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Archdiocesan School of
Byzantine Music
Byzantine Music Theory
and Practice Guide






First Edition
Archdiocesan School of
Byzantine Music
Byzantine Music Theory
and Practice Guide
Copyright © 2011 by
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
8 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10075
www.goarch.org
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Byzantine Music Theory and Practice Guide
This book is made possible with the blessing and spiritual guidance of
His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America
Publication Overseer
Reverend Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos
Authors
Reverend Deacon Aristidis Garinis
Dr. Demetrios Kehagias
Transcription & Audio
Antonios Kehagias
Georgios Giavris
Academic Oversight
Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D.
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
New York, NY
commend the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music for the publication of the
Byzantine Music Theory and Practice Guide, and for their continuous effort to promote Orthodox
ecclesiastical chant throughout the Archdiocese. The rising desire to uphold this ageless musical
tradition is indicative of its effectiveness to inspire the faithful in prayer through the intelligible
and proper rendering of our Orthodox hymnology. Through this publication, a new generation
of stewards will be educated who will strive to uphold our rich liturgical inheritance known as
Byzantine music. Thus this book will prove to be a vital educational tool for the teaching of
Byzantine music following in the tradition of our Ecumenical Patriarchate.
It is my prayer that the Lord bless this book and secure the future of Byzantine music in
the very fabric of the Orthodox identity and expression of faith.


With paternal love,

+DEMETRIOS
Archbishop of America
This book is dedicated to the countless teachers who have
preserved the art of byzantine music in the tradition of
the ecumenical patriarchate. We continue, through their
efforts, to offer up prayer with one voice and one heart,
glorifying our Almighty God.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments i
Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos, ASBM Director
Foreword ii
Dr. Demetrios Kehagias, ASBM Instructor
Introduction: A Brief Overview of the Psaltic Art iii
Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D. in Byzantine Musicology
Professor of Byzantine Music, Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology


Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice 1
Chanting with Melos 35
A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference 40
Index of Byzantine Music Characters 50
ASBM Calendar of Events 55


i
Acknowledgments

t is with great enthusiasm that I welcome the publication of the ASBM Byzantine Music
Theory and Practice Guide. It is my sincere hope that this book will prove to be the first
step in decisively assisting students of Byzantine Music throughout the Archdiocese and will help share
the beauty of our Byzantine liturgical heritage by training a new generation of church musicians.
It was apparent to the administration and faculty of the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music
that the need to produce a theory and practice guidebook for the students enlisted in the school was par-
amount. From the beginning of ASBM in October of 2010, the textbook that we used in the school was
ineffective in fully communicating the intricacies of Byzantine Music in a clear manner and in a language
that was understandable to the majority of the students who were learning and seeing Byzantine Music
for the first time. The first year of the school’s operation afforded us the opportunity to re-evaluate the
teaching methodology being used and whether the resources given to the students were indeed helpful.
The results of our study showed that a comprehensive theory book in English was needed to keep the
students engaged both theoretically and practically. Thus a committee was formed to oversee the publi-
cation of a guidebook, produced and written specifically for students enrolled in ASBM. While the scope
of this guidebook was focused on serving the needs of the students enrolled in ASBM, it was by no means
considered limited to them and could be used as a beginning resource by anyone interested in learning
Byzantine Music.
I offer my special appreciation to Rev. Dn. Aristidis Garinis and Mr. Demetrios Kehagias for the
co-authoring, layout, and publication of this book. Additionally, I offer my thanks to Mr. Georgios Gia-
vris for typing out all the exercises and to Mr. Antonios Kehagias for recording them onto audio CDs.
I also thank Dr. Grammenos Karanos for his contribution and academic oversight to this book. Finally,
I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America for his
continuous encouragement and support not only for ASBM but for our efforts to expand this musical
ministry of our Archdiocese for the edification of God’s people and the glory of His Name.
With my warmest prayers for a fruitful study of Byzantine Music, I remain
Sincerely yours,

Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos
Director, Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music
ii
Foreword
s we are now preparing to begin our second academic year of ASBM this book,
the Byzantine Music and Practice Guide, should prove to be a most useful educational tool. The study
of Byzantine music, as with any language or art, is filled with many practical complexities. For one, the
student must be equipped with the sort of natural tools, what we call ‘God-given’ in colloquial language.
In addition, the secondary factor, even more important, is the ability of the teacher to communicate with
the students in a way that will convey not only music as an art, but a tradition deeply rooted in the faith
of Orthodox Christianity known as Byzantine Chant.
This book is an effort to preserve and pass on the beauty of proper liturgical music in the tradition
of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with the overall aim to inspire people into prayer. ASBM has the good
fortune of having an increased participation of individuals wanting to learn Byzantine music. These
individuals become students of music for reasons of personal enrichment of faith as well as communal.
Our faculty is increasingly encouraging these students to serve the local parish as educated chanters
and faithful Orthodox Christians. In this way, students of Byzantine music should be informed by the
content of their study and able to inspire others through the proper rendering of our hymnology.
I am personally thankful to God for allowing me this great opportunity and responsibility to train
future chanters of our Greek Orthodox Church in the Direct Archdiocesan District. I am also thankful
to be involved in the creative process of this book. It is my desire that prospective students of Byzantine
music will emerge and acquire this book as a useful learning resource. Regretfully, many individuals have
expressed their desire to learn how to chant but are unable to, due to a lack of resources in their area.
I pray that the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music Theory Book and Practice Guide will find its
place in each local metropolis and religious education department across the Archdiocese.
This ambitious project would not be possible without the diligent spiritual guidance of His
Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America. On behalf of, the entire ASBM faculty I would like to
express to him our deep sense of gratitude and reverence.
Sincerely,



Dr. Demetrios Kehagias
Instructor, Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music
iii
A Brief Overview of the Psaltic Art
“Is any among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is any merry? Let him sing psalms.”
(James 5:13 KJV)
As is evident from St. James the Brother of the Lord’s exhortation, the history of the Christian
Church has always been not only a history of prayer, but also a history of song. If in some contemporary
Christian denominations music plays a secondary role, it would be no exaggeration to state that in the Greek
Orthodox Church almost all of worship is musical. And how could it be otherwise if “chanting is an angelic
ministry for [it] gives joy, but it is also prayer?
1
” Following the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and
Aristotle, the Fathers of the Church recognized the benefcial impact music can have on souls and adopted
it as an important pedagogical tool to lead humans to eternal salvation. St. Basil the Great expresses the
Church’s attitude in very clear terms:

“For when the Holy Spirit saw that mankind was ill-inclined toward virtue and that we were heedless
of the righteous life because of our inclination to pleasure, what did he do? He blended the delight
of melody with doctrine in order that through the pleasantness and softness of the sound we might
unawares receive what was useful in the words, according to the practice of the physicians, who,
when they give the more bitter draughts to the sick, often smear the rip of the cup with honey.”
2

Music then is the “sweet honey” with which the Church mixes the doctrines of the faith, in order to heal the
sick souls of the faithful. It is through these lenses that the Psaltic Art of the Greek Orthodox Church ought
to be viewed. In the present article, whose aim is to highlight the signifcance of the present publication,
I will give a brief overview of this fne art, focusing on its essential characteristics, its composers and
practitioners, its notational system, and the didactic methodology used by its teachers throughout history.
I. Definition - Characteristics
An American reader will naturally ask what exactly is the Psaltic Art. A very simple albeit limited
defnition is that it is the art of chanting
3
. More broadly, it can be defned as the strictly vocal, strictly
monophonic music used in the worship of the Greek Orthodox Church
4
. Before looking at this defnition
more closely, let’s consider an alternative term, namely “Byzantine music.” Despite its common usage
since the 19
th
century, it should not be the preferred term for three reasons. First, the inhabitants of the
1 «Όμως είναι και η ψαλμωδία διακονία αγγελική, διότι χαρίζεις χαράν εις τους άλλους, αλλά είναι επίσης και προσευχή.»
Αρχιμανδρίτου Αιμιλιανού Σιμωνοπετρίτου, «Περί λατρείας και ευχής», Κατηχήσεις και Λόγοι 4, Θεία Λατρεία, Προσδοκία και
Όρασις Θεού, Εκδόσεις Ορμύλια, Ορμύλια 2001, p. 160.
2 Basil of Caesarea, “Homily on the First Psalm,” ch. 1, in Strunk, Olliver, Source Readings in Music History, W. W. Norton &
Company, Inc., New York 1998, p. 121.
3 Te word “psaltic” is derived from the Greek verb “ψάλλω,” which originally meant “to pluck the strings of an instrument,” but
eventually came to signify chanting, i.e. singing ecclesiastical hymns.
4 It should be noted, however, that the same musical art is also used in non-Greek-speaking Orthodox Churches (Patriarchate of
Antioch, Patriarchate of Romania, et al.).
iv
Eastern Roman Empire never referred to themselves as Byzantines, but as Romans (Ρωμαίοι-Ρωμηοί). The
term “Byzantine Empire” itself was invented in the 16
th
century by the German historian Hieronymus Wolf
and later took on derogatory connotations
5
. Second, “Byzantine music” can be interpreted in an overly
restrictive fashion if it is considered in topological or chronological terms. In other words, it may be taken
to mean the music produced only in Byzantium or the music produced strictly from the foundation of the
Byzantine Empire in 330 AD until its fall in 1453 AD. On the other hand, the term “Byzantine music” might
more appropriately be applied to the entire musical output of the Eastern Roman Empire, both religious and
secular. Nevertheless, secular music is generally excluded from the contemporary usage of the term. Third,
the musicians of this once glorious Greek-Roman-Christian empire did not call their art “Byzantine music,”
but rather Psaltic Art (Ψαλτική Τέχνη), Musical Art (Μουσική Τέχνη), Musical Science (Μουσική Επιστήμη)
or Papadic Art (Παπαδική Τέχνη)
6
.
Let’s move on to dissect the defnition given above. The Psaltic Art is strictly vocal. This means
that it is a form of music always performed a capella. Instruments were excluded from worship since early
Christian times because they were associated with pagan rites, but also because the voice was regarded as
the most pure and perfect instrument. Additionally, instrumental music was believed to excite the senses
and was consequently considered unsuitable for worship. The Psaltic Art is also strictly monophonic. In
other words, it is performed by a single cantor or a choir singing one melody in unison. A few qualifying
remarks should be made here. Polyphony was introduced in Greek Orthodox worship as early as the 15
th

