ENGINEERING BASICS

T
he following information helps you solve technical problems frequently encountered in designing and selecting motion control components and systems. Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭ Flow rate, gpm H ϭ Head, ft S ϭ Specific gravity of fluid ␮ ϭ Pump efficiency Fans and blowers: T ϭ FR (1) Hollow cylinder rotating about its own axis:

WK =
2

2 W R12 + R2

(

)

2

(10 )

Torque
Where: T ϭ Torque, lb-ft F ϭ Force, lb R ϭ Radius, or distance that the force is from the pivotal point, ft

P=

Qp 229␮

(6 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R1 ϭ Outside radius, ft R2 ϭ Inside radius, ft

Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭFlow rate, cfm p ϭ Pressure, psi ␮ ϭ Efficiency

Linear to rotary motion
N= V 0.262 D (2 )

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Accelerating torque and force
Of rotating objects

Where: N ϭ Speed of shaft rotation, rpm V ϭ Velocity of material, fpm D ϭ Diameter of pulley or sprocket, in.

(WK )⌬N T=
2

308 t

(7 )

Material in linear motion with a continuous fixed relation to a rotational speed, such as a conveyor system:

Horsepower
Rotating objects:

P=

TN 5, 250

(3 )

Where: T ϭTorque required, lb-ft WK2 ϭ Total inertia of load to be accelerated, lb-ft2. (See Formulas 9, 10, 11, and 12.) ⌬N ϭ Change in speed, rpm t ϭTime to accelerate load, sec Objects in linear motion:

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Where: WKL2 ϭ Linear inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of material, lb V ϭ Linear velocity, fpm N ϭ Rotational speed of shaft, rpm Reflected inertia of a load through a speed reduction means — gear, chain, or belt system:
2 WK R = 2 WK L

Where: P ϭPower, hp T ϭ Torque, lb-ft N ϭ Shaft speed, rpm Objects in linear motion:

F=

W⌬V 1, 933 t

(8 )

P=

FV 33, 000

(4 )

Where: F ϭForce required, lb W ϭ Weight, lb ⌬V ϭChange in velocity, fpm t ϭ Time to accelerate load, sec

Rr2

(12 )

Where: P ϭ Power, hp F ϭ Force, lb V ϭ Velocity, fpm Pumps:

Moment of inertia
Solid cylinder rotating about its own axis: WK2 ϭ(1/2)WR2 (9)

Where: WKR2 ϭ Reflected inertia, lb-ft2 WKL2 ϭ Load inertia, lb-ft2 Rr ϭ Reduction ratio

Duty cycle calculation
The RMS (root mean square) value of a load is one of the quantities often used to size PT components.

QHS P= 3, 960␮

(5 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R ϭ Radius of cylinder, ft

LRMS =

2 2 L1 t1 + L2 2 t2 + ... + Ln tn t1 + t2 + ... + tn

(13 )

