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# ENGINEERING BASICS

T

he following information helps you solve technical problems frequently encountered in designing and selecting motion control components and systems. Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭ Flow rate, gpm H ϭ Head, ft S ϭ Specific gravity of fluid ϭ Pump efficiency Fans and blowers: T ϭ FR (1) Hollow cylinder rotating about its own axis:

WK =

2

2 W R12 + R2

(

)

2

(10 )

Torque

Where: T ϭ Torque, lb-ft F ϭ Force, lb R ϭ Radius, or distance that the force is from the pivotal point, ft

P=

Qp 229

(6 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R1 ϭ Outside radius, ft R2 ϭ Inside radius, ft

Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭFlow rate, cfm p ϭ Pressure, psi ϭ Efficiency

**Linear to rotary motion
**

N= V 0.262 D (2 )

V 2 = W WK L 2N

2

(11 )

**Accelerating torque and force
**

Of rotating objects

Where: N ϭ Speed of shaft rotation, rpm V ϭ Velocity of material, fpm D ϭ Diameter of pulley or sprocket, in.

(WK )⌬N T=

2

308 t

(7 )

Material in linear motion with a continuous fixed relation to a rotational speed, such as a conveyor system:

Horsepower

Rotating objects:

P=

TN 5, 250

(3 )

Where: T ϭTorque required, lb-ft WK2 ϭ Total inertia of load to be accelerated, lb-ft2. (See Formulas 9, 10, 11, and 12.) ⌬N ϭ Change in speed, rpm t ϭTime to accelerate load, sec Objects in linear motion:

V 2 = W WK L 2N

2

(11 )

Where: WKL2 ϭ Linear inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of material, lb V ϭ Linear velocity, fpm N ϭ Rotational speed of shaft, rpm Reflected inertia of a load through a speed reduction means — gear, chain, or belt system:

2 WK R = 2 WK L

Where: P ϭPower, hp T ϭ Torque, lb-ft N ϭ Shaft speed, rpm Objects in linear motion:

F=

W⌬V 1, 933 t

(8 )

P=

FV 33, 000

(4 )

Where: F ϭForce required, lb W ϭ Weight, lb ⌬V ϭChange in velocity, fpm t ϭ Time to accelerate load, sec

Rr2

(12 )

Where: P ϭ Power, hp F ϭ Force, lb V ϭ Velocity, fpm Pumps:

Moment of inertia

Solid cylinder rotating about its own axis: WK2 ϭ(1/2)WR2 (9)

Where: WKR2 ϭ Reflected inertia, lb-ft2 WKL2 ϭ Load inertia, lb-ft2 Rr ϭ Reduction ratio

**Duty cycle calculation
**

The RMS (root mean square) value of a load is one of the quantities often used to size PT components.

QHS P= 3, 960

(5 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R ϭ Radius of cylinder, ft

LRMS =

2 2 L1 t1 + L2 2 t2 + ... + Ln tn t1 + t2 + ... + tn

(13 )

