Static Pushover Analysis

Performance Based Design
Modeling for Pushover Analysis
Use of the Pushover Curve

M. Iqbal Suharwardy
Computers and Structures, Inc.

Static Pushover Analysis for Seismic Design
March 22, 1999


Performance Check of Structures
 Purpose

How will a structure perform when subjected to
a given level of earthquake?

– Definition of structural performance
– Definition of earthquake level
– Determination of performance level


Performance Check of Structures

 Process
Recently released guidelines for Seismic
Rehabilitation of Buildings:
– ATC-40
– FEMA 273 (ATC-33)


Types of Performance Checks
 Linear Static Analysis
 Linear Dynamic Analysis
 Nonlinear Static Analysis
(Pushover Analysis)
 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis
Performance Check Using Pushover
Deformation Measure
F
o
r
c
e

M
e
a
s
u
r
e

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Expected Performance Point
for given Earthquake
Goal is to predict peak response of building
and components for a given earthquake
Why Do Pushover Analysis?
 Design Earthquakes cause nonlinear
behavior
 Better understand building behavior
- Identify weak elements
- Realistic prediction of element demands
 Less conservative acceptance criteria can be
used with consequences understood

Steps in Performance Check
 Construct Pushover curve
 Select earthquake level(s) to check
 Select performance level(s) to check
 Select acceptance criteria for each
performance level
 Verify acceptance
Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40)
Displacement Coefficient Method (FEMA 273)

Constructing Pushover Curve
 Define Structural Model
Elements (components)
Strength - deformation properties
 Define Loads
Gravity
Lateral load pattern
 Select Control Displacements or Drifts
 Perform Pushover Analysis





Pushover Modeling
Definition of Structural Model
3D or 2D
Primary and Secondary Elements (components)
Non structural Elements
Foundation flexibility
P-Delta effects





Pushover Modeling (Elements)
 Types
Truss - yielding and buckling
3D Beam - major direction flexural and shear hinging
3D Column - P-M-M interaction and shear hinging
Panel zone - Shear yielding
In-fill panel - Shear failure
Shear wall - P-M-Shear interaction!
Spring - for foundation modeling


Pushover Modeling (Properties)
Force-Deformation Relationship
B
A
C
D E
F
o
r
c
e

Deformation
Pushover Modeling (Properties)
Force-Deformation (Back bone Curve)
F
o
r
c
e

Deformation
Pushover Modeling (Beam Element)
Three dimensional Beam Element
Plastic Hinge Rigid Zone
Span Loads Flexible
Connection
Shear Hinge
Pushover Modeling (Column Element)
Three dimensional Column Element
Plastic Hinge Rigid Zone
Shear Hinge
Pushover Modeling (Column Element)
Axial Load - Moment Interaction (Concrete)
P
M
Pushover Modeling (Column Element)
Axial Load - Moment Interaction (Steel)

( )
ye ye CE
P P F Z M / 1 18 . 1 ÷ =
Pushover Modeling (Loads)
 Start with Gravity Loads
Dead Load
Some portion of Live Load

 Select Lateral Load Pattern
Lateral Load Patterns (Vertical Distribution)
Lateral Load Horizontal Distribution
Torsional Effects
Orthogonal Effects
Pushover Modeling (Loads)
Lateral Load Patterns (Vertical Distribution)
Uniform
Code Lateral Mode 1
Pushover Analysis (Control)
 Force controlled analysis

 Deformation controlled analysis
Roof Displacement
Generalized Displacement Definitions

 Limit of analysis
Instability - loss of gravity load carrying capacity
Excessive distortions
Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)
 Event by Event Strategies
Manual
 Newton-Raphson Type Strategies
Constant stiffness iterations
Tangent stiffness iterations
 Problem of degradation of strength
 Ritz Modes (Reduced Space) Strategies
Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)
Event by Event Strategy

Roof Displacement
B
a
s
e

S
h
e
a
r

Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)
Problem of Degradation of Strength

Roof Displacement
B
a
s
e

S
h
e
a
r

Pushover Analysis (Results)
Deformation Measure
F
o
r
c
e

M
e
a
s
u
r
e

Pushover Analysis (Results)
Use of Pushover Curve
 Capacity Spectrum Method
- detailed in ATC-40
- and as alternate method in FEMA-273
 Displacement Coefficient Method
- detailed in FEMA-273
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
 Construct Capacity Spectrum
 Estimate Equivalent Damping
 Determine Demand Spectrum
 Determine Performance Point
 Verify Acceptance
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Constructing Capacity Spectrum
Roof Displacement
B
a
s
e

S
h
e
a
r

Spectral Displacement
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Constructing Capacity Spectrum
MDOF
Equivalent SDOF
The displaced shape at any point
on the pushover curve is used to
obtain an equivalent SDOF
system.
o is the mass participation and
relates the base shears
PF is the participation factor and
relates the roof displacement to
the SDOF displacement
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Constructing Capacity Spectrum



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Spectral Displacement
( )
( )
roof roof d
a
PF S
W V S
, 1
1
1
* /
/ /
¢
o
A =
=
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Estimation of Equivalent Viscous Damping



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Spectral Displacement
factor
E E
so D
eq
k
t |
k| |
) / ( * ) 4 / 1 (
05 . 0
0
0
=
+ =
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Estimation of Equivalent Damping
E
d