1997 Power Transmission Design

A19

.000 58. Inc...000 .200... Where: L RMS ϭ RMS value of the load which can be in any unit... 45.000 43...... K..000 30......000 ....... 5....28 0.................. .000 125..... 17ST Brass: Cast ......26 0..............000. ...000 70....000.000....700 22....... 49..... .. 20...000 16..000...015 .... Where: E ϭ Modulus of elasticity.000 27.000 92.000 .....000...000 6... 1984. 80.... Zimmerman..... Applied Mechanics for Engineering Technology....... ....000 .2 ⌬d ϭ Increase in length resulting from axial load. Third Edition.000 75........72 0..... Timber ..... S....... 15......30 0......000 65...000 43......000 . Metals Park....000 10....... shear (psi) 12. Texas 1995................ Nickel ..80 ............. 0.............000 12...10-0......... .000 .28 0.. .500. 15... The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference..... ........... ... .. .......000 40..........000 70....... Amechtron Inc.....000.......... . . C...... Gray .....000 115. .............. 0.........000 Shear 48.10 0. t1 ϭ Duration of time for period 1 t2 ϭ Duration of time for period 2......000........... Annealed . C. Wiley & Sons. Hindehide......000 35. New York.. Malleable .....000 6..... Denton. ............ John S....087 0. ......000 3. 18........ amp.......... Concrete 1:2:4 (28 days) Stone ...000 .. 3...30 0.26 0.. 2. in......Mechanical properties of common materials Ultimate strength.....500 .. New York.000 48......000 125.000 12............ No.. ... Machine Design Fundamentals. etc......... 1984.........000 Material Steel..........60-0. Medium C .....000 80... The bearing value for pins and rivets may be much higher... 0...... etc.....000 .840 860 550 .......... ........... ...000......000 39............ ...3) 0.28 0...... 1983........750........... clay ..............000 20..... Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.....000 psi.000......000 3. 2.. L1 ϭ Load during time of period 1 L2 ϭ Load during time of period 2....000 ...30 ........... American Society of Metals.. ..............000 12............. Heisler.28 0..750....................... New York........ 18..000 30.. hp. 300 4.000 11... ....000 5.... Gray ... psi Yield point...............000 9. SAE 2330 ASTM 20 ASTM 35 ASTM 60 SAE 32510 ... Walker.. ........... 1.000.......000 . Wiley & Sons.........000 65........... Heisler.. .......... ....000 30.... in..... ........000 ..000 46.........000.....000 . John S..000 35.......000 50............. ............ 0. ............ A ϭ Area of object..........000 145..26 0... Equivalent SAE 1015 SAE 1025 SAE 1035 ComTension pression* 60........... No...092 0.. 45..... Cold-drawn ... Bronze: Cast .. 8.......... ... .000....000 48............ 1997 Power Transmission Design A21 ...28 0... ....... forged-rolled C..000...28 0... .000 60...28 0...30-0.......I.... lb/in. ....... ........................... in.....40 ...... .. ASM Handbook of Engineering Mathematics..000 56..... .. .........280. . 350 .... ... Wrought iron ....000.. ...26 0........I..... C........200.. Structural....000 10....28 0..... lb L ϭ Length of object.... Steel cast: Low C . . Cold-drawn ... 4.........000 Weight (lb per in... Cast iron: Gray .....28 0.......... Brick........... 1984....000 67.......000 46..000 ASTM 3...000..... Modulus of elasticity E= PL A⌬d (14 ) Reston..........000 120...... tension (psi) 39......30 0... . ............... 49..000 6...000.000..000 38.....000 ........................000 Modulus of elasticity..10 0... 1.......000 54........ The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.000 8.......000 25. ..... 5..000 15.......000 . *The ultimate strength in compression for ductile materials is usually taken as the yield point.000.....000 85......20-0. .000 30........000 ....000.31 0. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet........... Aluminum alloy: Structural.000 44.. General technical references 1.. Reston Publishing Co.000 12.......... 3. . ..000 53..000.. and for structural steel is taken as 90.. 23...000... .. Ohio.000 70...31 0................. ...................000 Modulus of elasticity...........20 .......000 ...... High C ........ Va........000 27..000 25......2 P ϭ Axial load.000 35. 1983......000 35.........000 60. tension or compression (psi) 30...Source: S.... etc..000 96.........M..........

S.07639 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.S.80469 0.2 ft2 in.5737 1.S. yd miles (U.092903 929.) cm3 gal (U.) in.086 1.) oz (U.30480 2.17 4. fluid) oz (U. pounds are U.S. avoirdupois.6417 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.S.349527 1.2 7. statute) By To obtain 3.31625 264. Multiply Length Angstrom units cm ft in. (U.S.516.280 in.6 2.0011023 28.13368 231 3. m cm in. fluid) cm3 in.2 m2 cm2 cm2 Volume cm3 cm3 cm3 ft3 (British) ft3 (U. standard.09361 6.S.000 lb oz (avoirdupois) lb tons (metric) tons (short) grams kg lb kg lb lb A22 1997 Power Transmission Design . and seconds are mean solar.S.S.76456 0. statute) m ft Area cir mils cm2 cm2 ft2 ft2 in.4516258 in.2137 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.S.531445 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.280833 39.) gal (U.S.3937 0.76455 ft3 gal (U.S. fluid) yd3 yd3 (British) 3. (British) m m m m m yd miles (U.24809 ϫ 10Ϫ6 35.5400058 0.S.001 0.854 ϫ 10Ϫ7 1.S.78533 128 29.29578 deg Weight Dynes kg kg kg kg oz (avoirdupois) tons (long) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) 2.20462 0.240 1.S.204.) ft3 (U.) in. fluid) ft3 L (liter) gal (U.S.37 1.91440 5.0341 6.CONVERSION FACTORS Unless otherwise stated.106 2.) m3 gal (British) gal (British) gal (U.) oz (U.S.9999916 28.) Angstrom units ft in.033814 0. (U. feet are U.3 m3 m3 Plane angle radian 57.937 ϫ 10-9 0.S.000 2.) gal (U.20094 0.9999972 1010 3.15499969 0.3 L (liter) oz (U.S.2740 2.) gal (U. in.

