This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Domestic Garden
• Use: The oldest domestic gardens are astonishingly similar to modern domestic gardens and were used in similar ways: for relaxation, outdoor eating, childrens’ play and the cultivation of beautiful and edible plants. Knowledge of these gardens comes from Egyptian tomb paintings, made so that pharaohs could enjoy in the after-life similar comforts to those they had enjoyed in the eaarthly stage of their existence. Form: Private dwellings, like temples, were rectangular enclosures bounded by high walls. The geometry of garden compounds appears more symmetrical than that of temples but, since there are no physical examples, this may be no more than artist’s license. Regularity comes naturally to the artist and is less likely to appear on the ground, except when gardens are made with paper plans and surveying equipment. Egyptian domestic gardens were places for bodily comfort, with fruit trees, flowers, pools, pot plants, vine-clad pergolas and places to sit, in winter sun or summer shade
Tomb of Amenophis III
Temple Garden -2000 Use: The oldest garden survivals are the temple compounds of ancient Egypt. They were used by priests and pharaohs, though members of the public might be admitted on festival days. The design of temples helped to explain the nature of the world and the social order, as we now do through science, religion, art, history and politics. Temple compounds are the oldest surviving manifestation of the quest to make outdoor space as works of art. Sacred groves were associated with temple compounds.
lined with trees. Some of the enclosed land was used to accommodate store houses. Temple of Metuhotpe II . Temple of Karnak. the holy of holies. sphinxes and statues. The internal space was in part ceremonial and in part laid to gardens. Temples were linked by avenues. Temple of Medinet Habu. pools. shrines. The basic construction materials were stone and mud brick. Temple of Luxor. Temples were built in rectangular compounds bounded by high walls. statues. Compounds also held sacred lakes.• • • • • • Temple Garden -2000 Form: Axial lines were used but the overall geometry was non-symmetrical. flower and vegetable gardens. The line of the avenue ran into the compound and led through a series of processional gates to a hypostyle hall and then an inner sanctum. Temple of Hatshepsut.
• • • • • Paradise Garden -500 Use: The Persian word (paradeisoi). than as rooms for outdoor living. pools. fountains and cascades cooled the air. Flowers provided scent and colour. They were used more as ornaments to be viewed from upper windows. from which our word paradise comes. The term was first used for large hunting parks and later for rectangular walled gardens in cities or in the countryside. . Paradise gardens were a calm retreat from the noisy and dusty outside world. meant a walled garden. or garden pavilions. It derives from pairi (around) and deaza (wall). Fruit trees provided shade. Water channels.
milk. fire and air.15) describes paradise as a garden of eternity (Arabic jannat al-khuld) with four rivers: of water. The underlying geometry had an amazing consistency for some 2. The Koran (xxv. Patio de los Naranjos.• • • • • • • Paradise Garden -500 Form: The classic Paradise Garden is divided into four parts by canals. Isfahan (Esfahan). Strict rectilinear gardens with squares and rectangles demarcated by water channels were made by the Persians (from the sixth century BC) by the Arabs (from the eighth century AD) and by the Mongols (from the sixteenth century until the eighteenth century). The Greeks added the idea of four elements: earth. water. Samaria. Palace of Balkuwara. . wine and honey. It is known as a chahar bagh or quadripartite garden and has four square parts separated by water channels.500 years.
Form: No physical examples survive from the ancient world but there are relief sculptures and written records. water. Large rectangular walled enclosures were used to make collections of exotic plants and animals. Physical examples survive from medieval and renaissance Europe.• • • Hunting Park -1500 Use: When the area of land taken into cultivation became significant.and be hunted. A varied topography of woods. kings began to yearn for places where wild plants and animals could live . Hunting parks were the preserve of kings and nobles and could be used to teach young men the arts of riding horses and driving chariots. Boundaries are likely to have been made with mud brick. grassland and hills was desirable. rubble stone or timber. The ancient hunting park can be regarded as the origin of the park as a place to take exercise and appreciate nature. depending on local circumstances. National parks and nature reserves are their equivalent in the modern world. . This happened first in the ‘land between the two rivers’ (Mesopotamia) and in Persia.