1997 Power Transmission Design

A19

.........30-0... Inc... 17ST Brass: Cast . ....000....000 .000 .... ...000....000. Applied Mechanics for Engineering Technology. ...............................28 0...M.......000 35..000 3....Source: S..10-0..000 .....10 0.........3) 0.000 54..000 67.............000 ..... . John S. .......... .......... Gray ..40 .....28 0...000 ........30 0. ..000...... 2.........000 .....000 92.087 0. 20... psi Yield point......000 85............000 43.200....28 0...........000 3.20-0.......30 0.... ........... .. Reston Publishing Co.... 5.000... tension or compression (psi) 30.. 1............. .... .....000 Modulus of elasticity..000 ..000 5.... High C ..... 0........I....................... tension (psi) 39. .. Steel cast: Low C ................000 12........ Brick....30 0......000 Modulus of elasticity..000 44...........000 10.. 350 ........ etc...000............000.. .. .... Walker............000 30.........000 ...000 60... in.........000 . 1983.. ..000 16.. Wrought iron ......... Hindehide.. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons........ Metals Park... S.. Where: L RMS ϭ RMS value of the load which can be in any unit.. New York.......000 53...... 1984......... 15.000.... .....000 43..000 48.... 18..26 0.000 120........ ..28 0..000 25...... C..750...000 12....000 70.......000 . Denton...000 6.000.......... . Heisler..... Where: E ϭ Modulus of elasticity...... The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.000 65......500......... .000 ....... Modulus of elasticity E= PL A⌬d (14 ) Reston......80 .. SAE 2330 ASTM 20 ASTM 35 ASTM 60 SAE 32510 .. ..........000. in.. 1983.. Cold-drawn ........000.... t1 ϭ Duration of time for period 1 t2 ϭ Duration of time for period 2.......000 70. ASM Handbook of Engineering Mathematics......... C..........28 0. . lb L ϭ Length of object... ...... Cast iron: Gray ......... Machine Design Fundamentals........ 2....... American Society of Metals. .... 1. No.000 6..............2 P ϭ Axial load........000 125... ..Mechanical properties of common materials Ultimate strength...700 22.....000...............26 0............. Nickel .. ..000 6.......000 50..000 125. *The ultimate strength in compression for ductile materials is usually taken as the yield point..280..000.. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet...... .... amp. . 0..000.000 ASTM 3..... etc. in....72 0........60-0.. ..........000 30.....000 9.....................................000 27.. .............28 0..015 .... John S..000 10....... 3...... ... shear (psi) 12.....000 20.........840 860 550 .... ..28 0......... forged-rolled C........ and for structural steel is taken as 90.. ...... ..... 45........000 ......000 96.000 .........000 39... Wiley & Sons... No........000 35....... 0....000 12. General technical references 1..000 80.....000... 1997 Power Transmission Design A21 .............000 75....000 35.I............10 0....000 46..........000 40.000 psi... clay ........... ...000.000 12.. ..000 145.. A ϭ Area of object.. 23........092 0....... Malleable .............. 80. L1 ϭ Load during time of period 1 L2 ϭ Load during time of period 2....... Wiley & Sons.. . 300 4.....28 0... Annealed ..................... ..500 ......... .000 38..000 56. 3. New York..... 49.... ..000 65...... Equivalent SAE 1015 SAE 1025 SAE 1035 ComTension pression* 60....... 49.000 11. Medium C . .... The bearing value for pins and rivets may be much higher.. etc............000 48.000.........000 30...... 1984.. Ohio....28 0.. Heisler........... ...000 25...20 .000 8. The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference..2 ⌬d ϭ Increase in length resulting from axial load. 15...... lb/in.... Cold-drawn ..000.. 8.... . 0................... Structural.........000 ......000 46...........000 58.... Timber .....000 35.. ...... Bronze: Cast .....000..000. Texas 1995.. .... ........... 1984..000 15......200....... K. .000 30.........000 115.26 0...000 Shear 48.....000 Weight (lb per in. Zimmerman....000....000 27........ 45...... 4..000 ...........30 ...31 0.000 60... hp................26 0.000 . C.. Amechtron Inc..31 0.....000 70. 18... Concrete 1:2:4 (28 days) Stone ... Gray .750................... Aluminum alloy: Structural............. New York.... Va.... 5..... ....... . Third Edition.......000 Material Steel..

) gal (U. and seconds are mean solar.S. Multiply Length Angstrom units cm ft in.S.4516258 in.76456 0.) Angstrom units ft in.) in.37 1. fluid) oz (U. fluid) yd3 yd3 (British) 3.000 2.2740 2. standard.854 ϫ 10Ϫ7 1. fluid) ft3 L (liter) gal (U.2 7.) oz (U.30480 2.S.) gal (U. fluid) cm3 in. (U.S.3937 0.15499969 0.2137 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.07639 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.086 1.S.000 lb oz (avoirdupois) lb tons (metric) tons (short) grams kg lb kg lb lb A22 1997 Power Transmission Design .280 in.001 0.6 2.3 L (liter) oz (U. (U.13368 231 3.3 m3 m3 Plane angle radian 57. m cm in.S.S.17 4.CONVERSION FACTORS Unless otherwise stated.2 m2 cm2 cm2 Volume cm3 cm3 cm3 ft3 (British) ft3 (U. statute) By To obtain 3.937 ϫ 10-9 0. avoirdupois.S. in.09361 6.20462 0. pounds are U.106 2.78533 128 29.9999916 28.S.204.) cm3 gal (U.516.S. statute) m ft Area cir mils cm2 cm2 ft2 ft2 in.) oz (U.092903 929.S.76455 ft3 gal (U.5737 1.280833 39. yd miles (U.S.S.0341 6.91440 5.) in.5400058 0.S.S.S.80469 0.531445 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.240 1.31625 264. feet are U.) ft3 (U.S.) m3 gal (British) gal (British) gal (U.2 ft2 in.6417 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0. (British) m m m m m yd miles (U.9999972 1010 3.349527 1.S.20094 0.S.0011023 28.033814 0.) gal (U.24809 ϫ 10Ϫ6 35.29578 deg Weight Dynes kg kg kg kg oz (avoirdupois) tons (long) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) 2.