century, but its usage remained very limited except in the Ionian Islands. In the mid-19
th
century polyphonic
settings of ecclesiastical melodies appeared in Greek diaspora communities in Western Europe, despite an
offcial promulgation by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1848 of an encyclical banning four-part harmony
7
.
In the 20
th
century harmonized settings of hymns were adopted in the Divine Liturgy in the Greek Orthodox
Archdiocese of America. Nonetheless, the original monophonic version of the Psaltic Art, which is almost
exclusively used in other Greek-speaking Orthodox Churches (Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Church of Cyprus,
Church of Greece, et al.), has remained the norm in the rest of the liturgical services. It should also be
noted that psaltic melodies are frequently accompanied by the ison (drone), which is a constant humming
of a single note (the root of the main tetrachord in which the melody is moving). This century-old practice
8

is sometimes considered a form of proto-polyphony. However, its primary function seems to be tonal
stability rather than “harmonic” enrichment of the melody. Thus, even though it may enhance the aesthetic
satisfaction of a performance, ison accompaniment is not an indispensable element of a psaltic composition.
In addition to vocal performance and monophony, the Psaltic Art has the following fundamental
characteristics:
5 See Μεταλληνού Γεωργίου, Ελληνισμός μετέωρος, Η Ρωμαίικη Ιδέα και το όραμα της Ευρώπης, εκδ. Αποστολικής Διακονίας της
Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος, Αθήναι 1992, pp. 18-19.
6 See Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Τα χειρόγραφα βυζαντινής μουσικής, Άγιον Όρος, Κατάλογος περιγραφικός των χειρογράφων κωδίκων
βυζαντινής μουσικής των αποκειμένων εν ταις βιβλιοθήκαις των Ιερών Μονών και Σκητών του Αγίου Όρους, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής
Μουσικολογίας, τόμος Α΄, Αθήναι 1975, p. 21 (κα΄) of the Introduction. Te term “Papadic Art” should be interpreted as the art of
the priests, where among the “priests” are included the lower-ranking members of the clergy, such as readers and cantors. Cantors
(ψάλται) are ordained by bishops, they have the right to wear a rasson (black robe) during the performance of their ministry, and
they are expected to live an exemplary Christian life.
7 See the text of the encyclical at http://www.stanthonysmonastery.org/music/encyclical.pdf.
8 Evidence of ison accompaniment can be found as early as the 14
th
century. For instance, see MS. Koutloumousion 457 (2
nd
half
of the 14
th
c.), fol. 6r: “Ενταύθα άρχεται ο δεξιός χορός, ί σ α και αργά, οι όλοι ομού· πλ. δ΄ Πάντα εν σοφία.”
v
· Primacy of the word versus the music. Music is used as a means to express and illuminate the
meaning of the text. Even though it is certainly meant to provide a degree of aesthetic pleasure to the
listener, its primary role is to contribute to a prayerful atmosphere in worship. Therefore, excessive
musical embellishment is seen as detrimental and distractive.
· Microtonal intervals. Intervals that are smaller than the western semitone are frequently used. In
fact, it is primarily this microtonal quality that makes the Psaltic Art sound foreign and exotic, hence
strangely attractive to the modern American ear. The existence of microtones is closely related to
the tendency of the structural notes of a scale (generally, the root and upper note of a tetrachord) to
attract the non-structural ones, which consequently display a tonal instability.
· Modality. Psaltic compositions do not conform to the western major and minor scales, but rather to
the eight Byzantine authentic and plagal modes and their numerous variants. A mode is defned by the
tonic, the scale, the genus (i.e. the intervallic internal structure of the tetrachords and pentachords),
and the melodic formulae and cadences, and can easily be identifed by the intonation formula that
precedes any hymn.
· Formulaic composition. All psaltic compositions are built from pre-existing melodic formulae, called
theseis, which are combined with short transitional bridges. Theseis can be short, long and even
very elaborate and melismatic, depending on the particular compositional genre to which a hymn
belongs. One might wonder how there can be any originality in the Psaltic Art if a hymn cannot
be composed out of entirely new material. The answer lies in the very large number (thousands)
of theseis, the difference in their particular musical content depending on the mode and the starting
note on which they are placed, and the infnite number of ways in which they can be combined to
produce a new acoustic experience. Additionally, throughout the history of the Psaltic Art composers
kept composing new theseis, thereby renewing and enriching the material that later composers would
have at their disposal
9
.
II. Composers – Cantors
A quick glance into the manuscript tradition of the Psaltic Art immediately reveals that its history is
full of eponymous and anonymous personalities from all walks of life: saints and sinners (or self-proclaimed
sinners out of humility), hymnographers, composers and scribes, teachers and disciples, patriarchs and
bishops, priests and deacons, cantors and readers, monks and nuns, jewellers and merchants, fshermen,
painters, schoolmasters, tailors. Among them all the most prominent position belongs to the over 1,000
composers who almost always were also cantors and to the tens of thousands of cantors who often were also
composers. Let’s look at some of them.
St. Romanos the Melodist (6
th
c.)
Romanos was born in Syria and fourished in the 6
th
century. He served as a deacon in Beirut and
Constantinople. He is considered the greatest Orthodox hymnographer of all time and has often been called
9 See Καράνου Γραμμένου, Το Καλοφωνικόν Ειρμολόγιον, Διδακτορική διατριβή κατατεθείσα στο Τμήμα Μουσικών Σπουδών του
Εθνικού και Καποδιστριακού Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών, Αθήνα 2011, p. 431.
vi
“the Christian Pindar.” Some 85 surviving kontakia
10
are attributed to him. The title “melodist” indicates
that he not only wrote the hymns, but also composed their music. The Orthodox Church celebrates his
memory on October 1.
St. John of Damascus (ca. 676 – 749)
A Syrian hieromonk and a brilliant theologian and defender of the veneration of icons, John is also regarded
as the “Father of Byzantine Music” and patron saint of cantors. He was a prolifc composer and was largely
responsible for the codifcation and standardization of the system of eight modes (Octoechos), according
to which the yearly cycle of liturgical services of the Orthodox Church is arranged. The Orthodox Church
celebrates his memory on December 4.
St. Ioannis Papadopoulos Koukouzelis (ca. 1270 – ca. 1340)
Once an imperial musician and later an Athonite monk, Ioannis is perhaps the greatest fgure of the Psaltic Art.
He was the disciple of Ioannis Protopsaltis the Sweet and a fellow student of Xenos of Koroni. These three
composers along with Nikeforos Ethikos constitute the “tetrandria” that solidifed the new kalophonic style
of ecclesiastical music
11
. The defning characteristics of this highly ornate style, which had its beginnings in
the late 13
th
century, are (i) long, melismatic melodies, (ii) restructuring of the poetic text, and (iii) insertion
of kratimata, i.e. free compositions using meaningless syllables (e.g. terirem, tenena, tototo, etc.) as “text.”
Koukouzelis’ name frst makes its appearance in MS. Leningrad 121 written in 1302. The admiration of
contemporary and later musicians for the great composer is shown by the title “Maistor” (i.e. Master) that
almost unfailingly follows his name. It was probably under his guidance that one of the most signifcant
manuscripts in the history of the Psaltic Art, namely MS. Athens 2458, was composed in 1336. The Orthodox
Church celebrates his memory on October 1.
Manuel Doukas Chrysaphes (15
th
c.)
Manuel Chrysaphes was the last Lampadarios
12
of the imperial palace prior to the Fall of Constantinople in
1453. His autograph, MS. Iviron 1120, written in 1458, is a monumental anthology of works marking the
transition from the Byzantine to the post-Byzantine period of the Psaltic Art. His theoretical treatise “On the
theory of the art of chanting and on certain erroneous views that some hold about it” is a primary source for
the modern study of the Byzantine repertory.
Petros Bereketis (17
th
– 18
th
c.)
Petros Kouspazoglou the Sweet, more widely known as Bereketis, was a member of the second “tetrandria”
of composers (the other three were Panagiotis Protopsaltis the new Chrysaphes, Germanos Bishop of New
Patras, and Balasios the Priest) who contributed greatly to the fourishing of the Psaltic Art in the 17
th
and
10 A kontakion is a long, poetic sermon that consists of 18-30 stanzas, which are metrically and structurally alike.
11 See Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας,
Αθήνα 1998, pp. 126-127.
12 Leader of the lef choir of cantors.
vii
18
th
centuries. He was the greatest composer of the newly developed para-liturgical genre of kalophonic
heirmos, which was not intended for offcial worship ceremonies, but rather for soloistic performance after
the end of the Divine Liturgy as well as at banquets, visits of eminent secular or religious fgures, and
other festive occasions. Many regard his famous eight-mode setting of Θεοτόκε Παρθένε (O Theotokos and
Virgin), a work that lasts about 40 minutes, as the greatest psaltic composition ever written.
Petros the Peloponnesian (ca. 1735 – 1778)
Petros was the greatest Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical musician of post-Byzantine times. He served as
Lampadarios at the patriarchal church of St. George in the Phanar district of Constantinople. He transcribed
the oral tradition of hymns, which formed the core of the repertoire chanted in Greek churches to this day.
Among his numerous compositions special mention must be made to his settings of the Anastasimatarion
13

