Installation & Operations Manual

Version 3.2

The Professional’s Tool for Protective Relay Testing

Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc.
244 Cree Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3J 3W1

Copyright © 2001 Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc. All rights reserved. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, for any purpose without the express written permission of Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc. PSCAD is a registered trademark of Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc. EMTDC is a trademark of Manitoba Hydro, and Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Inc. is a registered user. Microsoft, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows ME, NT, and Developer Studio are the registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. DEC and DEC Fortran are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company. Netscape and Netscape Navigator are registered trademarks of Netscape Communications Corporation in the United States and other countries. MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Compaq and the names of Compaq products referenced herein are trademarks and/or service marks or registered trademarks and/or service marks of the Compaq Computer Corporation. WinZip is a registered trademark of WinZip Computing, Inc.

Revision 1.0 – Jan 16, 2001 Revision 2.0 – March 15, 2001 Revision 2.1 – April 26, 2001 Revision 2.2 – May 18, 2001 Revision 3.0 – June 8, 2001 Revision 3.1 – June 28, 2001 Revision 4.0 – August 7, 2001

Revision 4.1 – August 31, 2001

.............................24 Unable to Acquire License from ‘localhost’.................................................13 Manually Configuring the License Manager...5 TCP/IP Network Protocol...........1 PSCAD/Relay Introduction..............................................34 Breaker Controls...................................................................18 Manually Stopping the License Manager......Table of Contents Table of Conte Chapter 1 Overview of PSCAD/Relay..................................3 Chapter 2 Installation.........1 Why Use a Power System Simulator .................................................................................................................................................................33 Playback Recorders.....3 Parameters That Can be Modified..............................21 GNU/EGCS Fortran Install...................................................6 PSCAD Installation..4 Hardware and Software Requirements ..........................................21 Avoiding the Most Common Mistakes............................................................38 iv PSCAD/Relay Manual ............................................20 Adding a License..........................................26 Chapter 3 Case Descriptions....................38 Three Phase Voltage Source ..........................23 Problems That Can Occur...................................................................28 Substation Control Panel................2 What Type of Testing........................................................................................24 PSCAD Compile Generates “make –f” Error....................26 Getting Help During Installation..........................................................................................................................20 Manually Starting the License Manager.........26 Uninstalling........................22 Running PSCAD................................4 Fortran Compilers...........................................................................................................................................................................35 Modification of Parameters...6 Licensing.........................24 Unable to Connect to License Manager Server................................................................27 Case 1: Single Line..........35 Steps to Perform a PSCAD Simulation .........................................................27 Cases Included.........................................9 License Manager Install........................................

.58 Case 9: Series Parallel Transmission Lines......................44 Case 2: Single Line (Mid-line Fault) ............................78 PSCAD Recorder Model..................54 Case 5: Parallel Line with T-tap............................................................................................................61 Transmission Line Modeling ..................56 Case 7: Transformer HL/LV Connection..............................................105 Mutual Coupled Transmission Lines ..........................................................89 Multiple Run Component.............................108 Starting the License Manager Service.....................................................59 Chapter 4 PSCAD/Relay Components .................91 Starting from a Snapshot.........................108 Help Files Won’t Open*............................................................101 Protection to Operate a Breaker ....................................................................111 PSCAD/Relay Manual v ............................................55 Case 6: Parallel Line with T-tap (Mid-line Fault)...............................................................................................61 Distributed or Traveling Wave Transmission Line..107 Appendix A Troubleshooting Install...........................................................84 RTP Playback Program...62 Coupled Line Model Using Load Flow Parameters..........110 Message Tree Errors...............................84 Breaker Component...........................................48 Steps Required to Perform Simulation......................................64 Manual Entry of Data for Bergeron Model............83 Multiple Run Capability with Recorder................................................................57 Case 8: Transformer HL/LV with Tertiary Winding...77 Transformers........71 Additional T-line References ...............................................85 Chapter 5 Advanced Topics ...............................47 Case 3: Parallel Transmission Line...68 Conductor Database......106 Special Example Based on SEL 321 Relay Manual..........41 Fault Impedance.............................89 Sequencer ...............................84 Doble State Component............................................................................................82 Output File Location..................................................................43 Recorder Parameters...........103 Single Phase Breaker Operation....................106 Interface with Doble ProTesT Program.....................................................................50 Case 4: Parallel Transmission Line (Mid-line Fault).......................PSCAD/Relay Transmission Line Parameters . .................................................

..........122 Windows Meta File Export................. Switch...........................................123 Appendix C Technical Support........................................................... .............Table of Contents Appendix B Using PSCAD/Relay.................................................................113 Project Tree and Message Tree..119 Scrolling...................................112 Starting PSCAD.................124 EMTDC Users’ Group.........................................125 Index....120 Printing Circuits and Plots....................117 PSCAD/Relay Graphical Interface Features...............114 Loading a Case Project........................116 Printing.............. ..............................................................................................................113 Menu Bar and Menu Items.................................................................................................................... Button....................................112 Title Bar and Menu Bar.......................................................................................121 Changing Simulation Time Step and Run Duration..............121 Creating Slider.......113 Menu Buttons.................................................121 Using Arrays.....................................................................................................................................................120 Printing Component Parameters.....114 Running a Simulation..............................................................124 Maintenance Contract...........................123 Viewing Error and Warning Messages............................................................................................................................................................................. and Dial Interfaces......................................................120 Keyboard Shortcuts..................120 Creating Plots and Graphs..120 Connecting Wires...............121 MultiPlot Features: FFT........124 How to Contact Us..122 Tlines and Cables..123 Finding Components...............122 Grouping Components..........................................................122 Undo.............112 Title Bar and Active Project. THD and Curve Calculation...............................................................................123 Changing Page Size and Layout......................126 vi PSCAD/Relay Manual .........................122 Editing Component Parameters..............

These waveforms can be utilized for real time playback testing and verification of protective relay systems. making it easy for the user to modify and customize the simulation for the particular system being investigated. timing. or make appropriate changes to model their own system. The nine predefined base cases have a built in interactive dials. and various fault configurations. enter the appropriate system parameters and solve the simulation with very little effort. parallel and tapped AC transmission lines and transformers. The user can run the example cases as they are. The simulation results are recorded as COMTRADE or RTP files. The very powerful and versatile PSCAD transient solution is used to solve a predefined set of power system configurations. including single. The AC system is displayed in single line diagram (SLD) format. Graphic based controls allow the user to define the load conditions. The transient waveforms will very closely . PSCAD/Relay is designed with a number of predefined transmission system configurations or cases. The power system simulator calculates and displays the voltage and current time domain or transient waveforms. transmission line parameters. The results of the simulation are plotted and displayed on screen.Chapter 1 Overview of PSCAD/Relay PSCAD/RELAY INTRODUCTION PSCAD/Relay is a power system simulator designed especially for AC protection relay test and analysis personnel. sliders and switches. very similar to what would occur if you operated the real power system from a control room. system impedances for the bus voltages. The idea is to allow the user to load the case of interest. Interactive controls allow the user to adjust the system conditions as the simulation is solving.

AC breakers can be opened and closed in the simulation providing testing and analysis of protection sequences. WHY USE A POWER SYSTEM SIMULATOR Power systems are rapidly becoming more complex. The design and testing of digital protection systems require a large number of various fault conditions and “what if” testing. These tests can be performed quickly and automatically. Adjustment of the equivalent voltage sources will determine pre-fault loading conditions. and can be applied at anytime. Realistic testing waveforms can be generated for a variety of testing conditions. As a result. providing a set of testing waveforms to thoroughly test a protection system. A power system simulator can provide answers to these questions and much more. dual and tapped AC line configurations. Examples cases illustrating these features are provided. The predefined example cases allow the user to get results quickly and efficiently.represent the waveforms you would measure on your system using an oscilloscope or high-speed digital transient fault recorder. The provided example cases consist of single. The settings of digital protection systems are also becoming more complex. . breaker protection. and these waveforms are recorded for future real time testing of the protection relay systems. Voltage and current waveforms are displayed and recorded where the protection relays would be located. Voltage and current waveforms can be recorded at both ends of a transmission line for end-toend GPS based testing. there is the requirement for more accurate representation of the power system transients that occur on the application and during the recovery of system faults. Faults can be located anywhere on the transmission system. complete with breakers and equivalent voltage sources to represent the rest of the AC system. the cases can be customized to include simulation sequencer controls. Digital protection systems are being installed that respond to rapid system changes. automatic multiple run cases and single pole breaker operation. just like in the real power system. For more advanced users.

. Alternatively. transmission lines can be modelled as the traditional pi sections. accurate for 60Hz lines. For example. Power Flow and MVAR Conditions Point on Wave Timing for Fault Application Reclosing of Breakers after Fault Clearing Breaker Operating Time Single Phase Breaker operation Equivalent System Impedance Sequence of Breaker Opening and Closing Recorded Waveforms for Real Time Playback Testing Multiple Run or Batch Solutions PSCAD/Relay is simple to use and operate. The following section presents parameters that can be modified in the simulation. accurate results. PARAMETERS THAT CAN BE MODIFIED The following is a short list of the parameters that can be modified: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fault Locations Fault Type: Single and 3-phase. or simulation of AC protection communication systems. In PSCAD/Relay. while generating fast. and phase-to-ground Fault Impedance Fault Duration Pre-fault Voltage. using PSCAD/Relay’s full frequency travelling wave transmission model will precisely represent transmission lines from DC to several hundred kilohertz for increased accuracy of simulation results. phase-to-phase. PSCAD/Relay easily performs simulations of current reversal due to faults in parallel lines.WHAT TYPE OF TESTING PSCAD/Relay provides features that can perform a wide variety of testing that is unavailable in other forms of simulation.

hvdc. PSCAD is currently supported on PCs running Microsoft Windows 95/98/ME and Windows NT4.x recommended. A GNU compiler is provided.0. Category Processor Operating system Additional software Requirement 200 MHz Pentium processor (higher speed recommended). but Compaq Visual Fortran 6.0/2000 operating systems. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS The following are the minimum recommended specifications. ME or 2000. 100 MB minimum.2 or later. Memory (RAM) Hard disc space 32 MB (64 MB or more recommended).. or Netscape) capable of reading HTML 3. Web browser (i.e. NT 4. Digital Visual Fortran 5. Similar licensing. Visit the web site for more information on other PSCAD products.Chapter 2: Installation Cha Installa The PSCAD/EMTDC family of products uses the EMDTC solution engine to solve simulations. Internet Explorer. More space may be required to save cases and output as you . 98. which is sufficient to run any cases in PSCAD. installation and compiler requirements are necessary for all versions of PSCAD/RELAY.0 is supported. Windows 95.

is provided on your PSCAD CD. proceed to PSCAD Installation.compaq. The following commercially available compilers are presently supported: Compaq Visual Fortran 5 & 6 You can get more information on the Compaq Visual Fortran compiler at FORTRAN COMPILERS PSCAD requires a Fortran compiler to run. please follow the installation instructions provided with the software. 17” for desktop and 11” minimum for one serial or USB port for hardware lock. however PSCAD/Relay users will not experience any limitations. If you are installing the Compaq Visual Fortran compiler. a mouse or compatible pointing device. TCP/IP Network Protocol. called the EGCS GNU compiler. XGA recommended. . Other peripherals and hardware The free EGCS GNU Fortran compiler is available for all users on our worldwide website: www. Please note that the GNU compiler will impose some limitations otherwise not experienced with the Compaq Visual compiler. Monitor SVGA minimum. For your convenience. Once successfully installed.Category Requirement use PSCAD. A CD-ROM drive and 32 bit CD-ROM drivers. a free Fortran compiler. 800x600 resolution (1024x768 or higher recommended).

Chapter 2: Installation TCP/IP NETWORK PROTOCOL
PSCAD requires TCP/IP (i.e. Winsock) network protocol to be installed. TCP/IP is used to allow PSCAD and EMTDC to communicate, and is required by the Educational, Commercial, Personal and Relay Editions of PSCAD. TCP/IP should be installed before proceeding with your installation. Most Windows’ installations will automatically install TCP/IP. If you are running on an old PC with a network card, the TCP/IP protocol can be installed from START | Settings | Control Panel | Network. Select Add Protocol and modify the TCP/IP properties. Your system administrator can provide you with information on what IP address to use. If you are using a standalone PC, you can also install TCP/IP using the Windows dial up network setup. Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Network… and add an adapter. Remove the client for Netware (if you use Novell networking, this is not required) and add the Protocol for Microsoft TCP/IP. You can test the TCP installation by opening a DOS prompt and typing ‘ping localhost.’ If this succeeds, then the PSCAD/RELAY case should also run correctly. WINDOWS 95 USERS ONLY:
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Dongle

You must have TCP/IP protocol installed on your PC for PSCAD/Relay to function.

It is a good idea to get the Winsock 2 and Dial Up Networking updates (free from Microsoft). You can get them from: ault.asp, or: in the Windows 95/Networking area. NOTE: These updates are important if you want to run the PSCAD Educational, Commercial, or Relay Editions (which require the License Manager) on a standalone Windows 95 machine that does not have a network card.
25-Pin Serial Port Dongle

Licensing is required for the PSCAD/Relay program.

The License Manager software is used in conjunction with a hardware lock, known as a dongle (shown in the side column). The dongle contains pre-programmed information regarding the type and amount of licenses, as well as other user information. When PSCAD is started, it will request a license from the License Manager. The License Manager, in turn, checks the information on the dongle in order to verify the request. The License Manager software supports two types of dongle; a 25-Pin Serial Port type and a Universal Serial Bus (USB) type. The USB dongle is small (the size of your finger-tip) and uses a more reliable power supply, thus making it more suitable for laptops. Although the 25-Pin Serial Port type dongle is compatible with all Windows platforms, the USB dongle is NOT compatible with the following Windows Operating Systems: • • Windows NT Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2 or earlier

Not all computers come with USB ports. If you are not sure if you have one, contact your System administrator for help. The License Manager and dongle need only be installed on one computer in a network. This computer will act as the License Manager ‘server’, which will hand out licenses to other machines on the network, as requested.

Chapter 2: Installation
NOTE: If you are installing the License Manager on a standalone workstation or laptop not connected to a network, your PSCAD software can only be used on the computer that has the dongle connected to it.

EXAMPLE: A PSCAD/Relay user wants 5 licenses on 1 dongle. This diagram illustrates how this user could install the License Manager on their LAN (Local Area Network).

2. Type in “D:\setup. If you do not. the install will fail.PSCAD INSTALLATION PSCAD comes with an easy to use installation program. To do this. The Install program needs to be started manually. You will be presented with a screen on which options are available for your install. where “D” represents the CDROM drive letter. along with explanations of the options that Note: Some steps are not mentioned in this manual. Each screen that requires important user input will have a corresponding step to it in the following pages. pertain to PSCAD users. The screen is shown below. Follow the on screen instructions.exe. perform the following steps: 1. click on the Start Button on your taskbar. . The only difficulty is typically found installing the License Manager program To install PSCAD you must have administrator access to your machine. Insert the PSCAD CD into your CD-ROM drive. 4. To install PSCAD. Setup should begin. and then click Run. 3.” without the quotes.

