CHET 409

DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS

LAB EXER. 12 / 1

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DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS
1.1.1 PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE Upon completion of this experiment, the student will be able to : 1. Explain the effect of using two reactors working in series on the anaerobic process. 1.2 1. 2. 3. 1.3 EQUIPMENT Disposable plastic gloves Lab-coat or rubber apron Dissolved oxygen meter MATERIALS

1. Wastewater sludge 1.4 DISCUSSION

The plate and frame filter is one of the most commonly used filter design. It has two end filter plates to which the filter medium. Between the two end plates are frame plates and wash plates. Slurry is pumped into the frame plates from the inlet and filtered solids collect there. Wash plates have a filter medium on both faces and have a particular port arrangement to enable slurry washing procedures. The number of frame plates and wash plates can be changed depending on the separation area and solids capacity required. All of the plates are heldpressed together to form a seal which enables the filter unit to be operated at pressure, providing drive force to push the slurry through the filter cloths. To obtain the solids after each filtration, the filter and frame filter has to be dismantled. In industry a wide variety of filter media are used, from wire mesh screens and plastic sheets such as nylon to loose powder media such as diatomaceous earth or perlite. 1. DEMONSTRATION OF PRECOAT FILTRATION

Yanbu Industrial College

18 June 2010

Moreover. termed the open area. Although such a small pore size may not be sufficient for the recovery of many solids. the thickness of which increases with time. While. The filtration operation can be run either at constant feed pressure or at constant feed flow rate. 3. equal to L/K. The equation is often written in the following form: Q KAP L or Q AP  RT where K is a constant referred to as the bed permeability. DEMONSTRATION OF DARCY’S LAW Filtration can be described by Darcy’s equation: Q P L where Q is the volumetric flow rate of filtrate. reduces reasonably as the pore size reduces which in turn leads to much reduced filtration rates. for example polyester material with a pore size of 3 m is commercially available. It is possible to use filter media with much smaller pore sizes. DETERMINATION OF MEDIUM AND CAKE RESISTANCES Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . screening and calcining of the mineral. A is the filtration area. However. Both problems can be overcome by using precoat of loose solids on a coarse medium. grinding. 12 / 2 There are many types of filter media. As the filtration proceeds solids are deposited onto the filter surfaces to form a cake. This is important for the efficiency of a filtration process. ∆P is the driving pressure and L is the bed or cake thickness. There are a few types of precoat can be used in different filtration process. Diatomaceous earth and expanded perlite are two most common precoat to be used. Diatomaceous earth is the fossilised remains of microscopic plants which are several million years old. the sizes of most particles recovered by filtration are much smaller than this. In the process of filter aid. Coarse nylon filter medium with 45 m nominal pore size. expanded perlite is derived from a type of volcanic rock. These precoats can maintain the open area even for particles as small as 1m. 2. the area of the filter that is actually pores. Another important characteristic of precoat is their high porosity which means that there is little added resistance to the filtration process. Preparation of expanded perlite involves crushing.  is the filtrate viscosity and RT.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. these precoating materials are added to feed solution to aid the filtration process by increasing the porosity of the filter cake. is termed the resistance.

Thus the general filtration equation can be given by: PA Q  c(V / A)   R 1. For incompressible cakes.1 3. 12 / 3 The resistances to filtration.1 Constant rate filtration Now for constant rate filtration it becomes: Q P(t ) A  c(V (t ) / A)   R V = Qt Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . It is more useful to determine these resistances individually.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER.1. Thus: Q PA  ( R  RC ) 1. the medium resistance and the cake resistance are determined as an inclusive term. RC   w where w is the mass of cake deposited per unit area and  is the specific cake resistance.4. The medium and the cake resistances are important in helping to design and scale up the filtration procedures. The cake resistance increases with time as more solids are deposited on the filtration surfaces. the cake resistance is directly proportional to the amount of cake deposited.4. w is a function of time and is given by: Q wA  cV where c is the mass concentration of solids (expressed in terms of the unit volume of filtrate). therefore. RT.1 where R and Rc are the medium and cake resistances respectively. Therefore. The medium resistance is assumed to be constant although this may not be true due to blocking of pores with time. by substitution: PA  w   R For batch filtration. and V is the cumulative filtrate volume.

and b  R P  av 2t  bv where v is the approach velocity of the filtrate: v Q A 1. P   cQ 2t A 2   RQ A If. a1   c 2 A P 2 and b1  R AP Then. the equation must be modified: Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . a  c then. 12 / 4 Hence. 3.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER.4. From this values of  and R can be calculated. Therefore a period of constant flow rate is normally adopted prior to constant pressure filtration.2 Constant pressure filtration For constant pressure filtration it can be shown that: t and an  cV 2 2 A P 2   RV AP If.1 Hence.1.1. a plot of ∆P against t should give a straight line with a gradient of av 2 intercept of bv. Thus. t  a1V  b1 V High initial flow rates through a clean medium are usually avoided to prevent penetration of solids through the clean medium which lead to contamination of the filtrate.