When exercise was a dominant use they took the name ‘gymnasium’. these places came to be used for discussion. When civilization became concentrated in high density walled cities. . In time. as in Ancient Greece. deriving from the Greek gumnos (meaning naked) or ‘palaestra’. sacred groves were related to the temple gardens of Egypt. sanctuaries and sacred groves took on a wider social role. If there was a spring in the grove it would be a natural place to site an alter to a local god or to build a temple in his or her honour. from palaio (meaning to wrestle). The Greeks ran and wrestled without clothes.• • Sanctuary -400 Use: Egyptian temples owned areas of woodland. They lay outside the city walls and could be used safely during times of peace. As works of art and places of spiritual enlightenment. education and physical exercise. known as sacred groves.
seats. Temple of Olympia . rooms for philosophers and courtyards for wrestling and exercise. pools.• • • Sanctuary -400 Form: A cave in a wood with a natural spring of water was an ideal location. The sacred grove became a public place with specialised enclosures. Plato Academy. Delphi. A roofed colonade (peristyle) was used to enclose a rectangular space for athletics or wrestling. Groves developed into large temple complexes for education and sport. The cave became a grotto with a statue of the god and other architectural embelishments. Athens. Seats were placed in alcoves (exedra) attached to the peristyle and used for discussion or teaching.
growing plants.• • *Courtyard -100 Use: Space within walled cities was always valuable and expensive. . Only the rich could afford small gardens. entertaining. Courtyards were made for specialised purposes. warm in winter and cool in summer. they had to be enclosed by high walls owing to the proximity of neighbours and the demands of security and privacy. The poor lived in a single room with a door opening onto the street and no windows. In towns. Walls also created an urban climate. broadly similar to those of the Egyptian domestic garden: outdoor eating.
• • Conimbriga. a horticultural space (xystus) was used for flowers and vegetables and might be decorated with statues. myrtle. In flowers. lily. daisy. It was either paved or slightly recessed to catch rainwater.• • • • • *Courtyard -100 Form: Three types of courtyard were made. The roofed colondade on the perimeter functioned as a corridor giving access to bedrooms and living rooms. . 3. rosemary. the Romans liked the rose. The enclosed yard had pools. a yard (atrium) in the centre of the dwelling giving access to other rooms and to the street. flowers. J Paul Getty Museum and Garden. Evergreens were favoured: bay. box and ivy. The atrium served as a lightwell and ventilation shaft. with wealthy city dwellers having one of each type: 1. a pavilion and a water features. shrubs. fountains. 2. poppy and chrysanthemum. statues and a small shrine. a colonaded yard (peristyle) ornamented and used as an outdoor living and dining room. violet. iris. oleander.
The villa became a palatial estate complete with dwellings. Owners enjoyed both the chase and the supply of fresh meat. gardens and numerous subsidiary buildings. the temple garden (many emperors were considered Gods) and the hunting park. run an empire. or. The villa integrated elements of many earlier garden types: the domestic courtyard. exercise. entertain friends and conduct pleasant business. . in Hadrian’s case. the gymnasium (sacred grove). relax. Both rustic and urban villas were made.• • Villa 100 AD Use: The idea of making villas developed in Greece and reached fulfillment in the Roman Empire. The word ‘palace’ comes from Augustus’ villa on Rome’s Palatine Hill. Their use was to live.
by the standards of renaissance villas. In Southern Spain (c1250) the Moors built palatial villa-gardens. colonades. the lack of an axial relationship between buildings is surprising. Generalife. With the renaissance. statuary. planned like their Roman predecessors but also drawing upon the Paradise gardens of the east. .• • • Villa 100 AD Form: Buildings and gardens were grouped together within a bounded enclosure. the practice of villabuilding resumed in Italy. The spaces adjoining individual buildings were axially planned but. evergreens and adjacent hunting parks (as at the Villa Lante) Alhambra. Villa Adriana (Hadrian's Villa). Either there was no overall plan or it was asymmetrical. fountains. Typical features included: pools. Structures were scattered like parcels on a table.
They were contemplative spaces at the heart of monastic life and used for walking and reading. Another door led into the church. sleeping (the dormitory) and food storage (the cellar). They gave access to adjacent buildings used for eating (the refectory).• • Cloister Garth 1100 Use: The word cloister means enclosed. cloisters had colonnades like the Greek and Roman peristyle courts from which they so clearly derive. Often. .