The PSCAD Help files are recommended for all users of PSCAD products. as the example cases for PSCAD Relay are automatically installed. select the License Manager option. If you are using a machine that does not have the dongle. Note: If you uncheck an item that you have previously installed. PSCAD Example cases showcase various features of PSCAD. They are not necessary for PSCAD Relay. DO NOT unselect any previously installed version of PSCAD unless you wish to uninstall it. If you are not sure what the host machine’s name or IP address is. • • • • • . the installation program will uninstall it! • You have purchased PSCAD Relay Edition. so ensure that it is selected. and will be using the license over the network. select the GNU compiler. A Fortran compiler is required for any PSCAD application to run.Chapter 2: Installation Only select License Manager if the machine you are using will have the dongle attached to it. If you do not have Compaq Digital Fortran. do not select this option. If you are installing PSCAD on the machine with the dongle. contact your system administrator.

PSCAD Install will now ask you to locate your license. If you did not. If your machine currently has the dongle attached. this is how to ensure your machine will find the license.5. For example. using the following screen. select on another machine on your network and enter in the machine name. . and has a valid license for PSCAD. and you are using the license over the network. If you selected the License Manager. select on this machine. if another machine on your network has the dongle and it is named Pumori. If your machine does not have the dongle. skip ahead to step 6.

choose NO from the dialog boxes. If the program is not on your system. 6. An example of a dialog box is shown below. including: • Compaq’s Digital Fortran • GNU/EGCS Fortran • Netscape • Internet Explorer If any of these programs are not located immediately.Chapter 2: Installation If you are unsure which machine has the dongle. PSCAD will attempt to find support programs which may or may not reside on your system. contact your system administrator. . you have the option of performing an exhaustive search of your system.

skip this section and to 2.” location. “lmgr-hvdc” file on your computer. LICENSE MANAGER INSTALL The License Manager Install program will only run if you selected it in the PSCAD install. click "Next.9 Adding a License” for further instructions.12 Neverproceed modify or delete the GNU/EGCS FORTRAN INSTALL. If you have the License Manager installed on your machine. For example." The installation program included with PSCAD will now branch off into additional installers. These programs will install other programs that you have indicated you require. such as the License Manager or GNU/EGCS Fortran. Please see “2. change it to “PSCADRelay. . The following dialog box will allow you to make any changes you require for installation If you wish to maintain a previous version of PSCAD. When you have finished selecting a destination for PSCAD.7. If you did not select the License Manager. change the default directory. or if it is required by the version of PSCAD that you are installing. you do not need to run the License Manager Install again. step 4 above. You have the option of installing PSCAD anywhere on your system.

using the DOS “ping” program. it is safe to select “Yes.” which means the License Manager will start automatically when the system is re-booted.Chapter 2: Installation The License Manager program creates a special database. The License Manager Install program tests to ensure you have TCP/IP installed. until prompted. WINDOWS 95/98 ONLY: The installer will ask “Would you like to start the License Manager during machine boot?” If the dongle is the only device on the serial port. Subsequent license changes are reflected automatically in this file. Check the System Information screen carefully to ensure that all the information is correct and your Windows TCP/IP settings are working. Pay special attention to the installation to avoid License Manager related problems when running PSCAD/Relay. even when uninstalling PSCAD. called “lmgr-hvdc” on your computer. DO NOT connect the dongle to the 25-pin serial port or the USB (depending on which dongle you own). ALL WINDOWS PLATFORMS: 1. Users should never modify or delete this file. .

entitled “License Manager: License. If you are updating or modifying a license. . Select Yes: a. and b.Be sure you scroll down and check that all data is correct. If you do not wish to update or modify any licenses already in your license database file. If you select Yes. or b. which is already in the existing license database file. 2. it will ask you for your new license. or c. If you are adding a new license to an existing license database file. If you have no new licenses to add to the license database file. Select No: a. If this is the first installation of License Manager on your machine.txt. This is usually located on the floppy disk that came with PSCAD. The License Manager Install program allows you choose whether or not to install a license.” Be sure to have this disk ready for step five (5).

If you are unsure which is your serial port. you will see the following screen. The Install will now ask you to attach the dongle. They MUST match to be installed on the same machine. 4. contact your system administrator. using a MSDOS based program. • The Dongle and the floppy disk have serial numbers (SN#) on them. then a 9-pin to 25-pin converter will be included with the PSCAD package (in case you do not have a 25-pin serial port). If it does not find your dongle. or lock. . click on the OK button. • DO NOT insert the 25-pin serial port dongle into the parallel port. attach it now. • The dongle should be inserted in the direction indicated on the dongle. If you have a USB dongle. Once the dongle is firmly in place. The Installation program will now search for and automatically detect the dongle.Chapter 2: Installation 3. • If you have specified the 25-pin serial port dongle during purchase. • Connect the dongle to the 25-pin serial port or the USB (depending on which dongle you own) now.

contact your system administrator.” Place the “License. you will see the following screen.txt” floppy into your floppy drive and type in “a:\license. You may have a problem with your USB/Serial port. contact the Centre. The Install program will now search the floppy drive (or other location) to verify that you have a valid PSCAD license. and still cannot be seen. . If you determine that it is firmly attached.txt.Make sure your dongle is firmly attached. If it does find the dongle. 5. Type in the location of your user license. such as on the network. 6.txt. Press the Enter (Return) key when you are finished.” as shown below. where “a” represents the drive letter. “license. If your license is at another location. If there is no serial port/USB problem. contact your system administrator for help.

Two important files are used in troubleshooting the License Manager: • lmgrd. Highlight ‘HVDC License Manager’. Go to START | Programs | HVDC Lmgr. you must start the License Manager manually. 7. However. The License Manager Install program is now complete. Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Administrative Settings | Services.Chapter 2: Installation Verify that the information is correct before pressing the Enter (or Return) key. WINDOWS 2000 ONLY: • • • Once installation is complete.ini – License Manager initialization file .’ MANUALLY CONFIGURING THE LICENSE MANAGER Most often. there are instances where some automatic settings may have failed. Select ‘Install Windows NT Service’. the License Manager will automatically configure itself during installation. right-click and select ‘Start.

the License Manager must be stopped and then started again. . You can edit the network class setting by editing the ‘class=’ statement. Before you do this. Sometimes you may have to start and stop the License Manager manually. ‘lmgrd-log. and is using a network class C. you may be asked to submit this file to us to help solve your problem. Do not attempt to edit the ‘port=’ statement. The USB port is commented out with the semi colon (.ini’ File EXAMPLE lmgrd. NOTE: In order for any changes to take effect. See Manually Stopping the License Manager for details. depending on which operating system you are using.txt . as it will be overwritten. ‘lmgrd.ini file: [manager] class=C [hardware] port=Com1 .port=USB In the above case. and re-write the lmgrd. The ‘port=’ statement is written by the License Manager as the last known location of the dongle. the user has a dongle connected to serial port COM1 on their PC. See your system administrator for help. the License Manager will auto-detect its location the next time it is started.txt’ File This file can be used to monitor the performance of your License Manager.License Manager log file These files can be found in either your Windows or WinNT directory. It also contains helpful clues that could steer you towards the solution to a particular problem.). ensure it is installed correctly. If you require help.• lmgrd-log.ini file. If the dongle is moved to another communication port.

Select the HVDC License Manager and select ‘Start’. • • . Highlight ‘HVDC License Manager. Highlight ‘HVDC License Manager. Windows 2000: Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services. If HVDC License Manager does not exist in the list of services.’ If the HVDC License Manager does not exist in the list of services. Windows 2000: Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services. See “Problems that can occur” for more information.’ • • MANUALLY STARTING THE LICENSE MANAGER The method for starting the License Manager is different for the various Windows platforms: • Windows 95/98/ME: Go to START | Programs | HVDC Lmgr.’ right-click and select ‘Start.Chapter 2: Installation MANUALLY STOPPING THE LICENSE MANAGER The method for stopping the License Manager is different for various Windows platforms: • Windows 95/98/ME: Press Ctrl-Alt-Del to bring up the Task List and then use End Task to stop any instances of Lmgrd-hvdc. Select ‘Start License Manager. See Chapter 2 “Problems that can occur” for more information. you must install it as a service.’ Windows NT: Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Services. Windows NT: Go to START | Settings | Control Panel | Services.’ right-click and select ‘Stop. you must install it as a service. Select the HVDC License Manager and select ‘Stop’.

in Start | Programs | HVDC Lmgr | Get License Info. Place your floppy disk with the new license in the “a:\” drive. Get License Info will not run while the License Manager is running. All you will need to do is add a new license into the license database that resides on your computer’s hard drive. the License Manager must be stopped. If you are unsure about network classes. To do this. c.ini” file. Your new license should be added to the old one. Use Start | Programs | HVDC Lmgr | Enter License Key. To check to see if it is installed correctly. Ensure that the proper network class has been set in the “lmgrd. to verify you have the correct licenses. where “are” represents the floppy drive letter. consult your system administrator.ADDING A LICENSE If you have previously installed the License Manager. Press Enter (or Return). b. use the Get License Info program. following the “Manually Starting the License Manager” directions. use the Enter License Key program to add a new license. Once the License Manager is stopped. Manually start the License Manager. See “Manually Stopping the License Manager” for details. AVOIDING THE MOST COMMON MISTAKES Here is a checklist compiled from the most commonly occurring License Manager problems: • Ensure that the dongle is securely connected to the serial or USB port and that the serial or USB port is enabled. you do not need to reinstall it. a. • .

Follow the on-screen instructions to install GNU/EGCS Fortran. or if Setup was unable to detect any other Fortran compiler on your machine. make sure the License Manager has been started: Go to START | Programs | HVDC Lmgr and select ‘Start License or contact the Centre at pscad@hvdc. make sure that the License Manager has been installed as a service and that it is running. and will present you with the following screen. • If you experience any further problems. see Appendix A: Troubleshooting Installation. . 1. PSCAD will now begin to install it.’ If you are using Windows NT or 2000. If you encounter any difficulties.Chapter 2: Installation • If you are using Windows 95/98/ME. PSCAD must have a Fortran compiler installed to run. PSCAD is now finished installing. GNU/EGCS FORTRAN INSTALL If you chose to install the GNU/EGCS Fortran. please see the Troubleshooting section in Appendix A: Troubleshooting Installation.

RUNNING PSCAD To run PSCAD. You are ready to simulate cases! If there has been a problem with the installation of the License Manager. When PSCAD is invoked. IF you experience problems with install not covered here. an error will occur. it will mostly likely be noticed when you first start PSCAD. please see Appendix A: Troubleshooting Installation for more information. the License Manager will not work correctly. It should load and work without any problems. If PSCAD cannot communicate with the License Manager at all. If you do not. it will ask the License Manager if there is a license available.It is strongly recommended that you view the "Readme" file. simply click on Start | Programs | PSCAD | PSCAD Relay. For PSCAD to work properly. you must reboot your computer. . and neither will GNU/EGCS. as it contains information useful to PSCAD users.

Simply reboot your 9x machine or re-login to your NT/2000 machine.Chapter 2: Installation PROBLEMS THAT CAN OCCUR PSCAD Compile Generates “make –f” Error Problem: The user did not reboot on a 9x machine or relogin on a NT/2000 machine after installing GNU Fortran. Unable to Connect to License Manager Server If the user gets the following screen: Followed by either: . Solution: This is an error message from GNU/EGCS Fortran.

If all the information is correct. To solve these problems.ini specifies a valid machine name.ini and ensure you have the correct information with respect to the License Manager host. See Manually Starting the License Manager for more information. which is not running License Manager. attempt to start the License Manager manually. first review pscad.ini specifies a non-existent License Manager host. 3. refer to the Troubleshooting Appendix. If these steps do not correct the problem. Pscad. License Manager installed on this machine but is not running. 2. Pscad. This indicates one of the following possible problems: 1.or . .

GETTING HELP DURING INSTALLATION If you still have any problems installing PSCAD/RELAY. and have correctly added the license to your system. use the standard uninstall procedure through Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs Note: The uninstall program will not remove any modified files. contact your local PSCAD supplier or send an email to pscad@hvdc.Chapter 2: Installation Unable to Acquire License from ‘localhost’ If the user only sees the following screen. These must be removed manually. See Adding a License for more information. This includes the *. ask for assistance from your system administrator to avoid unintentional deletion of some other program or module. UNINSTALLING On Windows. it indicates the user attempted to run a product for which he/she does not have a valid license. . The solution to this problem is to ensure you have installed the version of PSCAD that you purchased. first read the Appendix A Troubleshooting Installation chapter in this manual. If you need further assistance. If you are not familiar with this procedure.emt directories created by PSCAD at runtime.

see Case 1: Single Transmission Line. They are located in the PSCAD/examples/Relay cases. The following cases are detailed: Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: Single Transmission Line Single Transmission Line (Mid-line Fault) Parallel Transmission Line Parallel Transmission Line (Mid-line Fault) Parallel Transmission Line with T-Tap Parallel Line with T-Tap (Mid-line Fault) Transformer HL/LV Connection Transformer HL/LV Connection with tertiary winding Series Parallel Transmission Lines The remaining cases in the PSCAD/Relay examples directory deal with advanced topics. For component description and how to run a case. . which are described in Advanced Topics. Chapter 5. The following sections describe each case in detail.Chapter 3 Case Descriptions CASES INCLUDED There are nine (9) distinct cases included with PSCAD/Relay.

0 [°] 100. X and B data can be utilized. on the left hand side. This frequency dependent transmission line is accurate for all frequencies.9 [ohm] /_ 80. Breaker B1 displays the MW and MVAR flow that passes through the breaker. is located on the transmission line side of breaker B1. At the other end of the transmission line is breaker B2 and Substation 2. 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS Z1 =52. then phasor based (60Hz) line R.9 ohms at 80°. A three-phase breaker.0 [kV]. . B1. there is a three-phase equivalent source. connects Substation 1 to the transmission line. Fault 2. Starting at Substation 1.9 [ohm] /_ 80. For a more detailed description. not only at 60 Hz. The frequency dependent transmission line is accurate. please see the help files associated with each component.0 [kV]. 60. If line geometrical data is not available.1 [MW] 24.0 [°] 100. F1. The line model is developed from dimensional data for the physical construction or geometry of the transmission line.0 [MVA] 230.0 km LINE1 B1 112. Fault 1.0 [Hz] SUBSTATION 2 V Ph Plots V1 V2 B2 Plots Ph V B1 B2 FT1 F1 FT2 F2 FT3 F3 FT4 F4 Subpages are yellow in colour. See Chapter 4 for more details on transmission line modeling. can be applied on Substation 1 bus.319 [MVAR] Z1 =52. F2. The line data includes the type and impedance of the conductor and any ground conductors that may exist. with similar settings to breaker B1 and substation 1.9 ohms at 80° and zero sequence impedance of 52. The A brief description of each PSCAD component in Case 1 is presented. including mutual coupling between phases and zero sequence components.0 [MVA] 230. 60. Double click them to see more! 100 km transmission line is designated as Line 1. represented below. but also at all frequencies between DC and several hundred kHz.4 [MW] -4. This 60 Hz system source has a positive sequence impendence of 52.44 [MVAR] 100.0 [Hz] SUBSTATION 1 -110.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions CASE 1: SINGLE LINE Case 1 is a single transmission line case.

