# ENGINEERING BASICS

T
he following information helps you solve technical problems frequently encountered in designing and selecting motion control components and systems. Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭ Flow rate, gpm H ϭ Head, ft S ϭ Specific gravity of fluid ␮ ϭ Pump efficiency Fans and blowers: T ϭ FR (1) Hollow cylinder rotating about its own axis:

WK =
2

2 W R12 + R2

(

)

2

(10 )

Torque
Where: T ϭ Torque, lb-ft F ϭ Force, lb R ϭ Radius, or distance that the force is from the pivotal point, ft

P=

Qp 229␮

(6 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R1 ϭ Outside radius, ft R2 ϭ Inside radius, ft

Where: P ϭ Power, hp Q ϭFlow rate, cfm p ϭ Pressure, psi ␮ ϭ Efficiency

Linear to rotary motion
N= V 0.262 D (2 )

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Accelerating torque and force
Of rotating objects

Where: N ϭ Speed of shaft rotation, rpm V ϭ Velocity of material, fpm D ϭ Diameter of pulley or sprocket, in.

(WK )⌬N T=
2

308 t

(7 )

Material in linear motion with a continuous fixed relation to a rotational speed, such as a conveyor system:

Horsepower
Rotating objects:

P=

TN 5, 250

(3 )

Where: T ϭTorque required, lb-ft WK2 ϭ Total inertia of load to be accelerated, lb-ft2. (See Formulas 9, 10, 11, and 12.) ⌬N ϭ Change in speed, rpm t ϭTime to accelerate load, sec Objects in linear motion:

 V  2 = W WK L   2␲N 

2

(11 )

Where: WKL2 ϭ Linear inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of material, lb V ϭ Linear velocity, fpm N ϭ Rotational speed of shaft, rpm Reflected inertia of a load through a speed reduction means — gear, chain, or belt system:
2 WK R = 2 WK L

Where: P ϭPower, hp T ϭ Torque, lb-ft N ϭ Shaft speed, rpm Objects in linear motion:

F=

W⌬V 1, 933 t

(8 )

P=

FV 33, 000

(4 )

Where: F ϭForce required, lb W ϭ Weight, lb ⌬V ϭChange in velocity, fpm t ϭ Time to accelerate load, sec

Rr2

(12 )

Where: P ϭ Power, hp F ϭ Force, lb V ϭ Velocity, fpm Pumps:

Moment of inertia
Solid cylinder rotating about its own axis: WK2 ϭ(1/2)WR2 (9)

Where: WKR2 ϭ Reflected inertia, lb-ft2 WKL2 ϭ Load inertia, lb-ft2 Rr ϭ Reduction ratio

Duty cycle calculation
The RMS (root mean square) value of a load is one of the quantities often used to size PT components.

QHS P= 3, 960␮

(5 )

Where: WK2 ϭ Moment of inertia, lb-ft2 W ϭ Weight of object, lb R ϭ Radius of cylinder, ft

LRMS =

2 2 L1 t1 + L2 2 t2 + ... + Ln tn t1 + t2 + ... + tn

(13 )

1997 Power Transmission Design

A19

.........30-0... Inc... 17ST Brass: Cast . ....000....000 .000 .... ...000....000. Applied Mechanics for Engineering Technology. ...............................28 0...M.......000 35..000 3....Source: S..10-0..000 .....10 0.........3) 0.000 54..000 67.............000 ..... . John S. .......... .......... Gray ..40 .....28 0...000 ........30 0. ..000...... 2.........000 .....000 92.087 0. 20... psi Yield point......000 85............000 43.200....28 0...........000 3.20-0.......30 0.... ........... .. Reston Publishing Co.... 5.000... tension or compression (psi) 30.. 1............. .... .....000 Modulus of elasticity..000 ..000 5.... High C ..... 0........I....................... tension (psi) 39. .. Steel cast: Low C ................000 12........ Brick....30 0......000 Modulus of elasticity..000 44...........000 10.. 350 ........ etc...000............000.. .. .... Walker............000 30.........000 ...000 60... in.........000 . 1983.. ..000 16.. Wrought iron ......... Hindehide.. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons........ Metals Park... S.. Where: L RMS ϭ RMS value of the load which can be in any unit.. New York.......000 53...... 1984......... 15.000.... .....000 43..000 48.... 18..26 0.000 120........ ..28 0..000 25...... C..750...000 12....000 70.......000 . Denton...000 6.000.......... . Heisler..... Where: E ϭ Modulus of elasticity...... The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.000 65......500......... .000 ....... Modulus of elasticity E= PL A⌬d (14 ) Reston......80 .. SAE 2330 ASTM 20 ASTM 35 ASTM 60 SAE 32510 .. ..........000. in.. 1983.. Cold-drawn ........000.... t1 ϭ Duration of time for period 1 t2 ϭ Duration of time for period 2.......000 70. ASM Handbook of Engineering Mathematics......... C..........28 0. . lb L ϭ Length of object... ...... Cast iron: Gray ......... Machine Design Fundamentals........ 2....... American Society of Metals. .... 1. No.000 6..............2 P ϭ Axial load........000 125... ..Mechanical properties of common materials Ultimate strength...700 22.....000...............26 0............. Nickel .. ..000 6.......000 50..000 125. *The ultimate strength in compression for ductile materials is usually taken as the yield point..280..000.. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet...... .... amp. . 0..000.000 ASTM 3..... etc. in....72 0........60-0.. ..........000 30.....000 9.....................................000 27.. .............28 0..015 .... John S..000 10....... 3...... ... shear (psi) 12.....000 20.........840 860 550 .... ..28 0......... forged-rolled C........ and for structural steel is taken as 90.. ...... ..... 45........000 ......000 96.000 .........000 39... Wiley & Sons... No........000 35....... 0....000 12. General technical references 1..000 80.....000... 1997 Power Transmission Design A21 .............000 75....000 35.I............10 0....000 46..........000 40.000 psi... clay ........... ...000.000 12.. ..000 145.. A ϭ Area of object.. 23........092 0....... Malleable .............. 80. L1 ϭ Load during time of period 1 L2 ϭ Load during time of period 2....... Wiley & Sons.. . 300 4.....28 0... Annealed ..................... ..500 ......... .000 38..000 56. 3. New York..... 49.... ..000 65...... Equivalent SAE 1015 SAE 1025 SAE 1035 ComTension pression* 60....... 49.000 11. Medium C . .... The bearing value for pins and rivets may be much higher.. etc............000 48.000.........000 30...... 1984.. Ohio....28 0.. Heisler........... ...000 25...20 .000 8. The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference..2 ⌬d ϭ Increase in length resulting from axial load. 15...... lb/in.... Cold-drawn ..000.. 8.... . 0................... Structural.........000 ......000 46...........000 58.... Timber .....000 35.. ...... Bronze: Cast .....000..000. Texas 1995.. .... ........... 1984..000 15......200....... K. .000 30.........000 115.26 0...000 Shear 48.....000 Weight (lb per in. Zimmerman....000....000 27........ 45...... 4..000 ...........30 ...31 0.000 60... hp................26 0.000 . C.. Amechtron Inc..31 0.....000 70. 18... Concrete 1:2:4 (28 days) Stone ... Gray .750................... Aluminum alloy: Structural............. New York.... Va.... 5..... ....... . Third Edition.......000 Material Steel..