98 1.333 4.2 kg-cm2 Weight inertia: lb-in.80665 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.545. Brad Grant. 1997 Power Transmission Design A23 . The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.250 W Btu (mean)/hr lb-ft/sec kW lb-ft/rpm Inertia Mass inertia: lb-in.93 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.83 ϫ 10Ϫ5 10Ϫ4 1.08 550 0.7041 1.113 1.355 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 Source: S.8 (deg F) + 32 Pressure atmosphere atmosphere lb/ft2 psi psi 14.555 (deg F Ϫ 32) deg F = 1. Heisler. New York.113 251.74570 5.88241 70.4667 mph mph radians/sec cm/sec fps Temperature deg C ϭ 0.13 ϫ 10Ϫ4 7. Texas.23693 0..06 W-sec j (joule) calories j Power gram-cm/sec hp hp hp hp 9.80 lb kg Torque lb-in. lb-in.2 oz-in. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet.07 psi kg/m2 kg/m2 grams/cm2 kg/m2 Force Newton Newton 0.113 0.68182 2.307 703.10472 44. Amechtron Inc. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.06 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1. Denton.Multiply Velocities feet/sec (fps) meters per sec rpm mph mph By To obtain 0.I. 1984.00706 (Newton-meters) N-m N-m dyne-cm N-m Energy lb-in. 0.356 1. Btu Btu 0.-sec2 in-oz-sec2 lb-ft-sec2 2.3558 ϫ 107 0.696 10.055. lb-ft lb-ft oz-in.22481 9.

the inertia can be calculated by using Table 1 and substituting in equation 2: N NL − N FL × 100 N FL Based on density.. Figure 1.-sec2 Kt = Torque constant. Based on density. Pdel = Power delivered to the load. lb-in. lb-in. or leadscrew. Solid cylinder. and length: πLρR 4 J= 2g Hollow cylinder. lb-in. lb Fpf = Preload force. Then./A L = Length. tangential. Ri= Inner radius. the equations reflect the load parameters back to the motor shaft. lb-in. sec tdec = Deceleration time. Vl = Load speed. Based on weight and radius: Motor Load Figure 3 — Direct drive. Ts = Stall torque. Figure 1 — Solid cylinder. in. Tr = Torque reflected to motor. Inertia — the resistance of an object to accelerate or decelerate — defines the torque required to accelerate a load from one speed to another. Trun = Running Torque. lb-in. lb-in. motor requirements. ⍀ Ro= Outer radius. in.. Inertia is calculated by analyzing the mechanical linkage system that is to be moved. A Irms = Root-mean-squared current. radius. Load is coupled directly to motor without any speed changing device. or its density. ipm W= Weight. lb-in.312 in. Tdec = Deceleration torque. lb-in. in. rpm Sm = Motor speed. sec tidle = Idle time. Figure 2. so the load friction is the friction the motor must overcome. gear. The load parameters are directly transmitted to the motor. Figure 3. Example: If a cylinder is a leadscrew with a radius of 0. lb-in. W Pdiss = Power (heat) dissipated by the motor. lb-in. lb-in. gears. and a length of 22 in.3 P= Pitch. rev/in. lb-in. the inertia of mechanical components (such as shafts. lb g = Gravitational constant. sec trun = Run time. rad/sec2 e = Efficiency Fl = Load force. the load inertia and friction are reflected through the mechanical linkage system to determine Jt = Jl + Jm (5 ) A24 1997 Power Transmission Design . sec T = Torque. in. radius. The speed of the motor is the same as that of the load. rpm tacc = Acceleration time. A J = Inertia. Such systems are categorized as one of four basic drive designs: direct. and length.MOTION CONTROL BASICS Nomenclature: ␣acc = Rotary acceleration./sec2 Iacc = Current during acceleration. lb Wlb= Weight of load plus belt.” Therefore. lb Ff = Friction force. Trms = Root-mean-squared torque. lb/in. lb-in. but it excludes frictional forces. Sl = Load speed. Tm = Motor torque. Tf = Friction torque. and length: J= πLρ 4 Ro − Ri4 2g ( (4 ) With these equations. lb-in.-sec2 Jt = Total inertia. In the following analyses of mechanical linkage systems. Tacc = Acceleration torque. lb-in. A determination of what the motor “sees” is necessary for selecting both motor and its control.-sec2 Jp = Pulley inertia. Load friction can easily be determined either by estimating or by simply measuring with a torque wrench. Tl = Load torque.-sec2 Jls = Leadscrew inertia.28 0.000237 lb . Rm = Motor resistance. 386 in. Cylinder inertia The inertia of a cylinder can be calculated based on its weight and radius. Because there are no mechanical linkages involved.in. W R = Radius. Based on weight and radius: (2 ) πLρR 4 π 22 0. the total inertia is the load inertia plus the motor inertia. lb T he first step in determining the requirements of a motion-control system is to analyze the mechanics — including friction and inertia — of the load to be positioned. and load inertia is what the motor “sees.sec 2 ( )( )( ( ) ) 4 J= W 2 Ro + Ri2 2g ( ) ) (3 ) Direct drive The simplest drive system is a direct drive. Figure 2 — Hollow cylinder. lb-in.-sec2 Jm = Motor inertia. = Coefficient of friction N = Gear ratio Nl = Number of load gear teeth Nm= Number of motor gear teeth p = Density. drive rollers) can be calculated. lb-in. radius.-sec2 Jl = Load inertia. W Pp = Total power.312 J= = 2g 2 386 = 0.