ie. (b) Air is blown through the filter cake prior to wash liquid application. With the same ratio. 3. With the same ratio. There are two basic methods used in industry for filter washing: (a) Immediately apply the wash liquid to the cake just after the filtration ends.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. t  ts Thus a plot of vs V+Vs gives a straight line from which the medium and cake V  Vs resistances can be calculated. SLURRY PREPARATION 1. ie. 2. the cake is unsaturated prior to washing. with all the pores within the cake are still completely full with liquid from the original feed slurry. In many of the exercises instructions are given to make a 8L solution of CaCO3 and add it to the feed tank which already contains 4L of water from recirculation of the precoat Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 .0% (w/v) solution is used.5% (w/v) solution is used.2 PREPARATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SUSPENSIONS 1. DEMONSTRATION OF FILTER CAKE WASHING AND DEWATERING It is often to wash the filter cake before solids are removed from the filter either to recover valuable mother liquor or to remove impurities. Mixing 5g to a litre of water can make this. add water to 320g of CaCO3 and make up to 8L. 4. 12 / 5 t  ts R  a1 (V  Vs )  V  Vs AP where ts and Vs are the time and the volume of filtrate prior to the constant pressure filtration period. when the cake is saturated. Important parameters to determine are the volume of wash liquid required for efficient washing and the time the procedure takes. 4. add water to 20g of precoat and make up to 4L. 2. PROCEDURE: 1.1 PREPARATION OF PRECOAT SUSPENSIONS 1. Mixing 40g of CaCO3 to a litre of water can make this. 0. 1.

Make sure all the filter plates are packed together in closed position with the moving platen pressed against it and the recessed indent of the plate handles are resting neatly on the sidebars. Prepare 4L of 0. remix with the filtrate and retain for later. The final concentration of the 12L solution must be 2. Then switch on the main switch. As the precoat suspension enters the filter frame plates. 3.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. With the controller on manual. After five minutes sample the filtrate and stop the pump.1 DEMONSTRATION OF PRECOAT FILTRATION Note: Lead water to drain the pump for the first time to avoid any oxidised deposits to enter the pump. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank. Bleed any air from the filter frame plates. 320g of CaCO3 are added to 8L of water which is then added to the feed tank. 3. Power-up the equipment by connecting the electrical plug to the nearest electrical power supply. Discharge the calcium carbonate from the feed tank. Stop data logging.3 GENERAL START-UP 1. Check that the filter media and gasket are properly arranged between the filter plates. 4. Check that all instruments are installed properly and in good condition. Prepare 8L solution of 4% (w/v) calcium carbonate and add to the feed tank. In order to reach this concentration. Switch valve V5 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel. Stop data logging. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. Bleed any air from the filter frame plates. 5. begin logging of data. Continue pumping for 10-15 minutes by which time most of the precoat will be retained on the filter surfaces within the filter.67% (w/v) CaCO3. Start the logging of data when the slurry is entering the filter. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 2. 2. Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . 4. set the feed flow rate to 40L/hr and begin pumping. 1. With the controller on manual set the feed flow rate to 40L/hr and begin pumping. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank. 2. Observe the filter for any build up of filter cake. 2.5% (w/v) precoat and add to the feed tank. Tightened the bolts and nuts. 12 / 6 suspension. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. 1.

5% (w/v) precoat and add to the feed tank.5 bar and then stop the pump and stop data logging. Comment on the results for the different feed compositions. Bleed any air from the filter frame plates. Prepare 4L of 0. Set the pump to give a feed flow rate of 40L/hr and begin pumping. Continue pumping for 10-15 minutes by which time most of the filter aid will be retained on the filter surfaces within the filter. Plot a graph for Q against t. Switch valve V5 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel. 1.20 bar switch the controller to automatic. 2. As the pressure reaches 0.0 bar. 12 / 7 6. clean and re-assemble the filter before performing the next experimental run. 5. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. As the calcium carbonate suspension enters the filter frame plates. Calculate K and RT. 2. Determine the gradients for the constant pressure periods of operation and comment on the results. 2. Stop data logging. As the calcium carbonate/filter aid begins to enter the filter plates. Set the pump to give a feed flow rate of 40L/hr and begin pumping. As the volume of material in the feed tank becomes low stop the pump by adjusting the controller set point to 0. Bleed any air from the filter frame plates. Plot ΔP against V and comment on the relationship.3 DETERMINATION OF MEDIUM AND CAKE RESISTENCES Constant rate filtration Note: When using the pump for the first time of the day it is best to lead water to drain so that any oxidised deposits in the pump body do not enter the filter. Continue pumping for 10-15 minutes by which time most of the filter aid will be retained on the filter surfaces within the filter. Measure the volume of filtrate.67% (w/v) and 0. Prepare 4L of 0.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. 7. 2. Add the calcium carbonate from the previous experimental run to the feed tank. The final concentration of calcium carbonate in the feed tank should be 2.5% (w/v) precoat and add to the feed tank. Switch valve V5 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel. Continue the experiment until the pressure reaches 1. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. Determine the extent of precoat deposition onto the filter surfaces. Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 .5 bar but set to manual pump control. begin data logging. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank. Set the controller to 1. Disassemble. add to the feed tank and make up to 12L. 6. 9.2 DEMONSTRATION OF DARCY’S LAW 1. 8. begin logging of data.17% (w/v) filter aid. Identify the major resistances to filtration. 3. Prepare 8L of calcium carbonate solution. 4.