) gal (U. and seconds are mean solar.S. Multiply Length Angstrom units cm ft in.S.4516258 in.76456 0.) Angstrom units ft in.) in.37 1. fluid) oz (U. fluid) yd3 yd3 (British) 3.000 2.2740 2. standard.854 ϫ 10Ϫ7 1. fluid) ft3 L (liter) gal (U.2 7.) oz (U.30480 2.S.) gal (U. fluid) cm3 in. (U.S.3937 0.15499969 0.2137 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.07639 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.086 1.S.000 lb oz (avoirdupois) lb tons (metric) tons (short) grams kg lb kg lb lb A22 1997 Power Transmission Design .280 in.001 0.6 2.3 L (liter) oz (U. (U.13368 231 3.3 m3 m3 Plane angle radian 57. m cm in.S.S.17 4.CONVERSION FACTORS Unless otherwise stated.2 m2 cm2 cm2 Volume cm3 cm3 cm3 ft3 (British) ft3 (U. statute) By To obtain 3.937 ϫ 10-9 0. avoirdupois.S. in.09361 6.20462 0. pounds are U.106 2.78533 128 29.9999916 28.S.204.) cm3 gal (U.516.S. statute) m ft Area cir mils cm2 cm2 ft2 ft2 in.) oz (U.092903 929.S.76455 ft3 gal (U.5737 1.280833 39. yd miles (U.S.S.0341 6.91440 5.) in.5400058 0.S.S.S.80469 0.531445 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.240 1.31625 264. feet are U.) ft3 (U.S.) m3 gal (British) gal (British) gal (U.2 ft2 in.6417 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0. (British) m m m m m yd miles (U.9999972 1010 3.349527 1.S.20094 0.S.0011023 28.033814 0.) gal (U.24809 ϫ 10Ϫ6 35.29578 deg Weight Dynes kg kg kg kg oz (avoirdupois) tons (long) tons (long) tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) 2.

98 1.333 4.2 kg-cm2 Weight inertia: lb-in.80665 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.545. Brad Grant. 1997 Power Transmission Design A23 . The Wiley Engineer’s Desk Reference.250 W Btu (mean)/hr lb-ft/sec kW lb-ft/rpm Inertia Mass inertia: lb-in.93 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.83 ϫ 10Ϫ5 10Ϫ4 1.08 550 0.7041 1.113 1.355 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 kg-m2 Source: S.8 (deg F) + 32 Pressure atmosphere atmosphere lb/ft2 psi psi 14.555 (deg F Ϫ 32) deg F = 1. Heisler. New York.113 251.74570 5.88241 70.4667 mph mph radians/sec cm/sec fps Temperature deg C ϭ 0.13 ϫ 10Ϫ4 7. Texas.23693 0..06 W-sec j (joule) calories j Power gram-cm/sec hp hp hp hp 9.80 lb kg Torque lb-in. lb-in.2 oz-in. The Smart Motion Cheat Sheet.07 psi kg/m2 kg/m2 grams/cm2 kg/m2 Force Newton Newton 0.113 0.68182 2.307 703.10472 44. Amechtron Inc. Used with permission of John Wiley & Sons.06 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1. Denton.Multiply Velocities feet/sec (fps) meters per sec rpm mph mph By To obtain 0.I. 1984.00706 (Newton-meters) N-m N-m dyne-cm N-m Energy lb-in. 0.356 1. Btu Btu 0.-sec2 in-oz-sec2 lb-ft-sec2 2.3558 ϫ 107 0.696 10.055. lb-ft lb-ft oz-in.22481 9.