Motor speed: WR 2 10 2.280 0.0034 lb . 1997 Power Transmission Design A25 . and an inner radius of 2. first use equation 1 to determine the load inertia.3113 lb . lb per cu in. substitute in Figure 5 — Tangential drive. requires reflecting the load parameters back to the motor shaft.0747 + 0.in. the load inertia reflected back to the motor is a squared function of the speed ratio.0747 = 0. substitute in equation 3: N Motor m For high accuracy.0747 lb .sec.003 WR 2 6 2 Jl = = 2g 2 386 () ( ) 2 = 0.90 0..04 0. a tangential drive. The pulleys are hollow cylin- Table 2—Typical leadscrew efficiencies Type Efficiency 0. diameter. 5-lb each. solid cylinder with a 4-in. belt. Motor speed: Consisting of a timing belt and pulley.sec 2 ders. Jp = 5 W 2 2.031 3 2 = 0.5 in. Figure 4..Gear drive The mechanical linkages between the load and motor in a gear drive. Figure 5.40 Total inertia at motor: Jt = Jl N2 + Jm (10 ) Load Example: To calculate the reflected inertia for a 6-lb.in.3 2 Ro + Ri2 = 2g 2 386 ( ) ( )( ( ) ) = 0.2 (11 ) Tl = Fl R (6 ) Friction torque: (12 ) Sm = Sl × N or Also.322 0.. connected through a 3:1 gear set.029 Jr = Jl N2 Example: A belt and pulley arrangement will be moving a weight of 10 lb.031 lb .1619 + 0. also requires reflecting load parameters back to the motor shaft.15 0.65 0. equation 9.5 Jl = = g 386 2 Total inertia reflected to the motor shaft is the sum of the two pulley inertias plus the load inertia: V Sm = l 2πR Load torque: J = J l + J p1 + J p2 = 0. or rack and pinion. the inertia of pulleys.5 2 + 2. sprockets or pinion gears must be included to determine the total inertia. with an outer radius of 2. This value can be obtained from literature or calculated using the equations for the inertia of a cylinder. the inertia of the gears should be included when determining total inertia. S × Nl Sm = l Nm Motor torque: T f = Ff R (7 ) Load inertia: (13 ) Table 1—Material densities Jl = Tl Ne (8 ) Total inertia: Wlb R 2 g (14 ) Material Aluminum Copper Plastic Steel Wood Density. Any speed changing device — gearing.in. As with any speed changing system.3 in.096 0.in. Tm = Reflected load inertia: Jt = (9 ) Wlb R 2 + J p1 + J p2 + J m g (15 ) 0. Ball-nut Acme (plastic nut) Acme (metal nut) R Pulley Motor Table 3—Leadscrew coefficients of friction Steel on steel (dry) Steel on steel (lubricated) Teflon on steel Ball bushing 0. To calculate the inertial for a hollow..040 0. cylindrical pulley. The total load (belt plus load) is moved with a lever arm with a radius.sec 2 Substitute in equation 14 to determine load inertia: Tangential drive Load Nl Figure 4 — Speed changer between load and motor. Jr = 0. chain and sprocket. R. Gearing efficiencies should also be considered when calculating required torque values. or chain — alters the reflected inertia to the motor by the square of the speed ratio.sec 2 To reflect this inertia through the gear set to the motor.58 0.