and Doxastarion
14
. Petros was also a teacher and composer of Ottoman classical music.
Thrasyvoulos Stanisas (1910 - 1987)
While his activity as a composer was limited, Stanitsas is widely regarded as the greatest performer of chant
of the 20
th
century. His unparalleled virtuosity in all psaltic genres earned him the title of “greatest cantor of
the Balkans
15
.” He served as Protopsaltis
16
of the patriarchal church of St. George between 1960 and 1964.
Other great cantors of the 20
th
century include Stanitsas’ predecessors Iakovos Nafpliotis and Konstantinos
Pringos, Leonidas Asteris (the current Archon Protopsaltis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate), Chrysanthos
Theodosopoulos, Athanasios Karamanis, Athanasios Panagiotidis, Harilaos Taliadoros, Spyridon Peristeris,
Photios Ketsetzis, Theodoros Vasilikos, Emmanuel Hatzimarkos, Deacon Dionysios Firfris, et al.
III. Byzantine neume notation
While Christian hymns were in all probability notated in the frst millennium AD, surviving samples
of music from this period are extremely scarce. The destruction by Iconoclasts of manuscripts that were
adorned with miniature images of Christ and saints may have been a contributing factor. Byzantine musical
manuscripts have survived from around 950 AD. The number of extant manuscripts is approximately 7,500.
The majority of them are held at monastic libraries on Mount Athos and elsewhere. In these manuscripts we
can study the history and development of the various compositional genres and the psaltic notational system.
Unlike western staff notation, Byzantine neume notation does not indicate absolute pitches on a scale,
but rather the movement of the melodic line in relation to the preceding notes. The origins of this notation can
be traced back to the alphabetic notations of the ancient Greeks. Most of the symbols are derived from the
Greek letters and prosodic signs (vareia, oxeia, etc.), while some are stylistic representations of the melodic
movement they signify or the hand gesture (χειρονομία or νεύμα, hence the term “neume notation”) which a
13 A collection of resurrectional hymns chanted in the services of Saturday evening Vespers and Sunday morning Orthros.
14 An anthology of moderately embellished settings of hymns chanted throughout the ecclesiastical year. Most are preceded by
the Small Doxology (Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit), while some are inserted between psalmic verses.
15 See Τσιούνη �ρήστου, Τσιούνη �ρήστου, Θρασύβουλος Στανίτσας, Άρχων Πρωτοψάλτης της Μ.Χ.Ε. (1910-1987), Αναμνήσεις και αφηγήσεις,
Εκδόσεις Φανάριον, Αθήνα 2003, p. 54.
16 Chief cantor and leader of the right choir of cantors.
viii
choir director used to indicate the melodic motion. Furthermore, Byzantine notation is more stenographic
and descriptive rather than prescriptive, as it outlines the overall shape of the melody, but often omits more
nuanced details, which are executed according to rules transmitted by the oral tradition
17
.
From its earliest appearance in the mid-10
th
century until today Byzantine neume notation has
undergone a number of gradual developments, which were generally an outgrowth of organic developments
in the compositional process itself. The basic “rule” can be summed up as follows: as the notation was
improved, composers could use it to express new musical ideas more effectively and to create new, more
elaborate styles and genres. And vice versa, as composers developed new musical styles, they needed
a more refned notation to write down their more elaborate melodies, which led to improvements in the
notation
18
. The history of the notational system can be divided into four distinct periods, based on (i) the
number of symbols and the appearance of new ones, (ii) the function of each symbol, (iii) the obsolescence
or disappearance of certain symbols, and (iv) the conversion of the older repertory into newer versions of
the notation
19
.
First Period: Early Byzantine Notation (ca. 950 – 1177)
In this period there are still few signs and their function is unstable and ambiguous. There are two main
subdivisions of the notation, namely Chartres or Athonite notation, and Coislin or Hagiopolite notation.
Second Period: Middle Byzantine (Round) Notation (1177 – ca. 1670)
There are over 40 signs whose function is quite clearly defned. Most signs indicate specifc diastematic
movements, while some indicate time. A special category of signs, the Great Hypostases of Cheironomia
(Μεγάλαι Υποστάσεις Χειρονομίας), has been interpreted as signifying vocal expression or, alternatively, as
mnemonic devices that denote entire melodic formulae (theseis). Some very elaborate theseis are notated
with very few signs, which necessitates a great deal of memorization by the cantor. A vast repertory of
Byzantine and post-Byzantine chants is written in this notation. Despite our relatively extensive knowledge
about this period, the correct and accurate transcription of this repertory into the New Method or western
staff notation is a hotly debated subject among contemporary musicologists
20
.
Third Period: Transitional Exegetical Notation (ca. 1670 – 1814)
This period commences with the exegesis (conversion) of the Athenian Trisagion (a melismatic setting of
the text “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us” in plagal second nenano mode, which
17 If we were to utilize Ter Ellingson’s terminology, we would characterize Byzantine notation as an analog (rather than digital)
encoding of musical information. See Ellingson, Ter, “Notation,” Ethnomusicology, An Introduction, Norton/Grove Handbooks in
Music, ed. Helen Myers, London 1992, p. 159.
18 According to Gregorios Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν to Gregorios Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν to Gregorios Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν Gregorios Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν Gregorios Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν Stathis, “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν , “η αναζήτησις τελείας εκ�ράσεως της μελοποιίας βοηθεί εις την εξέλιξιν και τελειοτέραν
συμπλοκήν και ενέργειαν των στοιχείων της σημειογρα�ίας. Και τανάπαλιν· όταν η σημειογρα�ία έχη �θάσει εις τέλειον
σύστημα με απείρους δυνατότητας εκ�ράσεως, η μελοποιία κινείται ανετώτερον εις αυτόν τον ωκεανόν και ανοίγεται προς
κατάκτησιν θαυμαστών επιτηδεύσεων, στοιχείων α�οριστικών μιας υψηλής τέχνης, της Ψαλτικής Τέχνης”. See Στάθη Γρηγορίου,
Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας, Αθήνα 1998, p. 47.
19 Ibid., pp. 47-59. .
20 For a good overview of this subject see Αλεξάνδρου Μαρίας, Εξηγήσεις και μεταγραφές της βυζαντινής μουσικής, Σύντομη
εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό τους, University Studio Press, Θεσσαλονίκη 2010.
ix
is chanted during funeral processions) by Balasios the Priest
21
. Several scribes rewrite the older repertory,
using more signs and in different combinations. Less memorization is now needed to perform a piece, as the
content of its melodic formulae is more analytically written.
Fourth Period: New Method of Analytical Notation (1814 – present)
In 1814 Archimandrite Chrysanthos of Madytos (who was later ordained a bishop), Gregory Levitides
(then Lampadarios and later Protopsaltis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate) and Chourmouzios the Archivist,
collectively known as the Three Teachers, invented the New Method, which is the current offcial notation of
the Psaltic Art. In this system, which is essentially the last stage of development of the previous Exegetical
Notation, only 15 signs remain and they are assigned very clearly defned functions. Students no longer have
to memorize entire melodic phrases. Rather they can read the notation “note by note,” much like in western
staff notation. The Three Teachers also developed a system of solfeggio based on the frst seven letters of the
Greek alphabet. Additionally, in 1832 Chrysanthos’ Great Theory of Music (Θεωρητικόν μέγα της μουσικής),
which is the frst systematic exposition of the revised notational system as well as the overall theoretical
framework of ecclesiastical chant, was published in Trieste. The New Method was rapidly disseminated and
was used to transcribe almost 75% of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine repertory, but also new compositions
and secular Greek and Ottoman works. Moreover, in 1820 the frst printed books of Psaltic Art appeared.
Very soon the composition of manuscripts would become a thing of the past, as press publications began to
abound.
IV. The teaching and transmission of the Psaltic Art; the present
publication
For hundreds of years the transmission of the Psaltic Art has been achieved primarily through three
media: live liturgical performance, study of musical scores, theoretical treatises and didactic pieces
22
, and
systematic training involving a teacher-disciple relationship. The latter has historically received the greatest
emphasis by church musicians, as can be deduced from the thousands of references to teacher-disciple
relationships in the manuscript tradition
23
as well as the establishment and operation of seven – most of
them unfortunately short-lived – “Patriarchal Musical Schools” in Constantinople from 1727 to 1882. Even
though the importance of training under the guidance of a master as well as frequent attendance of church
ceremonies cannot be underestimated, these two media of transmission of ecclesiastical chant may become
secondary in the near future, due to modern technological advances and especially the all-pervasive and
life-changing infuence of the Internet. A student can nowadays fnd hundreds of excellent recordings
24
and
even attend online classes of Byzantine chant
25
. Yet the role of musical scores and teaching manuals remains
21 See Balasios’ autograph, MS. Iviron 1250, fols. 211v-212v.
22 E.g. Nikolaos Kampanis’ Method of Metrophonia (late 13
th
or early 14
th
c.), Ioannis Koukouzelis’ Mega Ison (14
th
c.), Gregory
Bounis Alyatis’ Method of Metrophonia (15
th
c.), etc.
23 For instance, see MS. Xiropotamou 324, fol. 267v: “Το παρόν εγρά�η παρ’ εμού Σταυράκη, και μαθητού κυρ Δανιήλ λαμπαδαρίου.”
24 Websites devoted exclusively to the Psaltic art include www.psaltologion.com, www.ieropsaltis.com, www.cmkon.org, and many
others.
25 Te American Society of Byzantine Music and Hymnology recently established an online program of chant instruction called
“Multimodal School of Byzantine Chant, Practice and Teory” (http://www.asbmh.pitt.edu/Educational/Videos/Live/Live.html).
x
primary.
Since the invention of the New Method several manuals providing instruction in the Psaltic Art
26

