ENGINEERING BASICS

T
he following information helps you solve technical problems frequently encountered in designing and selecting motion control components and systems. Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭ Flow rate, gpm H ϭ Head, ft S ϭ Specific gravity of fluid ␮ ϭ Pump efficiency Fans and blowers: T ϭ FR (1) Hollow cylinder rotating about its own axis:

WK =
2

2 W R12 + R2

(

)

2

(10 )

Torque
Where: T ϭ Torque, lb-ft F ϭ Force, lb R ϭ Radius, or distance that the force is from the pivotal point, ft

P=

Qp 229␮

(6 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R1 ϭ Outside radius, ft R2 ϭ Inside radius, ft

Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭFlow rate, cfm p ϭ Pressure, psi ␮ ϭ Efficiency

Linear to rotary motion
N= V 0.262 D (2 )

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Accelerating torque and force
Of rotating objects

Where: N ϭ Speed of shaft rotation, rpm V ϭ Velocity of material, fpm D ϭ Diameter of pulley or sprocket, in.

(WK )⌬N T=
2

308 t

(7 )

Material in linear motion with a continuous fixed relation to a rotational speed, such as a conveyor system:

Horsepower
Rotating objects:

P=

TN 5, 250

(3 )

Where: T ϭTorque required, lb-ft WK2 ϭ Total inertia of load to be accelerated, lb-ft2. (See Formulas 9, 10, 11, and 12.) ⌬N ϭ Change in speed, rpm t ϭTime to accelerate load, sec Objects in linear motion:

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Where: WKL2 ϭ Linear inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of material, lb V ϭ Linear velocity, fpm N ϭ Rotational speed of shaft, rpm Reflected inertia of a load through a speed reduction means — gear, chain, or belt system:
2 WK R = 2 WK L

Where: P ϭPower, hp T ϭ Torque, lb-ft N ϭ Shaft speed, rpm Objects in linear motion:

F=

W⌬V 1, 933 t

(8 )

P=

FV 33, 000

(4 )

Where: F ϭForce required, lb W ϭ Weight, lb ⌬V ϭChange in velocity, fpm t ϭ Time to accelerate load, sec

Rr2

(12 )

Where: P ϭ Power, hp F ϭ Force, lb V ϭ Velocity, fpm Pumps:

Moment of inertia
Solid cylinder rotating about its own axis: WK2 ϭ(1/2)WR2 (9)

Where: WKR2 ϭ Reflected inertia, lb-ft2 WKL2 ϭ Load inertia, lb-ft2 Rr ϭ Reduction ratio

Duty cycle calculation
The RMS (root mean square) value of a load is one of the quantities often used to size PT components.

QHS P= 3, 960␮

(5 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R ϭ Radius of cylinder, ft

LRMS =

2 2 L1 t1 + L2 2 t2 + ... + Ln tn t1 + t2 + ... + tn

(13 )

1997 Power Transmission Design

A19

.000 58. Inc...000 .200... Where: L RMS ϭ RMS value of the load which can be in any unit... 45.000 43...... K..000 30......000 ....... 5....28 0.................. .000 125..... 17ST Brass: Cast ......26 0..............000. ...000 70....000.000....700 22....... 49..... .. 20...000 16..000...015 .... Where: E ϭ Modulus of elasticity.000 27.000 92.000 .....000...000 6... 1984. 80.... Zimmerman..... Applied Mechanics for Engineering Technology....... ....000 .2 ⌬d ϭ Increase in length resulting from axial load. Third Edition.000 75........72 0..... Timber ..... S....... 15......30 0......000 65...000 43......000 . Metals Park....000 10....... shear (psi) 12. Texas 1995................ Nickel ..80 ............. 0.............000 12...10-0......... .000 .28 0.. .500. 15... The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference..... ........... ... .. .......000 40..........000 70....... Amechtron Inc.....000.......... . . C...... Gray .....000 115. .............. 0.........000 Shear 48.10 0. t1 ϭ Duration of time for period 1 t2 ϭ Duration of time for period 2......000........... Annealed . C. Wiley & Sons. Hindehide......000 35. New York.. Malleable .....000 6..... Denton. ............ John S....087 0. ......000 3. 18........ amp.......... Concrete 1:2:4 (28 days) Stone ...000 .. 3...30 0.26 0.. 2. in......Mechanical properties of common materials Ultimate strength.....500 .. New York.000 48......000 125.000 12............ No.. ... Machine Design Fundamentals. etc......... 1984.........000 Material Steel..........60-0. Medium C .....000 80... The bearing value for pins and rivets may be much higher... 0...... etc.....000 .840 860 550 .......... ........... ...000......000 39............ ...3) 0.28 0...... 1983........750........... clay ..............000 20..... Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.....000 psi.000......000 3. 2.. L1 ϭ Load during time of period 1 L2 ϭ Load during time of period 2....000 ...30 ........... American Society of Metals.. ..............000 12............. Heisler.28 0..750....................... New York........ 18..000 30.. hp. 300 4.000 11... ....000 5.... Gray ... psi Yield point...............000 9. SAE 2330 ASTM 20 ASTM 35 ASTM 60 SAE 32510 ... Walker.. ........... 1.000.......000 . Wiley & Sons.........000 65........... Heisler.. .......... ....000 30.... in..... ........000 ..000 46.........000.....000 . John S..000 35.......000 50............. ............ 0. ............ A ϭ Area of object..........000 145..26 0... Equivalent SAE 1015 SAE 1025 SAE 1035 ComTension pression* 60........... No...092 0.. 45..... Cold-drawn ... Bronze: Cast .. 8.......... ... .000....000 48............ 1997 Power Transmission Design A21 ...28 0... ....... forged-rolled C..000...28 0... .000 60...28 0...30-0.......I.... lb/in. ....... ........................... in.....40 ...... .. ASM Handbook of Engineering Mathematics..000 56..... .. .........280. . 350 .... ... Wrought iron ....000.. ...26 0........I..... C........200.. Structural....000 10....28 0..... lb L ϭ Length of object.... Steel cast: Low C . . Cold-drawn ... 4.........000 Weight (lb per in... Cast iron: Gray .....28 0.......... Brick........... 1984....000 67.......000 46..000 ASTM 3...000..... Modulus of elasticity E= PL A⌬d (14 ) Reston..........000 120...... tension (psi) 39......30 0... . ............... 49..000 6...000.000..000 38.....000 ........................000 Modulus of elasticity..10 0... 1.......000 54........ The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.000 8.......000 25. ..... 5..000 15.......000 . *The ultimate strength in compression for ductile materials is usually taken as the yield point.000.....000 85......20-0. .000 30........000 ....000.31 0. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet........... Aluminum alloy: Structural.000 44.. General technical references 1.. Reston Publishing Co.000 12.......... 3. . ..000 53..000.. and for structural steel is taken as 90.. 23...000... .. Ohio.000 70...31 0................. ...................000 Modulus of elasticity...........20 .......000 ...... High C ........ Va........000 27..000 25......2 P ϭ Axial load.000 35. 1983......000 35.........000 60. tension or compression (psi) 30...Source: S.... etc..000 96.........M..........

