Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Concrete Bridges………………………………………….

1

1.1 Introduction……………………………………………..

1

1.2 SELECTION OF A BRIDGE…………………………...

1

1.3 DESIGN DIFFERENCE…………………………………

1

Deck of-Bridge………………………………………..

2

Deck Bridge…………………………………………...

2

Through Bridge……………………………………….

2

1.4 PARTS OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE…………………....

3

Approach Road………………………………………..

3

Bridge deck…………………………………………….

3

Stringers………………………………………………..

3

Floors Beams ………………………………………….

3

Wearing surface……………………………………….

3

Diaphragm……………………………………………..

3

Piers…………………………………………………….

4

Cession………………………………………………….

4

Piles……………………………………………………..

4

Pile cap………………………………………………….

4

Transom………………………………………………...

4

Scour depth……………………………………………..

4

1.5 Bridge Bearing……………………………………………

5

1.6 Type of Concrete Bridges…………………………………

5

1.6.1 BASED ON THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL……

6

8 Suspension Bridge…………………………………… 9 Box Girder Bridges…………………………………... 7 Rigid Frames Bridges………………………………. 6 Pre-Stressed pre-cast Girder Bridge………………. 15 2.6.. 12 Concrete stress control……………………………….1. 6 1..1 Pre-stressing……………………………………………… 11 2. 6 Truss Bridges……………………………………….2 Advantages of prestressed concrete………………….. 15 Pre-tensioned………………………………………….6.7 BASED ON POSITION………………………………… 10 Chapter 2 Prestressed Concrete……………………………………… 11 2. 6 Slab Bridges…………………………………………...2 BASED ON SPAN LENGTH…………………………... 15 2.4 Limitations of Prestressing……………………………. 9 1.4 BASED ON SPAN TYPE……………………………… 10 1. 15 .. 10 1..6..2 Effects of prestressing…………………………………. 13 Prestressed concrete as variation reinforced……… 14 2.6 BASED ON USAGE…………………………………….6.5 BASED ON LOAD TYPE……………………………… 10 1.3 BASED ON STRUCTURAL FORMS……………….. 12 Equivalent loads……………………………………. 7 Arch Bridge………………………………………….. 8 Cable Stayed Bridges……………………………….6 Methods of presstressing………………………………. 14 2..5 Sources of prestress force…………………………….6.6.

21 3. 17 Instantaneous losses………………………………… 18 Time dependent losses………………………………. 18 STRESSES AT STAGE-2…………………………… 20 STRESSES AT STAGE-3 ………………………….3 Prestress Forces………………………………………… 22 Jacking force (Pj)…………………………………….2 ACI PERMISSIBLE CONCRETE STRESSES……… 22 Class U Members……………………………………... 22 Class T Members…………………………………….9 Prestress Loss Prediction Methods……………………. 20 Prestressing Material……………………………………..Bonded post-tensioned……………………………… 16 Unbonded post-tensioned…………………………… 16 Advantages of Post Tensioning Concrete………… 17 2. 22 3. 22 Initial prestress force (Pi)…………………………… 22 Effective prestress force (Pe)………………………. 17 2. 18 2.. 23 3...4 Prestressing steel………………………………………..8 Loss of prestress……………………………………….10 Stresses on Different Stages…………………………...... 18 STRESSES AT STAGE-1 ………………………….1 Concrete for prestressed construction……………….5 Maximum Permissible Prestressing Steel Stresses……. 18 2. 23 3. 22 Class C Members……………………………………. 24 Chapter 3 ...7 Stages of Loading ……………………………………. 21 3. 22 Effectiveness ratio (R)……………………………….

30 4.6 DIFFERENCE B/W BEHAVIORS OF PRESTRESSED AND ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETES…… 25 3..5 AASHTO STANDARD ………………………………….2 Classical Force Method of Analysis…………………… 27 4..7 TENDON PROFILES………………………………….3.8 DESIGN LANE LOAD………………………………….1 Classical Deformations Method of Analysis………….. 25 Chapter 4 Loading OF Highways……………………………………... 27 Skew Angle……………………………………………. 27 4.. 27 Deck…………………………………………………… 27 End Zone……………………………………………… 27 Equivalent Strip……………………………………… 27 Foot Print…………………………………………….9 Predestrian Loads………………………………………. 28 4. 27 Tandem………………………………………………. 26 4.10 Pakistan code of practice for highway bridge loading… 30 .3 TRAFFIC LOADINGS………………………………….4 DESIGN LANE…………………………………………..6 DESIGN TRUCK………………………………………… 28 4. 27 4. 29 4. 27 Force Effect…………………………………………… 27 Frame Action………………………………………….7 DESIGN TANDEM……………………………………… 29 4. 28 4.

32 5. 33 Design of Prestressed Girder………………………….2 LATERAL DISTRIBUTION FACTORS FOR INTERIOR GIRDER……………………………………… 32 5.. 33 .3 LATERAL DISTRIBUTION FACTORS FOR EXTERIOR GIRDER…………………………………….1 CONDITIONS FOR APPROXIMATE METHOD TO BE APPLICABLE …………………………………… 32 5..Chapter 5 Proximate Analysis of Girder…………………………….