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SHELL INLAY FROM ROYAL TOMB AT UR .
THE JVLDST THE ANCIENT EAST ORIENTAL PRELUDE TO EUROPEAN PREHISTORY BT V. GORDON CHILDE B. Professor of Prehistoric Arch&ology in Edinburgh University* Author of The Aryans.Litt. KNOPF 1929 . NEW YORK ALFRED A. etc. The Dawn of European Civilization..
tTD n HIRTfOM> .PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BT ITIPHBN AUSTIN AND SONS.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE INVENTIO'N OF . IV... EUROPE AND THE EAST 220 237 NOTES ABBREVIATIONS 247 INDEX . SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE RISE OF THE DYNASTIES 78 100 V.CONTENTS CHAP. . . 123 WRITING AND THE HARNESSING OF 146 ANIMAL MOTIVE POWER VIII. VI. THE OLDEST THE THE THE THE FARMERS . SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION AT THE END OF THE IVTH MILLENNIUM IX* 169 201 THE INDUS CIVILIZATION X. . I. . PAGI FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY i II. 251 . VII. . 46 . THE SETTING OF THE STAGE 21 III..
(Top) Slate pendants and theriomorphic palette (below) clay models. Middle Predynastic. 70 Courtesy of . Cairo Tomb groups from Diospolis Parva. (tf) Prehistoric basket from Fayum. OF PLATES PACE. and flint laurel-leaf. amulets. (middle).89 . Shell inlay from Royal Tomb at Ur. 54 58 V. Woolley. (^) Urial Ram. combs and theriomorphic palette. Royal Scottish Museum (<r) Basalt () Interior of White Cross-lined bowl. .LIST PIATES. (bottom). (6) Badarian pottery 1 . of flint. Courtesy Exploration Society model of cattle. Brunton. (bottom row) pointed mace. London . . flint saw and fish-tailed blade. alabaster vase. VIII. Zoological Gardens. Esq Badarian figurine. (c) V-baaed blade and dagger of Egypt (J) Knife showing $erial flaking. bracelets . () Wavy-handled jars. . Miss G. by the courtesy of C. Royal Scottish Museum. (6) (Top) Figurines. . Ca ton-Thompson. Egypt Exploration Society. and the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Frontispiece IL II L (a) Mouflon Ram. Early Predynastic. . . of Egypt Exploration Society vii . discshaped mace. Egyptian Museum. L. (a) Tusk figurine. Courtesy of G. (tf) Clay (4~c) Model house. . and 73 combs IX. I. VL VII.. Brunton. rhomboid slate palette groups from Diospolis Parva. . Courtesy of 63 66 Egypt Exploration Society Illustrates clay figurines showing penis-sheath. disc-mace. tags. Royal Scottish Museum and alabaster vases. Stone vases and pottery copies. Tomb (<j) stone vase. Courtesy of 44 IV. Courtesy (rf) 83 X. Esq. tags. () Black-topped vases. steatopygous figurine. Esq. Courtesy of G.
. University of Pennsylvania with hilt and its sheath. (a) British Museum and mascot from Queen Shub-ad's 181 XXI. Courtesy of the British of Museum and the Joint Expedition . British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Stone statuette from Mohenjo Daro. . XIII. Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the (c) Earrings.LIST OF PLATES PLATES. XIX.172 XVIII. . Louvre Bowls from the cemetery of Susa I. painted pottery and figurines from India. Erech. and amethyst. -J . XXIII. Lion-Hunt Palette. (^) Silver boat from Royal Tomb. Golden dagger lapis ^.) Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania . Stone vase carved with procession of animals. 19* 204 209 viii . Ur. Louvre Milking scene on Frieze from A-anni-padda's temple at al 'Ubaid. (Limestone plaques inlaid on (^) Beaker (<:) bitumen. Courtesy of Sir John Marshall 190 . The beads consist of gold. and the University of Pennsylvania Jewelry from tombs at Ur. British Museum. (a) Rein-ring chariot. XVI. (^) XXII. (a) Earrings and bearded bull amulets. Courtesy of Egypt . Ashmolean. (I) Circular bas-relief showing a hunt in the marshes. (a) Bas-relief showing chariot.) British Museum . Spouted vase from Jemdet-Nasr.136 155 158 from Samarra.178 XX. . J Sauce boat (a) lapis. XVII. Tumblers from the cemetery of Susa I. British Museum . Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the British Museum * . .. Courtesy of Sir John Marshall Seals. XV. XL The XII. (a) . XIV. . Exploration Society. XXIV. Vases from Susa II. Ur. (i) Necklace. 1 74 () Gold toilet set and case. PAG1.109 Bracelets from tomb of King Zer. . (The sheath and case are adorned with filagree work... . Earrings and pendants from graves at Ur. in 1 34 . Louvre " " from al 'Ubaid. .