have been published and used in conservatories as well as church, state and private schools of Byzantine
music in Greece. Besides a book by the late Savas Savas
27
, these same manuals or poorly made translations
of selections from them have generally been used in the United States as well. At the same time, interest in
the Psaltic Art has been increasing in the western hemisphere at a very fast pace during the past two decades.
Scholarly works are being published, concerts given, studio recordings made, schools of Byzantine music
founded, websites created, etc. Hence the need for a teaching manual that can help bridge the gap between
American-born, English-speaking church musicians and the sacred art of chanting is paramount. It is this
need that the present publication is coming to fulfll.
Byzantine Music Theory and Practice Guide is the frst manual in English produced for use in the
recently established Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music in New York City. It is a clearly written
introduction with multiple exercises and a concise explanation of the notational and modal system of
the Psaltic Art. As such, it will serve the purpose of providing solid training to the future generations of
American church musicians and preserving the tradition of patriarchal chanting in posterity. I enthusiastically
embrace it and recommend it to all teachers and students of Byzantine music throughout the Greek Orthodox
Archdiocese of America, but also to the entire academic community. The introduction of the Greek Psaltic
Art in the curriculum of American conservatories and institutions of higher learning is long overdue. This
manual can be a frst step in this direction.
In conclusion, I wish to thank His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios for his godly zeal and
unceasing efforts to preserve the liturgical and musical riches of our Church. I also commend the book
editors, the Reverend Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos, the Reverend Deacon Aristidis Garinis,
Demetrios Kehagias, Antonios Kehagias, and George Giavris, for their enviable vision and their outstanding
accomplishment. Through their work it is now easier for Greek Americans to “sing unto the Lord a new
song, and his praise from the end of the earth” (Isaiah 42:10 KJV)!



Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Byzantine Liturgical Music
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology
26 E.g. �ρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, .g. �ρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, g. �ρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, . �ρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, Εισαγωγή εις το θεωρητικόν και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Παρίσι 1821;
Αγαθοκλέους Παναγιώτου, Θεωρητικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήναι 1855; Στοιχειώδης διδασκαλία της εκκλησιαστικής
μουσικής, Κωνσταντινούπολις 1888; Ευθυμιάδου Αβραάμ, Μαθήματα βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Θεσσαλονίκη 1972;
Μαργαζιώτου Ιωάννου, Θεωρητικό βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήνα 1974; Καρά Σίμωνος, Μέθοδος της ελληνικής
μουσικής, Αθήνα 1982, et al.
27 Savas Savas, Byzantine Music: Teory and Practice, Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Boston 1975.
xi
Works Cited
Ellingson, Ter, “Notation,” Ethnomusicology, An Introduction, Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music, ed. Helen
Myers, London 1992.
Savas Savas, Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice, Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Boston 1975.
Strunk, Olliver, Source Readings in Music History, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York 1998.
Αγαθοκλέους Παναγιώτου, Θεωρητικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήναι 1855.
Αιμιλιανού Σιμωνοπετρίτου, «Περί λατρείας και ευχής», Κατηχήσεις και Λόγοι 4, Θεία Λατρεία, Προσδοκία και
Όρασις Θεού, Εκδόσεις Ορμύλια, Ορμύλια 2001.
Αλεξάνδρου Μαρίας, Εξηγήσεις και μεταγραφές της βυζαντινής μουσικής, Σύντομη εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό
τους, University Studio Press, Θεσσαλονίκη 2010.
Ευθυμιάδου Αβραάμ, Μαθήματα βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Θεσσαλονίκη 1972.
Καρά Σίμωνος, Μέθοδος της ελληνικής μουσικής, Σύλλογος προς Διάδοσιν της Εθνικής Μουσικής, Αθήναι 1982.
Καράνου Γραμμένου, Το Καλοφωνικόν Ειρμολόγιον, Διδακτορική διατριβή κατατεθείσα στο Τμήμα Μουσικών
Σπουδών του Εθνικού και Καποδιστριακού Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών, Αθήνα 2011.
Μαργαζιώτου Ιωάννου, Θεωρητικό βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήνα 1974.
Μεταλληνού Γεωργίου, Ελληνισμός μετέωρος, Η Ρωμαίικη Ιδέα και το όραμα της Ευρώπης, εκδ. Αποστολικής
Διακονίας της Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος, Αθήναι 1992.
Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής
Μουσικολογίας, Αθήνα 1998.
---, Τα χειρόγραφα βυζαντινής μουσικής, Άγιον Όρος, Κατάλογος περιγραφικός των χειρογράφων κωδίκων
βυζαντινής μουσικής των αποκειμένων εν ταις βιβλιοθήκαις των Ιερών Μονών και Σκητών του Αγίου
Όρους, τόμος Α΄, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας, Αθήναι 1975.
Στοιχειώδης διδασκαλία της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής εκπονηθείσα επί τη βάσει του ψαλτηρίου υπό της Μουσικής
Επιτροπής του Οικουμενικού Πατριαρχείου εν έτει 1883, Κωνσταντινούπολις 1888.
Τσιούνη Χρήστου, Θρασύβουλος Στανίτσας, Άρχων Πρωτοψάλτης της Μ.Χ.Ε. (1910-1987), Αναμνήσεις και
αφηγήσεις, Εκδόσεις Φανάριον, Αθήνα 2003.
Χρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, Εισαγωγή εις το θεωρητικόν και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής,
Παρίσι 1821.
1
Theory and Practice
What is Music?
The art or science of combining sounds to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression
of emotion.
What is a Musical Note?
A musical note is a specific sound or pitch identified by a symbol used in musical notation.
The Names of the Notes
’’’
The Eight Modes
The names of the eight modes are as follows:
(Πρώτος) First Mode
(Δεύτερος) Second Mode
(Τρίτος) Third Mode
(Τέταρτος) Fourth Mode
(Πλάγιος του Πρώτου) Plagal of the First Mode
(Πλάγιος του Δευτέρου) Plagal of the Second Mode
(Βαρύς) Grave Mode
(Πλάγιος του Τετάρτου) Plagal of the Fourth Mode
Ne Pa Vou Ga De Ke Zo Ne
- - -
2
Theory and Practice
Νη
Πα
Βου
Γα
Δι
Κε
Ζω
Νη´
Ζω
Κε
Δι
Γα
Βου
Πα
Νη
8
10
12
12
8
10
12
Nη´
Ζω
Κε
Δι
Γα
Βου
Πα
Νη
Instructions:
Practice memorizing the scale by ascending and descending the pyramid in parallage.
The numbers in the center scale (Μόρια - Moria/Microtones)indicate the distances between any two notes.
WHAT IS A TETRACHORD?
The Tetrachord (Το Τετράχορδο) translated from Greek means four-chords or notes. Each scale is
comprised of eight notes with two equal parts adding up to 72 total moria. ATetrachord is one part of the scale
and has an identical internal intervallic structure as its opposite tetrachord.
WHAT IS A Disjunctive Tone?
The Disjunctive Tone (Ο Διαζευκτικός Τόνος), separates the lower tetrachord from the upper tetra-
chord. This note is actually a distance/interval (sum of moria between two notes).
-
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord
(Separating/Disjunctive)
Tone
(Base Note)
´ ´
´
3
Theory and Practice
Diatonic Marterees (Διατονικές Μαρτυρίες)
How to Count time in Byzantine Music
This process is called Χρόνος meaning “Time”. One counts time with simple hand gestures, down/up
and left/right.
Time is counted in this case with two motions (down and up), each motion equal to one
full beat.
What is Parallage and Melos?
Parallage (Η Παραλλαγή) is what we call in Western music Solfege. It is a sort of musical exercise,
chanting a hymn note by note before applying the Μέλος (melos-words in melody). There is a saying among
chanting teachers: “Practice Parallage 100 times and melos once.” Practicing this technique is the secret to
learning Byzantine music.