S.07639 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.S.80469 0.2 ft2 in.5737 1.S. yd miles (U.092903 929.) cm3 gal (U.) in.086 1.) oz (U.30480 2.17 4. fluid) oz (U. pounds are U.S. avoirdupois.6417 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.S.349527 1.2 7. statute) By To obtain 3.31625 264. Multiply Length Angstrom units cm ft in. (U.S.516.280 in.6 2.0011023 28.13368 231 3. m cm in. fluid) cm3 in.2 m2 cm2 cm2 Volume cm3 cm3 cm3 ft3 (British) ft3 (U. standard.09361 6.S.000 lb oz (avoirdupois) lb tons (metric) tons (short) grams kg lb kg lb lb A22 1997 Power Transmission Design . and seconds are mean solar.S.S.76456 0. statute) m ft Area cir mils cm2 cm2 ft2 ft2 in.4516258 in.2137 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.S.531445 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.280833 39.) gal (U.S.3937 0.76455 ft3 gal (U.S. fluid) yd3 yd3 (British) 3. (British) m m m m m yd miles (U.24809 ϫ 10Ϫ6 35.5400058 0.S.001 0.854 ϫ 10Ϫ7 1.S.78533 128 29.29578 deg Weight Dynes kg kg kg kg oz (avoirdupois) tons (long) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) 2.20462 0.240 1.S.204.) ft3 (U.) in. fluid) ft3 L (liter) gal (U.S.37 1.91440 5.0341 6.CONVERSION FACTORS Unless otherwise stated.106 2.) m3 gal (British) gal (British) gal (U.) oz (U.S.9999916 28.) Angstrom units ft in.033814 0. (U. feet are U.3 m3 m3 Plane angle radian 57.937 ϫ 10-9 0.S.000 2.) gal (U.20094 0.9999972 1010 3.15499969 0.3 L (liter) oz (U.S.2740 2.) gal (U. in.

2 oz-in.4667 mph mph radians/sec cm/sec fps Temperature deg C ϭ 0.696 10. 1984.250 W Btu (mean)/hr lb-ft/sec kW lb-ft/rpm Inertia Mass inertia: lb-in.80665 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2. Btu Btu 0.80 lb kg Torque lb-in. The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.00706 (Newton-meters) N-m N-m dyne-cm N-m Energy lb-in.307 703.8 (deg F) + 32 Pressure atmosphere atmosphere lb/ft2 psi psi 14. lb-in.Multiply Velocities feet/sec (fps) meters per sec rpm mph mph By To obtain 0.74570 5.545.83 ϫ 10Ϫ5 10Ϫ4 1..06 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.055.333 4.08 550 0.7041 1.06 W-sec j (joule) calories j Power gram-cm/sec hp hp hp hp 9.355 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 Source: S. lb-ft lb-ft oz-in.2 kg-cm2 Weight inertia: lb-in.3558 ϫ 107 0. Denton. Brad Grant. Texas. Amechtron Inc.113 1. 0.113 0. Heisler.23693 0.68182 2.13 ϫ 10Ϫ4 7.22481 9.07 psi kg/m2 kg/m2 grams/cm2 kg/m2 Force Newton Newton 0.I.93 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet.-sec2 in-oz-sec2 lb-ft-sec2 2.98 1. 1997 Power Transmission Design A23 . New York.88241 70.356 1.10472 44.113 251.555 (deg F Ϫ 32) deg F = 1.