pitch. Both the leadscrew and the load inertia have to be considered. the next step is to determine the torque levels required. or it will be unnecessarily costly.3 Leadscrew inertia is based on the Figure 8 — Move profile.28 0.. If a leadscrew inertia is not readily available. stopping and speed are dictated by the control unit which takes a lowlevel incoming command signal and amplifies it to a higher-power level for controlling the motor. the load represents the mechanics being positioned.00052 lb . The programmable motion controller is the brain of the motion control system and controls the motor control (amplifier). In a basic motion-control system. Motor starting. the motion Figure 6 — Leadscrew drive. Friction force: Power supply Motion control system L o a d Ff = µ × W Friction torque: (18 ) Programmable motion controller Control (amplifier) Motor Encoder or resolver Speed and position feedback Tf = Total inertia: 1 Ff 2π Pe (19 ) Figure 7 — Basic motion system.12 Run Time. Motor speed: control system will either take too long to position the load.5-in. radius and a 5-rev/in. long leadscrew with a 0. Such preload torque can be significant and must be included. If friction and inertia are not properly determined. The load is coupled or connected through one of the mechanical linkages previously described..00313 lb .in. By comparing a pre-programmed.00365 lb .12 Deceleration Idle 0.000 (20 ) Speed. a motor can be sized to deliver the required torque and the control sized to power the motor. The reflected load inertia is: 200 1 W 1 Jl = = g 2πP 386 2π 5 = 0.00052 + 0. see Tables 2 and 3.12 Acceleration t=0 0. the leadscrew may be preloaded to eliminate or reduce backlash. equation for inertia of a cylinder: πLρR 4 π 44 0.sec 2 2 2 0.5 J ls = = 2g 2 386 = 0. Figure 7..Leadscrew drive Illustrated in Figure 6. and the friction and inertia of the load are known.00313 = 0. a leadscrew drive also requires reflecting the load parameters back to the motor.sec 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 Total inertia to be connected to the motor shaft is: J = J l + J ls = 0. Then. sec t=1 0. W 1 Jt = + J ls + J m g 2πP 2 2. The motor may be a traditional PMDC servo motor.sec 2 Motor Load Motion control system Once the mechanics of the application have been analyzed.in. Sm = Vl × P Load torque reflected to motor: (16 ) User’s interface AC power 1 Fl 1 Fpf Tr = + ×µ 2π Pe 2π P (17 ) For typical values of leadscrew efficiency (e) and coefficient of friction (). This controller reads a feedback signal to monitor the position of the load.in. rpm Example: A 200-lb load is positioned by a 44-in. the equation for a cylinder may be used. For precision positioning. The motion controller is programmed to accomplish a specific task for a given application. or a brushless servo motor. as must leadscrew efficiency. a vector motor. A26 1997 Power Transmission Design .