Keep same pitch as previous note.
Example 1
- -
ςςςς

΄ςςςς
ς

´

Δίσημος (Desemos)
Θέση
Downbeat
Άρση
Upbeat
- -
-
-
΄ςςςς

΄ςςςς

Η Διαστολή (Deastole)
Groups notes together creating a measure of time for 2, 3 or 4 beats.

- -

Το ίσον (Eson)
-
´
ς

-
Quantitative Characters
Characters Ascending and Descending
Example 2

Example 3
Νη Πα Βου Γα Δι Κε Ζω Νη Νη Ζω Κε Δι Γα Βου
Πα Νη
Example 4
Νη Πα Βου

Γα Δι Γα Βου
Πα Νη
Example 5
Νη Νη Πα Πα Βου Βου Γα Γα Δι Δι Κε Κε Ζω
Ζω Νη Νη Νη Νη Ζω Ζω Κε Κε Δι Δι Γα Γα Βου Βου Πα
Πα Νη Νη
4
Theory and Practice

Το ολίγον (Olegon)
-
Ascend one note straight
Η απόστροφος (Apostrophos)

Descend one note straight

Η κορώνα (Korona)
Note held discretionally

4
Example 6
Example 7
Νη Νη Νη Πα Πα Πα Πα Βου Γα

Δι Κε Ζω
Νη Ζω Κε Δι
Γα Βου Πα
Νη
Example 8
Νη Βου Γα Κε
Νη Ζω Κε Δι Γα Βου Πα Νη
5

Theory and Practice

Τα κεντήματα (Kentemata)
-
Ascend one note by dragging up

6
Theory and Practice
Example 9
Πα Βου Πα Γα Δι Κε
Ζω Νη Κε Δι Κε
Γα Βου Ζω
Example 10
Example 11

or
+

Η υπορροή (Eporroe)
Descend two notes consecutively: Each descending
note is one full beat.
=
-
-

ςςςςς

ς ς

ς ς ς
ςς
ς

ςς
ς ς ς ς
ς

Ζω
Γα
Βου
Βου
Πα
Κε

Η πεταστή (Petaste)
Ascend one note with
a slight vocal flutter
-

7
Theory and Practice
Characters that Add Duration
Example 12
Νη Νη Νη - η Πα Πα Πα - α Βου Βου Βου - ου Γα

Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι Γα

example 13
Example 14

= Το κλάσμα (Klasma) 1 Beat

=
1 Beat

=
2 Beats

=
3 Beats
+
+
+
+
Η απλή (Aple)
Η διπλή(Deple)
Η τριπλή (Treple)
These symbols add duration
to the note on which they are
placed and on the last note of
the Eporoe ( )
-
- -
- -

ςςςςς

-
-

8
Theory and Practice

ςςςς

Example 15
Example 16
Example 17
Example 18

8 9
Theory and Practice
Example 19
Example 20
Example 21
Example 22
Example 23

=
=
=
= Rest for 1/2 beat
Rest for 1 beat
Rest for 2 beats
Resr for 3 beats
Οι παύσεις (Rests)
Rests are symbols which tell
us where to be silent while still
counting time.

10
Theory and Practice

Example 24
Example 25
Example 26
Example 27

ς ς ς
ςςςςς
ς ςςςς ς ςς ςς

’ ’


’ ’ ’ ’

Ο σταυρός (Stavros) Το κόμμα (Comma)
These symbols are placed between mu-
sical phrases for a brief breath. They
hold no quantitative value.
11
Theory and Practice
What is Meter?
Until now we have practiced examples using 2-beat meter
There is also a 3-beat meter called:
3

There is also a 4-beat meter called:
4

Δίσημος (Desemos)
Θέση
Downbeat
Άρση
Upbeat
- -
Τρίσημος (Tresemos)
Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
-
-
-
12
Example 28
Example 29
Example 30
Example 31
Example 32
Theory and Practice
Τρίσημος (Tresemos)
(1)
(2)
(3)
- -

Example 33
Example 34
Example 35
Example 36
13
Theory and Practice
Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
-

14
Ολίγον + Κεντήματα

Κεντήματα + Ολίγον
Ολίγον, Απόστροφος + Κεντήματα

Ολίγον, Υπορροή + Κεντήματα
Ολίγον, Ίσον + Κεντήματα
Ολίγον με Ίσον
Πεταστή με Ίσον
Πεταστή με Απόστροφο
(Petaste)
Theory and Practice

(Olegon) (Kentemata)
(Apostrophos)
(Eporoe)
-
(Kentemata) (Olegon)
(Olegon)
(Olegon)
(Olegon)
(Olegon)
(Kentemata)
(Kentemata)
(Kentemata)
(Petaste) (Apostropho)
(Eson)
(Eson)
(Eson)
-
-
-
- -
- - -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
These characters are read bottom to top, left to right one note at a time. In other
words, in the first example, the Olegon is chanted before the Kentemata. In the
second example, the Kentemata are chanted before the Olegon. In the third
example the Eporroe is chanted before the Kentemata and the Olegon acts as a
table adding no quantitative value, and so on. In examples 3-8 the bottom charac-
ter adds no quantitative value. Its purpose and placement is to add a slight quali-
tative emphasis to the character written above it.
Synthesis of Characters
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-

=

+

=

+

+

(No value)
=

(No value)

+

=

(No value)
=

(No value)
=

+

(No value)

=
=
(No value)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
15
Theory and Practice
Example 37
Example 38
Example 39
Example 40
ςςςς

ςς
ς
ς
ς ς ς

ςςςςςς

(2)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
16
Theory and Practice
Example 41
Example 42
Example 43
Example 44

ςς

ςς
ςςς

17

Down two notes straight Up two notes straight
Example 45
Example 46
Example 47
Theory and Practice

Το ελα�ρόν (Elafron)

·

or
-
Olegon with Kentema or Petaste
-

or
-

ςςς

18
Example 48
Example 49
Example 50
Theory and Practice

ς

ς ς ς
ςς

19
Example 51
Example 52
Example 53
Theory and Practice

+

=
=
(No value)
Elafron with Kentemata
-

ςς
ς

20
Theory and Practice
Ascending three notes
or





Descending three notes
descent of 3 can also take the form of:
or

Characters Ascending and Descending
More than two notes straight
=
=
=
=
=
Νη
Πα
Βου
Γα
Δι
Κε
Ζω
Νη´
Γα
Δι
Νη´
Δι
Ζω Γα
Κε Βου
Δι Πα
Γα
Νη
Four notes upwards
or




Four notes downwards

=
=
=
=
Νη
Πα
Βου
Δι
Κε
Ζω
Νη´ Γα
Νη Δι
Νη´ Δι
Κε Πα
Ζω Βου
Γα Νη
´
´
´
´
21
Theory and Practice
Example 54
Example 55


ς
ςς
22
Example 56
Example 57
Example 58
Theory and Practice

Up 5 notes Up 6 notes Up 7 notes Down 5 notes Down 6 notes Down 7 notes
23
Theory and Practice
Characters that divide duration
Example 59
Example 60
Example 61

Γοργόν (Gorgon)
Δίγοργον (Degorgon)
Τρίγοργον (Tregorgon)
Divide beat 1/2
Divide beat 1/3
Divide beat 1/4

-
-

=

=

=

See top of page 48 for more detail
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
24
Example 62
example 63
Example 64
Example 65
Example 66
Theory and Practice

(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat )
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat )
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat )
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2) (1 -1/2)
(1 beat) (1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat) (1/2)
(1/2)
25
Example 67
Example 68
Example 69
Example 70
Example 71
Theory and Practice

=
o

=
o

=
o

ΣΥΝΕ�ΕΣ ΕΛΑΦΡΟΝ (CONTINUOUS ELAFRON)

Te Continuous Elafron descends two notes with Gorgon.
Te Gorgon is invisibly placed above the Elafron cutting the time of
the preceding Apostrophos in half. Te Continuous Elafron ofen ap-
pears like an Apostrophos glued to an Elafron.