60. or in R+jX form.0 [MVA] 230.Z1 = 52.0 [Hz] SUBSTATION 1 V Ph A substation is located at either end of the transmission line. To edit the parameters. The positive and zero sequence impedance for substation 1 and substation 2 are the same and set at 52.0 [kV]. as shown below: . double click the icon.9 [ohm] /_ 80. PSCAD/Relay will bring up a properties menu. It consists of a Thevenin Impedance three-phase voltage source. Values can be entered either in Z∠ θ .9 ohms and 80°.0 [°] 100.

They are located just before and after the breaker at either end of the transmission line.3. Faults are controlled by dials and sliders.2. There are four Faults in Case 1. such as the positive and zero sequence impedance.44 [MVAR] B1 There are two Breakers in Case 1.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions By clicking the Configuration drop down bar. one at either end of the transmission line. located in the Controls’ subpage.1 [MW] 24. see section 3. Breaker B2 connects the transmission line to the Bus of Substation 2 and displays the MW and . users can change multiple properties. For more information. -110.

MVAR flowing through the breaker. The breaker component will change colour according to the current state of the breaker. Red signifies the breaker is closed and green signifies the breaker is open.

Hint: To return to main page use the BACKSPACE key.

On the main page of the case, there are also two plot subpages, coloured yellow. These pages contain the analog waveforms as recorded at Breaker B1 and Breaker B2. Moving the mouse on top of the icon and double clicking the left mouse button will open the subpage and display the graphs. Placing the mouse over the graph and clicking the right mouse button can access graph controls. A typical plot subpage is shown below with the representative voltages, currents, unbalance current, and breaker digital contact information for Breaker B1.
Hint: Move the mouse over top of the plots and using the right mouse button to display various options, such as modifying the format and display of the graphs.

Chapter 3: Case Descriptions

100.0 km LINE1
The transmission line is shown between both breakers. Double clicking on it will allow you to change any parameters necessary.

For more information, and a detailed description of the Transmission Line model, see Chapter 4.

Hint: Use the Backspace key to return the main page.

The Controls Module contains the user interactive controls designed for this case. Place the mouse over top of the Controls box. A left button double click will display the Controls’ subpage, as shown on the next page.
Playback Recorders Adjust phase angle to obtain the correct power flow. Adjust voltage to obtain the matching PREFAULT CONTR OLS VAR flow at each end.

Start 1 Stop 1


Ph Angle 180 S1W S1Q Voltage 500 V1rms P1 Q1 0 0.15 30 0 0.5 C 42-B1 O

B1 Timing
B1 T1 2 B1 T2 2

-300 0 0

MW -300

300 -100

MVAR -100

100 0 230


kV 220

250 -150

MW -150

150 -30

MVAR -30

Recorder Control
en Record1 en Record2 OFF ON OFF ON 0 0 0.31 0 0.36

Ph Angle 180 S2W S2Q Voltage 500 V2rms P2 Q2 1 1 To turn the Recorders on, 220 0 230 kV 220 250 -150 MW -150 150 -30 MVar -30 30 click on the switch. On = Recorder will record data. Off = Recorder will NOT record data. You can turn on or off each recorder individually. 0 C 42-B1 O

B2 Timing
B2 T1 2 B2 T2 2

-300 -180 20

MW -300

300 -100

MVAR -100


0 0.31

0 0.36

Adjust breaker clearing time (T1) and reclose time (T2) if needed.



Tim ed Breaker Logic Closed@t0


Fault location 2 3

1 3 Dial Position: 1= >FT1:




Fault Type 5 6 7 4 8 3 9 2 10 1 11 4 Dial Position: 1= > A-g 2= > B-g 3= > C-g 4= > AB-g 5= > AC-g 6= > BC-g 7= > ABC-g 8= > AB 9= > AC 10= > BC 11= > No fault (0)

Fault Start 1

Duration 1

Rf 50


Timed Fault Logic



Fault Location, Type, Start & Duration

FType B2 Tim ed Breaker Logic Closed@t0


0 0.2

0 0.12

0.001 0.001

Between Source and B1 2= >FT2: Between Line and B1 3= >FT3: Between Line and B2 4= >FT4: Between Source and B2

Exports to Main Page

The subpage contains controls for the voltage sources, faults, breakers, and recorders. Each control is explained below. Substation Control Panel
Ph Angle 180 S1W S1Q Voltage 500 V1rms P1 Q1

-300 0 0

MW -113.3

300 -100

MVAR 16.75

100 0 230


kV 229.5

250 -150

MW -113.7

150 -30

MVAR 16.75


Hint: To compare PSCAD load flow results with phaser-based load flow results, calculate the PSCAD voltage source behind the impedance.

The MW flow can be adjusted by increasing the phase angle difference between the two substations. Keep Source 1 phase angle at zero and adjust Source 2 phase angle. The

. it may be practical to turn all faults off.psc. Set the Fault Type Dial to No Fault at position 11. MVAR values are adjusted by voltage magnitude at each phase.5 The Recorder Control sliders determine the simulation time to start and stop recording data for future test waveforms. click on the “en Record” switch so that it is in the ON position. The directory name is “casename.” For PSCAD filename “Case1. The Test waveforms will be saved in a directory that is created automatically by PSCAD/Relay.” the recorder data files will be stored in the directory “case1.15 0 0.emt. To enable a recorder. When you are adjusting the load flow values.” Recorders Start 1 Stop 1 0 0. To disable the recorder.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions MW flow is controlled by the difference in phase angle with power flowing from higher to lower angle. The voltage magnitude and phase angle are adjusted as voltage behind the equivalent source impedances. Enter the desired value and press “Enter.” Recorder Control en Record1 en Record2 O FF ON OFF ON 1 1 The Playback recorders will only record if they are enabled. turn the switch to the OFF position. Each recorder works independently.emt. Playback Recorders Hint: The sliders can be adjusted up and down with the arrows keys or a value can be entered from the keyboard by clicking on the digital value.

The breaker recloses at 0.36 seconds. or 0. Therefore a 110 msec detection and operating time is simulated. The duration of the fault is controlled by adjusting the slider for the time the fault is applied (default at 0. . Change the default value property to change the default value of the slider.36 Hint: Changing the slider value is temporary. A trip and reclose time are available for Breaker B1 and Breaker B2. The breaker operations are controlled by the Breaker Controls. The default time trip time is 0. Breakers can be held open manually by using any breaker switch that is included in the Controls’ page. Open PSCAD/Relay if you have not already done so. Steps to Perform a PSCAD Simulation 1.2 sec. Fault Controls Fault controls determine the location and type of fault that is applied.2 seconds). To change the default value.31 seconds.Breaker Controls B2 Timing C 42-B1 O B2 T1 2 B2 T2 2 0 0 0. The fault is applied at 0.2 seconds) and fault duration (approximately twelve 60Hz cycles. right click on the slider and choose Control Properties.31 0 0.

Alternatively. double clicking Case 1 will also open the case. where you will see your simulation results. or the Load Project button. You can run. Double clicking either Plot icon will open the graph subpage. pause or advance the simulation one frame at a time (when paused) using the buttons as shown.psc from the sample cases provided by clicking on the case. Button File | Load Project Load Project 3. 4. Double clicking the case name in the Project Tree will open the circuit diagram.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions 2.. 6. . Select case1. stop. then clicking Open. 5. Click on File | Load Project. Click to start the case. Take a minute to familiarize yourself with the various features.

hvdc. You can view the simulation results in the plots’ subpage. .RUN STOP PAUSE ADVANC E ONE FRAME 7. The default parameters are 50 µ sec (microsecond) time steps and an overall simulation time of 0. the controls’ subpage and the animated graphics in the circuit. For more help. 8. Typical lengths are 0. see Appendix B or the Getting Started manual. The user can adjust the duration of the simulation to any length. PSCAD/Relay will automatically generate all necessary files to perform the simulation.5 seconds. as required.5 seconds to 2 with the minimum being one time step. The case properties dialog specifies “Runtime” settings for the particular case. found on the PSCAD web page at www.

The user should not modify Internal Output Variables. Zero Sequence Impedance and Internal Output Variables. .0 [°] 100. They are Configuration. The following properties. 60. Place the mouse on top of the drawing of the voltage source and double click the left button.9 [ohm] /_ 80. Positive Sequence Impedance. menu will be displayed.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions MODIFICATION OF PARAMETERS Z1 = 52.0 [Hz] Three Phase Voltage Source The equivalent system impedance is defined in the voltage source. V Ph There are four pages in the properties’ menu.0 [kV].0 [MVA] 230.

all the solution parameters are set at zero. Typically. This means the network equations are solved every 50 μsec. Upon the start up of the simulation. In order to allow the solution to stabilize.The Impedance Data Format can be entered in Z∠ θ or R+jX format. the Positive Sequence Impedance and Zero Sequence Impedance must be entered. it is good practice to allow the voltage sources to ramp up at the start of a simulation. For either method. the AC system protection simulation will use a 50 µ sec time step. With a 50 msec (millisecond) time constant. One of the results of this feature is to ensure faults and simulated disturbances occur after the solution has stabilized. stable operation occurs after . The Voltage Input Time Constant provides ramp up time at the start of a simulation. Voltage Input Time Constant: PSCAD/RELAY solves the power system numerically in time steps using numerical integration techniques.

. If R+jX format were used. See Chapter 5. then the Resistance and Reactance would be modifiable (as shown).Chapter 3: Case Descriptions 200 msec of simulation. Similarly. please see the Help files associated with the voltage source. “Starting from a Snapshot” for additional information. the Impedance and Phase angle can be modified (as shown). by clicking on the Help button. For additional information. If Z∠ θ is used as the Impedance Data Format. If R+jX format were used. the Impedance and Phase angle can be modified. for the Zero Sequence Impedance. then the Resistance and Reactance would be modifiable. if Z∠ θ is used as the Impedance Data Format. Advanced Topics.

The T-Line properties box will be displayed. PSCAD/Relay offers several different modeling options for transmission lines. Calculation of the equivalent impedances used by PSCAD/Relay is performed automatically. the transmission line edit program is started.Transmission Line Parameters The transmission line data can adjust to simulate specific situations. By selecting the EDIT button. . An option changes the display to either rectangular or polar coordinates. Each transmission line can be customized based on the information available. The user can modify this property to change line length and steady state frequency. negative and zero sequence impedance and admittance values calculated for the transmission line. there is a display of the positive. The parameters of the transmission line are available by placing the mouse on top of the transmission line (T-line) display and double clicking the left mouse button. On the T-Line Edit page. The T-line EDIT program allows for various geometry and conductor data to be entered for the transmission lines. An example transmission line page is shown on the next page.

Chapter 3: Case Descriptions The transmission line page has all of the components to accurately model a multi conductor transmission circuit. conductor type and configuration. Please see Chapter 4: Transmission Line Models for a complete description of Transmission Lines. selection of model parameter. Note that the Sequence Impedance and Sequence Admittance values are displayed on the page. . Ground plane. These values are calculated based on the transmission line data entered. and basic line info are all displayed.

Fault Type and Fault Current Names. The user does not need to modify Fault Current Names. and is not editable from this properties’ menu. to access the properties. Right click on the Fault component. or double click on the component.Fault Impedance The fault impedance can be specified in the Fault Block properties either as a real fixed number or as a variable name. FT5 F5 There are four menus. . and choose Edit Parameters. The Fault Type is set using the dial Fault Type in the Controls’ subpage. Configuration. Fault Resistances.

Up to 12 analog signals and 16 digitals can be recorded by each Recorder. there is a 6-channel recorder for Station 1. In Case 1. Fault resistances can be defined as a variable. Each recorder collects the . In Case 1. which records the Voltage and Current waveforms that would be applied to a protection relay located at Breaker B1 and a second recorder located at Breaker B2. the fault ON resistance is set as variable “Ron.” and fault OFF resistance is the real variable 1. Hint: The value of the fault resistance is determined by the slider reading at the instant the “fault” is applied. In general. The value of Ron is controlled by Slider Rf on the Controls’ page.0E6 [ohm] (1 Mega ohm). or a real constant. each breaker location is associated with its own recorder.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions Fault Resistances can be set to the user-defined levels in the Fault Resistances properties. Fault Control Recorder Parameters A RTP and COMTRADE Recorder is required to save the AC voltage and current waveforms for real time playback testing. Adjusting the slider after the Fault time will have no effect.

1 Hint: The RECORDER files are automatically overwritten each time the PSCAD/Relay case is run. using an “en Record” switch. V1A A1 V1B A2 V1C A3 I1A A4 I1B A5 I1C A6 No. 10. 2 Analog Inputs v2. In all cases.0 RTP Recorder File: stn1 Format: RTP Comtrade 91 Comtrade 99 Digital Inputs D1 V2A A1 10. The Properties of the recorder can be modified by double clicking the left mouse button on top of the recorder. which a protection relay would see at a particular location. each recorder is enabled and disabled from the Controls’ subpage. If you have waveforms you want to save.0 RTP Recorder File: stn2 Format: RTP Comtrade 91 Comtrade 99 Digital Inputs D1 Fault Each recorder is configured to save as a COMTRADE 99 format waveform file. as shown on the next page.0 Ctrl B A Ctrl = 1 Start End Analog Inputs v2.voltage and current signals.0 Ctrl B A Ctrl = 1 End Start V2B A2 V2C A3 I2A A4 I2B A5 Fault I2C A6 No. either enter a new Output File Name in the Recorder properties or move the existing files to a different directory. . and opening the recorder properties’ page.

called “filename.emt\”: • • • • • • Stn1.dat.cfg) relay testing devices..” For Case 1.dat (from RECORDER 1) Stn2.cfg Stn2.hdr Stn2.cfg Stn1. . *. *.dat (from RECORDER 2) The transient waveform files created by the recorder can be used to provide testing waveforms for RTP (*.hdr Stn1. the following COMTRADE files would reside in the directory “.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions The waveform files are saved in an automatically created directory.pbk) or COMTRADE (*.emt.\case1.hdr.

In order to place a fault along the transmission line.0 [°] 100. See Chapter 4 for more details. see Chapter 4. The impedance of the equivalent source is modified identical to Case 1. the user has to adjust the length of each line section. the two line sections are 50 km each. Fault 5 is 50% down the line.0 km T1 B1 50.0 [MVA] 230.91 [MVAR] 50. The MW and MVAR flow are adjusted by using the interactive sliders controlling Source 1 Voltage and Phase. the minimum line length is 15 km. The line length is defined as the distance electrons can travel in one time step (Assuming 3 X 108 m/sec times 50 µ sec = 15 km).45 [MVAR] Z1 =52.CASE 2: SINGLE LINE (MID-LINE FAULT) Case 2 is a single line case.9 [MW] 14. Section Coupled Line Model Using Load Flow Parameters. with the exception that Fault can be placed anywhere along the transmission line (T-line). using 50 µ sec. Care must be taken to ensure the traveling wave models of transmission line lengths are not less then one time step long.9 [ohm] /_ 80. 60. Change the line length to the desired value.0 [M VA] 230. In this case. and the fault location is at . Pi sections can model shorter transmission lines. 60. and Source 2 Voltage and Phase. For more information on the coupled pi model.0 [°] 100. if the total length of the line is 200 km. 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS Z1 =52.0 [kV]. In this case.0 km T2 V2 FT3 F3 B1 116 [MW] -18. therefore. remembering to ensure line section T1 added to line section T2 equals the total length of the line you wish to simulate.0 [Hz] SUBSTATION 1 -113. The controls are identical to Case 1. right click with the mouse over top of the transmission line and edit the line Properties. Case2_pi is an example of the same case using a coupled pi model instead of the full frequency dependent model. For example.9 [ohm] /_ 80. similar to Case 1.0 [kV].0 [Hz] SUBSTATION 2 V Ph Plots V1 B2 Plot s Ph V B2 FT1 F1 FT2 F2 FT4 F4 FT5 F5 To change line length. ensuring the sum of the two sections equal the total length of the transmission line that is being simulated.