the motor has not yet started to move.75 )2 (. Power delivered to move the load is: Duty cycle torque In addition to acceleration torque. The load parameters are: Weight of load (Wlb) = 200 lb Leadscrew inertia (J ls) = 0.5 ) = 55. Running torque is equal to friction torque (Tf).75 lb .73 = 1. the acceleration rate can be determined from the speed and acceleration time..85 )2 (. the appropriate value is used in place of “I” in the following equation. deceleration torque is: Pdel = T ( Sm )(746 ) 63.95 = −11. the motor and load begin to accelerate. suppose with a system at rest (time =0.4 lb-in. run time. Typical motor parameters are: Motor rotor inertia (Jm) = 0.73 lb . there is no feedback signal. Torque constant (Kt) = 4.12 + .2 rad/sec 2 9.95 = 13.55 tacc (21 ) Pdiss = I 2 ( Rm ) (28 ) 2. As the motor approaches the commanded speed.00313 + . most of the input energy is dissipated as heat.“desired” position with the feedback position.86 )2 ( 4.in. and a deceleration torque during the stopping phase.00052 + .75 = 2. during acceleration.12 ( ) (13. only nominal power (voltage and current) are required to overcome friction and windage. basic motor dynamics and power requirements must be determined to ensure adequate power capability for each motor.12 ) + (11. Now.5 W 63. As the system stabilizes at running speed.0037 1.00052 + .55 0. (Dividing the motor speed expressed in rpm by 9. 745.0037 lbin. 025 Pdiss = (2. voltage applied to the motor is reduced. Example: Power required during the acceleration portion of the movement profile can be obtained by substituting in equations 27 and 28: Acceleration torque The torque required to accelerate the load and overcome mechanical friction is: The motor tentatively selected for this application can supply a continuous stall torque of 14. Example: Our application. Therefore.00313 + . Thus. the controller can take action to minimize an error between the actual and desired load positions. the load position approaches the desired position and begins to decelerate. the motion controller issues a command to the motor (through the servo control) to start motion.85 lb . 0. with a movement profile as shown in Figure 6. the value depends on the acceleration current (Iacc). in turn.95 lb-in.2 rad per sec2.12 ) . (Pdel) and (2) power losses dissipated in the motor. α acc = α acc = Sm 9.b-in.55 converts the speed to radians per second). as well as for the duty-cycle requirements. speed. I acc = = Tacc Kt (25 ) 13. The two aspects of power requirements include (1) power to move the load. Acceleration rate (␣acc) =1745. At t=1. For example./A Motor resistance (Rm) = 4. (Pdiss). As friction and torque are overcome. which the control must be able to supply to the motor.8 (26 ) Tacc = .75(2. The sum of ( Pdel) and (Pdiss) determine total power requirements.12 ) + (. During the stopping phase. 745. Pdel = 13. it is a function on th rms current (Irms).2 + .61 A 4.0037 1745. in this case. but the error signal is large. Figure 9.12 + . the error signal is reduced and.95 lb-in. as well as continuous current (Irms) for the application’s duty-cycle requirements. Thus. the root-mean-squared (rms) value of torque required over the movement profile can be calcuated: Trms = = 2 2 2 ( tacc ) + Trun ( trun ) + Tdec ( tdec ) Tacc tacc + trun + tdec + tidle ( ( ) (24 ) ) Power dissipated in the motor is a function of the motor current.3 = 7.2 W 1997 Power Transmission Design A27 . 000 = 1.00313 lb-in-sec2 Friction torque (Tf) = 0.86 A 4. At t=0. Tacc = J t α acc + T f = J t + J ls + J m α acc + T f ( ( ) (22 ) Control requirements Determining a suitable control (amplifier) is the next step.2 + . in such systems. For example.2 Continuous stall torque (Ts) = 14. ( ) Power requirements The control must supply sufficient power for both the acceleration portion of the movement profile. the motor’s power dissipation capacity is the limiting factor. The control must be able to supply sufficient acceleration current (Iacc).4 lb-in. the motor must be able to provide sufficient torque over the entire duty cycle or movement profile. which is adequate for the application. and while running. with full powersupply voltage and current applied. 025 (27 ) Tdec = − J t α acc + T f = − . At this instant. requires moving a load through a leadscrew.5 ⍀ Acceleration torque can be determined by substituting in equation 23. In applications with similar move profiles. 000 ) (746 ) = 325. Figure 8). Required acceleration current that must be supplied to the motor is: ) (23 ) Movement profile A movement profile defines the desired acceleration rate.in.12 + .95 )2 (. is: I rms = = Trms Kt 7.in. This includes a certain amount of constant torque during the run phase.8 .8 Current over the duty cycle. Determining acceleration rate is the first step.5 )(1. Therefore. and deceleration rate of the load.