2 oz-in.4667 mph mph radians/sec cm/sec fps Temperature deg C ϭ 0.696 10. 1984.250 W Btu (mean)/hr lb-ft/sec kW lb-ft/rpm Inertia Mass inertia: lb-in.80665 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2. Btu Btu 0.80 lb kg Torque lb-in. The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.00706 (Newton-meters) N-m N-m dyne-cm N-m Energy lb-in.307 703.8 (deg F) + 32 Pressure atmosphere atmosphere lb/ft2 psi psi 14. lb-in.Multiply Velocities feet/sec (fps) meters per sec rpm mph mph By To obtain 0.74570 5.545.83 ϫ 10Ϫ5 10Ϫ4 1..06 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.055.333 4.08 550 0.7041 1.06 W-sec j (joule) calories j Power gram-cm/sec hp hp hp hp 9.355 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 Source: S. lb-ft lb-ft oz-in.2 kg-cm2 Weight inertia: lb-in.3558 ϫ 107 0. Denton. Brad Grant. Texas. Amechtron Inc.113 1. 0.113 0. Heisler.23693 0.68182 2.13 ϫ 10Ϫ4 7.22481 9.07 psi kg/m2 kg/m2 grams/cm2 kg/m2 Force Newton Newton 0.I.93 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet.-sec2 in-oz-sec2 lb-ft-sec2 2.98 1. 1997 Power Transmission Design A23 . New York.88241 70.356 1.10472 44.113 251.555 (deg F Ϫ 32) deg F = 1.

in. Figure 2 — Hollow cylinder. lb-in. Ts = Stall torque. rpm tacc = Acceleration time. lb-in. lb g = Gravitational constant. so the load friction is the friction the motor must overcome. lb-in. A J = Inertia. in. Based on density./A L = Length. Tdec = Deceleration torque. lb-in. W Pp = Total power. Pdel = Power delivered to the load. lb-in. lb-in. the inertia can be calculated by using Table 1 and substituting in equation 2: N NL − N FL × 100 N FL Based on density. radius. tangential. A Irms = Root-mean-squared current. Inertia is calculated by analyzing the mechanical linkage system that is to be moved.-sec2 Jp = Pulley inertia. lb-in. lb Ff = Friction force.312 in. gear. Based on weight and radius: Motor Load Figure 3 — Direct drive. Rm = Motor resistance. the inertia of mechanical components (such as shafts. radius. Trun = Running Torque.. W R = Radius. lb-in. Tm = Motor torque.312 J= = 2g 2 386 = 0. Load is coupled directly to motor without any speed changing device. Vl = Load speed. lb-in. and length: πLρR 4 J= 2g Hollow cylinder. and length: J= πLρ 4 Ro − Ri4 2g ( (4 ) With these equations. Tl = Load torque./sec2 Iacc = Current during acceleration. Figure 1. lb-in. Such systems are categorized as one of four basic drive designs: direct. lb Fpf = Preload force. Tacc = Acceleration torque. Because there are no mechanical linkages involved. Figure 2.-sec2 Jl = Load inertia. 386 in. but it excludes frictional forces. Solid cylinder. and load inertia is what the motor “sees. The speed of the motor is the same as that of the load. Based on weight and radius: (2 ) πLρR 4 π 22 0. Example: If a cylinder is a leadscrew with a radius of 0. In the following analyses of mechanical linkage systems. rev/in. lb T he first step in determining the requirements of a motion-control system is to analyze the mechanics — including friction and inertia — of the load to be positioned. the equations reflect the load parameters back to the motor shaft. Tf = Friction torque. and a length of 22 in. Cylinder inertia The inertia of a cylinder can be calculated based on its weight and radius. A determination of what the motor “sees” is necessary for selecting both motor and its control. Figure 1 — Solid cylinder.sec 2 ( )( )( ( ) ) 4 J= W 2 Ro + Ri2 2g ( ) ) (3 ) Direct drive The simplest drive system is a direct drive.-sec2 Jt = Total inertia.” Therefore.in. lb-in. Inertia — the resistance of an object to accelerate or decelerate — defines the torque required to accelerate a load from one speed to another. Trms = Root-mean-squared torque. sec trun = Run time.28 0. motor requirements. lb-in.-sec2 Jm = Motor inertia. or its density. Load friction can easily be determined either by estimating or by simply measuring with a torque wrench.-sec2 Kt = Torque constant. W Pdiss = Power (heat) dissipated by the motor.MOTION CONTROL BASICS Nomenclature: ␣acc = Rotary acceleration. sec tdec = Deceleration time. sec T = Torque. rpm Sm = Motor speed. ␮ = Coefficient of friction N = Gear ratio Nl = Number of load gear teeth Nm= Number of motor gear teeth p = Density.000237 lb . ⍀ Ro= Outer radius. and length. in. lb-in. or leadscrew. lb-in. radius.-sec2 Jls = Leadscrew inertia. in. ipm W= Weight. lb Wlb= Weight of load plus belt. Sl = Load speed. The load parameters are directly transmitted to the motor.. the load inertia and friction are reflected through the mechanical linkage system to determine Jt = Jl + Jm (5 ) A24 1997 Power Transmission Design . lb-in. the total inertia is the load inertia plus the motor inertia. Ri= Inner radius. Figure 3. gears. lb-in. rad/sec2 e = Efficiency Fl = Load force. lb-in. drive rollers) can be calculated. sec tidle = Idle time. lb/in. Then. Tr = Torque reflected to motor.3 P= Pitch.