There are four (4) Playback recorders to record voltage and current signals at each of the four breaker locations. control power and VAR flow. If no fault is applied during the simulation. If a line is less than 15 km. .285 [MVAR ] 3 Phase RMS 100.0 [°] 100. CASE 3: PARALLEL TRANSMISSION LINE Case 3. pi section modeling is appropriate. This allows the user to adjust the power flow of the system without -114. sliders that control the voltage magnitude and phase for each source.52 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 2 B2 V Ph -0. Each of the breakers can be opened and closed by breaker timing controls. the breakers will not open and close automatically. consists of two equivalent voltage sources connected together with two parallel transmission lines.03452 [MW] 0.0 [MVA] 230. and T2 should equal 170km. A Fault can be set to occur at one of six locations. 60. Faults can be applied either in front or behind the location for each protection relay.0 [kV].0 [kV].0 [MVA] 230. case3. The breakers will continue to operate manually. T1 should equal 30 km. as well as the type of fault. The user must choose at which fault point the fault is located.0 [°] 100.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions 30 km (15%) from Substation 1. or by a manual operated breaker control.0 km LINE2 V3 FT5 F5 3 Phase RMS Ph 0. as set in the controls’ subpage.0 [Hz] 3 Phase RMS 116. 60.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 km LINE1 FT3 F3 V2 Z1 = 52.psc. Each fault has a variety of fault types associated with it.0 [Hz] FT2 F2 3 Phase RMS 100. Once again. Each line section cannot be smaller then 15 km using full frequency dependent modeling.6 [MW] -18.04279 [MW] -0.7 [MVAR ] SUBSTATION 1 B1 V1 Z1 = 52.04818 [MVAR] V FT1 F1 B3 V4 FT6 F6 B4 FT4 F4 breaker interference. using the dial control.7 [MW] 14.9 [ohm] /_ 80.

Dial Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Fault Type A phase to ground B phase to ground C phase to ground AB phase to ground AC phase to ground BC phase to ground ABC phase to ground AB phase to phase AC phase to phase BC phase to phase No fault Fault Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Fault at Source 1 Bus Fault between Breaker B1 and Line 1 Fault between Line 1 and Breaker B2 Fault at Source 2 Bus Fault between Breaker B3 and Line 2 Fault between Line 2 and Breaker B4 .

Steps Required to Perform Simulation.3 sec. Fault durations are typically between 0.2 sec. Determine Breaker Operation sequence and adjust Breaker Control Timers. The “en Record” switch for both recorders must be in the “ON” position for recording to occur. Ensure the Playback recorders are set to start and stop at the required times. On the Controls’ subpage.050 sec and 0. Run the simulation and check the Voltage levels. • Ensure Sources 1 and 2 are adjusted to the appropriate voltage level and equivalent system impedance. Select Fault Duration. and are outlined below. select No Fault. On the Controls’ subpage. as required. For help. Select Time for Fault to Start. Therefore. please see Case 1. power and VAR flows are appropriate. please refer back to Case 1. The default settings are sufficient for this case.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions Case 3 is considerably more complex than Cases 1 or 2. Position 11. or the help file associated with each component. Ensure the transmission lines have the appropriate data. For help on changing parameters. typically 0. adjust the Fault Type and Fault location. • • • • • • • For example: . the steps to perform the simulation are considerably more complex. Chapter 3. Adjust Sources 1 and 2 Voltage Magnitude and angle. Apply Fault after simulation arrives at Steady State.

B3T1 = 0. Breaker Timer B4 opens at 0.15 0 0.42 sec and B3T2 = 2 sec (2 sec is after simulation is completed) Neither Breaker 1 nor Breaker 2 operates automatically.42 sec and does not reclose. Fault Start Time = 0.55 .20 sec and is permanent (the duration of the fault outlasts the end of the simulation).20 and Fault Duration = 2 (2 sec is after simulation is completed) Operate breaker B3 to open at 0. The following settings would have to be made. B3T1 = 0.32 sec and B3T2 = 2 sec (2 sec is after simulation is completed) Operate breaker B4 to open at 100 msec after B3. B1T1 = 2 sec B1T2 = 2 sec B2T1 = 2 sec B2T2 = 2 sec (2 sec is after simulation is completed) • • • The last issue of concern is the set-up of playback recorders. Fault Location = 5 and Fault Type = 7 • If the fault is applied at 0. and not reclose. perhaps from POTT detection. This feature will record the waveforms for future playback testing on a physical relay.• Assume 3-phase to ground Fault is on Transmission Line 2 in front of Breaker B3. Playback Recorders Recorders Start 1 Stop 1 0 0.32 (120 msec detection and breaker operating time after fault occurs).

1 Start End Analog Inputs v2. Set Recorder Stop time at 0. • • Set Recorder Start to 0. Enter the recorder dialogue by double clicking on the Recorder component. but before fault application.5 sec. Each recorder operates independently.0 RTP Recorder File: stn1 Format: RTP Comtrade 91 Comtrade 99 Digital Inputs D1 Check the Playback recorder set-up from the main page.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions Select the Start and Stop times for the playback recorders. .15 sec. The recorder should have a minimal of three cycles of steady state waveforms prior to fault application. The Recorder can be enabled or disabled from the Controls’ subpage using the “en Record” switch. hence start recording after initialization. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 No.

For more information on the coupled pi model.emt directory. Ensure the recorder filename is appropriate and the type of record. using the State component.emt\. Section Coupled Line Model Using Load Flow . see Chapter 4. and the added ability to record Doble ProTesT .\CASE3.. either RTP or Comtrade format is selected.” Case3_state_pi is an example of Case 3 with coupled pi model representations of the transmission lines.ss1 files for playback on Doble’s test equipment.Hint: Either move or use new filenames as PSCAD/Relay will overwrite existing filenames in the *. The output data files will be created in a PSCAD created directory called “.

Chapter 3: Case Descriptions
Parameters. For more help on the Doble State component, see Chapter 4, Section Doble State Component. There are many other Case 3 variations in the example directory. These will be explained further in Chapter 5, Advanced Topics.

Case 4 is very similar to the parallel line Case 3, except that faults can be located anywhere along the transmission lines. The two transmission lines 1 and 2 are divided up into four (4) sections, T1 through T4. A Line fault can applied at mid line on either Line 1, between line sections T1 and T2 using fault location three (3) or on Line 2, between line sections T3 and T4 using fault location seven (7). The user must ensure that the line sections T1 and T2 add up to the total length of Line 1 and similarly for Line 2. The total length of Line 1 and Line 2 is up to the user.
Plots Plots

B1 B3 52.54 [MW] -10.57 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 1 B1 V1 Z1 =52.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230.0 [kV], 60.0 [Hz] FT2 Fault FT3 Fault 3 Phase RMS 50 km T1 50 km T2 FT4 Fault V2 3 Phase RMS

B2 B4 -51.28 [MW] 8.376 [MVAR ] SUBSTATION 2 B2 Z1 =52.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230.0 [kV], 60.0 [Hz]


Ph 52.54 [MW] -10.57 [MVAR]

3 Phase RMS 50 km T3 50 km T4

3 Phase RMS

Ph -51.28 [MW] 8.376 [MVAR ]


FT1 Fault


V3 FT6 Fault FT7 Fault FT8 Fault



FT5 Fault

Note that the transmission lines are now designated T1 through T4. This indicates pieces of the transmission line that contain movable faults, not the entire line. This naming convention is used throughout the rest of the cases. Case4_pi.psc is identical to Case 4, with the exception of the full frequency dependent models for the transmission lines replaced with coupled pi models. For more information

on the coupled pi model, see Chapter 4, section Coupled Line Model Using Load Flow Parameters.

Case 5 continues to add on features to Case 3. In this case, Line 1 is tapped into two sections with Substation 3 added. A transformer is introduced, as well as an additional distribution breaker, B5, and distribution load. The distribution load is specified in MW and MVAR respectively. The load is modeled as constant impedance; therefore, the MW and MVAR flow will depend on the Bus Voltage.

0.2286 [MW] 0.04266 [MVAR] 50 km LINE4 # 1 # 2 B5

3 P hase RMS

FT8 F8 V5 3 Phase RMS 50 km LINE1 B1 Z1 = 52.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230.0 [kV], 60.0 [Hz] V1 FT2 F2 50 km LINE2 FT3 F3 V2 B2 3 Phase RMS

40.0 [MW]

10.0 [MVAR ]

FT7 F7

-0.1233 [MW] 0.2227 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 1

0.4404 [MW] -0.2651 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 2

Z1 =52.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230.0 [kV], 60.0 [Hz]





FT1 F1 -0.2557 [MW] 0.2106 [MVAR] 3 Phase RMS 100.0 km LINE3 V3 FT5 F5 FT6 F6 V4 3 Phase RMS 0.3089 [MW] -0.2844 [MVAR] FT4 F4



Transformer MVA, voltage ratings, winding configuration and leakage reactance can be changed, along with a suite of other settings. The transformer model can include saturation. The transformer properties are available by right mouse clicking on the transformer component and choosing Edit Properties. The properties’ dialog is shown on the next page.

Chapter 3: Case Descriptions

The transformer is a complex component of the system. For more information, please see the Help file associated with it, by clicking the Help button depicted above.

Case 6 is the same as Case 5, with two additional fault locations. Two line sections, T3 and T4, allowing a midline fault at fault location 6, replace line 3. Line 5 is also split into two sections, T5 and T6, with a midline fault at fault location 9.

07 [MVAR] FT4 F4 B3 B4 B1 B3 B2 B4 If a fault location is not where you would like to apply it. The low side of the transformer is connected to a distribution bus using breaker B2. it is possible to drag and drop an existing fault to a new location. switched by breaker B3. A constant impedance load is located on the distribution bus and is switched by breaker B4. If you do not.0 [MVA] 230.75 [M VAR ] 3 Phase RMS 50.0 [Hz] V Ph Ph V FT1 F1 -33.16 [M VAR ] SUBSTATION 1 B1 Z1 = 52.0 [Hz] 3 Phase RMS 50 km LINE1 V1 FT2 F2 50 km LINE2 FT3 F3 3 Phase RMS 50.0 km T3 V3 FT5 Plots F5 FT6 F6 FT7 F7 Plots 50.17 [MW] 86.68 [MVAR] Fault and signal labels. Ensure you move both the fault and the signal labels. The distribution bus has a second low voltage equivalent source. For help with errors. see Appendix A. .31 [MW] 7.0 [°] 100. Fault 9 can be relocated from the midpoint of the line to either end of the line.56 [MW] -89.88 [MW] -89. SUBSTATION 2 V2 B2 Z1 =52.0 [kV].0 km T4 V4 3 Phase RMS 35. CASE 7: TRANSFORMER HL/LV CONNECTION Case 7 provides a system for testing transformer protection.752 [MVAR] 50 km T5 FT9 F9 50 km T6 # 1 # 2 B5 3 Phase RMS FT9 F9 V5 40.0 [kV]. 60.22 [MW] 85.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [MW] 10.0 [MVAR] FT8 F8 -16. 60.9 [ohm] /_ 80. you will get errors. through breaker B1. For example. The high voltage side of the transformer is connected to an equivalent system source.0 [MVA] 230.0 [°] 100.

9 Tap Changer setting refers to final Turns ratio in Per Unit 1.0 [Hz] Plots Plots tap 50 [MVA] 230.9 0.182 [MVAR] B3 B4 -1.95 tap changer setting results in a 5% reduction in secondary voltage.0 [MVAR] -0.0 [kV] / 25 [kV] # 1 # 2 V2 B1 V Ph V1 FT1 F1 FT2 F2 B2 B3 Ph V Display Tap Position FT3 F3 0.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions The controls for Case 7 have the same general look and feel as for the previous cases.02433 [MVAR] Z1 =52.497 [MW] 1.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] 100.067 [MW] -0.0 [MVA] 230.0 [MVA] 25.9 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [kV].1577 [MVAR] with the magnitude and phase of each equivalent voltage source.1 B4 V3 FT4 F4 20. 60.0 [MW] 5. . A Tap changer is located on the low voltage side of the transformer. 60. Power and VAR flows are adjusted Plots SUBSTATION 1 B1 Z1 =52.0 [Hz] 1.2166 [MW] -0.254 [MVAR] 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS B2 1.05 value means the secondary voltage is increased by 5% while a 0. CASE 8: TRANSFORMER HL/LV WITH TERTIARY WINDING Case 8 is another transformer case.287 [MW] 0. using a 3 winding configuration.0 [°] 100. Fault location 5 has been added to place a fault on this tertiary winding. A 1.0 [kV].

The lines are all modeled with the coupled pi model.0 [kV].05 1. X and B selected as impedance per metre or pi per meter. using line lengths of one (1) metre.574 [MVAR] Display off line tap V3 B4 FT4 F4 20.099 [M W] 1.0 [MVAR] 0. X and B values entered are for the entire line length.0 [MVA] 230. .1103 [MVAR] Z1 =52. By choosing a one-metre line section.0 [kV]/10 [kV]/25 [kV] FT2 F2 B2 B3 Ph V 1.0 [°] 100.00012 [MW] -1.0 [MVA] 25.312 [MVAR] tap # 1 # 2 # 3 6.9 [ohm] /_ 80. the one-metre line is equivalent to the 160 km (approximately 100 mile) line using the full frequency dependent model.0 [Hz] B1 V Ph V1 V2 FT1 F1 25 [MVA] 230. with the addition of transmission lines in series with the parallel lines of Case 3. 60.3487 [MW] -0.0 [Hz] 6. In this case.9 [ohm] /_ 80. the R.0 [°] 100. Coupled pi line sections require data for R. 60.9 1.21 [MW] 2.447 [MW] -1.684 [MVAR] 0.0 FT3 F3 -6.0.35 CASE 9: SERIES PARALLEL TRANSMISSION LINES This case is based on Case 3.336e-015 [MVAR] B5 Plots SUBSTATION 1 B1 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS B2 B3 / 4 FT5 F5 Plots Plots Z1 =52.0 [MW] 5.0 [k V].

69 [MVAR] Line 5 Z1 = 3.95 [ohm] /_ 87.08 [MW] 82.4 [MVAR] -25.0 [Hz] 24.Chapter 3: Case Descriptions Plots Plots SUBSTATION 1 Line 3 Z1 = 17. and not in the Controls’ subpage.4 [MVAR] 3 Phase RMS B1 B3 Line 1 3 Phase RMS -25.05 [MW] 117.69 [°] 100.8 [ohm] /_ 87. 60.69 [MVAR] B3 V3 FT6 Fault 50 [%] 50 [%] FT8 FT7 Fault Line 2 Fault V4 B4 Note the breaker control for breaker 5 is located on the main page.54 [MVAR] 36.63 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230. 60.0 [Hz] B2 B4 SUBSTATION 2 B5 V Ph B1 V1 FT2 Fault 50 [%] 50 [%] FT4 Fault V2 B2 FT3 Fault Ph 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS FT5 Fault V FT1 Fault Line 4 36.05 [MW] 117. .0 [MVA] 230.0 [kV].0 [kV].51 [MW] -65.51 [MW] -65.