• • • Cloister Garth 1100 Form: The typical cloister is a square courtyard surrounded by a covered walk. Mosteiro dos Jeronimos. There are no medieval records of them having contained any plants except closely-scythed grass. vegetable and orchard gardens. The Cloisters. . St. Mont St Michel. but no examples survive. princes of the church became leaders in the art of garden design and many simple plats of grass were made into ornamental gardens. Cartuja de Valldemossa. The central green space was known as the cloister garth (garden). Utrecht Cathedral. Monastries also had flower. Clairvaux Abbey. with herbaceous plants and shrubs. San Francisco at Evora. In the nineteenth century some became gardenesque. Monestir de Pedralbes. St Augustine's Abbey. During the renaissance. Gall (Sankt Gallen).
an army. In times of siege. . children. trample the garden.• • Castle Garden 1300 Use: Forts were occupied by soldiers and used exclusively for military purposes. From the middle ages onwards. or the poplulation of the local village. primarily for the use of ladies. would occupy the space inside the outer fortifications and. castles were places for families to live with their dependents and retainers. Some had small pleasure gardens within their walls. presumably. swains and troubadours.
hexagonal or irregular enclosure. Vincennes Chateau. There are many surviving castle spaces where one can see places for such gardens within the inner or outer bailey. tunnel-arbours and a profusion of sweetscented flowers. Most of the land within the bailey would not have smelt sweet. Castles also had orchards and hunting parks outside the fortified zone. inside the outer fortification (bailey). . Chateau Amboise. Chateau Angers. flowery lawns. Montargis. Chateau Dourdan. turf seats. They show trellis fencing.• • • Castle Garden 1300 Form: The garden could be a small rectangular. No examples survive but there are symbolic illustrations of them in medieval prayer books and romances.
Men resumed their involvement with gardens and more resources were devoted to their design. instead of hilltop castles.• • • Early Renaissance Style 1450 Use: The renaissance garden developed by stages from the medieval castle garden. The social use of gardens. space became available for the design of ornamental gardens. was also reborn. The principles of ancient gardens were rediscovered and experiments were made with new ideas. for holding discussions and entertaining friends. . When it became safe to live in fortified villas. Women could use them to take the air in safety.
Palacio de Fronteira. Giardino Buonaccorsi. Patterns. Charleval. Mallorca. Asolo. Valleri. Jardins de Alfabia. Fiesole. as they were in Paradise gardens. Anet. Villa Medici di Careggi. Poggio a Cajano. Villa Medici. Chateau de Dampierre. Poggio Reale. Chateau Blois. San Vigilio. Bury. Quinta da Bacalhoa. were used in the design of what became known as ‘knot gardens’. Levens Hall. Pitmedden Garden. Chateau Gaillon. early renaissance gardens had no particular geometrical relationship between the fortified house and its garden. order and regularity could to be viewed from the upper windows of a house. inspired by knotted carpets.• • • Form: Square and rectangular ‘garden carpets’ were laid out so that their unity. Chateau de. Edzell Castle and Garden. In marked contrast with eastern practice. Jardines de las Reales Alcazares. . Verneuil.
physically and intellectually. grass-plots and porticoes. and where the family may divert themselves and enjoy the shade in summer … and have a view of some city. with their hillside terraces. • Medieval gardens had been inward-looking. swimming. It was a way of looking to history and the fine arts. where the old men may chat together in the kindly warmth of the sun in winter. court-yards. the sea.High Renaissance Style 1540 • Use: With a departure from the enclosed gardens of the late middle ages. began to look outward. Alberti advised making ‘open places for walking. an open plain’. • Making a collection of antique statuary became an important garden use. . and other diversions. towns. Renaissance gardens.
Villa d'Este . Flights of steps. Palazzo Farnese. Haimhausen. Parco Demidoff Pratolino. Rubenhuis (Rubens House) Villa Imperiale. Wallenstein Garden Czech Republic. Villa Medici (Academie Francaise .• • • Form: The organising principle of high renaissance gardens was first demonstrated by Bramante. Castello Branco. Elizabethan Gardens. Chateau de Fontainebleau. Jardin del Monasterio de El Escorial. Villa Madama . Giardino Botanico (Orto Botanico) Padua. Villa Medici at Castello (Villa Reale). He used a central axis to control the layout of house and garden. Colonial Williamsburg. Heidleberg Schlossgarten (Hortus Palatinus). It integrated a series of rectangular enclosures with terraces at different levels. Villa Lante . Villa Pia. alcoves. niches and fountains were disposed in relation to the axis and embellished with statues. Parque del Buen Retiro.Chateau de Chenonceaux. fountains and terracotta pots holding flowers and fruit trees. Sacro Bosco/Villa Orsini. Vatican Palace. Chateau de Beloeil.