The total load (belt plus load) is moved with a lever arm with a radius.0034 lb . 1997 Power Transmission Design A25 .031 3 2 = 0. a tangential drive.65 0. the inertia of the gears should be included when determining total inertia.40 Total inertia at motor: Jt = Jl N2 + Jm (10 ) Load Example: To calculate the reflected inertia for a 6-lb. Ball-nut Acme (plastic nut) Acme (metal nut) R Pulley Motor Table 3—Leadscrew coefficients of friction Steel on steel (dry) Steel on steel (lubricated) Teflon on steel Ball bushing 0.Gear drive The mechanical linkages between the load and motor in a gear drive.15 0.029 Jr = Jl N2 Example: A belt and pulley arrangement will be moving a weight of 10 lb.322 0.in. 5-lb each. Jr = 0.in. and an inner radius of 2. lb per cu in.2 (11 ) Tl = Fl R (6 ) Friction torque: (12 ) Sm = Sl × N or Also. first use equation 1 to determine the load inertia.sec 2 Substitute in equation 14 to determine load inertia: Tangential drive Load Nl Figure 4 — Speed changer between load and motor.04 0.5 in. also requires reflecting load parameters back to the motor shaft. S × Nl Sm = l Nm Motor torque: T f = Ff R (7 ) Load inertia: (13 ) Table 1—Material densities Jl = Tl Ne (8 ) Total inertia: Wlb R 2 g (14 ) Material Aluminum Copper Plastic Steel Wood Density.in. R.. Motor speed: Consisting of a timing belt and pulley.3 2 Ro + Ri2 = 2g 2 386 ( ) ( )( ( ) ) = 0. This value can be obtained from literature or calculated using the equations for the inertia of a cylinder. or rack and pinion. To calculate the inertial for a hollow. sprockets or pinion gears must be included to determine the total inertia. Gearing efficiencies should also be considered when calculating required torque values.3 in.90 0. Motor speed: WR 2 10 2.096 0.0747 + 0.sec 2 ders.58 0. with an outer radius of 2. connected through a 3:1 gear set. Figure 4.5 Jl = = g 386 2 Total inertia reflected to the motor shaft is the sum of the two pulley inertias plus the load inertia: V Sm = l 2πR Load torque: J = J l + J p1 + J p2 = 0. the load inertia reflected back to the motor is a squared function of the speed ratio. Figure 5.031 lb .. the inertia of pulleys.3113 lb .sec. substitute in Figure 5 — Tangential drive. belt.1619 + 0. cylindrical pulley. Any speed changing device — gearing. As with any speed changing system..280 0.040 0. Tm = Reflected load inertia: Jt = (9 ) Wlb R 2 + J p1 + J p2 + J m g (15 ) 0. requires reflecting the load parameters back to the motor shaft. Jp = 5 W 2 2. or chain — alters the reflected inertia to the motor by the square of the speed ratio. The pulleys are hollow cylin- Table 2—Typical leadscrew efficiencies Type Efficiency 0.sec 2 To reflect this inertia through the gear set to the motor.. equation 9. diameter. chain and sprocket. solid cylinder with a 4-in.5 2 + 2.0747 = 0.003 WR 2 6 2 Jl = = 2g 2 386 () ( ) 2 = 0. substitute in equation 3: N Motor m For high accuracy.in.0747 lb .