Pin. . $ : ... The whole scene is 2 5 feet long 33 . Fishhook.. Badarian beaker. Predynastic.. \ . 34 Scenes painted on the walls of a rock-shelter near Alpera. AIn Mouha&d. $. arrow-head (B). after Caton-Thomson in Antiquity... . after Brunton . after Petrie 6 17 Designs scratched on predynastic pots SmaU copper implements from Naqada I. after British . Morsotte and All Bacha. | Petroglyph depicting the extinct Bubalus antiquus on the rocks near Er Richa. as . Oran. 5^ 57 64 -65 ix .. 9 10 11 Rock-painting from a shelter in Khaimer Range (after J. d. Museum 12 Stone Agt Guide Sickle-teeth (A). i. Needle. Late Predynastic after Petrie. &) and Adrian (c d] points. . near G^ryville. 47 .. shown by the bulb visible in the middle view) Bone "hook" and wooden boomerang... 1 of the Most Ancient East svi 2 3 Rock engraving in the Sahara at Kef Messiouer. after Brunton Carinated bowl.38 . \ Later Capsian (Getulan) flints. a. . . after Breuil . 1883) Painting from a shelter at Singanpur Painting from a shelter at Singanpur Microliths from Vindhya Hills. Tunisia. 9. \. Algeria 'Sbatkian (a. Map FIG.HXUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT PAGE. near Guelma. . Asiatic Society. .. Badari. . (The flake C has 13 14 15 1 been detached by a blow struck near its centre.. Sou tli-East Spain. Early Middle Predynastic. 53 55 . Badari. c. t \ . 28 30 31 4 5 Capsian I flints and ostrich-egg disc. Bengal. India. 9 25 1. The larger buffalo is .36 37 39. . 6 7 8 6 feet high Rock engraving showing elephants and leopards. 3. and side-blow flake (C). .
. .. 82 and 82 . about Block figures. in bottom row claw and fly amulets Copper flat celts and dagger from Naqada. J . -J. 83 and 85. . . Decorated pot figuring boat Theriomorphic and spouted vases. Middle. Gaming piece in form of a lion from First Dyaaaty Royal . Tarkhan Great brick mastaba. 1 FACE. loz 103 104 40 41 42 Late Predynastic copper harpoons. Evolution of tomb types. Royal Tombs. . rhomboid daggers... . f Flat copper dagger J. . after Petrie . claw. 93 rot . 86 . Middle Predynastic..115 *6 117 . .. . about J . J. J Flint blades with V-base. Naqada. 29 30 3r 32 33 Decorated vases (and two Wavy-handled jars in centre) imitating stone vessels in shape and ornament. : 68 69 71 72 20 21 White Cross-lined bowls showing basketry patterns after Capart. El Atnrah* 9* . 8. etc. arrow-heads (5 is perhaps protodynastic) after 8 de Morgan 19 Ivory vases and harpoons of First and spoons of Second Predynastic culture. .. .ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. . . . after Capart . .. -73 8t |. S.D. 24 25 26 27 28 Ivory combs. Early Predynastic flint work 3 and 4. Royal Tombs. 1 06 43 44 45 46 47 48 Chisel-edged flint blades. 83 84 85 86 87 89 34 35 Flat knife or razor. 2. restored 90 with ivory handle. i and 2.. J. . . " in stone and fayence. later . Copper Figures " goblet. 107 107 108 I *o of apes .. .. Tarkhan .. Early dynastic chamber tomb Small masta&a. toad . 65 Predynastic stone beads . Black Incised ware. 36 37 38 39 Painting on the wall of a tomb at Hierakonpolis . . \ Flint razor blade. after Petrie. 86. after Petrie . after Garstang . Foreign ship from late Decorated pot Ivory handle for a flint knife like Fig* 26... 75 . * . | Flint hoe.74. Early. Slate palette in ^ -J 22 23 form of a . in I . Amulets : r. Bull's head . . . . J (Zer) . J.. Naqada. J . .. . after Petrie . Flint knives. Naqada. fish. 84.