At 50 µ sec time step. The calculation time step of the simulation should be less than the propagation time. PSCAD/Relay offers the most accurate time domain transmission line models offered today. A voltage disturbance will travel along a conductor at its propagation velocity (near the speed of light) until it is reflected at the end of the line. particularly for long lines (where propagation travel time spans many time steps). Transmission lines and cables in electric power systems are non-linear in nature due to frequency dependency in conductors (skin effect) and the ground or earth return path. transmission lines modeled with pi lines can be precise. . perhaps slightly distorted. in the time domain. any line less then 15 km should be represented as a pi section.Chapter 4 PSCAD/Relay Components TRANSMISSION LINE MODELING The modeling of transmission lines for transient simulation is an important and complex topic. a transmission line or cable is a delay function. Use of distributed or traveling wave modeling. Use of coupled pi line sections. In a sense. 2. Although for frequency domain studies. precision suffers. There are two main methods for modeling transmission lines for PSCAD simulation in the time domain: 1. but can also accommodate limited models based on the available system data. Pi line sections are most useful for very short transmission lines where the propagation travel time is less than a time step. The distributed transmission line models operate on the principle of traveling waves. Whatever is fed into one end will appear at the other end after some delay.

the line model. Frequency Dependent (Phase) model The example cases implement a Frequency Dependent Phase Model.southwire. 1 This is a valid web site as of August 23. The following box is an example describing which modeling option was selected for this line. double click on the transmission line. The user is required to provide the tower geometry and conductor information. .com/wc/catalog/sec11/11-04. Use the EDIT key to view the transmission line parameter page. These are in order of increasing precision: 1. All of the impedance calculations are performed automatically by the Line Constant program. X and B from stability or load flow models into a Bergeron traveling wave model. Distributed or Traveling Wave Transmission Line There are three distributed transmission lines available in the Tlines and Cables’ pages of the Master Library. Frequency Dependent (Mode) model 3. Bergeron model 2. There are three pieces of information on this page. If data regarding tower configuration is not available.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components There is provision in PSCAD/Relay to model both pi line sections and distributed lines. A library of typical conductor types.pdf1. 2001. Displaying Line Data Calculated by Line Constants In order to display data calculated by Line Constants. line configuration and the sequence information. radius and resistance per km information is provided based on Southwire’s ASCR data. found at www. which is part of PSCAD/Relay. it is suggested to convert the R.

for example “case1. if a different tower configuration is required.Frequency Dependent (Mode) Model Options Travel Time Interpolation: Curve Fitting Starting Frequency: Curve Fitting End Frequency: Maximum Order of Fitting for ZSurge: Maximum Order of Fitting for Prop. Again. ." Next is the line configuration and ground information.” This output file. The display data takes into account the line length. such as Notepad. simply delete the current one and paste a new one from the T-line library.0 [ohm*m] Relative Ground P ermeability: 1.emt” directory that corresponds to the current case. Func. which can be viewed using any ASCII text viewer.0E6 [Hz] 20 20 2 [%] 2 [%] Tlines Master Library T-Lines page icon To change the type of line model simply delete this box and replace it with a different option from the master relay Library "Tlines. “linename. an output file is created in the “.out” provides the data for the sequence display information.5 [Hz] 1. When Line Constants solves the line parameters.: Maximum Fitting Error for ZSurge: Maximum Fitting Error for Prop. This set of data describes the tower configuration and contains the information on conductor and ground wire data.0 Earth Return Formula: Deri-Semlyen The last item on the Tline edit page is the Sequence Information display block.: On 0. Func. G1 10 [m] C1 C2 5 [m] G2 10 [m] C3 10 [m] 30 [m] Tower: 3H5 Conductors: chukar Ground_Wires: 1/ 2"HighStrengthSteel 0 [m] Ground Resistivity: 100.emt.

8645 50.000327118 0.000232266 Line Constants are solved either by running the case.732 Sequence Admittance (mhos) G POS NE G ZER O 1e-005 1e-005 1e-005 B 0. or right click on the T-line Parameters’ page.62518 36.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components Sequence Impedance(ohms) X R POS NEG ZERO 3. as shown below.8645 132. and select “Solve Constants” option. This coupled pi is located in the Main Library and not in the T- .62518 3.000327118 0.3595 50. Coupled Line Model Using Load Flow Parameters PSCAD/Relay offers a coupled pi section line model.

The length of the line. 3. then two or more pi sections should be cascaded in series. This is dependent upon: 1. A 50 µ sec calculation time step (∆ t) is adequate. The calculation time step DELT or ∆ t. The coupled Pi line model uses data readily available from the Load Flow Parameters. then one pi section is adequate to represent the line. Converting Line Data Often network data is only available in load flow program format. In transient studies with pi sections. and B = per unit Susceptance. At the speed of light. it is important to consider whether one or several sections should represent a line. If the length of the transmission line is less than 15 km when ∆ t = 50 µ sec. . where R = per unit Resistance. This line model should be used when distances of less than 15 (at a 50 µ s time step) kilometres are to be simulated. The frequency of response required from the simulation model. The line is represented by the parameters R. If the line is longer than the 15 km. A transmission line is represented with positive sequence parameters in per unit (usually on 100 MVA base).Lines or Cables library pages. 2. X = per unit Reactance. X and B. a wave may travel 15 km over 50 µ sec. Typical transient studies for AC relay protection should represent frequencies up to 2000 Hz.

which can be found in the master library. single line diagram or three phase view. The parameters are available by double clicking on the component. The middle connection location is determined by the percentage entered in the Distance to middle connection parameter.9 metres from the left hand side of the transmission line.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components The load flow line model data can be transferred into the coupled pi section component. The minimum distance to the middle connection is 5% and the maximum is 95%. To use the component. and is set within the model’s main parameters. simply delete the full frequency dependent model and replace it with the coupled pi model. For example. the middle connection would be located 0. assume a length of 1.0 meter for each line section. The single line diagram view is shown below. if you had a 3-metre line and you entered a distance of 30%. The steps to do this are as follows: Decide how many coupled pi sections are to be cascaded for the line to be modeled. 50 [%] 50 [%] A middle connection is optional. The distance is taken from the left. There are two views available. If the line length is not available. .

. which is the reciprocal of reactance. B (per unit). Note that susceptance is entered in Mmhos*m. R. B is susceptance. Xl. Xl.Data entry is in two formats. B (ohms) and R. as shown below.

the results will not be identical to the frequency dependent model.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components No other changes are necessary to use the coupled pi model in place of the full frequency dependent model. instead of using the tower and conductor geometry component described above. so that its positive sequence impedance is the same as its negative sequence impedance. The coupled pi model uses transformers to represent transmission lines of short length. therefore. However. these results will be more accurate for a sub 15 km line than the frequency dependent model’s results would be for such a short line. . The coupled pi section component is for a balanced 3-phase line. which is similar to being continually transposed. Manual Entry of Data for Bergeron Model There is an option to insert data manually for the Bergeron Model Options.

A “best fit” distributed line model is desirable over using coupled pi sections. If the ground component is already located there. without any details of the tower and conductor geometry. Z” component from the Tlines page in the Master Library to the TlineInfo subpage of the transmission line being added to the simulation model under construction.The line data available is in positive sequence load flow format R+jX. then delete it.0 Earth Return Formula: Deri-Semlyen . copy the “Manual Entry of Y. Tower Component: G1 10 [m] C1 C2 5 [m] G2 10 [m] C3 10 [m] 30 [m] Tower: 3H5 Conductors: chukar Ground_Wires: 1/2"HighStrengthSteel 0 [m] Ground Component: Ground Resistivity: 100.0 [ohm*m] Relative Ground Permeability: 1. (B) in per unit. To enter data manually for the Bergeron Model. Do not copy and transfer the tower and conductor geometry component or the ground component to the TlineInfo subpage.

007036E-06 [p. Positive Sequence Resistance = R/(0. the long line correction factor should be applied in converting the per unit line data for manual entry into a Bergeron line model. the factors included are to compensate for effects of long. greater than 100 km lines. Table of Contents and select Tlines and Cables./m] Positive Sequence Capacitive Reactance* = 1.” At the end of this chapter. In this example./m] = 0.” . “Distributed Line and Cable Models.u.*m] = 0.976*222070) [p. there is a link to the PSCAD web site for more information on transmission line modeling theory.07 km transmission line in its load flow/stability data format in per unit on 100 MVA base: R + jX (B) = 0.*m] Note: Charging capacitance is entered into the Bergeron manual data page in terms of per unit capacitive reactance (1/B)./m] = 0.09486E6 [p.u.034 (2. not the more familiar per unit admittance. 222.1551E-06 [p./m] Positive Sequence Inductive Reactance = X/(0. This will bring up a topic about “Building a Transmission Line Model.u.355) If the line length is known.u.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components Consider the 500 kV.001525 + j0. Additional information on Transmission Line modeling can be found in PSCAD/Relay Help by using the Help key. the lack of frequency dependency in the model will result in less damped transients at higher frequencies. The line data with the long line correction removed enables parameters to be determined in terms of 1-metre sections for the Bergeron line model.u.006*222070/B [p. and it exceeds 100 km. The correction factors for long line effects can be enabled in the Bergeron line model or can be applied to the data conversion.987*22070)[p.u. Although the Bergeron line model provides a good impedance match at steady state frequency.

clb. For example. This conductor data can be inserted into the t-line component directly or it can be read in from a conductor data file. the transmission tower geometry and conductor data is required. the following steps are required: 1. as shown below. such as Microsoft’s Notepad. On it. A data file. Conductor radius in meters and DC resistance in ohms per kilometre is required. 4.clb. Click on the Edit button. This will bring up the Transmission Line page. Open up conductor.clb from the examples/Relay_Cases directory. The user can add additional conductors to this conductor library file by editing the file using any ASCII text editor such as Notepad. 2. you will find .clb” file. Be sure to use spaces. “conductor. the user does not have to remember the precise numbers for a particular conductor type. Data can be entered anywhere within the “conductor. PSCAD/Relay is case sensitive. so capital letters are different than lowercase. not tabs to separate the data.Conductor Database When using a traveling wave transmission line model. Using different pre-configured tower geometries from the transmission line library can modify transmission tower geometry.” is supplied with PSCAD-Relay and contains many of the common ACSR conductor types. Double click on the T-Line you which to change in your case. By specifying the name of the conductor and the location of the data file. using an ASCII text editor. Save conductor. Enter in your conductor type. 3. to add and use a new conductor type named “polly” in any example case.

Double click on the T-line component to bring up the properties. Note it is shown as using "chukar." G1 10 [m] C1 C2 5 [m] G2 10 [m] C3 10 [m] 30 [m] Tower: 3H5 Conductors: chukar Ground_Wires: 1/2"HighStrengthSteel 0 [m] 5. as shown below.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components the T-Line component. as shown below. .

.6. From the drop down menu. select Circuit 1 Conductor Data.

This tells PSCAD to use the conductor.clb file to find the conductor geometry.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components 7. click on From Library. . Under Data Entry Method for Conductors.

the conductor library file is entered as “.” as shown below.psc case. Name.The path for the file can be absolute or relational. .\conductor. it is “polly. the pathname remains the same.. In the \examples\Relay_Cases examples provided with PSCAD_Relay.clb. 8. Unless you wish to use a file in an alternate location. For our example. Enter in the correct name in Circuit 1 Cond.” This means the file is located in the same directory as the PSCAD_Relay *.

Notice the Sequence Impedance box.000290216 .000455103 0. right click on the T-Line page and select Solve Constants.3557 37. To test and make sure that PSCAD/Relay is using the new geometry. Note the conductor component also changes to reflect the new conductor type. Sequence Impedance (ohms) X R POS NEG ZERO 12.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components 9.000455103 0.5169 12. Click OK. The values should change to reflect the new geometry.3557 119.5169 45.223 Sequence Admittance (mhos) G POS NEG ZERO 1e-005 1e-005 1e-005 B 0. or simply run the case. 10.2512 37.

Fill out the form. choose Custom from the Conductor Data menu and enter in the appropriate Conductor Radius and Conductor DC Resistance.html 2. which are free to users of PSCAD. without having to modify the conductor. follow these steps: 1. In step seven (7). Additional T-line References An introduction to PSCAD V3 is provided free of charge from the Centre’s web site. . This web site requires a user name and file. For more ndex. To obtain a username and password.G1 10 [m] C1 C2 5 [m] G2 10 [m] C3 10 [m] 30 [m] Tower: 3H5 Conductors: polly Ground_Wires: 1/2"HighStrengthSteel 0 [m] Values can also be added manually. Click on Register Online. search for “Transmission Line” in the Help files. or visit the PSCAD/Relay web site at www. Log on to http://www. 3. The Name you enter will be your user name.hvdc.

Simulation of transformers requires an understanding of some of their basic properties involving both core and winding configuration. Click on Submit. Winding capacitance is important when fast front studies are to be performed and magnetic effects can usually be ex.pdf (3. Either click on the go to downloads link at the bottom of the password page.3 MB). 5. The transformer models are in the Transformers Library Group in the Master Library of PSCAD. TRANSFORMERS # 2 # 1 # 3 Three phase component of a transformer model. Write down your user name and password. The effects of winding capacitance are generally minimal and need not be modeled providing the frequencies of interest are less than about 2000 Hz and switching transients are of interest. or go to: http://www. This is complicated by the fact that the core of the transformer is prone to saturation leading to the phenomena of inrush current.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components 4. remanence. the main emphasis is on the magnetic properties of transformers. and other useful information. The form will be submitted and a user name and password will be generated. In this section. for access to the site. geomagnetic current effects and ferroresonance. . Chapter 5 deals specifically with Transmission Lines.hvdc.html Look for AN INTRODUCTION TO PSCAD/EMTDC V3 MANUAL: pscad-intro-v1-4.

TRANSFORMER MODELS The models require that there is leakage reactance.0.001 to 0. This is the unsaturated magnetizing current of the transformer at rated volts and at no load. Consequently. adding a delta winding approximates this effect.01 per unit) should solve satisfactorily if such a low value is needed. then the effect is to have zero sequence impedance similar in value to the positive sequence impedance. Usually. In the general transformer model. but it may become numerically unstable. Enter the same value for each winding in percent on the base of the winding rated voltage and transformer MVA rating. yoke and tank causing zero sequence impedance to be quite low. When saturation is included in the model (see below). the magnetizing current is merged into the saturation effects. Core Configuration The positive and zero sequence leakage impedances of three-phase transformers are dependent upon both core configuration and winding configuration. This is because if the transformer is subjected to zero sequence voltages. the zero sequence flux passes through air. unsaturated magnetizing current at rated volts is less than 1% for most power (10 MVA or greater) transformers. and so the concept of an ideal transformer without leakage reactance is not possible in PSCAD. For many studies. If the leakage reactance is set to 0. If the core is threelimb. Magnetizing current is a setting entered into each Winding Property Sheet of the transformer components. low values of leakage reactance (0. Actual winding resistance must be added as an external resistance as PSCAD does not request it in the transformer components. the transformer model may actually run. . the effect of winding resistance is negligible. due to the double precision calculations of EMTDC. there is no core path for zero sequence flux to flow. Fortunately.