(1 -1/2) (1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat)
(1 -1/2)
(1/2)
(2 -1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(3 -1/2)
(4) (1)
(2) (3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(1/2) (1/2)
(1 beat)
26
Example 72
Example 73
Example 74
Example 75
Example 76
Theory and Practice

(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3)
(1/3) (1 beat )
27
Example 77
Example 78
Example 79
Characters that add and divide duration
Theory and Practice

Αργόν (Argon)
Δίαργον (Deargon)
Τρίαργον (Treargon)
Tese characters work like a Gorgon,
but they also add duration on the fnal
note afected. Te Argon adds one
beat, the Deargon adds two beats and
the Treargon adds three beats.

=

=

Tese examples show how the Argon or Deargon will be
used in a musical text. Te phrases are read from
lef to right and bottom to top.
-
-
-
-
-
(1/4)
(1/4)
(1/4) (1/4) (1/4)
(1/4)
(1/4) (1/4)
(1 beat ) (1/4) (1/4)
(1/4)
(1/4)
(1 beat )
28

ςς ς ςς

Example 80
Example 81
Example 82
Example 83
Example 84
Qualitative Characters
Theory and Practice

Το ψη�ιστόν
(Psefeston)
Το ομαλόν
(Omalon)
Το αντικένωμα
(Antekenoma)
Ο σύνδεσμος
(Sendesmos)
Η βαρεία
(Varea)
Το υ�έν
(Efen)
- - - - - -

These characters are subject to interpretation and are learned only through hearing and imitation
(See Character chart for more detail)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(1/2) (1/2)
(2 beats)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1 beat)
(2)
(2 beats)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(3 beats)
(2) (3)
(4)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(4)
(1)
(2) (3)
(4 beats)
29
Example 85
Example 86
Example 87
Example 88
Theory and Practice

¨

Example 89
Example 90
Example 91
Example 92

'
¨

¨ ς
30
Theory and Practice

Sharp & Flat
.
Το παρεστιγμένον
Parestegmenon
This character retains a slightly longer
duration on the side of the Gorgon it is
placed, thereby subtracting a bit from
the opposite side.

-
A flat lowers the tone by half a step and
a sharp raises the tone by half a step.
31
Example 93
Example 94
Example 95
Example 96
Theory and Practice


ς
ς
ς

(2/3)
(1/3)

32
Example 97
Example 98
Example 99
Example 100
Example 101
Theory and Practice

(2/3)
(1/3)
(2/3)
(1/3)
(2/3) (1/3)
(2/3)
(1/3)
33
Example 102
Example 103
Example 104
Example 105
Example 106
Theory and Practice




34
Example 107
Theory and Practice

νη
΄
πα

βου

γα

δι

κε

ζω

νη΄

πα

δι

δι

νη´
ζω

Diatonic Fthores
Chromatic Fthores
Enharmonic Fthores
Fthores
βου γα

΄
΄
35
Απηχήματα (Apehemata)
The Apehema is an introductory musical phrase that provides the chanter a brief opportunity to grasp the
sound of a particular mode before begining to chant.
Chanting with Melos
- -
- -

·
·

νε
ε
α να νες
α α νες
νε ε
νε
νε ε να νω
νε
ε χε α α νες
νε
νε α νες
νε α ες νε
να να
να α να
να
νε ε νε
νε ε νες α α
λε
γε τος
νε
α γι α
νε ε
νε α γι ε

νε α α α γι α ι ι ι ε
First Mode
Second Mode Third Mode
Plagal of the First Mode Plagal of the Second Mode
Grave Mode
Fourth Mode Plagal of the Fourth Mode
Doxology Verses in Each Mode

ξο λο γου μεν σε ευ χα ρι στου μεν σοι δι α την με

36
Chanting with Melos
Δο ξα σοι τω δει ξαν τι το φως δο ξα εν υ ψι στοις Θε
ω και ε πι γης ει ρη η νη εν αν θρω ποις ευ δο κι α
Υ μνου ου μεν σε ευ λο γου μεν σε προ σκυ νου μεν σε δο
α λην σου δο ξαν
Κυ ρι ε Βα σι λευ ε που ρα νι ε Θε ε ε Πα τερ παν
το κρα α τορ Κυ ρι ε Υι ε μο νο γε νες Ι η σου
Χρι στε και α α γι ον Πνε ευ μα
Κυ ρι ε ο Θε ος ο αμ νος του Θε ου ο Υι ος του
Πα τρος ο αι ρων την α μαρ τι αν του κο ο ο σμου ε
λε η σον η μας ο αι αι ρων τας α μαρ τι ας του
κο ο σμου
Doxology Verses in Each Mode
37
Chanting with Melos

Προ σδεξαι την δε η σιν η μων ο κα θη με νος εκ δε ξι
ων του Πα τρος και ε λε η σον η μας

Ο τι συ ει μο νος Α γι ος συ ει μο νος Κυ
ρι ος Ι η σους Χρι στος εις δο ο ο ξαν Θε ου
Πα τρος α μην
´

Καθ ε κα στην η με ραν ευ λο γη σω σε και αι νε ε
σω το ο νο μα α σου εις τον αι ω να και εις τον αι ω
να του α ω ω νος
α να μαρ τη τους φυ λα χθη ναι η μα ας
Κα τα ξι ι ω σον Κυ ρι ε εν τη η με ρα τα αυ τη

Doxology Verses in Each Mode
38
Chanting with Melos

Ευ λο γη τος ει Κυ ρι ε ο Θε ος των Πα τε ε ρων
η μων και αι νε το ον και δε δο ξα σμε ε νον το
ο νο μα α σου εις τους αι ω νας Α μην
Γε νοι το Κυ ρι ε το ε λε ος σου εφ η μας καθ α
περ ηλ πι ι ι σα μεν ε πι σε
Ευ λο γη τος ει ει Κυ ρι ε ε δι δα ξο ον με τα δι και
ω μα τα σου
Κυ ρι ε κα τα φυ γη ε γε νη η θης η μιν εν γε νε α και
γε νε α ε γω ει πα Κυ ρι ε ε λε η σο ον με
ι α σαι την ψυ χη η μου ο τι η μαρ τον σοι
Doxology Verses in Each Mode
39
Chanting with Melos

Κυ ρι ε προς σε κα τε ε φυ γον δι δα ξο ον με του
ποι ειν το θε λη μα α σου ο τι συ ει ο θε ο ο
μου
Ο τι πα ρα σοι πη γη ζω ης εν τω φω τι σου ο ψο
ο με θα φως
Πα ρα τει ει νον το ε λε ο ος σου τοις γι νω σκου σι
σε

ςςς
Α γι ος ο Θε ος Α γι ος Ι σχυ ρος Α γι ος
α θα α να τος ε λε η σον η μας
40
WHAT IS A Mode?
A Mode (Ο Ήχος) is the sound created by a melody in a particular scale. Each mode is defined by
melodic phrases developed around a group of notes. This melodic configuration gives each mode its own
acoustic character, making it unique among the other modes. In Byzantine music there are eight modes: four
authentic and four plagal modes. Example: First Mode (authentic) Plagal of the First Mode (plagal).
WHAT IS A SCALE?
A Scale (Η Κλίμακα) consists of eight notes (Νη, Πα, Βου, Γα, Δι, Κε, Ζω´, Νη´) completing one
octave (meaning eight in Latin). The sound of the scale is determined by the number of microtones in be-
tween notes, called μόρια (moria). Thus in Byzantine music there are three groups of scales: the Diatonic,
the Chromatic and the Enharmonic. These three groups have their own symbols which identify them, called
φθορές (fthores).
WHAT IS A BASE NOTE?
The Base Note (Η Βάση) is the first note of a scale and the note to which the melody generally
returns. The base note gives the overall quality of sound and support to the mode. For this reason, the Ίσον
(drone) is commonly chanted on the base note, since it is the base of the mode.
WHAT ARE STRUCTURAL NOTES?
The Structural Notes (Οι Δεσπόζοντες Φθόγγοι) function as the backbone of the scale in a
mode. These notes are what determine the melody of a mode, providing musical phrases and unique charac-
teristics to each mode.
WHAT ARE ENDING PHRASES?
There are four types of Ending Phrases: (ατελείς, εντελείς, τελικές και οριστικές). Looking at a
hymn, one will notice commas, heightened commas (a breath mark), and periods. Ending phrases represent
these punctuation marks in a musical format.
WHAT IS (PARALLAGE)?
Parallage (Η Παραλλαγή) is what we call in western music Solfege. It is a sort of musical exercise,
chanting a hymn note by note before applying the Μέλος (melos - words in melody). There is a saying
among chanting teachers: “Practice Parallage 100 times and melos once.” Practicing this technique is the
secret to learning Byzantine music.
WHAT IS A TETRACHORD?
The Tetrachord (Το Τετράχορδο) translated from Greek means four-chords or notes. Each mode
is comprised of eight notes with two equal parts adding up to 72 total moria. A tetrachord is one part of the
mode and is equivalent to its opposite tetrachord. (see pyramid diagram on pg. 2)
WHAT IS A Disjunctive Tone?
The Disjunctive Tone (Ο Διαζευκτικός Τόνος), separates the lower tetrachord from the upper
tetrachord. This note is actually a distance/interval (sum of 12 moria between two notes).
(unfinished, paused, complete and final)
-
-
-
Definition of Terms
41
12
8
10
12
12
8
10
12
First Mode