. near Musyan Sumerian single-bladed and double axes. arrowheads. \ . . J Limestone pebbles ground to form a knife and Susa I . . J . J Flaked chert hoes. . Kish A. .. necropolis seals. . . of Susa I . J . $. al 'Ubaid cemetery. Kish A. after Mackay . . . J after Jars with anthropomorphic handles. 49 50 51 Copper chisel with " flanged PAGE. . . ^fa. 159 161 . Susa II.134 . Ur. 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Carinated pot and spouted jug. Button Susa II. 156 1 57 72 73 near Musyan.130 . *' blade from the . . . . ^. 185 Beaker*. 132 1 56 57 58 Flint arrow-heads.. I after Mem. . . xiii . . ring. Susa I Sherds from Susa I.186 Copper vessels. arrow-butt and axe. al 'Ubaid. .130 131 chisels. 1 135 37 de Morgan . J . -J . . needle. . DIL . . . Kish A. after de Morgan Stone receptacle for paint in the form of a cornet. al 'Ubaid. Arrow-heads and celts. . Susa Flint arrow-head and stone celts. J Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh Aly Abad.138 . and poker-butted spear180 head.184 Spouted jars. tubes.139 . . . celt. Twin vases of alabaster from Susa II. after Mackay .129 .ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. 154 155 Theriomorphic vases of alabaster from Susa II. Ur. after . . al 'Ubaid cemetery.178 Sumerun dagger blades.. .152 153 66 67 68 69 70 71 pin. Ur.121 128 52 53 54 55 Clay figurine. . Kish A. J 177 Sumerian axes. tomb of . depicting human figures . $ Brick tombs from the necropolis of Tepeh Aly Abad. Susa I 33 . J . Kish A. Copper Copper fish-hook. . Square vase of alabaster. 183 Mackay 183 Cky baains or offering tables. . . . Susa I . . Sickle teeth Hetep-heres. Susa I Pointed stone mace-head. J Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh Aly Abad. Bead seal. . . . cemeteries round Musyan. Susa I. the mother of Cheops and saddle quern from Susa Perse. xi . . . . Theriomorphic seal or weight. ^ ^ . spear-head. Jemdet Nasr.133 .151 .177 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Sumerian transverse axe. .. .
. Kish A. 189 Raquet pin. P. 81 82 83 84 85 86 188 Copper pins.. .. .ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. Ur. Kish A. . J Copper bracelets and earrings with flattened ends. . PAGE.. I 190 Plan of two Royal Tombs at Ur. Harappa 207 Copper beaker from Harappa .. showing disposition of victims in Queen Shub-ad's tomb.. G. 789 192 206 Copper dagger and chisel..
and the discovery of the Badarian culture in Egypt have effected a more radical and dramatic enlargement of the historical horizon than any event since Evans* identification of the Minoan civilization or Schliemann's disclosure of the treasures of Mycenae. for no extant work. weekly papers many people are made aware of them without being able in the least to understand what they really imply . In any case the novelty of my material may be advanced as an excuse for the inconclusive nature of my essay and the popular treatment of its theme. Yet perhaps these very discoveries may be pleaded From the daily and as a palliation of my rashness.PREFACE TT -* seems peculiarly rash to write anything about the Ancient East just at this juncture.branch of archaeological science is discovery proceeding at such a breathless pace or leading to such revolutionary results. at once intelligible to the general public and adequately illustrated. In no . To produce a manual (supposing I were capable of that) which would be bound to need radical revision years would be sheer extravagance. the opening of the Royal Tombs at Ur. gives the man in the street a clear idea of the context of the new finds. The disinterment of the forgotten Indus civilization. xiii in a couple of . To try and build up an elaborate and coherent theory out of our present half-knowledge would be waste of time when incalculable new discoveries are upsetting the most cherished conclusions of the experts.