Ungrounded Windings Sometimes a transformer has an ungrounded winding without any load connected to it. A compensating neutral reactance XN is mathematically added at the star point to ground.s. VH = Rated line-to-line r. The value of the resistor should be selected to be larger than the fundamental frequency value of XN by one or two orders of magnitude. it should be noted that the transformer neutral point is removed from the actual ground to a node connected only to inductances. but a resistor in parallel with the Neutral reactor can be added if any problems are detected.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components Some-three phase transformers have their zero sequence impedance larger than their positive sequence impedance. When the case is run. If a neutral reactor is incorporated in this way for modeling expediency. then the zero sequence reactance XO of the transformer from its star winding is: XO = XH-L + 3*XN From which. This is because the winding has no way to keep itself from accumulating voltage and it will drift away until the problem manifests itself in some way . Its value is: LN = XN * MVA / (w * VH2) Where: XN = Neutral reactance in per unit on the transformer base MVA and the star winding voltage rating.m. MVA= Transformer base MVA rating. w= System frequency in radians per second. If the positive sequence leakage reactance is XH-L. a warning message may appear or the case may stop with numerical instability. XN = [ XO – XH-L ]/3 The neutral reactance is patched into the network model as an inductance. volts of the star winding. The chatter removal feature of PSCAD should eliminate numerical instability.

then any observed inrush current will fade within one or two seconds.1% of the MVA rating of the winding. Delta windings on three phase transformers are often at risk in this way. the HV winding is usually closest to the core. then balanced winding terminal voltages should result. The rate of decay of inrush current is controlled by losses internal and external to the transformer and it may be easier to set the rate by this . Although it is simply entered into the Saturation Properties Sheet. In a HVDC converter transformer. and to the air core reactance line at the high current end. The saturation characteristic is a continuous asymptotic function converging to the vertical flux axis at the low current end. such as 1. This allows control of the rate at which inrush current decays. Autotransformers Autotransformers are modeled as coupled windings and not necessarily physically connected in the unique configuration where the LV winding is in series with the HV winding. it is a reasonable entry method since the true saturation characteristic of a transformer is rarely known with any degree of precision. The solution is to simply ground one terminal of the winding through a very large resistance. Saturation The General Transformer model represents saturation by a current source placed across a selected winding. This is often the lowest voltage winding or the tertiary winding if there is one. A suitable value would add shunt losses to about 0.compromising the precision of the simulation. but if applied on all three windings. The Saturation Property Sheet includes the Inrush decay time constant parameter.0 seconds. If it is short. As long as the leakage reactances between terminals are correct and winding configuration (Y or •∆ ) is the same. If it is a three-phase winding. The winding wound closest to the core is the winding usually selected as it is closest to where the magnetic effects are occurring. apply such a resistor on at least one phase. then mathematically the models are identical.

and inrush will continue as dictated solely by the network. If 0. the flux is inhibited or clipped and can’t pass into saturation.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components method than in trying to change losses in the model.0 seconds is entered. Time to release flux clipping is also an important parameter to consider. PSCAD Playback Recorder Any data signal available in PSCAD can be recorded and saved as a playback data file. The Real Time Playback or RTP system developed by the Centre is a powerful open loop real time playback system designed to take full advantage of PSCAD. More information on the RTP system can be found at: http://www. the clipping is removed and the flux may migrate into saturation if network conditions so dictate.hvdc. The recorder allows the user to configure the START and END times for the playback record. If the Inrush decay time constant is set to 0. . sustained inrush currents may inhibit an effective steady state condition for the snapshot.0 seconds. as well as define the analog and digital signals for future playback. This effect is lessened if AC voltages are ramped up slowly over many cycles. then no rate of decay is applied. This has the effect of centring the flux. This feature allows the network to initialize with the transformers being in saturation.html. When a case is starting up initially. The Recorder has options to record in either COMTRADE or RTP formats. then for calculation TIME less than the value entered here. This chapter describes the procedure for using PSCAD to prepare a data file for playback. After TIME has exceeded Time to release flux then during start-up. PSCAD RECORDER MODEL Any waveform that is generated by PSCAD V3 can be converted into an analog signal and used for testing real equipment.

for example “case3. For example. RTP or COMTRADE 91 formats are allowed. 12 digital and 4 analog signals can be recorded at once. The total PSCAD simulation time is set to 0. Notice that the recorder in our sample cases has a start time of 0. Output File Location When a case is run. simple PT or CT ratios can be programmed. including any . The digital outputs are derived from PSCAD logic.” This directory contains all the temporary files created by PSCAD/Relay. inside the recorder properties.500. The recorder or RTP file is named "stn1" and the COMTRADE 99 file format is selected. can be used in PSCAD simulations to accurately model the effect these devices will have on the waveforms that would be seen by the protection relay. as well. Alternatively. available in the protection library.15).15 seconds and stop time of 0. Models of PT or CT. There is a maximum of 28 signals that can be recorded.V1A A1 V1B A2 V1C A3 I1A A4 I1B A5 I1C A6 Start End Analog Inputs v2. 1 D1 Fault The recorder is limited to 12 analog and 16 digital signals.50 seconds and the recorder data file length will be 0.35 sec or 350 msec (0. Optionally.2 sec.0 RTP Recorder File: stn1 Format: RTP Comtrade 91 Comtrade 99 Digital Inputs No. The recorder is set to recorder #0.emt. Multiple recorders in the same PSCAD case are allowed. simulation time. PSCAD will automatically create a subdirectory with the case name appended by . The CT/PT ratios are transferred to the RTP program to assist the user in tracking the signal levels during real time testing. This time refers to the time of the PSCAD simulation. The faults are programmed to occur at 0.50 seconds.emt.

Chapter 5. Both the open and closed resistances can be specified.” will also be created in this sub directory. “stn1. a multiple run component is used. the file *. or -107. in this case. The RTP recorder file.03 [M VAR] BREAKER COMPONENT PSCAD/Relay breaker component models the switching behaviour of an AC system RTP can also play COMTRADE waveforms and RTP generated STATE waveforms. Multiple site end-to-end testing can be performed using GPS synchronization. The PSCAD recorder name is automatically truncated to the first eight (8) characters and then appended with the run number.hvdc. An example of multiple run is found as Case3_multiple_run.Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components output files. RTP Playback Program RTP is a full function versatile waveform playback system. For a complete description of RTP. This breaker can be displayed graphically in several formats.2 [MW] In addition to the ability to play PSCAD waveforms. and display calculated MW and MVAR at the location of the breaker. allow B1 .pbk. The breaker can be specified to open only at current zero.pbk will be overwritten. Multiple Run Capability with Recorder PSCAD/Relay allows multiple playback files to be created using the multiple run component of PSCAD. In order to perform repeated cases where parameters are varied from run to run. See Advanced Topics. email rtp@hvdc. If the case is repeated and the name in the recorder is not changed. 14. section Multiple Run Component for more information.

The times are set within the component itself. for use in Doble’s ProTesT software. and can be programmed to include pre-insertion resistors. The .emt directory associated with the case.for single phase control. the fault time and the post-fault fault time. It will save three “snapshots” of the data at the prefault time. These . perform a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the data.ss1 files are located in the emt directory created at runtime by PSCAD/Relay. The component will convert the transient time domain solution result into the phasor components (magnitude and angle) that can be used by the Doble ProTesT state testing software and hardware. . DOBLE STATE COMPONENT The Doble state component captures voltage and current from the running case.ss1 format. The component can be found in the main library in the Meters’ subpage.ss1 files are located in the . then output it in Doble .

as shown below. . Voltage and Current are three dimension connections. as shown below. I1A I1B I1C I1 Double clicking on the state component will bring up the component properties menu. They require a data merge. FStart FDur V I doble ProTesT Inputs to the component include the Fault Start time (FStart).Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components and are centered on the Fault Start time. which is set within the Controls’ page. the Fault Duration (FDur). Voltage (V) and Current (I). to include all three phases.

will automatically record zeros in the post-fault fault data section of the . PSCAD will automatically modify the file names to ensure they do not over-write each other. The pre-fault. If all zeros are entered.ss1 and PSCAD is set to run four runs using the multiple run component.From here. Post-fault Fault Data Zero.ss1. The second menu available is the Advanced Settings. if set to Yes.ss1 suffix). and there is no maximum value. out100003. PT & CT ratios can be entered to convert primary values into secondary levels. the user can change the output file name (leaving the . This is where the time to record values is set. if a value is entered which is past the end of the simulation run.ss1 and out100004. regardless of the actual measured values. fault and post-fault fault cycles can be changed. However. Primary values can be used input to the STATE component. the output file names will become out100001.ss1 file.ss1.ss1. if the output file name is out1. PSCAD/Relay normally calculates primary values. For example. out100002. the output file will contain . The minimum value allowed is zero. the data will contain all zeros. If there is a multiple run component in the case. The cycles indicate to the Doble ProTesT software how many cycles the values should be used.

the . prefault and fault. Once the case is run. .Chapter 4: PSCAD/Relay Components two sections. with identical data.ss1 files will be located in the . These files are ready for import into Doble’s ProTesT software with no changes required. The data in the post-fault-fault section does not occur until after the fault duration time.emt directory created.

Case3_seq.8 0 0.1 0 0.2 sec according to the StartTime in this case.014 The Fault is applied at 0. Next. or waiting for events (such as a zero crossing. PSCAD/Relay waits for Source 1 voltage (V1a) to cross zero in the positive direction. The phase angle. causes PSCAD/Relay to wait a certain amount of time before .2 1 0 22.psc presents a modification of Case 3 to include a Sequencer control of the breakers.). Sequence Control StartTime 1 Seq. opening/closing of breakers.. the same dials as for Case 3 control the Fault location and Fault type. A sequence can be merged with other sequences.1 Prot Delay 0.032 0 0. E nable Off Enab FaultAngle 360 Prot Time 0.Chapter 5 Advanced Topics SEQUENCER These components can be used to set up complex sequences to control the application of faults. as shown below. for example. In this case.. Some examples are shown in the PSCAD/Relay Master Relay Library in the Sequencer subpage.0 from -ve to + ve S Wait For FDelay (Sec) S Apply Fault Fault S ProtTime Wait For S Open Breaker B3 S ProtDelay Wait For S Open Breaker B4 StartTime (Sec) ProtTime (Sec) ProtDelay (Sec) by coloring the finished section in gray. The sequencer controls the time the fault is applied. The sequences visually indicate their progress during a run StartTime S Start Sequence S Close Breaker B3 S Close Breaker B4 S * Wait Until S Wait For V1a to Cross 0. or a single sequence can branch off into many sequences. determined by the FaultAngle slider.

Prot Delay represents the communication delay between the two ends of the line. please see the help files. This allows for testing the effect of faults occurring at different angles. Next. Breaker B4 opens after delay defined by slider Prot Delay. breaker B3 is opened after a delay defined by slider Prot Time. This case allows the breakers to be controlled via the breaker timers or the sequencer using Continuous System Model Function (CSMF) control logic shown below. B3seq A Timed Breaker Logic Closed@t0 B Ctrl Seq_enable B3 Ctrl = 1 Seq_enable Ctrl Timed Breaker Logic Closed@t0 B A B4seq Ctrl = 1 B4 For more information on the PSCAD/Relay sequencer component. .Chapter 5: Advanced Topics application of the fault. Prot Time represents the breaker operating time.

4 I3a Ch. as described in Chapter 5. . section Sequencer. 3 Multiple Run V1c Ch. 90°. Example case “case3_multiple_run. . 5 I3B Ch. FAngle1 V2 V1B FaultType Ch. as shown below. V1 . 1 Ch.MULTIPLE RUN COMPONENT The Multiple Run component provides the user the capability of changing any variable within PSCAD/Relay and automatically repeating the PSCAD/Relay simulation. 270° and 360°. 2 Meas-Enab . Multiple Run works in conjunction with the Playback Recorder to automatically prepare a series of files for real time playback. 180°. 6 I3c In the Controls' subpage of the Case 3 multiple run example. The Multiple Run example has two output control variables and six input control variables. FAngle1 is a sequential real variable that changes from 0 to 360 degrees in 90° steps.psc” illustrates how the multiple component could be utilized by building onto the sequencer case. the Multiple Run component is found. Note that the Multiple Run example case also includes a sequence. 1 V1a Ch. The first output control variable. Notice that the Fangle1 variable is used in the Sequencer Control logic to determine the point on wave the fault will be applied. which corresponds to the five values 0°. on the right hand side is labeled as FAngle1.

FaultType is defined inside the component as an integer list containing a set of three integer values. 4 is an AB to ground fault and 7 is an ABC to ground fault.0 N/D D N N/D D FDelay 60. 1. PSCAD/Relay will set the fault type automatically with the FaultType variable. . as shown on the next page. One (1) represents an A phase to ground fault.0 FREQ The second output control variable is FaultType. FAngle1 and FaultType can be set within the component by double clicking on the component to bring up the Properties’ page.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics S Wait For FDelay (Sec) N FAngle1 360. FaultType replaces the need to set the fault using the Fault Type dial. 4 and 7.

or Fault Angle (FAngle1). it corresponds to the Integer Variable 2 Config settings in the drop down menu. corresponds to a list of faults to run. In this example case. according to the equation (Number of FAngles) * (Number of Fault Types) = Number of Runs. Multiple Run causes PSCAD/Relay to perform the simulation a set number of times. it corresponds to the Real Variable 1 Config settings in the drop down menu. . according to the number of variables used in the simulation. Since it is a list of integer values (no decimal values allowed). there are only two variables used. or Fault type (FaultType). or 5 * 3 = 15. V2. corresponds to the degree for the fault angle. Since it is a real variable (which means it can have decimal values).V1. therefore PSCAD/Relay will run 15 times.

315° and 360°. FAngle1 can be changed to include any number of angles between 0° and 360°. as shown below. 270°. These numbers correspond to angles of 90°. For example. This is accomplished by double clicking on the Multiple Run Component and selecting Real Variable 1 Config. if you wanted to start at 90° and end at 360° with 45° steps.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics To change the number of simulations run. the numbers would be entered as shown below. . 135°. 225°. The number of FAngle1 now changes to 7. Using the same number of faults (3). means PSCAD/Relay will run 21 simulations. 180°. Change the Start of Range for Variable 1. Increment for Each Run and End of Range for Variable 1 to correspond to the fault angles you wish to use. either FAngle1 or FaultType need to be changed.

Change Number of Runs for Variable 2 to the number of different faults you desire.FaultType can be changed to include all faults. . as shown below. Remember. up to 10. or any number of different faults by double clicking on the Multiple Run Component and selecting Integer Variable 2 Config. After changing the number of runs. Hint: Fault types are described in a sticky note in the controls subpage under the Fault Type Dial. Enter in the numbers that correspond to the faults you wish to run. click on the data locations found in the middle of the Properties. these numbers correspond to the fault types.

and fault types 1. On the left hand side of the Multiple Run icon. Using our example numbers. This will correspond to PSCAD/Relay running 35 separate simulations automatically. Both the 3phase Voltage and Breaker B3 currents are recorded for analysis. the number of faults has changed to five (5). as shown on the next page. and the number of angles has changed to seven (7). 2. using the Fault Location Dial. as shown below. 4. 6. section Case 2: Single Line (Mid-line Fault) for a table of dial positions and their fault types. Multiple Run will collect and store its output data into a file. Choose Recording Data Config to modify the output data filename. six inputs are analyzed during the multiple PSCAD/Relay runs. and 3 will be implemented. See Chapter 3. The file name is also defined as a parameter within the component itself. between Breaker B3 and Line 2. . the number of different faults has been changed to 5.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics For example. This is set the same way as previous cases were. The fault location for the example is chosen as location FT5.