E
so

Spectral Displacement



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Response Spectrum (5% damping)



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Time Period
2.5C
A

C
V
/T
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Response Spectrum (5% damping)

C
A
and C
V
depend on:
- Seismic zone (0.075 to 0.4)
- Nearness to fault and source type (1 to 2)
- Soil Type (1 to 2.5)
- Level of Earthquake (0.5 to 1.5)

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Reduced Spectrum (Effective damping)



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Time Period
2.5C
A
/B
s

C
V
/(T B
L
)
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Acceleration-Displacement Response Spectrum



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Time Period
T
0




S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Spectral Displacement
T
0

S
d
= S
a
T
2
/4t
2

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Performance Point



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Spectral Displacement

Demand Spectrum for effective
damping at performance point
Capacity Spectrum
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Performance Point



S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Verification of Acceptance
Deformation Measure
F
o
r
c
e

M
e
a
s
u
r
e

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Expected Performance Point
for given Earthquake
Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)
(Displacement Coefficient Method)

 Estimate Target Displacement
 Verify Acceptance
Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Estimation of Target Displacement

Estimate effective elastic stiffness, Ke
Estimate post yield stiffness, Ks
Estimate effective fundamental period, Te
Calculate target roof displacement as

) 4 /(
2 2
3 2 1 0
t o
e a
T S C C C C =
Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Estimation of Target Displacement

C
0
Relates spectral to roof displacement
C
1
Modifier for inelastic displacement
C
2
Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
C
3
Modifier for second order effects

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)
Estimation of Effective Elastic Period, Te



B
a
s
e

S
h
e
a
r

Roof Displacement
Vy
.6Vy
Ke
oKe = Ks
Estimate Te using Ke
Estimate Elastic Spectral Displacement
) 4 /(
2 2
t o
e a
T S =
Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C
0

Relates spectral to roof displacement
- use modal participation factor for control
node from first mode
- or use modal participation factor for
control node from deflected shape at the
target displacement
- or use tables based on number of stories
and varies from 1 to 1.5



Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C
1

Modifier for inelastic displacement






S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Time Period
C
1
= 1
T
0

C
1
= [1 +(R-1)T
0
/Te]/R
R is elastic strength
demand to yield
strength
Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C
2

Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
- from Tables
- depends on Framing Type
(degrading strength)
- depends on Performance Level
- depends on Effective Period
- varies from 1.0 to 1.5



Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C
3

Modifier for dynamic second order effects

C
3
= 1 if post yield slope, o is positive
else
C
3
= 1 +[ |o|(R-1)
3/2
]/T
e





Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)
Verification of Acceptance
Deformation Measure
F
o
r
c
e

M
e
a
s
u
r
e

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Target Displacement (or
corresponding deformation)
for given Earthquake
Use of Pushover Curve

Do these methods work?
Comparisons with:
- Nonlinear time history analysis
- Single degree of freedom systems
- Multi-degree of freedom systems
- Observed damage
How do they compare with each other?





SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 SAP2000 released September, 1998
 Full 3D implementation
 Single model for
- linear static analysis
- linear response spectrum analysis
- linear time history analysis
- nonlinear time history analysis
- nonlinear static pushover analysis
- steel and concrete design

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Generally follows ATC-40 & FEMA 273
 Available Pushover Element Types
- 3D truss (axial hinge)
- 3D beam (moment and shear hinges)
- 3D column (P-M-M and shear hinges)
- Shells, Solids, etc. considered linear
- Panel zone (later)
- 3D column (Fiber hinge) (later)
- Shear wall (plasticity model) (later)
- Nonlinear springs (later)




SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
Force-Deformation Relationship
B
C
D
E F
Deformation
F
o
r
c
e

A
SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
Three dimensional Beam Element
Plastic Hinge Rigid Zone
Span Loads Flexible
Connection
Shear Hinge
SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Strength - deformation and P-M-M curves
can be calculated by program for:

- steel beams (FEMA 273)
- steel columns (FEMA 273)
- shear hinges in EBF Links (FEMA 273)

- concrete beams (ATC-40)
- concrete columns (ATC-40)
- shear hinges in coupling beams (ATC-40)




SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Gravity Load Analysis
- Nodal Loads
- Element Loads
- Load controlled Analysis

 Pushover analysis
- Starts from gravity loads
- Nodal Load Patterns (user, modal, mass)
- Multi-step Displacement or Drift controlled
SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Available Results for each step of loading
- Base Shear
- Element Forces
- Section Forces
- Joint Displacements
- Drifts
- Element Hinge Deformations
- Limit Points (acceptance criteria) reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Pushover Curve Postprocessing (ATC-40)
- Conversion to Capacity Spectrum
- Calculation of Effective Period (per step)
- Calculation of Effective Damping (per step)
- Calculation of Demand Spectrum (per step)
- Location of Performance Point
- Limit Points (acceptance criteria) reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options
 Visual Display for each step
- Deformed Shape
- Member Force Diagrams
- Hinge Locations and Stages

 Graphs
- Base Shear vs Roof Displacement
- Capacity Curve
- Demand Curve
- Demand Spectra at different dampings
- Effective period lines

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