I hope this little work will be of real value to some serious students in this respect without becoming unreadable to the laymen. Professor Langdon. Woolley. Woolley. attempted to sum up objectively the ascertained facts.E. Brunton. together with some authoritative interpretations.PREFACE I have. At the same time I do be of service to one class of that book my may hope serious students* As I tried to show in my Dawn of our ancestors' progress was for European the Ancient East . Professor Junker. Prof. the Conservateur of the Louvre. so that the reader may hereafter be able to read with more comprehension of their drift the reports of subsequent discoveries.B. the Director General of Archaeology in Egypt. Miss Caton-Thompson. Sir Flinders Petrie. Professor Langdon. and the whole long inspired by chronology of prehistoric Europe rests in the long run on synchronisms with the historical cultures of Babylonia and Egypt. Father Bovier Lapierre and others have most obligingly given me information as to unpublished discoveries for which I take this opportunity to thank them. and the Director-General of Archaeology in India. Yet no cheap and generally accessible book illustrates the original forms assumed by those Oriental inventions that Europe adopted and adapted.. Mr. Mr. the Egypt Exploration Society. the Director of the Royal Scottish Museum. or presents in the light of the newest chronology of Egypt and Sumer a conspectus of the types whose appearance north of the Mediterranean gives the framework for European prehistory. the Trustees of the Museum and of the Pennsylvania University Museum. H. Mr. Thanks to a number of figures that explain themselves without dull commentaries. For these illustrations I am indebted particularly to Civilization^ Mr* Guy Brunton. British xiv . Breuil. therefore. O.
He thus wins the picture of the material life of various peoples who inhabited Britain and adjacent territories at successive at times even trace the wanderings of epochs. adoption. and transEuropeans : formation of the inventions of the Orient. . inevitably their spiritual life their very antiquity is virtually a sealed book may be a matter of doubt But one thread is clearly discernible running of these prehistoric through the dark and tangled tale the westward spread. And it is . Yet the people so revealed remain almost nameless to us and to many.CHAPTER I FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY BARELY a thousand years ago Scotland and the rest of northern Europe were still sunk in the night of illiteracy and barbarism. and can such human groups with the aid of their artifacts. A thousand years earlier and history's upon our dark continent merely from a few on the shores of the Mediterranean. And in points the next millennium these points flicker out one by one light shines until only the ghostly radiance of heroic myth lights up the storied walls of Troy and Tiryns. The prehistoric archaeologist can shedlJome light on the savage past of our ancestors and forerunners by digging up their rude tools and clumsy ornaments and arranging them in approximate temporal series or local groups.
writing.C* For on the Nile and in Mesopotamia the clear light fifty of written history illumines our path for fully centuries. and then the discovery of metal and the realization of its have indeed been passed before the curtain properties Yet even so. we are so much nearer the beginnings on the banks of the Nile and the Euphrates that we have better hope of understanding those most momentous advances there than from any scrutiny of kitchenmiddens on the Baltic or of shell-heaps on the Scottish And frequently the data from the Orient coasts. East. From the Oriental kinsmen . became a creator emancipated from the whims of his environment. and conscious art. civilization are enacted The moments that drama on the open revolution whereby man of ceased to be purely parasitic and. with the adoption agriculture and stock-raising. or copied. urban There in the Ancient life. rises. some episodes greatest at least in the great of the conquest of stage. in the cultural provinces of Europe that we may hope to define in more than purely relative terms the age of the several cultural groups recognized in illiterate Europe before the middle of the first millennium B. and looking down that vista we already descry at its farther end ordered government.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from a study of objects of Oriental type found. too. imported. serve as a written commentary upon European prehistory* the peoples pf Oriental antiquity were dose kinsmen to the neolithic inhabitants of parts of Europe or descendants of tKe race of palaeolithic hunters who Some of had lived there before.