by the agency of the water. to drink. and utterly without water. Montaigne visited Pratolino in 1580 and thought the Duke of Florence had ‘expressly selected an inconvenient site.• • • • Mannerist Style 1660 Use: When renaissance art was thought to have reached a peak of perfection. merely that he might have the pleasure of bringing the water from five miles off’. which perform a variety of pieces. opens doors. and gives apparent animation to the figures of various animals. novelty and alusion. and so on. designers and their clients became attracted by surprise. to swim about. Gardens were furnished with dramatic features and used for outdoor masques and parties. that seem to jump into the water. by a hidden machinery. which also. Virtuoso water displays were admired and the creation of garden features to impress one’s friends became an objective. single and in groups. Yet he was amazed to see ‘various musical instruments.’ . gives motion to several statues. sterile and rugged.
Farnese Gardens. It was as though garden designers had taken heed of Leonardo’s remark that ‘It is a wretched pupil who does not surpass his master’. Vizcaya. as they did in mannerist painting and sculpture. .• • • • Mannerist Style 1660 Form: Movement and drama became important in mannerist gardens. gardens were less calm and more given to theatrical display. Compared with their predecesors. a Neoplatonic concern for circles and squares. Dramatic sites were chosen and embellished with exotic sculpture. There was an interest in scholarship and. often based on sreams flowing through the garden. SaintGermain-en-Laye. with Palladio. Villa Campi. Hydraulic marvels and elaborate water features. Palazzo del Te. were charcteristic features of mannerist gardens.
Since physical security now rested more on guns than city walls. as living in towns. Princes and Dukes. or unsafe.• • • • Early Baroque Style 1600 Use: Early Baroque art is associated with the Counter-Reformation and a desire to re-establish the authority of the Catholic church and the power of the princes. Pope Sixtus V used Baroque ideas in the planning of Rome. living in rural areas became as safe. The villas of Frascati were built with their lines of sight fixed on the dome of St Peter’s in Rome. Important social gatherings took place in Baroque gardens. Garden layout became a way of demonstrating the importance of Popes. . with vistas fixed on a set of obelisks.
Then: (1) Bramante gave avenues key role to a central axis (2) avenues became focused on garden features (3) avenues focused on features outside the garden (eg the dome of St Peters) (4) avenues began radiating in all directions to the greater glory of their owner. Villa Falconieri. In towns. optics and perspective influenced the style. the avenues focussed on churches and other features. Villa Torlonia. lakes and forests into a composition with the garden. Jardin du Luxembourg. Schloss Hellbrunn. La Roche Courbon. Villa Albani. . Villa Garzoni. bringing mountains. Giardino di Boboli. An enthusiasm for the discoveries of geometry. The avenue is the most characteristic feature of baroque layouts. The results were dramatic. Outside towns they pushed into the landscape. Villa Mondragone. It had begun life as a shady walk on the edge of a medieval garden.• • • • • • Early Baroque Style 1600 Form: The Baroque style began with the projection of axes beyond the boundaries of enclosed renaissance gardens. Isola Bella. Villa Aldobrandini. Lines of view. and then axes projected ever-outwards. Jardin des Tuilleries.
. France was the leading country in the development of high baroque gardens and they became associated with autocratic government. An ancient park-use was rediscovered: forest rides were used for hunting. perhaps in the company of his skilled designer. providing they carried a sword. the garden was incomplete without an audience. Andre Le Notre.• • • • • High Baroque Style 1650 Use: Baroque gardens were for show. Versailles was freely open to gentlemen. High society gathered to admire and participate in the theatricality. The crowds would part admiringly when Louis XIV made a stately progression of his estate. Like a play. It was also a physical expression of the owner’s power and importance: one had to be there.
basins and canals. planting and other features. Ermitage Garten Bayreuth. Chateau de. elaborate parterres. Command of the waters was essential and in many gardens there were so many fountains that they could be operated only for a short time each week. sculpture. cascades. Hampton Court Palace . The characteristic features of baroque gardens were: a centrally positioned building.Versailles. Chantilly. . garden architecture . Chateau de Vaux-leVicomte. Belvedere Vienna.• • • • • High Baroque Style 1650 Form: Designers drew upon developments in mathematics and science. A unified discipline infused the residential architecture. Esterhaza (Fetod). Villa Gambereraia. Favorite. using a 'Cartesian' geometry with avenues reaching to draw the surrounding landscape into the composition. Caserta Palazzo Reale La Reggia. fountains. Carlsberg. Villa Castellazzo. Chateau de. fountains. Drottningholm Palace. Bruchsal. Chateau de Rambouillet.