After this period drain the water from the tank.67% (w/v). Bleed any air from the filter frame plates.4 DEMONSTRATION OF FILTER CAKE WASHING AND DEWATERING 1. Stop data logging. 4. 12 / 8 3. Continue the filtration until the filter reaches its solids capacity. Prepare 4L of 0. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank. 3. Plot all the data on a single graph.67% (w/v).5% (w/v) precoat and add to the feed tank. Arrange the valves so that filtrate is returned to the feed tank.0 bar but set to manual pump control. Bleed any air from the filter frame plates. 5. Prepare 8L of calcium carbonate solution. begin data logging. Repeat the experiment at 48 L/hr. Stop data logging. As the calcium carbonate/filter aid begins to enter the filter plates. Clean the filter and tanks before repeating the next experiment. 5. Discharge the feed and fill again with 3L of water and allow the water to recirculate through the filter and tank for 5 minutes. 4. The final concentration of calcium carbonate in the feed tank should be 2. 7.5% (w/v) precoat and add to the feed tank. Switch valve V5 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel. Prepare 8L of calcium carbonate solution. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. 3. Set the pump to give a feed flow rate of 40L/hr and begin pumping.67% (w/v). plotting (t-ts) / (V-Vs) vs V+Vs. 2. As the pressure reaches 1. Continue the filtration until the liquid level in the tank becomes low (~ 3L).0 bar. 2. The data for the constant pressure filtration period should give a straight line although there may be a slight curve to the data. Continue the filtration until the liquid level in the tank becomes low (~ 3L). The final concentration of calcium carbonate in the feed tank should be 2. Prepare 8L of calcium carbonate solution. Results Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . Switch valve V5 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. From this plot determine the gradient and the intercept. switch to automatic control. begin data logging. add to the feed tank and make up to 12L. Prepare 4L of 0. As the calcium carbonate begins to enter the filter plates. 6. Stop data logging. As the calcium carbonate/filter aid begins to enter the filter plates. Continue pumping for 10-15 minutes by which time most of the filter aid will be retained on the filter surfaces within the filter. Constant pressure filtration 1. This enables calculation of the medium and cake resistances. 5. The final concentration of calcium carbonate in the feed tank should be 2. Turn on the feed tank stirrer to maintain a homogeneous feed solution. 4. add to the feed tank and make up to 12L. begin data logging. This enables the medium and cake resistances to be calculated. Switch valve V9 to allow filtrate to collect in the filtrate vessel. Plot all the data on a single graph of pressure vs time. add to the feed tank and make up to 12L. Set the controller to 1. Continue pumping for 10-15 minutes by which time most of the filter aid will be retained on the filter surfaces within the filter. Set the pump to give a feed flow rate of 40L/hr and begin pumping. 2.

 P (bar) Pressure drop. t (min) Feed flow rate = 40L/hr Temperature = °C Feed flow rate = 48 L/hr Temperature = °C Pressure drop.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. t (min) °C Volumetric flow rate of filtrate. t (min) °C Pressure drop. 12 / 9 Demonstration of Precoat Filtration Results: Temperature of filtrate: Time.  P (bar) Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . V (L) Pressure drop.  P (bar) Demonstration of Darcy’s Law Results: Temperature of filtrate: Time. Q (L/min) Volume of filtrate. Q (L/min) Determination of Medium and Cake Resistances Results: A) Constant rate filtration Time.  P (bar) Volumetric flow rate.

2. Clean your equipment and work benches before you leave. 3. Vf (L) Cumulative volume. Yanbu Industrial College 18 June 2010 . 12 / 10 B) Constant pressure filtration Results: Temperature of filtrate : °C Time (min) Pressure drop.CHET 409 DEWATERING OF SLUDGE BY PLATE AND FRAME FILTER PRESS LAB EXER. Return all equipment to their proper storage area.2 FINAL CHECKLIST 1. Submit your answers to the review questions along with your technical report to your instructor before the next laboratory session.4. V (L) t  ts V  Vs  P (bar) 1. Q(L/min) Volume of filtrate. Volumetric flow rate.

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