and the friction and inertia of the load are known. a vector motor.. or a brushless servo motor. the leadscrew may be preloaded to eliminate or reduce backlash. In a basic motion-control system. If a leadscrew inertia is not readily available. Such preload torque can be significant and must be included.sec 2 2 2 0.in.12 Acceleration t=0 0.. Sm = Vl × P Load torque reflected to motor: (16 ) User’s interface AC power 1 Fl 1 Fpf Tr = + ×µ 2π Pe 2π P (17 ) For typical values of leadscrew efficiency (e) and coefficient of friction (␮). long leadscrew with a 0. or it will be unnecessarily costly. Both the leadscrew and the load inertia have to be considered.Leadscrew drive Illustrated in Figure 6. a motor can be sized to deliver the required torque and the control sized to power the motor. pitch. The reflected load inertia is: 200  1  W 1  Jl =    =  g  2πP  386  2π 5  = 0.12 Run Time. radius and a 5-rev/in.00365 lb . the motion Figure 6 — Leadscrew drive. sec t=1 0. The load is coupled or connected through one of the mechanical linkages previously described. The motor may be a traditional PMDC servo motor. equation for inertia of a cylinder: πLρR 4 π 44 0. A26 1997 Power Transmission Design .sec 2 Motor Load Motion control system Once the mechanics of the application have been analyzed.3 Leadscrew inertia is based on the Figure 8 — Move profile.00052 + 0.000 (20 ) Speed. The programmable motion controller is the brain of the motion control system and controls the motor control (amplifier). the load represents the mechanics being positioned. For precision positioning. Figure 7. rpm Example: A 200-lb load is positioned by a 44-in. If friction and inertia are not properly determined.00052 lb . the next step is to determine the torque levels required. Friction force: Power supply Motion control system L o a d Ff = µ × W Friction torque: (18 ) Programmable motion controller Control (amplifier) Motor Encoder or resolver Speed and position feedback Tf = Total inertia: 1 Ff 2π Pe (19 ) Figure 7 — Basic motion system. the equation for a cylinder may be used.in. see Tables 2 and 3. This controller reads a feedback signal to monitor the position of the load. Motor starting.. as must leadscrew efficiency.00313 = 0.in.5-in. Motor speed: control system will either take too long to position the load.5 J ls = = 2g 2 386 = 0. By comparing a pre-programmed.12 Deceleration Idle 0.00313 lb . stopping and speed are dictated by the control unit which takes a lowlevel incoming command signal and amplifies it to a higher-power level for controlling the motor. Then. W 1  Jt =   + J ls + J m g  2πP  2 2. a leadscrew drive also requires reflecting the load parameters back to the motor.28 0.sec 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 Total inertia to be connected to the motor shaft is: J = J l + J ls = 0. The motion controller is programmed to accomplish a specific task for a given application.