Form: The radial geometry was carried over from the high baroque. Their proud intention was to make 'useful and beautiful' country retreats. as Virgil had done. There was an interest in lines of view. Owners shunned courtly life. Timber production was an important land use. Cirencester Park.• • • Forest Style 1710 Use: The idea of the garden as a rural retreat grew in deliberate contrast to the high baroque style. sometimes emphasised by low hedges on the inside margins of avenues. The boundary was often a low retaining wall with bastions at turning points giving views over the surrounding countryside. not by cutting rides through existing forest. The name for the style comes from Stephen Switzer. Avenues were made by planting trees. meeting the estate boundary at bastion points. .
• • • • • Augustan Style 1730 Use: Owners started to look back. . the Augustan garden served as a reminder and as a place to display souveniers (eg urns and statues). beyond the baroque. beyond the middle ages: to the classical origins of western culture. Discussions with a few friends might take place while strolling through the grounds or sipping tea on a well placed seat. For landowners who had been on the Grand Tour. beyond the renaissance. They wanted gardens which recalled the landscape of antiquity and could be used as places of reflection: on literature. history. natural science and the affairs of the day. Classical ornament and allusion contributed to theme.
Claremont Landscape Garden. Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin).• • • • • • Augustan Style 1730 Form: The first 'landscape gardens' in England were inspired by visions of the Roman landscape in the time of the Emperor Augustus. Park an der Ilm. William Kent was one of the first professional designers to give physical form to this vision. . water. Middleton Place. Worlitz Park. Rousham. Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens. Pavlosk. They were classical landscapes with woods. Castle Howard. Between 1720 and 1745 the placing of temples and statues was more important than the overall plan. Stowe Landscape Gardens. Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey. Weimar. Stourhead. Chiswick House. The diagram shows part of the garden as a carry-over from the baroque and part as an early exercise in the re-creation of a classical landscape. grass and small temples.
admired the style. although the owner was extremely rich. . One then observed that. The park was used for grazing. his resources were used productively instead of being wasted on boastful display. including Goethe and Rousseau. They saw it as the Garden of the Enlightenment. It was regarded as more ‘natural’ than anything which had gone before. In Continental Europe writers. One must look with an educated eye to appreciate the qualities of the serpentine style. with gradual ascents and declivities’ (Christopher Hussey).• • • • Serpentine Style 1750 Use: The circumferential path could be travelled on horse back or in a coach to enjoy the ‘sense of being swiftly drawn in an easy coach on a smooth turf.
There are many examples. This is the style of what is sometimes known as the 'English landscape garden'. Monticello. Bowood. circular clumps. Petworth House. One could call it the 'Brownian' style. In the middle years of the eighteenth century.• • • • • • • Serpentine Style 1750 Form: The classic features of this style were a lawn sweeping to the house front. Haga Royal Park. It made less use of garden buildings and more use of serpentine lines in the layout of woods and water. Blenheim Palace. The name Serpentine Style is used to draw attention to the use of free-flowing curves. Stockholm. an encircling tree belt and a perimeter carriage drive. a serpentine lake. Lednice Valtice Park. Lancelot Brown developed a personal style which can be seen as more-abstract version of the Augustan Style. Parc Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Vondelpark . Parc de Monceau.
Most picturesque estates were planted with exotic plants and there is no clear borderline between the two styles. travel. They were not designed for domestic pleasure. But they did become places for the collection of exotic plants from far-off lands. Picturesque estates stirred the mind. awe and scientific knowledge could be slaked by garden scenery. A thirst for landscape painting. adventure. . Loudon believed this should become a primary objective and invented the term Gardenesque to describe a Picturesque layout furnished with exotic plants.• • • • • • Picturesque and Gardenesque Styles 1790 Use: Enthusiasm for the wildness and irregularity of unadorned nature was the driving force behind these styles of garden layout. The aim was to create parks for the enjoyment of an artistically composed representation of the natural world. social gatherings or the chase.
The style they favoured was Picturesque in the sense of 'wild and shaggy'. planted with native plants and a Gardenesque estate. 'shaven' and 'un-natural'. To begin with. Loudon favoured circular beds. because they show plants so well and because they are instantly . few owners were willing to surround their dwellings with wholly 'irregular' gardens. of the type which can still be seen in the flower garden at Greenwich Park.• • • • • • • Picturesque and Gardenesque Styles 1790 Form: By the end of the eighteenth century advocates of the Picturesque were criticising the Serpentine Style was for being 'bald'. The diagrams show a Pictuesque estate. planted with exotic plants. Himalayan plants (eg rhododendrons and camellias) and North American plants proved particularly well suited to their design intentions. But in the second half of the nineteenth century a great many garden owners converted woodland valleys into 'painterly compositions' of exotic plants.