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

΄ςςςς

ςςςς
ς
ς

΄

´
´

Base Note:
First mode has (Πα) as its base note and belongs to the diatonic scale. If the melody enters the upper tetra-
chord the base note becomes (Κε). Thus the base note is always the first note of the tetrachord and is deter-
mined by the direction of the melody.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in first mode heirmologic melody (fast melody) are (Πα) and (Δι); sticheraric melody
(Πα) and (Γα); papadic melody (Πα) and (Γα).
Ending Notes:
Paused endings or unfinished endings in the heirmologic melody are chanted on the note (Δι) and complete
endings are chanted on the note (Πα) the base note. In the sticheraric melody unfinished endings are chanted
on the note (Γα) and complete endings on (Πα). In the papadic melody unfinished endings are on (Πα) (Γα)
(Δι) and (Κε) and complete endings on (Πα).
o
o
Ζω is commonly Flat
when ascending up to
it or descending from it.
This action is indicated
with the Flat symbol.
Ζω is otherwise natural.

Three Melodic Styles of Chanting
Heirmologic Melody
This is the fastest melody of the three. One
to two beats per each syllable.
Sticheraric Melody
This is the medium paced melody. These
hymns are preceded by verses. Syllables are
drawn out and the unfinished endings vary.
Papadic Melody
This is the slowest of the three melodies.
The Cherubic hymn belongs to this group.
A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the diatonic scale
΄

o

First Mode
´
42
12
8
10
12
12
8
10
12
Plagal of the First Mode

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

΄ςςςς

ςςςς
ς
ς

΄

´
´

Base Note:
Plagal of the first mode sticheraric melody has (Πα) as its base note and belongs to the diatonic scale. Heirmo-
logic melody has (Κε) as its base note. This melody assumes the diatonic symbol even though it is chanted
from (Κε).
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in the sticheraric melody are (Πα) (Δι) and (Κε); heirmologic melody (Κε) and (Nη´);
papadic melody (Πα) (Δι) and (Κε).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings in the heirmologic melody are chanted on (Nη´) and complete endings are chanted on the
note (Κε) the base note. In the sticheraric melody unfinished endings are chanted on the notes (Δι) and (Κε)
; rested endings on (Πα) and complete endings on (Δι). Unfinished endings in the papadic melody are (Πα)
(Δι) and (Κε) and complete endings are chanted on (Πα).
o
o

΄
πα
΄ςςςς
Η Μαρτυρία (Marterea)
This symbol indicates a particular note and
scale. This marterea tells us that the note is
Πα (lower tetrachord) of the diatonic scale.
Η Φθορά (Fthora)
This symbol belongs to a particular note and
scale. At times it can be placed on another
note yet it retains its name and identity. This
fthora belongs to Πα (lower tetrachord) of the
diatonic scale. See page (34) for other fthores
and their corresponding notes.
- -
- -
A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the diatonic scale
o
o

Plagal of the First Mode
´
΄
43
12
8
10
12
12
8
10
12
Fourth Mode

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

΄ςςςς

ςςςς
ς
ς

΄

´
´

Ζω is flat when ascending up to it or descending from
it. In Agia when the melody stays around Ζω, the note
Κε takes a sharp while Ζω remains natural until the
melodic line descends. Πα is also takes a sharp when
it is ascending to or around Βου. Πα is chanted in its
natural place otherwise.
Base Note:
Fourth mode sticheraric melody has (Πα) as its base note; heirmologic melody has (Βου) as its base note and
papadic melody has (Δι) as its base note.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in the sticheraric melody are (Πα) (Βου) and (Δι); heirmologic melody (Βου) and
(Δι); papadic melody (Δι) (Βου) and (Ζω´).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings in the heirmologic melody are chanted on (Δι) and (Πα); complete endings are always
chanted on (Βου) the base note. In the sticheraric melody unfinished endings are chanted on (Δι) (Πα) and
complete endings on (Βου). In the papadic melody unfinished endings are chanted on (Βου) (Ζω´) and
complete endings are on (Δι) the base note.
Heirmologic Melody βου
This melody is characteristic of its complete
endings on (Βου) and is named (λέγετος).
Sticheraric Melody πα
The base note alternates between Πα and
Βου. The drone follows this same pattern.
Papadic Melody δι
In Agia the note Γα is often attracted to Δι
while ascending. This is in many cases indi-
cated with a sharp symbol.

k

΄
΄

o
o

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the diatonic scale
o
o

Fourth Mode
Άγια (Agia)
´
legetos
44
8
10
12
12
8
10
12

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

΄ςςςς

ςςςς
ς

΄

´

Base Note:
Plagal of the fourth mode has (Νη) as its base note. If the triphone system is applied the base note becomes
(Γα) and the diatonic fthora of (Νη) is placed on (Γα) .
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in the sticheraric, heirmologic and papadic melodies are (Νη) (Βου) and (Δι).The struc-
tural notes in the triphone system are (Γα) (Νη) and (Πα).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings in the heirmologic, sticheraric and papadic melodies are chanted on (Βου) and (Δι); com-
plete endings for these melodies are chanted on (Νη) the base note. In the triphone system unfinished endings
are chanted on the note (Δι) and complete endings on (Γα) the base note.

Plagal of the Fourth Mode

Triphone System
This melody sounds very much like the
enharmonic grave mode except the melodic
lines are different. The Supplication service,
katavasies for the Holy Cross, and the apoli-
tika are chanted in the triphone system.
12
8
10
12

Δ
΄

΄

ς

ςςςς
´

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the diatonic scale
Plagal of the Fourth Mode

o
o

o
o
´
´

45
10
12
12
8
10
12
8
Grave Mode Diatonic

(Base Note)

ςςςς

ς

΄

·
Base Note:
Grave mode in the diatonic scale has (Ζω) as its base note.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes are (Ζω) (Δι)(Γα) and (Πα).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings are chanted on (Δι) and (Γα); paused endings are chanted on (Πα) and (Ζω); complete
endings are chanted on (Ζω).

The Forms of Grave Mode
The microtonal intervals of this scale depend on
the form of grave mode that the melody is fol-
lowing. These forms are as follows:
Tetraphonic, Pentaphonic, Heptaphonic,
and Protovarys.
The attractions between certain notes depend
on the structural notes and the particular me-
lodic form applied. This can be discerned acous-
tically through the use of various characteristic
musical melodies particular to each form grave
mode.
Grave Mode Diatonic
o
(Διατονικός)
o
o
·

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the diatonic scale
´
46
Second Mode

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

ςςςς

ςςςς
Base Note:
Second mode sticheraric melody has (Δι) as its base note and belongs to the soft chromatic scale; heirmologic
melody has (Βου) as its base note. Βου assumes the hard chromatic fthora of .
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in the sticheraric melody are (Δι) (Βου) and (Ζω´); heirmologic melody (Δι) and (Πα)
when using the fthora of on Βου; papadic melody (Βου) (Δι) and (Ζω´).
Ending Notes:
In the sticheraric melody unfinished endings are chanted on the notes (Ζω´) and (Βου) and complete endings
on (Δι). Unfinished endings in the heirmologic melody are chanted on (Πα) and (Δι) and complete endings
are chanted on (Πα) the base note when using the fthora of on Βου.
o
o

Heirmologic Melody
This melody is chanted with the fthora of
(πα) in the hard chromatic scale. Vice versa
this system is also used in the heirmologic
plagal of the second melody with the use of
the soft chromatic scale.

βου

8
14
8
12
8
14
8
A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the Chromatic scale
o
o

Second Mode
´
´
βου
πα

πα

πα
47
Plagal of the Second Mode

4
20
6
12
4
20
6

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

ςςςς
ς
Base Note:
Plagal of the second mode sticheraric melody has (Πα) as its base note and belongs to the hard chromatic scale.
The heirmologic melody uses the soft chromatic scale and has (Πα) as its base note. When this system is ap-
plied, the soft chromatic fthora of is placed on Πα making Βου the base note.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes in the sticheraric melody are (Πα) (Δι) and (Κε); heirmologic melody (Βου) and (Δι) as
described above; papadic melody (Πα) (Δι) and (Κε).
Ending Notes:
In the sticheraric and papadic melody unfinished endings are chanted on (Δι) and (Κε), paused endings on
(Πα) and complete endings are chanted on (Πα). Unfinished endings in the heirmologic melody are chanted
on (Δι), paused endings on (Βου) and complete endings are chanted on (Βου) .
o
o

βου

Οι Χρόες (Chroes)
Ο ζυγός (Zegos) is commonly placed
on (Δι) and wants (Γα)sharp, (Βου) in its
place and (Πα) sharp.
Tο κλιτόν (Kleton) is placed on (Δι)
and wants (Γα) and (Βου) sharp.
Η σπάθη (Spathe) is commonly placed
on (Κε) or (Γα). It wants the above note
flat and the below note sharp.

