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# FISIKA DASAR

## Prodi Pendidikan Biologi

Cakupan Materi:
Stress
Regangan
Modulus Elastisitas (Young, Geser, Bulk)
Aplikasi
Syarat Kesetimbangan untuk Benda Tegar
F
Benda tegar
Bentuk dan ukuran benda
Titik tangkap masing-masing gaya
F
F r =
F
r

CM
Bilamana benda dikatakan dalam kesetimbangan ?
1. Jika resultan gaya luar nol
0 =

F
2. Jika resultan momen gaya luar nol
0 =

Kesetimbangan translasi
Kesetimbangan rotasi
Kesetimbangan statis
0 =
cm
v
dan 0 = e

Rotations
A ball and box have the same mass and are moving with
the same velocity across a horizontal floor. The ball rolls
without slipping and the box slides without friction.
They encounter an upward slope in the floor. Which one
makes it farther up the hill before stopping?
(a) ball (b) box (c) same

Solution
The ball and box will stop when their initial kinetic
energies have been converted to gravitational potential
energy (mgH).
The initial kinetic energy of the box is
v
K mv =
1
2
2
v e
+
1
2
2
I e
K mv =
1
2
2
The initial kinetic energy of the ball is
bigger

Solution
Since the ball has more initial kinetic energy, it will go higher!
EXAMPLE
In which of the static cases shown below is the
tension in the supporting wire bigger? In both
cases M is the same, and the blue strut is massless.
(a) case 1 (b) case 2 (c) same

M
30
0
L
M
30
0
L/2
T
1
T
2
case 1 case 2

Solution
Consider the torque about the hinge between the strut & the wall:
M
30
0
L
T
1
due to gravity
( ) 0 L 30 T MgL
1 total
= = sin t
due to wire
MgL
T
L =
1
2
T Mg
1
2 =
does not depend on length of
massless beam!
Solution
The tension is the same in both cases.
M
30
0
L
M
30
0
L/2
case 1 case 2
Stability of a static structure.
The triangular hinged
structure we just
studied is clearly rigid
and stable (it does not
tend to change shape).

A hinged structure with
more sides will NOT in
general be rigid:
Triangles
vs.
squares
Stability of a static structure...
Rigid construction
generally consists of
triangular elements.
Look at bridges, etc.
Stability of a static structure...
Rigid construction
generally consists of
triangular elements.
Look at bridges etc.
PUSAT MASSA
ext
dan massa total dari sistem
adalah M, maka pusat massa bergerak dengan percepatan a = F
ext
/ M
Gerak Pusat Massa
Koordinat Pusat massa
Koordinat pusat massa
partikel dalam 3-D:
Vektor Posisi Pusat massa
Tegangan dan Regangan
Tegangan: gaya persatuan luas, dimana gaya
tersebut bekerja, P = F/A
Tegang. Regang.
Penyebab Akibat
Regangan: perubahan yang dialami dibandingkan
dengan keadaan awalnya, AL /Lo , AA/Ao , AV/Vo
Dimensi: Gaya/Luas, N/m
2

Tanpa Dimensi
Tegangan dan Regangan
AL
F
Lo
A
F
Tegangan
Lo
L
Regangan
A

A
Dua jenis regangan:

Regangan tarik / tekan (strain)

Regangan geser (shear)

Tegangan dan Regangan
h
AX
Modulus Elastisitas
Untuk Tegangan yang kecil, benda tegar bersifat
elastis. Faktor perbandingan antara tegangan dan
regangan didefenisikan sebagai modulus elastisitas.
Tegangan = modulus elastisitas Regangan
Modulus Elastisitas
Modulus Young:
Menggambarkan keuletan bahan, Mod. Young
besar, bahan semakin susah ditarik / tekan.
Modulus Geser:
Menggambarkan kekakuan bahan, Mod. Geser
besar, bahan semankin susah di puntir.
Modulus Bulk:
Menggambarkan kemampuan bahan untuk dimampatkan.
Tegangan Normal F A, gaya normal
A
F

=
0
L
L
E
A
F A
=

Tegangan
Regangan
E: Modulus Young
Dimensi sama dengan tegangan
Tegangan = modulus elastisitas Regangan
Modulus Young
A
L
L
E = F
o
|
|
.
|

\
| A
Modulus Young beberapa bahan
( Sumber : Table 9-1 Giancoli)
Material E (N/m
2
)
Aluminum
7010
9

Brass
10010
9

Steel
20010
9

Bone
1510
9

Marble
5010
9

Modulus Young
Tegangan Geser , F ,, A
A
F
//
=
h
X
G
A
F A
=
//
Tegangan geser
Regangan geser
G: Modulus Geser
Dimensi sama dengan tegangan
Tegangan = modulus elastisitas Regangan
Modulus Geser
Tegangan, tekanan
Regangan volume
B: Modulus Bulk
Dimensi sama dengan tegangan
Modulus Bulk
Tegangan hidrolik
V
V
B p
A
=
Kompresibilitas:
B k / 1 =
Kurva Tegangan-Regangan
a
b
c
O
Bersifat elastis
Bersifat plastik
d
30%
<1% c
Regangan
T
e
g
a
n
g
a
n

Batas elastis
Titik patah
Oa: bersifat elastis
Hukum Hooke berlaku
Ob: batas proporsional
Material kembali ke panjang
Semula jika tegangan di hilangkan
Batas
proporsional
c: permanen
d : batas patah