and inconclusive. of Oriental achievements. Now in no sphere of archaeological or anthropological research are such startling discoveries being made as in I need only instance the the Ancient East. \ with the excavation of Harappa jand Mojjgjyo An appreciation of these revolutions. or again the dramatic entry of India on to the --stage of Oriental history Darg. or at best adaptation. And even the archaeological context to which they belong is by HO means readily accessible to the ordinary worker itf $Jie field of prehistory. The latter is at first mainly the story of the imitation. that cannot help being one- sided.C. opening up a quite new chapter in Egypt's fsmotest past at & Bad^rL Disclosing a flourishing neolithic culture older than any previously known elsewhere. of the 3 results of the . or the dazzling revelation of the brilliance of Sumerian civilization at the end of the fourth millennium B.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY of our barbarian ancestors may we not expect to learn something even of the spiritual life of the latter ? May texts. from the point of view of the purely archaeological story of Imman culture has not yet been attempted. glossed by literary throw light on contemporary usages in silent Europe ? The Ancient East prehistoric and protohistoric archaeology of the is therefore an indispensable prelude to the true appreciation of European prehistory. The record of the achievements themselves is enshrined in the former. incomplete. That is my excuse for offering in this volume a survey. not the practices of the Orient.
onwards. Middle. a preliminary it is necessary to recapitulate some conclusions of the philological historian so as to define the basis of early chronology that forms the framework for my tale and to introduce the actors who are to play the leading r61es in our drama. has been subdivided by Manetho by dynasties. and New Kingdoms respectively. though cognate my As own.C. specialists in a field different to. This historical period begins with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt as a single kingdom by the first Pharaoh. traditionally called Menes (really a composite personage). the the whole of this period lists most monuments of kings and possible to give the age of in terms of solar years thanks to the it is their reigns controlled by certain astronomical dates given by peculiarities of the Egyptian 4 . Modern historians recognize three main periods of Egyptian greatness. and the New to the XVIIIth and XlXth. Throughout chaos .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST work of to. the Middle his Xlth and Xllth.C. In Egypt the written records tion in primarily the compila- Greek by Manetho. and the Palermo Stone inscribed some fourteen hundred years earlier serve to date the archaeological monuments from about three thousand B. separated by intervals of decline or even Old Kingdom corresponds to Manetho's Dynasties III-VJ. and then certain fragments of much older native Egyptian annals. composed under Ptolemy Philadelphus. termed the Old. particularly the so-called Turin Papyrus written about 1300 B.
according to one school of interpretation. takes us back into a prehistoric epoch -that date is the introduction of the calendar calendar. our Sirius . definable in like numerical terms. The Egyptian most immediate forerunner of our own. that is to say. And there is one yet earlier date. are regulated by its flood that recurs annually with mathematical regularity. The recurrence of this vital event was a challenge to the dwellers on the Nile to devise some more exact system of measuring time than the lun^reckonin^jof barbarians. was created in response to an imperative demand of Egyptian agriculture. was to mark of thirty days with five intercalary days superadded.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY calendar. elaborated a calendar for the guidance in which the heliacal rising of Sothis the beginning of the official year and to field to give the signal for the cycle of labours in the months twelve of The official year was to consist start. that forms the itself. Sirius appears on the horizon just before dawn on the same day as the flood reaches those cities. in the latitude of Memphis and Heliopolis at the apex of the Delta the beginning of the inundation Now coincides with the heliacal rising of Sothis. resident presumably in Memphis of cultivators or Heliopolis. in fact to effect an artificial reconciliation of the lunar and solar years. that. in order that the necessary agricultural operations might be put in hand in due time. 5 . upon which the prosperity and indeed the very existence is the very life of prince and peasant depend. The Nile of Egypt. and all agricultural operations. Hence some genius.
