TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

The six trigonometric functions: opp y hyp r 1 = = = sin θ = csc θ = hyp r opp y sin θ Sum and product formulas: sin a cos b = 1 [sin (a + b ) + sin (a − b )] 2
cos a sin b

cos θ =

adj x = hyp r opp y sin θ tan θ = = = adj x cos θ

=1 [sin (a + b ) − sin (a − b )] 2
1 [cos (a 2 1 [cos (a 2

sec θ =

hyp r 1 = = adj x cos θ

cos a cos b = sin a sin b =

+ b ) + cos (a − b )] − b ) − cos (a + b )]

cot θ =

adj x 1 = = opp y tan θ

b a−b sin a + sin b = 2 sin( a + 2 ) cos( 2 ) b a−b sin a − sin b = 2 cos( a + 2 ) sin( 2 )

Sum or difference of two angles: sin (a ± b ) = sin a cos b ± cos a sin b cos(a ± b ) = cos a cos b m sin a sin b tan a ± tan b tan( a ± b) = 1 m tan a tan b Double angle formulas:
sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ cos 2θ = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ

b a −b cos a + cos b = 2 cos( a + 2 ) cos( 2 )

b a −b cos a − cos b = −2 sin( a + 2 ) sin( 2 )
2 2 2 Law of cosines: a = b + c − 2bc cos A where A is the angle of a scalene triangle opposite side a. π Radian measure: 8.1 p420 1° = radians 180 180° 1 radian = π

2 tan θ tan 2θ = 1 − tan 2 θ cos 2θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 cos 2θ = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ

Pythagorean Identities: tan θ + 1 = sec θ
2 2

sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 cot 2 θ + 1 = csc 2 θ

Half angle formulas: 1 1 cos2 θ = (1 + cos 2θ) sin 2 θ = (1 − cos 2θ ) 2 2 θ 1 − cos θ θ 1 + cos θ sin = ± cos = ± 2 2 2 2 θ 1 − cos θ sin θ 1 − cos θ tan = ± = = 2 1 + cos θ 1 + cos θ sin θ

Reduction formulas: sin( −θ) = − sin θ

cos( −θ) = cos θ

sin(θ) = − sin(θ − π)
tan( −θ) = − tan θ

cos(θ) = − cos(θ − π)
tan(θ) = tan(θ − π )

m sin x = cos( x ± )
π 2

± cos x = sin( x ± π ) 2
e ± jθ = cos θ ± j sin θ sin θ = j12 ( e jθ − e − jθ )

Complex Numbers:
jθ cos θ = 1 + e − jθ ) 2 (e

TRIGONOMETRIC VALUES FOR COMMON ANGLES

Degrees
0° 30° 45° 60° 90° 120° 135° 150° 180° 210° 225° 240° 270° 300° 315° 330° 360°

0 π/6 π/4 π/3 π/2 2π/3 3π/4 5π/6 π 7π/6 5π/4 4π/3 3π/2 5π/3 7π/4 11π/6 2π

sin θ
0 1/2

cos θ
1

tan θ
0 3/3 1
3

cot θ
Undefined 3 1
3/3 0

sec θ
1 2 3/3 2 2 Undefined -2 - 2 -2 3 / 3 -1 -2 3 / 3 - 2 -2 Undefined 2
2

csc θ
Undefined 2 2 2 3/3 1 2 3/3 2 2 Undefined -2 - 2 -2 3 / 3 -1 -2 3 / 3 - 2 -2 Undefined

2 /2 3/2
1

3/2 2 /2
1/2 0 -1/2 - 2 /2 - 3/2 -1 - 3/2 - 2 /2 -1/2 0 1/2

3/2 2 /2
1/2 0 -1/2 - 2 /2 - 3/2 -1 - 3/2 - 2 /2 -1/2 0

Undefined - 3 -1 - 3/3 0 3/3 1

- 3/3 -1 - 3 Undefined
3

1
3/3

3
Undefined - 3 -1 - 3/3 0

0 - 3 -1 - 3 Undefined

2 /2 3/2
1

2 3/3 1

Tom Penick

tomzap@eden.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

2/20/2000

cosine.Expansions for sine. tangent.com www.com/notes 2/20/2000 .teicontrols. cotangent: y3 y5 y 7 sin y = y − + − + L 6 5! 7! y2 y4 y6 cos y = 1 − + − + L 2 4! 6! y3 2 y5 tan y = y + + +L 3 15 1 y y3 2 y5 cot y = − − − −L y 3 45 945 Hyperbolic functions: sinh y = 1 y e − e− y 2 1 cosh y = e y + e − y 2 ( ) ) sinh jy = jsin y cosh jy = jcos y tanh jy = j tan y ( Expansions for hyperbolic functions: y3 sinh y = y + +L 6 y2 cosh y = 1 + +L 2 y2 5y 4 sech y = 1 − + −L 2 24 1 y y3 ctnh y = + − +L y 3 45 1 y 7 y3 csch y = − + −L y 6 360 y3 2 y5 tanh y = y − + −L 3 15 Tom Penick tomzap@eden.