and while running. In applications with similar move profiles.86 A 4. the motor and load begin to accelerate. ( ) Power requirements The control must supply sufficient power for both the acceleration portion of the movement profile.00052 + .00313 + . Now. the error signal is reduced and. during acceleration. Figure 8). the motor must be able to provide sufficient torque over the entire duty cycle or movement profile. Required acceleration current that must be supplied to the motor is: ) (23 ) Movement profile A movement profile defines the desired acceleration rate. voltage applied to the motor is reduced.85 )2 (. 745. Tacc = J t α acc + T f = J t + J ls + J m α acc + T f ( ( ) (22 ) Control requirements Determining a suitable control (amplifier) is the next step. only nominal power (voltage and current) are required to overcome friction and windage. basic motor dynamics and power requirements must be determined to ensure adequate power capability for each motor. At t=0. Acceleration rate (␣acc) =1745.75 = 2. Therefore.86 )2 ( 4. Determining acceleration rate is the first step.in.3 = 7.2 + . suppose with a system at rest (time =0. Figure 9. For example.2 Continuous stall torque (Ts) = 14. most of the input energy is dissipated as heat.5 ⍀ Acceleration torque can be determined by substituting in equation 23.2 W 1997 Power Transmission Design A27 . the motor has not yet started to move. The two aspects of power requirements include (1) power to move the load.12 + . in turn.in. the acceleration rate can be determined from the speed and acceleration time.95 lb-in.00313 lb-in-sec2 Friction torque (Tf) = 0. Therefore.12 ) + (.“desired” position with the feedback position.5 ) = 55. 745. At this instant.2 + .in. As the motor approaches the commanded speed. run time. 0. I acc = = Tacc Kt (25 ) 13. Thus. is: I rms = = Trms Kt 7.12 ) . which is adequate for the application. with a movement profile as shown in Figure 6. The control must be able to supply sufficient acceleration current (Iacc). The load parameters are: Weight of load (Wlb) = 200 lb Leadscrew inertia (J ls) = 0.8 . 025 (27 ) Tdec = − J t α acc + T f = − . the load position approaches the desired position and begins to decelerate. Power delivered to move the load is: Duty cycle torque In addition to acceleration torque.75(2. requires moving a load through a leadscrew. and a deceleration torque during the stopping phase. For example. Running torque is equal to friction torque (Tf). which the control must be able to supply to the motor.0037 1745. in such systems.73 = 1.55 0.12 + .0037 lbin.00052 + .5 W 63.75 )2 (.95 lb-in.73 lb . Example: Our application.8 (26 ) Tacc = .12 ( ) (13. it is a function on th rms current (Irms). but the error signal is large. Pdel = 13.00313 + .95 )2 (.12 + . as well as continuous current (Irms) for the application’s duty-cycle requirements. During the stopping phase. as well as for the duty-cycle requirements. (Pdel) and (2) power losses dissipated in the motor. 000 ) (746 ) = 325. the appropriate value is used in place of “I” in the following equation.4 lb-in. speed.95 = 13. (Pdiss).2 rad per sec2.95 = −11.85 lb .8 Current over the duty cycle. As the system stabilizes at running speed. At t=1. there is no feedback signal. the root-mean-squared (rms) value of torque required over the movement profile can be calcuated: Trms = = 2 2 2 ( tacc ) + Trun ( trun ) + Tdec ( tdec ) Tacc tacc + trun + tdec + tidle ( ( ) (24 ) ) Power dissipated in the motor is a function of the motor current.61 A 4. and deceleration rate of the load.. with full powersupply voltage and current applied.0037 1.55 tacc (21 ) Pdiss = I 2 ( Rm ) (28 ) 2.12 ) + (11. 025 Pdiss = (2. As friction and torque are overcome. the motion controller issues a command to the motor (through the servo control) to start motion. the motor’s power dissipation capacity is the limiting factor./A Motor resistance (Rm) = 4. The sum of ( Pdel) and (Pdiss) determine total power requirements.b-in.2 rad/sec 2 9. Example: Power required during the acceleration portion of the movement profile can be obtained by substituting in equations 27 and 28: Acceleration torque The torque required to accelerate the load and overcome mechanical friction is: The motor tentatively selected for this application can supply a continuous stall torque of 14. deceleration torque is: Pdel = T ( Sm )(746 ) 63.5 )(1. 000 = 1. α acc = α acc = Sm 9. Thus. in this case.55 converts the speed to radians per second). the value depends on the acceleration current (Iacc). the controller can take action to minimize an error between the actual and desired load positions.4 lb-in. (Dividing the motor speed expressed in rpm by 9.75 lb . Typical motor parameters are: Motor rotor inertia (Jm) = 0. This includes a certain amount of constant torque during the run phase. Torque constant (Kt) = 4.