This data file is called Data. In our example.out and is located in the automatically generated directory called “case3_multiple_run. .out.” A file reference to this location can be added on the PSCAD/Relay page. the file reference is shown as a Data.emt.

0771683 186.3635727… 188.000000000 12 90. Looking at the file “Data.4698011 V1B… 185.8472801 188.6665013… 187.9178670 216.0000000 14 270.” one can observe that 15 PSCAD/Relay runs were performed.dat” file is the Recorder file for Substation 1 with a zero (0) fault angle and A phase to ground fault.207203967 V1A 186. with Fault angle at 360 degrees and an ABC ground fault.8890433315… 185.57425510 -1.0000000 6 0.00000000 13 180.out the results of the multiple runs.30723315 165.0771683 186.7465098 2.000000000 1. One of the topics in this PSCAD/Relay Help system is Multiple Run.8472801 V1B… 188.0000000 11 0.6665013… 185.3012163 186.0000000 The optimum occurred for run # Run # Fault Angle 16 360.000000000 2 90.000000000 Mean: 180.0771683 221.207203967 98% Level: 450. The “Stn115.0000000 4 270.3635727… 186.0000000 15 360.4884497 186.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics By double clicking on Data.7336097… 5 and has been repeated for the last run below: Fault type V1A V1B… 1 186. This summary file provides a definition or index for the playback data files created by the recorder.0000000 10 360.8472801 186.000000000 7 90. The “Stn101. will appear in a PSCAD/Relay text area.0000000 5 360.4884497 221.8472801 186.3635727… 186.00000000 3 180.0000000 4.0000000 7.4884497 186.out.5158854… 186.7300902… 186.00000000 8 180.5473005… 186.4884497 186.9454437… Note that opening up Data.0000000 9 270.dat” file corresponds to multiple run #15. Another .6815173… 186.6961404 186.2937001… 188.3635727… 187.535462764 2% Level: -90. as shown below.6961404 191.9218238… 188.7300902… 188. in ASCII text.0000000 Fault type 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 7 V1A 186.000000000 Maximum: 360.000000000 Std Dev: 131.7300902… 187. Multiple Run Output File Run # Fault Angle 1 0.0771683 221.1195719… 0.1938340 12. Additional information regarding Multiple Run can be found by Clicking on the PSCAD/Relay Help menu on the main menu bar and select Table of Contents.8472801 186.7300902… 187.out while the PSCAD/Relay case is running will not show complete data.6665013… Statistical Summary Based on 15 Runs: ----------------------------------------Fault Angle Fault type Minimum: 0.5742551 9.3522885… 186. The values of Fault Angle and Fault Type are defined for each run as well as the maximum value of voltage and current.9218238… 186.4884497 186.8472801 186.

This switch. which result in erroneous data for the fault type. MR Enable. 2. allows the user to choose between the multiple run component and the fault type dial.method to retrieve help on this or any component is to open the component and click on the help button. a switch is located on the controls page. multiple run and fault type controls. it only controls where the fault location decision is made. 4 and 5. Note there are three states. These states are to be avoided. MR Enable MREnable OFF ON Fault Type B FaultType1 1 Ctrl FType A Ctrl = 1 Below is a table of possible combinations of sequencer. Note that this switch does not control the multiple run component. MR Enabl e Switc h 1 2 3 4 Off On Off On Sequenc er Enable Multiple Run Componen t Off Off Off Off Fault Locatio n Dial Resulting Fault Type Off Off On On 10 10 8 7 10 = dial (correct) 0=? (Incorrect) 8 = dial (correct) 0=? (Incorrect) . Since the fault type can be controlled by the Multiple Run component or the dial.

Chapter 5: Advanced Topics 6 = dial (correct. dial is off) 1= multiple run control (correct) 5 Off Off On 6 6 On On On 5 .

One of the options of PSCAD/Relay is to begin the solutions from a known operating point. the snapshot is taken at 0. However. For example.3 sec. This is done is order to prevent oscillations and numerical instability of the solutions. even though the slider indicates it occurs at 0. because 0. Select Properties and the following dialogue will open.psc. .2 sec.2 seconds have elapsed. right click on a blank section of any page in the case or go the Project Tree and right click on the Case name.” To get to the Properties Dialogue for each case. Where is this feature useful? Inside PSCAD/Relay.1 sec. the systems being modeled are relatively small and the cases arrive at steady state operation by 0. there may be advantage to starting from a snapshot and reduce the overall simulation time required. and you set the fault to occur at 0. not from time zero.3 sec. instead of all the internal variables set to zero. The simulation then can be started. but from the snapshot time.STARTING FROM A SNAPSHOT PSCAD/Relay starts all simulations by ramping the voltage sources over a time constant. the graph will indicate the fault occurs at 0. if a multiple run case was solving 100 cases. A snapshot data file can be taken at anytime during the simulation. When the case is run from snapshot. but the time values used for control include the simulation time from zero. The graphs will be relabelled to start at zero. How do you use a Snapshot? Look at “case3_snap. Hint: Keep track of the snapshot time.2 seconds of simulation.

emt directory. Compare the above waveform to a non-snapshot start. Above is an example of a case that started from a snapshot. while stating it starts at zero (0).” The snapshot file will be created in the *. go back to the properties and select the Start Up Method as “from Snapshot file. Choose the snapshot file Case3.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics To run the case from the snapshot you created. the graph displays the steady state waveform. As you can see. illustrated below. .snp and now the case will run from the snapshot data.

or logical one. you cannot use a snapshot generated in a different case. as the output data would not be compatible. PSCAD/Relay allows the user to design and control breakers by using models of protection relays. you will find two new page blocks named “Line Protection Stn 1” and “Line Protection Stn 2.psc are examples of how this can be implemented. Breaker B1 will open whenever the signal named B1 is high. . Case1_Prot.psc and Case3_Prot. This protection now can determine the state of breaker B1 and B2. the breakers are controlled either manually with a selector switch or controlled by fixed timers. Double clicking “Line Protection Stn 1” reveals the implemented protection.” This page contains the protection controls implemented for Substation 1 and Substation 2. On the main page of Case1_Prot.Line Protection Stn 1 The snapshot method can be used in any case. PROTECTION TO OPERATE A BREAKER In the Case Templates. however.

05 V I 1 1 V I TRIP OP B1testa Control 3 1 B Delay 2 2 V I TRIP OP B1testb 3 3 V I TRIP OP B1testc The protection is a phase comparator block.1 0 0.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics TIME 0. There is the possibility in other versions of PSCAD for the user to design their own protection blocks using Fortran.” double clicking on the “Line Protection Stn 1” page block will reveal B1opT. in “case1_prot. one per phase.1 A B Comparator Controls B1opT 0. there is a feature to inhibit protection during the start-up of simulation. and an enable block to select between this protection and the breaker control timers.1 B1opT 0 0. which is included to simulate the operating time of the breaker. . there is a slider used to simulate operating time of the breaker. Controls B1opT 0.05 For example.psc. set at 67Ω (ohms) and 80° (degrees). C or Matlab. In each protection block. but PSCAD/Relay provides the opportunity for the user to design and implement protection using standard library components. The details of the protection are not particularly important. Within the protection.

42 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 In this example.42 msec. Breaker B3 in the general Case 3 example has been modified to allow single phase Flt_en2 Timed Breaker Logic Closed@t0 B3A Timed Breaker Logic Closed@t0 B3B Timed Breaker Logic Closed@t0 B3C B3 Timing C 42-B3 O B3AT1 2 B3AT2 2 B3BT1 2 B3BT2 2 B3CT1 2 B3CT2 2 0 0 0. based on the timer control.35 msec and then recloses at 0.hvdc. Only the A phase on Breaker B3 opens at 0.psc is an example case where independent single breaker control is illustrated. The breaker component now requires control signals or on the web at www. . the fault is an A phase to ground fault applied at fault location 5. The breaker component allows independent pole switching. instead of the single signal B3 that previously controlled all three phases. contact the Centre at pscad@hvdc. The control logic with additional sliders is shown below.For more information. the breakers generally have controlled all three phases.35 0 0. B3B and B3C to control each phase. SINGLE PHASE BREAKER OPERATION In the example cases. Case3_single_PoleB3.

0 km L1_2 V Ph -0. By comparing simulations of faults. with and without mutually coupled transmission lines. the transmission lines are modeled as a six conductor transmission line.9 [ohm] /_ 80. influence from adjacent lines will be demonstrated. both from coupled and non-coupled simulations.emt directory.0 [Hz] 3 Phase RMS 100. MUTUAL COUPLED TRANSMISSION LINES Example Case3_Mutual.9 [ohm] /_ 80.05028 [MVAR] V FT1 F1 B3 V3 FT5 F5 FT6 F6 V4 B4 FT4 F4 The relay protection will see the results of current and voltage on the transmission lines.0 [kV]. if one phase of the breaker is open.04062 [MW] 0.0 [kV].0474 [MW] -0.0 [°] 100. . it will show green while the remainder stays red. Therefore.63 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 2 B1 V1 FT2 F2 FT3 F3 B2 V2 Z1 = 52. INTERFACE WITH DOBLE PROTEST PROGRAM The example case case3_state contains a state component used to create .66 [MVAR ] SUBSTATION 1 3 Phase RMS 3 Phase RMS 118. the resulting . When the PSCAD/Relay simulation is complete.5 [MW] -19.psc illustrates two parallel transmission lines that are physically on the same tower. The purpose of this component is to generate a data file defining pre. 60.2957 [MVAR ] Ph 0. 60.0 [MVA] 230.ss1 files that can easily be imported into Doble’s ProTesT software.0 [°] 100.0 [MVA] 230. This modeling will simulate the coupled effects on the healthy line when a fault occurs on the other 3-phase circuit on the same tower.ss1 files will be located in the . post and fault states to be directly imported into the Doble ProTesT software. In this case.6 [MW] 14.0 [Hz] 3 Phase RMS Z1 = 52. -116.Chapter 5: Advanced Topics The breaker component on the main page animates according to the breaker.

8 [ohm] /_ 87.005515 [MW] 0. Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories for more information. A Bergeron model is used to input the data into the PSCAD/Relay case. SPECIAL EXAMPLE BASED ON SEL 321 RELAY MANUAL Case3_SEL.95 [ohm] /_ 87. Chapter 5. 60.3 [MW] 14.02128 [MW] -0. 60.0 [Hz] V Ph 0.2 [MW] 86 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 2 FT4 Fault V2 B2 Z1 =3.0 [MVA] 230.05 [MVAR] SUBSTATION 1 B1 Z1 =17.ss1 V2s I2 I doble ProTesT out2.0 [MVA] 230.psc is a special case based on the SEL 321 Relay Manual.1912 [MVAR] 3 Phase RMS 80. .0 [k V].0 [kV].456 km T3 V3 FT6 Fault FT7 Fault FT8 Fault 80. 290.ss1 FStart FDur V Fdur FStart FDur V3s I3 I doble ProTesT FStart V out3.69 [°] 100.456 km T1 V1 FT2 Fault FT3 Fault 80.Fdur FStart FStart FDur V Fdur FStart FDur V1s I1 Fdur FStart I doble ProTesT FStart V out1. using data from the example cases located in Chapter 5.456 km T2 3 Phase RMS -276.456 km T4 V4 3 Phase RMS -0.0 [Hz] 3 Phase RMS 80. which uses the coupled pi model to implement the transmission lines.ss1 This example case is also done in case3_state_pi.63 [°] 100.02051 [MVAR] Ph V FT1 Fault B3 B4 FT5 Fault See SEL-321-2 Instruction Manual.ss1 V4s I4 I doble ProTesT out4.

To start it. If you do not see it in the list. 2. To see if it installed correctly. the computer’s name is Joan. If the Status is blank. click on the Start button. Search through the services until you see “HVDC License Manager. Go to Start | Settings | Control Panel and double click on the Services Icon. the License Manager is installed as a service. in the same window. skip to step 3: No service installed. The following dialog window will appear. .Appendix A: Troubleshooting Install Appe Troubleshooting Ins STARTING THE LICENSE MANAGER SERVICE WINDOWS NT: If you are running Windows NT. perform the following steps: 1.” as shown below. and if the service is running. it needs to be started. In this example. shown below. as shown above.

. A MS-DOS based program will now run. and it has the dongle attached to it. If the HVDC License Manager is not installed on this machine. as shown below. It will not continue if the NT Service is already installed. To do this.If the service start attempt is successful. Click on Install Windows NT Service. you must install the service manually. 3. go to Start | Programs | HVDC Lmgr. the Status will change to Started. PSCAD/Relay should run successfully now. as shown below.

ini file. If PSCAD/Relay generates the following error when you attempt to open the help files. open up Options | Edit PSCAD. . in which you can see there is no html viewer (i. Internet Explorer or Netscape) specified. it is because it cannot find an html viewer to open them. as shown below. It will bring up the following window. To check this.Appendix A: Troubleshooting Install HELP FILES WON’T OPEN* *This section is only relevant to the html style of help files.e.

Simply moving the F2 connector will solve this problem. enter in the path to Internet Explorer or Netscape. . a component may be disconnected from the circuit. A picture of this is shown below. MESSAGE TREE ERRORS For example. followed by the accompanying message tree errors. contact your system administrator.To fix the error. An example is shown below. This will solve the problem. If you do not know where these programs are installed. and you will be able to open the help files.

Edit. TITLE BAR AND MENU BAR . The buttons below it are called menu buttons and the collection is called a tool bar or menu bar. as well as a general how to.Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay Appe Using PSCAD/Re This appendix is a quick guide to useful features in PSCAD/Relay. The list of items on the top of the window: File. double click on the PSCAD icon on your desktop or use the Start menu on PC Windows. This will open the main window of PSCAD shown below. STARTING PSCAD PSCAD/Relay Icon To start PSCAD. etc. are called the main menu items. The look and feel of your PSCAD main window might be slightly different depending on your operating system.

To select an item from this list. . the menu buttons are one step processes. frequently used operations have button equivalents. Menu Bar and Menu Items The area under the title bar consisting of menu items and menu buttons is called the main menu bar. the master library is the active project. first move the cursor onto that item (the item is highlighted) and then click the left mouse button. Menu Buttons The pictures on the menu bar are called menu buttons. For this reason. which means that when you point the cursor to one of these menu items and click the left mouse button. you will probably use the keyboard equivalents that are faster and even more convenient than the menu buttons. All main menu items are drop down menus. After you become familiar with the program. The active project name changes depending on your current active project. They initiate actions as soon as you click on them and hence are easier to use. The following menu shows how to load a project using the File menu from the main menu bar.Title Bar and Active Project The top most part of the window that displays PSCAD V4 – Active project name is called the PSCAD title bar. While menu items are two-stage processes. you will see a list appearing below it. When you start PSCAD.