..DE ...5 = 200.... assuming the resistance is a 155 C...Educational Institutions .. both text and graphics........61 )2 ( 4......2 = 380.. published in the September 1995 and March 1996 issues of PTD... conversation.4 W In summary The control selected must be capable of delivering (as a minimum) an acceleration (or peak) current of 2..... Each group of eight bits represents an instruction...4 W....025 = (1... Foundation fieldbus — A specification for process applications..net . such as: . The definition is broadening to include data traveling within the physical medium of a few wires or cables.Networking Units .... whether it is between user and machine.. COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY H ere are some of the vocabulary used in digital communication..7 W Pdel = Pdiss 7. from these locations. Sometimes gateways also convert cable types.. machine and machine. They are words used by those involved with PCs... Gateway — Software on a board or chip that converts one communication protocol to another...7 W and continuous power of 200.. Finger — Search capability for email addresses where location is known but e-mail address is not..61 A..Government Departments ..... command execution ability..5 ) = 17. many suppliers offer computer software programs to perform the iterative calculations necessary to obtain the optimum motor and control. Also....Pp = Pdel + Pdiss = 325.org. Bus — Years ago........ Requires an address consisting of the Internet name or number of the recipient at the specific service provider..GB ..... They support all types of communication. Domain or zone — Part of an Internet address.. In computer code....com... or user and user..5 + 55....US. They also retrieve and display information. Data highway — Another term for bus or network... midlevel bus..... attach.. Connectivity — The ability to have one device connect. 000 ) (746 ) = 182.UK or ... From articles by Baldor Electric.gov... A CompuServe address has a series of numbers: 1111....... PLCs. To aid in selecting both motors and controls (amplifiers).. or datum.. Examples include Netscape and Mosaic...5 W Note: The factor of 1. Bit — Symbolic representation of an “On” or “Off” state of a device.9 + 17. BBS — Bulletin board systems offer forums....... bus referred to the path or paths data traveled on the backplane of a computer board.. Like converting a DOS program to an Apple-based program. Continous power required for the duty cycle is: Pp = 182... The power requirement calls for peak power of 380... Chat channels — Addresses on the Internet where real time “conversations” take place between groups of individuals who are signed into a particular Chat Room...edu ...... a configuration where control... and a continuous (or rms) current of 1.Professional Societies ..5 in the Pdiss calculation is a factor used to make the motor’s winding resistance “hot..com. Sometimes a long process down a series of A28 1997 Power Transmission Design ..United States .JP .. Distributed — In communications.. or intelligence (such as microprocessor intelligence) is spread among two or more devices. or communicate with another..5 )(1...9 W 63.. it is indicated as a “1” or a “0.mil.. a command.73(2... a network system created by Allen-Bradley............. Byte — Eight 1s or 0s grouped together.. Fieldbus — A general term used to describe any bus that connects devices to microprocessor-based controls.Military ... No spaces are allowed between letters or numbers..86 A..... Synonymous with devicelevel bus. and control devices......” Browsers — Graphics-based software programs that let you reach a variety of locations on the Internet and move from one to the other (surf).. in any combination. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) — The means by which computer files and software programs are transferred from a host computer to recipient’s computers... and postings. mostly local or regional. Many times the same individuals return to the same room at the same time each day.. Usually they have a posted subject for discussion.Germany E-mail — Electronic mail supported across the Internet. Gopher — Menu-based system that helps find data residing on computers at various locations.........” This is a worst-case analysis.. sensor-actuator bus....Japan .United Kingdom .....Commercial Organizations . It consists of a two or three-letter designation for the type of organization or geographical location.1111@compuserve.

the user can usually look at sub-pages or be linked with other locations of similar interest. Begun by the Defense Department in 1969 to ensure communications between colleges and universities. graphics. Search engines — Software programs that let the user find information sites by definition. or add comments. Kbaud — A transmission rate of one byte per second. and Alta Vista. and punctuation must be exact to reach the right address. There are no spaces and every letter. Network — All the cabling. but companies and individuals jumped onboard only recently. then retrieve information from these sites. and governments. contractors. Colleges and students have used it for a long time.com/dognews /~csmith/collars. and software parameters and control used to connect microprocessor-based devices over long distances. Integration — Sufficient communication among devices. 1996. World Wide Web — A rapidly expanding group of home pages that provide information on many subjects. including text. Once there. organizations. polarities.decision-tree paths. individuals. wiring. and government. Examples include Yahoo. Internet — Worldwide network of computers and computer networks. Distance is less of a factor now. Devices become part of a whole as opposed to separate pieces of a system.html. Hub — Hardware interface device between different cable types. These definitions were taken from “PLCs bus into the future” (PTD July 1995 p. companies. 19) and “Internet for Engineers” (PTD Aug. Protocol — A specification that defines input signal levels. and speeds. Packet — Several bytes of data grouped together in a network message. Usenet — A worldwide bulletin board divided into categories on which you can post news. 59) 1997 Power Transmission Design A29 . number. such that performance is enhanced to a level not possible as independent devices. subject. p. or even key words. Usually the address looks like: http://www. and sound.foggy. Lycos. and a device’s output signals. make inquiries. Connects these cables together into a network.