a discrepancy that would at first pass unnoticed but would mean in a couple of centuries that " ** the official Inundation. In fact New Year's Day." could have no relation to the activities they had been designed to guide. Sowing/' " Harvest. would only coincide with the official This year once in 1461 years* a Now know Sothic we termed period cycle. that a Sothic cycle began in A. which was at heliacal rising first all of times celebrated on the day of the Sirius.D. implies a ment and body of collected probability have been devised and brought into operation in the year 4236 before the beginning of our reckoning. The Egyptian year fell short of the true solar year by just under six hours. 1 Hence the introduction of the Sothic calendar must be assigned to a either still earlier Sothic cycle 2776 or 4236 B.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST reconciliation of the primitive lunar calendar with the solar year was a really extraordinary achieve- Such a and systematized experience and a degree of forethought not to be found Yet the system must in all among barbarians. But the calendar was already 6 . and it is possible day of the is often to connect with the several kings in (Senusert III) even Sothic system the accession of the XVII Ith dynasty and of one as early as the Xlltk The beginning of the last-named dynasty cannot on the strength of the royal lists possibly be put later titan 2000 B." seasons. 139.C. slight imperfection in the system makes it possible to calculate this date so exactly although no written A documents have survived from so early an age.C.
Menes' work was merely the unification of these two realms. 7 . But the two kingdoms were in a sense the result of the disruption of an older unity created by the conquest of Upper Egypt by the Followers of Horus or Shemsu- certainly a king of Upper Egypt who Before his sway on the fertile Delta. the men went other preparatory events vaguely reflected in The worshippers of Osiris and Anzti wnom tradition. a thousand years before Menes or our oldest inscribed monuments. alive Traditions that were still very much when information the Palermo Stone was inscribed give some " on the protohistoric period. had him of the Falcon clan whose original home was in the western Delta.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY established under the Pyramid builders of the IVth to computations based Dynasty that reigned according upon the fragments of native annals earlier than 2776. That year may therefore rank as the earliest fixed date in human history.* Hence if the date for the pyramid age obtained by dead reckoning be accepted. Menes " was almost there imposed had been kings of Upper Egypt and kings of Lower Egypt. date just mentioned implies a flourishing and advanced culture a thousand years before the written The record begins. whose names are even recorded on the Palermo Stone . Osiris supplanted had mastered the whole Delta or had.8 And behind that conquest Hor. the system must have been established as early as 4236. a unification symbolized in the double crown Menes and all his successors wore.
the. And may be referred to the same period of northern supremacy.4 tkughfc the dominion to Upper any case preceded the advance their Egyptians agriculture and links him curiously cult invested him with the shepherd's witlTByblos . used by the dynastic Egyptians. must have been invented in the Delta since plants and animals peculiar to the Delta are prominent among its signs.totemic animal . 8 . Linguistics and comparative ethnography offer to guide us still farther back towards the origins of Many philologists regard the as a Egyptian language compound or hybrid speech in which a Semitic strain allied to Assyrian or Hebrew Egyptian civilization. a conquest that in Tradition says that ^Osiris had of the Horus clan. In any its the tradition despite some ambiguities in interpretation leaves no doubt as to a case. so the economic system which he represents is far ahead of the African hunting or garden deities culture. For instance. the former hieroglyphic script. even extended Egypt. 4 political supremacy of the North over the South was reversed by Menes when the North had already that profoundly affected Upper Egypt. As his human shape is in contrast to. and the universal adoption of this script in the Nile valley. must be referred to some older unification perhaps under the the establishment of the calendar - Shemsu-Hor. his personality crook and the ploughman's ox-goad in any case is reminiscent of an Asiatic vegetation deity.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST on another view. that cannot of course have been introduced by the southerner Menes. of the Nile.