Project Manager gives you an overall view of all the libraries and cases loaded. click on the View menu and select Messages to bring it up. With this type selected. Both Message Tree and Project Tree behave very similarly to the Explorer (file manager) on your Windows operating system.psc extension and directories. If it is not visible. go to the main menu bar. In PSCAD/Relay.‘ All the status.psl ’Master Library. click on File menu located at the top left corner of PSCAD window and select Load Project… or click on the menu button containing the picture of the open folder (yellow). You can use it to select components and perform many activities. which is also called the Project Manager. We will discuss efficient use of these tree views later as we start creating and running cases. You will see the dialog pop up on your screen. If it is not visible. By keep this window open and visible. use the up one level icon. Inside. Below the Project Tree. We will discuss many of these functions later in this manual. have . the general examples’ directory. you should see another window entitled Message Tree. you should see a smaller window entitled Project Tree. The file extension stands for pscad case. To navigate to The Up One Level button. Load More Project importantly. the Load a Case automatically takes you to the PSCAD/Relay Example cases’ directory. warning and error messages are logged in this window .psl extension. this exercise will help us to ensure that PSCAD V3 library files PSCAD/Relay is installed correctly. . click on View and select Project. the selected file type is PSCAD V3 Case at the bottom of the dialog Load Project. This will bring up the Project Manager. you will see its first message: master. To load an existing case. you will see only PSCAD Version 3 case files that have .Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay PROJECT TREE AND MESSAGE TREE If you look at the top left-hand corner of the PSCAD main window shown earlier. LOADING A CASE PROJECT We will first simulate an example case that has already been created to appreciate the power of PSCAD/Relay.

. you will not have these files. Double-click on the title to open and view the circuit. Click on the vdiv_1.This will take you out of the Relay_Examples directory. and into the main example directory.psc] Single Phase Voltage Divider.psc file and then click on the Open button to load this tutorial project in PSCAD. The Project Tree will now have a second project entitled vdiv_1 [. Navigate to the Tutorial directory inside your PSCAD installation directory. If you did not choose to install the PSCAD example cases. If you want to install them. follow the instructions in Chapter 2.

This voltage is measured using a voltmeter Vmid connected to the node between the source and the load. the current flowing through the circuit. RUNNING A SIMULATION Before we run the simulation. which is at the top left corner of the page that you just opened. 70. Close this dialog by clicking on the Cancel button at the bottom of the dialog. Since the magnitude of the source resistance (1Ω ) and the load resistance are the same. The current in the circuit should be Esource/(Rsource+Rload). PSCAD will and Run Compile go through several stages of processing the circuit before starting the EMTDC simulation. The plot and graphs will contain the values of the voltage at the mid-point of the circuit.Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay What you see here is the assembled voltage divider circuit. The plots are to its right. The circuit consists of a single-phase resistive voltage source connected to a restive load. Double-click on the source component Compiler installed before to view its data. To run a case. If you look at the bottom left corner of the PSCAD window. This is a percentage of the total length of the simulation. To the right of it you will also see the current . the voltage at the load terminal is half that of the voltage behind the source resistance. This button is the one with a green triangle on it. we will do a simple calculation to find out what load current and mid-point voltage we You must have a Fortran should be expecting. Note that the source voltage magnitude is you can run a case. simply click on the RUN button located at the right side on the top menu bar. Watch the graphs as the simulation progresses. This will stop the blinking of the selected component. you will see a message "xx% complete" where xx changes from 0 to 100. we know that the mid-point voltage should be 50 kV peak and the load current should be 50 kA peak. For a 100 kV source voltage. Now let us run the simulation and actually verify the current and voltage waveforms. Click anywhere in the empty space to de-select the selected component.71 kV rms or 100 kV peak. You will see a message window pop up on the screen and display messages related to various stages of the process. Once you press this button.

" Your plot should look like this: Make sure that your simulation produces the same result as shown here. At the end of the run. you will see the message "EMTDC run completed. This tutorial case is set up to run for 0. PRINTING To print the circuit along with the graph you just simulated. . It will go through all three stages. This is because PSCAD optimizes on these stages and performs them only if required.simulation time which changes with the simulation. as they pass by very quickly. Click on the RUN button to see the run once again. however. This is one step towards ensuring that your PSCAD/Relay is installed correctly. you will not be able to notice the first two stages. click the right mouse button on the background of the circuit page and select the Print item.2 seconds.

The content of this dialog is dependent on the printer driver installed on your computer and most likely be different from the one shown below.Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay This will bring up the Print dialog. .

click on the Stop button to return to the circuit and start printing once again. Do not click on the close button located at the top right corner of the print preview window! That will close PSCAD. legal. Your previous printer settings are remembered. Print Stop PSCAD/RELAY GRAPHICAL INTERFACE FEATURES The following describes some of the features and operations that are available in the PSCAD/Relay Graphic User Interface. If you are not happy with the preview. Colour: grey scale. The best way to learn more about what these options can do for you is to try them out. . Scaling: If the printer driver is capable of scaling. Number of copies: usually the default is one. portrait or rotated. Paper orientation: landscape. Before printing. you can scale the printer output to fit one page or span across multiple pages. and will hide your circuit. The Print Preview occupies the entire PSCAD window to maximize the display area for preview. which is probably not what you want. etc.Most PRINT dialogs have a Properties button or tab to select required properties. PSCAD provides you a preview of what you are about to print in relation to the selected paper size and orientation. Click on the Print icon (see margin) on the menu bar to print the circuit. it is certainly possible and desirable to edit. While the intention is for the user to use the prebuilt cases. The common properties that are relevant in printing PSCAD circuits are: • • • • • Paper size: letter: A4. black and white. Click the OK button on the Print dialog to see the preview or Cancel button to exit from the print mode. and colour.

Scrolling Use the scroll bars on the right and bottom side of the window to scroll through the page instead. or the arrow keys in the extended keyboard. MS Write. You can also use the centre wheel feature on your mouse. for example. A page-style scrolling can be achieved by holding the Ctrl key down.Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay change and save cases to meet the specific system requirements. Then. Creating Plots and Graphs Plots. Printing Component Parameters Right click on the component and select View ⇒ Parameters from the pop up menu. click on the Help menu on the PSCAD menu bar and select Keyboard Shortcuts item from the drop down menu. A faster way to plot a signal is to click the right button on PGB plot component and select . if the mouse has one. right click on the title bar of the plot. Printing Circuits and Plots To print a single page. Edit the text as required and print. Options in the print dialog allow resizing of the printed page or printing to multiple pages. Copy and paste this text in your favourite editor. currently called ”Untitled“ and select Help from the pop up menu for further details. All the parameters will be listed in a text window. Keyboard Shortcuts For a complete list of Version 3 keyboard shortcuts. Graphs and Curves can be added manually by right clicking on the background of the page where you want to place the plot and selecting Add ⇒ Plot from the pop up menu. pressing the left mouse button on the page and then dragging the mouse. right click on the background of the page and select Print. You can also select one or more components or graphs and print the selected items.

currently called ”CPanel“ and select Help from the pop up menu for further details. . You must extract an element and connect the element to a PGB. Click on the Help button on the Case Properties dialog for further details. See online help on wire component for details with illustrations. switch. right click on the page and use Add menu. if the signal X is an array of 3. Switch. and dial are always located inside a special component called Control Panel. To create a new wire. push button. you can use the right button Add ⇒ Wire. right click on the title bar of the panel. Creating Slider. See Help on these components for details. Right click on the background of the page where you want to place the interfaces and select Add ⇒ Control Panel from the pop up menu. and Dial Interfaces Run time interfaces for slider. then you can name the data label X(3) to transfer all array elements. To create these components.Input/Output Reference ⇒ Create new plot with signal. or copy the wire component from the main page in the master library. for example. Button. You will need to do this if you are using the FFT component. Connecting Wires A connection is made whenever wires make contact with the end of another wire or at the input/output connection of a component. For example. Using Arrays You can create an array by using a datamerge component and extract an element out of an array by using a datatap component. Then. Changing Simulation Time Step and Run Duration Right click on the case name in the project tree and select Properties… from the pop up menu. Note: You cannot connect an array to a plot channel (PGB) component. A data label can be used to transfer an array signal to another part of the page. See the FFT case in the PSCAD/tutorial directory for an illustration.

To move the selected components to a new location on the page. Each Tline and Cable should have a corresponding Info component. Editing Component Parameters Double click on the component or use the Edit Parameters… menu on the component. Left click on the page background to deselect the entire selection. i. copy. Simply click the left mouse button on the page and drag the mouse to enclose the components in the selection box. Right click on one of the flashing components and choose any of the items from the pop up menu. Selected components will start flashing. Use one of the pages in your case to lay the plots out the way you like.e. For further details. This menu includes cut and copy items. THD and Curve Calculation Plots are very versatile. Grouping Components Temporary groups are called a selection. paste.. Undo Undo works on all cut.Appendix B: Using PSCAD/Relay MultiPlot Features: FFT. Now you can include or exclude individual components from the selection by clicking on them with the SHIFT key pressed. PSCAD supports only time plots. and parameter changes. . thus allowing multiple undo operations to be performed. Tlines and Cables Tline and Cable constants’ programs are launched by special info components placed on the circuit. Currently. left click on one of the flashing components and drag the mouse. The keyboard shortcut for undo is to press Ctrl and “z” simultaneously. All changes are stored sequentially. the horizontal axis is always TIME. see Tlines and Cables item under Help on the main menu bar.

emf files. Changing Page Size and Layout Right click on the page and select Special ⇒ Page Layout… from the pop up menu. you can edit the image to resize. Whenever there is an error message. the tree opens up to show the message with a beep. recolor or change text. or by clicking the right mouse button. Once the objects have been pasted. warning and diagnostic messages are logged in a special window called Message Tree. Finding Components To find a certain text string within a case or a library. You can then paste the selection into any Windows program that will accept . All objects are retained as vector objects (not bitmaps). select View ⇒ Messages from the top menu bar. so you can also resize the selection. If this window is not already open. Viewing Error and Warning Messages Error.wmf or . Resize this window and place it in a convenient location. Messages from EMTDC are also logged in this tree. Find Button .Windows Meta File Export Export any PSCAD page or selection to a Windows Meta File (Clipboard) using the Edit | Export function in the PSCAD Menu Bar. make the case or library active and then click on the button marked with a pair of binoculars.

R3J 3W1 Contact your local PSCAD/Relay supplier first for fast and efficient Anonymous ftp: ftp. Manitoba Canada.hvdc. To make the best use of our technical support facilities. you should have a maintenance contract arranged through your local PSCAD/Relay supplier. fax or World Wide Web: Address: www.hvdc.hvdc. .ca Manitoba HVDC Research Centre 244 Cree Cres. If you do not have their contact address from the time you purchased PSCAD/ or by contacting the Centre. We can be reached at: • • • • • • Phone: Fax: Email: +1-204-989-1240 +1-204-453-5074 pscad@hvdc. you can get it from the PSCAD web site at http://www. MAINTENANCE CONTRACT A maintenance contract provides the following support and upgrades. Winnipeg. Please contact us for details. • Fast technical support via phone.Appendix C: Technical Support Appe Technical Supp HOW TO CONTACT US The Manitoba HVDC Research Centre and its representatives are committed to providing you with the best technical support.

how to start the Centre. • • EMTDC USERS’ GROUP The EMTDC Users’ Group is an informal forum of EMTDC users worldwide. coordinated at the University of Manitoba. All users are encouraged to submit their e-mail addresses to be included in the list server by sending an e-mail request to emtdcug@ee. or the PSCAD web page to find out if your region has a users’ group and.” . web site and e-mail list server. Membership to EMTDC User’s Group To become a member of the list server you should be an EMTDC user. An account on our web site that you can use to download the latest patches. tutorials. There are other regional user groups as well.• Free upgrade of software for bug fixes and minor releases. Please contact the EMTDC Users’ Group. online help and manuals. The Users’ Group maintains an anonymous ftp-site.umanitoba. see the online help page on “How to Contact Us. if not. A subscription to PSCAD News – a technical publication by the Centre on PSCAD/Relay related products. Membership is FREE! For further details.

97 Doble.......................85 Dongle......69 Grouping components.33 Core configuration..121 Contact us.30.....21 Graph..30 Ferroresonance.... 66 Creating a snapshot.............................79 Make-f error....................................120 Leakage reactance..............................47 Multiple run..21 Error and warning messages ............27 Changing simulation time step and run duration...................12 Number of runs....5.........49 Fault type dial..................................................................clb....71 Conductor..................................113 Mid-line fault.12 K L Keyboard shortcuts.........123 Fortran.....................124 Continuous system model function (CSMF)....123 F Magnetizing current...............................................out...122 Enter license key.............122 Geomagnetic current effects ............ 59.................................... 84 G C Cases included...90 Control module.....31 Ground component.........................92 Faults............91 MultiPlot features............84 Page size and layout................122 Finding components................... 54...................35 Breakers..121 Conductor database........113 B FFT.........11...............................78 Installation....... switch................................113 Menu buttons........... 24 Bergeron model............49 Fault impedance.....................7 M E Editing component parameters............35 Fault description...................110 I Inrush current...........................71 Connecting wires.............................................47.123 ....................78 Get license info........................101 Creating plots and graphs 120 Creating slider.62 Lmgr-hvdc database file...................114 Localhost.............43 Fault type............... 26 D Data...............78 N Netscape........13 Licensing.........62 Breaker controls.122 Fault controls...............................14 Load a case........24 Menu bar.93 O P Output file..........9 Internet explorer.........................................................................................4 HTML viewer...122 H Hardware lock...........................6 Line constants.............. button and dial interfaces .....................................7 Hardware requirement.............................................Index In A Active project.................................79 License manager install....................121 Curve calculation..............79 Coupled Pi Model Component ...................

...........89 Phase comparator block......................37 T-Tap.......................121 W Winding capacitance.........38 Transformer............................23 Register online.7 Using arrays...............................23 Runtime settings........33 T R Reboot.....................50 Steps to perform PSCAD simulation...........120 Sequence information................................................................35 Subpages.............44........................78....34 Plot..123 ..............................104 Pi line sections....55 TCP/IP.. 70 Phase angle...........32 Transmission line modeling61 U S Saturation......................................38 Multiple run.....................Parallel transmission line. ..78 Run button...........................58 Testing transformer protection..................................78 Windows meta file export.....105 Snapshot.....................................120 Printing component parameters...........................116 Running a case.....117 Printing circuits and plots.......114 Project tree...........7 Single phase breaker operation.....................14 Playback recorders............................................. 64 Ping.....................30 Substation control panel........................................... 82 Three phase voltage source.....114 Protection relays.............63 Sequencer.............122 Uninstall......57 THD....48 Parameters........................77 Remanence...........31 Print..61..........6 Tertiary winding fault.................................55 Transmission line..............85 Steps required to perform simulation......................103 Serial port..............................................................................................................41.......120 Project manager.............122 Three phase voltage source ..............89 Sequencer control logic.................64 Starting PSCAD.................112 State Component...............91 Recorder..... 81 Scrolling...............................29 Title bar.26 USB...... ........................................91 Undo........112 Tower component...........69 Transmission line.......101 Solve constants......