.edu .US. Chat channels — Addresses on the Internet where real time “conversations” take place between groups of individuals who are signed into a particular Chat Room... Sometimes a long process down a series of A28 1997 Power Transmission Design ..... sensor-actuator bus...2 = 380.... To aid in selecting both motors and controls (amplifiers).. and a continuous (or rms) current of 1.. Bus — Years ago.....gov...com.. a configuration where control.61 A... Distributed — In communications. A CompuServe address has a series of numbers: 1111.. bus referred to the path or paths data traveled on the backplane of a computer board... attach..5 )(1. Usually they have a posted subject for discussion. PLCs......Germany E-mail — Electronic mail supported across the Internet... Examples include Netscape and Mosaic....86 A.. many suppliers offer computer software programs to perform the iterative calculations necessary to obtain the optimum motor and control...5 W Note: The factor of 1.DE . machine and machine...5 in the Pdiss calculation is a factor used to make the motor’s winding resistance “hot. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) — The means by which computer files and software programs are transferred from a host computer to recipient’s computers.... Connectivity — The ability to have one device connect. Each group of eight bits represents an instruction. COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY H ere are some of the vocabulary used in digital communication.... No spaces are allowed between letters or numbers. Domain or zone — Part of an Internet address...... or communicate with another....... assuming the resistance is a 155 C...Government Departments . Like converting a DOS program to an Apple-based program.. The power requirement calls for peak power of 380..... Gopher — Menu-based system that helps find data residing on computers at various locations..... They support all types of communication..net .. Also.. and control devices. Many times the same individuals return to the same room at the same time each day..5 = 200. It consists of a two or three-letter designation for the type of organization or geographical location. from these locations..... midlevel bus. Finger — Search capability for email addresses where location is known but e-mail address is not..Educational Institutions ......UK or . BBS — Bulletin board systems offer forums. Foundation fieldbus — A specification for process applications.... whether it is between user and machine. They also retrieve and display information. or intelligence (such as microprocessor intelligence) is spread among two or more devices..United States .. command execution ability.. Bit — Symbolic representation of an “On” or “Off” state of a device............org.Networking Units ..com.Military ....... From articles by Baldor Electric.... Data highway — Another term for bus or network.Commercial Organizations ..... Sometimes gateways also convert cable types.4 W In summary The control selected must be capable of delivering (as a minimum) an acceleration (or peak) current of 2.. a command... Fieldbus — A general term used to describe any bus that connects devices to microprocessor-based controls...7 W Pdel = Pdiss 7.United Kingdom ... it is indicated as a “1” or a “0. In computer code...... Synonymous with devicelevel bus. or datum....61 )2 ( 4.mil......... Gateway — Software on a board or chip that converts one communication protocol to another.. in any combination....5 ) = 17....9 + 17...5 + 55.7 W and continuous power of 200. Byte — Eight 1s or 0s grouped together. both text and graphics..9 W 63. The definition is broadening to include data traveling within the physical medium of a few wires or cables.1111@compuserve. published in the September 1995 and March 1996 issues of PTD....4 W.” This is a worst-case analysis...... or user and user..025 = (1...Professional Societies ... a network system created by Allen-Bradley.. mostly local or regional.. They are words used by those involved with PCs..” Browsers — Graphics-based software programs that let you reach a variety of locations on the Internet and move from one to the other (surf). Requires an address consisting of the Internet name or number of the recipient at the specific service provider...... conversation...GB .. and postings. 000 ) (746 ) = 182. such as: .73(2...Pp = Pdel + Pdiss = 325.. Continous power required for the duty cycle is: Pp = 182..Japan .JP ...

Hub — Hardware interface device between different cable types. such that performance is enhanced to a level not possible as independent devices. Usenet — A worldwide bulletin board divided into categories on which you can post news. 59) 1997 Power Transmission Design A29 . World Wide Web — A rapidly expanding group of home pages that provide information on many subjects.foggy. number. organizations. and a device’s output signals. and government. and punctuation must be exact to reach the right address. Search engines — Software programs that let the user find information sites by definition. Network — All the cabling. Examples include Yahoo. 19) and “Internet for Engineers” (PTD Aug. including text. polarities. but companies and individuals jumped onboard only recently. the user can usually look at sub-pages or be linked with other locations of similar interest. Internet — Worldwide network of computers and computer networks. Once there. and Alta Vista. Begun by the Defense Department in 1969 to ensure communications between colleges and universities. then retrieve information from these sites. and sound.com/dognews /~csmith/collars. companies. Integration — Sufficient communication among devices. Protocol — A specification that defines input signal levels. subject. Connects these cables together into a network. and governments. or add comments. Usually the address looks like: http://www. Lycos. individuals. Packet — Several bytes of data grouped together in a network message. Distance is less of a factor now.decision-tree paths. There are no spaces and every letter. 1996.html. and software parameters and control used to connect microprocessor-based devices over long distances. graphics. wiring. These definitions were taken from “PLCs bus into the future” (PTD July 1995 p. and speeds. p. contractors. Colleges and students have used it for a long time. Kbaud — A transmission rate of one byte per second. make inquiries. Devices become part of a whole as opposed to separate pieces of a system. or even key words.

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