Leonardslee Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens. Wakehurst Place Garden. Wageningen Botanical Garden. La Vasterival.• Magnolia Plantation. La Mortola . Callaway Gardens. Sheffield Park Garden. Cypress Gardens(SC). The Arnold Arboretum. Edinburgh. Kew. Washington Park Arboretum and Japanese Garn . Wisley. RHS Garden. Park Babelsberg. Giardino e Rovine de Ninfa. Scotney Castle.Giardini Botanici Hanbury. Royal Botanic Garden.
. In the twentieth century this idea led to the planning of compact towns with a protected agricultural hinterland and national parks in distant hills and valleys.• • Landscape Style 1794 Use: The style had distinct regions with distinct uses (1) the terraced area near the house was used for the quiet enjoyment of domestic pleasures and polite society. (3) the background scenery was not used by the owner and was conceived a place for wild nature. (2) the serpentine park was used for grazing farm animals and growing forest trees.
Price and Repton concluded with each of the particpients recommending a transition from a rectilinear area near the house. in the sense of being 'composed. The house was often at the centre of the estate with a transition in each direction.• • • Landscape Style 1794 Form: The Picturesque Controversy between Knight. Alberti's comments on the siting and layout of High Renaissance villas has fostered a foregroundbackground relationship of this type. The majority of Serpentine layouts were provided with a terrace near the house. like a landscape painting with foreground. It is a Landscape Style. effectively converting them to the Landscape Style. The inclusion of a serpentine agricultural park as a middleground created a three-stage transition. middleground and background'. . It reflected an evergrowing understanding of landscape evolution. Harewood House. through a serpentine park to a wild and irregular background.
As with the landscape style. paintings. Forming the collection became a hobby. play summer games and admire the collections. the areas near the dwelling were used for domestic pleasure. roses or suits of armour. The owners would take tea. not unlike collecting books. porcelain. .• • Mixed Style 1850 Use: The Gardenesque taste for plant collecting developed into a wider enthusiasm for collecting styles garden design. The collection gave both visual and intellectual pleasure and helped one’s imagination to envisage historically and geographically remote areas. Servants did the physical work.
. Beeckestijn. Museum Garden and Library. Chinese. Crystal Palace Park. Cypress Gardens(FL). Chatsworth. This led to a vogue for American. In Britain there was a special fondness for Italian gardens and in France for restorations of the High Baroque style. Alton Towers. Disneyland Paris. the 'Italian' style came to be the most popular. Central Park. Biltmore Estate.• • • Mixed Style 1850 Form: Towards the end of his career. Carmen de los Martires. there was scope for more extensive collections. Biddulph Grange Garden. Branitz. The diagram shows the style as it was used in suburban gardens. In large parks. Italian and other eclectic gardens. Humphry Repton argued that there is no more absurdity in collecting styles in a garden than books in a library or pictures in a gallery. Victorian gardens came to be characterised by their mixed collections of areas laid out in different styles. As the century drew on. Note: the diagram does not represent the plan form of large estates laid out according to the ideas behind the mixed style. Japanese.
to build a glass room.• • Postmodern Style 1972 Use: Postmodern ideas encourage garden owners to deconstruct their preconceptions and think in fresh ways. . Towards the end of the twentieth century. to place a steaming tub. to transform a pavement into a fountain. The garden is used to experiment with new materials and new geometries. to site concrete poetry. Above all. to grow non-traditional plants. it can be used to overlay uses and ideas in a multi-faceted postmodern structural composition. the style was used to win design competitions.
Duisburg Nord Landschaftspark. Parc Andre Citroen Paris.• • • Postmodern Style 1972 Form: Geometrically. as in a Russian constructivist painting. Barcelona Plazas. Parc de la Villette Paris. . Getty Center. Rectangles clash with circles and are interscected by hapazard diagonals. postmodernism is associated with a layered and deconstructive geometry. Jardin Atlantique Paris. Steel and concrete structures are painted in bright colours. Glass and other reflective surfaces help create illusions and startling visual effects. Jardin Albert Kahn. Jardin des Halles.
• Thank you .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.