus entry is chosen to facilitate the required data for each bus in a single row. Buses are numbered sequentially.6.1 Data Preparation In order to perform a power flow analysis by the Newton-Raphson method in the MATLAB environment. accuracy = 0. Typical values are as follows: Basemva Accel = 100. line data file and lastly the power flow programs. In addition. respectively. acceleration factor and maximum number of iterations. 3. Although the numbers are sequentially assigned.3.001. The information required must be included in matrix called busdata. Column 3 and 4 are the . The name (in lowercase letters) reserved for these variables are basemva. The power flow programs are divided into lybus.3 Power flow in MATLAB Power flow in MATLAB contains several contains several topic that is covered here which is firstly the data preparation. accuracy. bus data file and line data file are required. maxiter = 80.3. The initial step in the preparation of input file is the numbering of each bus. power mismatch accuracy. Column 1 is the bus number. Column 2 contains the bus code. 3.
The bus code entered in column 2 is used for identifying load. For this bus. 0 This code is used for the load buses. voltage magnitude. for lines. This is usually 1 and 0 for voltage magnitude and phase angle. and the minimum and maximum limits of the megavar demand must be specified.3. and one-half of the total line charging susceptance in per unit on the specified MVA base. The last column is for the transformer tap setting. Mvar. initial voltage estimate must be specified. For this bus. 3. The information required must be included in a matrix called linedata. respectively. Columns 7 through 10 are MW. and slack buses as outlined below: 1 This code is used for the slack bus. The only necessary information for this bus is the voltage magnitude and its phase angle. Columns 1 and 2 are the line bus numbers. in that order. The last column is the injected Mvar of shunt capacitors. reactance. 2 This code is used for the voltage-controlled buses.voltage magnitude in per unit and phase angle in degrees. real power generation in megawatts. Column 5 and 6 are load MW and Mvar. the will be taken as the initial starting voltage for the bus instead of a flat start of 1 and 0. The lines may be entered in any sequence or order with the only restriction being that if the entry is a transformer. If voltage magnitude and phase angle for this type of bus are specified. The loads are entered positive in megawatts and megavars.3 Line Data File Lines are identified by the mode-pair method. 1 must be entered in this column. Columns 3 through 5 contain the line resistance. voltage-controlled. minimum Mvar and maximum Mvar of generation. . the left bus number is assumed to be the tap side of the transformer.
busout and lineflow are designed to be used with the power flow programs. The program is designed to handle parallel lines. lineflow This program prepares the line output data. real and reactive power of generators and loads. Also included are the total real and reactive losses in the system. .3.3. The bus output result includes the voltage magnitude and angle. Total generation and total load are also included as outlined in the sample case. Each method of solution consists of four programs. The output of this portion is also shown in the same case. and the shunt capacitor/reactive Mvar. It converts impedances to admittances and obtains the bus admittance matrix. busout This program produces the bus output result in a tabulated form. lfybus This program requires the line and transformer parameters and transformer tap setting specified in the input file named linedata. It is designed to display active and reactive power flow entering the line terminals and line losses as well as the net power at each bus. Programs lfybus. which is then preceded by lfybus and is followed by busout and lineflow. The program for the Newton-Raphson method is lfnewton.4 Power Flow Programs Power flow programs are the programs that have been developed for the power flow solution of practical system.
It is designed for the direct use of load and generation in MW and Mvar. the var calculated at the generator buses are examined. bus voltages in per unit. and angle in degrees. the voltage magnitude is adjusted in steps of 0.5 percent up to ±5 percent to bring the var demand within the specified limits. Loads and generation are converted to per unit quantities on the base MVA selected. .lfnewton This program obtains the power flow solution by the Newton-Raphson method and requires the busdata and the linedata files. A provision is made to maintain the generator reactive power of the voltage-controlled buses within their specified limits. If a limit is reached. The violation of reactive power limit may occur if the specified voltage is either too high or too low. In the second iteration.
3: Flow chart for AIS technique .1 Flow Chart Start Initial Population Clone Mutate Selection Converge Stop Figure 3.4.4 Artificial Immune System (AIS) 3.3.
• • Proliferation and differentiation on contact of mature cells with antigens. 3.2 Initial Population This is the part where a certain number is generate randomly to initialize the early value of a population which the value of reactive power dispatch. where single members will be locally optimized and the newcomers yield a broader exploration of the search space. The clone selection algorithm reproduces those individuals with higher affinity and selects their improved matured offspring.4.1)*50 The value of x is then being use to calculate the fitness. The persistence of forbidden clones provides resistant to early elimination by self-antigens as the basis of autoimmune diseases. A value between one and fifty is generate using equation: x=rand(1.3 Clone The clone selection principle is an algorithm used by the immune system to describe the basic features of an immune response to an antigenic stimulus.4. The main features of the clone selection principle are:- • New cells are copies of their parents (done) subjected to a mutation mechanism. • Elimination of newly differentiated lymphocytes carrying self-reacting receptors.3. This characteristics makes the clone selection algorithm is suitable for solving multi-modal .
optimization problems. Data C is the data that is cloned ten times of data B. Data B is the data that selects only data for row two and three which is minimum Tloss (Vm) and maximum (Vm). a few adaptations have to be made as follows:- • There is no explicit antigen to be recognized. Therefore the affinity of an antibody refers to the evaluation of the objective function. Data A is the data that is obtained after a random number is generated and the fitness is calculated. the size of reactive power dispatch and losses values has to be cloned ten times the amount of the fitness so the values of losses and the size of reactive power dispatch will be one hundred. The number clones generated by the antibodies are equal. Figure 3.4: The clone program The clone program is shown in figure 3. When the clone selection algorithm is implemented for solving optimization problem. For this project. Repmat is a function to duplicate and tile and array. but an objective function is to be optimized. • • All antibodies are to be selected for cloning.4. This is for the accuracy of the program to optimize the reactive power dispatch size .
Calculated fitness value will be used for the mutation process. Firstly ‘f’ selects only the second row of the cloned data which is from data C.5.3. Next the maximum value of losses is defined and the process is repeated for the selection of row one from data C . Figure 3.4 Mutate Mutation aims to re-introduce variability in a solution population and to avoid search stagnation in a non appropriate region of the search space. Further ‘f’ is use to generate a selection probability. n was performed on mutation to produce offspring’s. then ‘f’ should have positive or zero value.4. The random number.5: The mutation program The mutation program is shown on figure 3.
0001. For any fixed standard of accuracy. Then the maximum and minimum value of RPD is search for the calculation process. which maybe itself unknown.4.4. you can always be sure to be within that limit. 3.0001 . 3.6 Convergence Convergence describes limiting behavior.5 Selection In selection. provided you have gone far enough. To assert convergence is to claim the existence of such a limit. particularly of an infinite sequence or series toward some limit. The mathematical equation is given as:- total loss (max) – total loss (min) ≤ 0. Stopping criteria or convergence criterion is specified when the value of difference between maximum total loss and minimum total loss is less than 0. however. the offspring’s produced by mutation process will be sort and the best ten values is chosen from a hundred values of the offspring’s subject.which is defined as ‘Xj’ and it is the value of the size of RPD.
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