-
-
-
A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the Chromatic scale
o
o

Plagal of the Second Mode
´
´
´

βου
48
6
12
12
12
6
12
12

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

ςςςς
ς
ς

΄

´
´
o
o

Third Mode
ς

ς

ς

´
´

Base Note:
Third mode has (Γα) as its base note for the sticheraric, heirmologic and papadic melodies. The papadic melo-
dy places the diatonic fthora of (Νη) on (Γα) the base note.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes for the sticheraric, heirmologic and papadic melodies are (Γα) (Κε) and (Πα).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings for the sticheraric, heirmologic and papadic melodies are chanted on (Κε) and (Πα); com-
plete endings are chanted on the base note (Γα).

Fthores Found in Third Tone


This Fthora is placed on (Κε) and it wants
(Ζω) continuously flat.
This Fthora is placed on (Γα) wants (Βου)
continuously sharp.
This Fthora is placed on (Ζω) and wants it
continuously flat.

ςς
ςς

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the Enharmonic scale
o
o

Third Mode
49
6
12
12
12
6
12
12

(Base Note)
(Disjunctive Tone)
Lower
Tetrachord
Upper
Tetrachord

ςςςς
ς
ς

΄

o
o

Grave Mode
ς

ς

´

Base Note:
Grave mode has (Γα) as its base note.
Structural Notes:
The structural notes for both the sticheraric and heirmologic melodies are (Γα)(Δι) and (Ζω).
Ending Notes:
Unfinished endings for both the sticheraric and heirmologic melodies are chanted on (Δι); complete endings
are chanted on the base note (Γα).
* Some musical compositions use the heptaphonic enharmonic grave mode system such as the famous Chour-
mouzios doxology.

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference
Tones in the Enharmonic scale
Grave Mode
o
o
·

´

Ζω is the note that gives the most character
to this tone.With its continuous flat and
melodic phrases, Grave Tone enharmonic
provides a very festive and joyous sound.
Paradoxically, the name of the tone gives
the connotation of death and the tomb.
However, the content of the tone, its
hymnography, more than often highlight
Christ’s ‘triumph’ over death and the
‘emptying’ of the tomb, professing the truth
of the Resurrection in Orthodox faith and
worship.
50
Character Name Description

Characters Ascending One Note
Characters Ascending Two Notes

Characters Ascending Three Notes
Characters Ascending Four Notes
Characters Ascending Five Notes

Ίσον (Eson)
Keep same pitch as previous
note
Ολίγον (Olegon)
Πεταστή (Petaste)
Κέντημα (Kentema)
Ascend one note straight
Ascend with vocal futter
Ascend by dragging note up Κεντήματα (Kentemata)
Ascend two notes straight
Ascend two notes straight
Ascend two notes straight
Ascend two notes straight and with a vocal futter
Ascend three notes straight or ascend three notes straight
with a vocal futter
or
or
or
Ascend four notes straight or
ascend four notes straight with a vocal futter
Ascend fve notes straight or ascend fve notes straight with
a vocal futter
- -
-
-
-
-
-
Character Chart
Υψηλή (Ipsele)
51

Character Name Description
Characters Ascending Six Notes
Characters Ascending Seven & Eight Notes
Characters Descending One Note
Characters Descending Three Notes

Characters Descending Two Notes
Characters Descending Four or More Notes

//

//
// //
Ascend six notes straight or ascend six notes straight with a
vocal futter
Ascend seven notes straight or ascend seven notes straight
with a vocal futter
Ascend eight notes straight or ascend eight notes straight
with a vocal futter
or
or
or
or
or
Η aπόστρο�ος (Apostrophos)
Το ελα�ρόν (Elafron)
Η χαμηλή (Hamele)
Descend straight or with futter
Descend straight or with futter
Descend straight or with futter
Descend straight or with futter
Descend 5 notes Descend 6 notes Descend 7 notes

Το ίσον (Εson)
Same value; the Olegon works as
a table (no quantitative value)
or
or
- -
Character Chart
-
-
52
Character Name Description
Combined Characters
Characters Adding Duration (Time)
Characters Dividing Duration

Η απόστρο�ος (Apostrophos)
Το ελα�ρόν (Elafron)
Same value; the Olegon works as
a table (no quantitative value)
=
=
=

+

+

Combined characters are read either lef to right, or bot-
tom to top, depending on their construction. In these three
cases we read the characters lef to right.
=

+

or
+

=
=

+
+

Tese characters are read bottom to top, one note at a time.
In other words, in the frst example, the Kentemata are read
before the Olegon. In the second example, we read the Ep-
sele before the Kentemata and so on. As stated above, the
Olegon acts as a table adding no quantitative value.

=
Το κλάσμα (Klasma)
1 Beat

=
1 Beat

=
2 Beats

=
3 Beats
+
+
+
+
Η απλή (Aple)
Η διπλή (Deple)
Η τριπλή (Treple)
Tese characters add duration
to the note on which they are
placed in addition to the beat
of the note.
¨
=

+

Qualitative symbol; adds no
duration
Tis example reads bottom to top. Te Aple is
added to the Olegon

Γοργόν (Gorgon)
Δίγοργον (Degorgon)
Τρίγοργον (Tregorgon)
Divide beat 1/2
Divide beat 1/3
Divide beat 1/4

-
- -
- -
-
-
Character Chart
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
53
Character Name Description
Characters Dividing and Adding Duration
Timing Gestures

=

1/2 1/2

=

o
1/2
1/2

=

Te Gorgon afects two notes: the note it is on and the one preceding
it.
Te Degorgon afects three notes: the note it is on and both notes on
either side of it.
Te Tregorgon afects four notes: the note it is on, the one preceding
it and the following two notes afer it.
=
o

or
=

o

=
o

ΣΥΝΕ�ΕΣ ΕΛΑΦΡΟΝ (CONTINUOUS ELAFRON)

Αργόν (Argon)
Δίαργον (Deargon)
Τρίαργον (Treargon)

=

=

Tese examples show how the Argon or Deargon will be
used in a musical text. Te phrases are read from
lef to right and bottom to top.
Τρίσημος (Tresemos) Δίσημος (Desemos) Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos)
Θέση
Downbeat
Άρση
Upbeat (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
-
-
- - -
Character Chart
- -
-
-
-
Te Continuous Elafron descends two notes with Gorgon.
Te Gorgon is invisibly placed above the Elafron cutting the time of
the preceding Apostrophos in half. Te Continuous Elafron ofen ap-
pears like an Apostrophos glued to an Elafron.
Tese characters work like a Gorgon,
but they also add duration on the fnal
note afected. Te Argon adds one
beat, the Deargon adds two beats and
the Treargon adds three beats.
-
-
54
Character Name Description
Qualitative Characters

'

+
Το ψη�ιστόν (Psefeston)
Το ομαλόν (Omalon)
Το αντικένωμα (Antekenoma)
Ο σύνδεσμος (Sendesmos)
Το ενδό�ωνον (Endofonon)
Η βαρεία (Varea)
Ο σταυρός (Stavros)
Strong emphasis on syllable
Vocal stress at the end of a syllable
Slight vocal futter for emphasis
Connect syllable with vocal waver
Hold note with closed mouth
Strong emphasis on following note
A brief pause to take a breath
Character Chart

Το υ�έν (Efen) Unite two notes without break
s d fo
k l ;
j

Η διαστολή (Deastole)
Groups notes together creating a
measure of time for 2, 3 or 4 beats
Η κορώνα (Korona)
Tis timing symbol allows for a note
to be held discretionally
Η χρονική αγωγή
(Hroneke agoge)
Tempo Change
Tis timing symbol sets the tempo for
any set of hymns (discretionally)
- -
-
-
-
-
- -
- - -
Tese three slow the tempo down
Tese three speed up the tempo
55
Time Month Day Location Event
ASBM CALENDAR OF EVENTS
56
Time Month Day Location Event
ASBM CALENDAR OF EVENTS
57
Time Month Day Location Event
ASBM CALENDAR OF EVENTS
58
Time Month Day Location Event
ASBM CALENDAR OF EVENTS
59
Time Month Day Location Event
ASBM CALENDAR OF EVENTS
Glory be to God in All Things!
All graphics and byzantine fonts included in this book are made available by
Saint Anthony’s Greek Orthodox Monastery, Florence Arizona
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
8 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10075
(212) 570-3500

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