who holds by virtue of his magic power and as its price must lay down his 'life 'ere that power grow Pharaoh was enfeebled with the decay of his body. resurrection. Behind the impressive figure of the omnipotent and deified Pharaoh lotoms the shadow of a humbler personage tht his sovereignty dhdnejking^as Eraser has depicted him. is represented in a purer form. for example^ in The coincidence of the words for left and right with the designations for east and west is held to prove that the Semitic element for came^in from the north such a terminology for the points of the compass would . The Std festival. the god who had died and risen again. monarch the meaning and function were to confer upon renewed life and vigour by a symbolic death and . 5 The social and religious institutions that face us in such maturity at the dawn of Egyptian history not only challenge us to investigate the process of their growth but also provide us with clues to facilitate the task. was a magical identification of the king with Its Osiris. 6 And so it presupposes actually a time to when death Pharaoh's predecessors were put 9 . celebrated periodically by every Pharaoh from Menes. Hamitic stock such as Berber.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY has been engrafted on to an African . in fact not only accredited with many of the functions assigned to such kings among contemporary barbarians he escaped their fate only through the performance of a magic rite that was equivalent to a ritual death. be natural to a people ascending the river and the words in question belong to the Semitic stratum.
The Shilluk. totem) ancestry who was ritually they are a congeries of autonomous totemic war with one another. had taken their places under the Falcon totem of the victorious clan in a national pantheon. illustrate a (i.e. age among these : monarchy the Dinka stage immediately prior to the divine of Menesstill older phase is seen among A clans. Similarly a contemplation of the weird animal deities of the Egyptian pantheon has suggested that the Falcon Horus. the Cow Hathor. There we have a liviag 10 . with the unification of the land by the Shemsu-Hor. by rain-maker magicians or by divine kings who were until recently ritually slain. language. Now on the Upper Nile there dwell to-day people allied to the oldest Egyptians in appearance. And that implies behind the unified Egyptian clans State a multiplicity of totemic whose patron ancestral animals and plants had become local deities and then. cranial 7 These are ruled proportions. and each ruled by a " " rain-maker who was ceremonially killed before old overtook It really looks as if him. stature. often at tribes on the Upper Nile social development had been arrested at a stage that the Egyptians had traversed before their history began. and dress. and the tribes are organized in totemic clans. the Serpent Neith and the rest have grown out of totems. ruled by a centralized king with animal slain.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST ceremonially to make room for young and potent successors lest their magic efficacy vanish with their enfeebled frames.
The archaeologists' a revealed has concrete record of man's progress spade from savagery to largely civilization in the substantiates the traditions same region. philology.C. It and deductions it just summarized and at them and enlarges their the reanimated body contact with Europe's the same time supplements it scope. comparative religion and ethnography thus cast some light on tribal and dynastic movements. In due course we shall deal in detail with archaeology's revelations that disclose no abstract evolution but the and the blending But first far-sundered contributions from of regions. as it is called. but thanks to Sir Flinders can arrange the graves in their relative Petrie began by an analysis of chronological order. Our knowledge of Pre- dynas^c -Egypt.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY museum whose Legends and exhibits supplement and vivify the prehistoric cases in our collections. of most ancient But further brings own into living remote past. on spiritual and social revolutions in the Nile valley long before 3000 B. We can do no more than guess Petrie 8 at the length of time represented in each of the cemeteries. we in the way which the wavy ledges that once served as handles for certain types of jar in the course of years lost II . is derived almost entirely from jjraves) that contain no written document from which a calendar date might be obtained. infusing for Egypt a moment the glow of life into those pale lips. we must explain one point in the framework on which interaction of multiple concrete groups that picture must be based.
Sir Flinder^Tetrie^y a comparison of the number of prehistoric ancT pre-Roman dynastic graves near Diospolis. Assuming whose community graves are discovered was approximates 12 . of computation.D. the period between S. which of course give no true idea of duration but merely mark successive points in the temporal series without offering any clue as to the intervals separating " " is them.D.000 B. 30 falls in the seventh millennium on the short chronology or about 10. Maclver and Mace state that the total number of graves in a cemetery in use throughout the whole period that the to 500.D. 77. assign to the predynastic period about half this duration.D.D.) numbered from 30 to 80.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST their true function as hand-holds mere decorative wriggles. and degenerated to Then he correlated the several stages of this orderly process with phases in the development of other associated articles of tomb-' Eventually he worked out a numerical scata by which the position in time of any one grave relative to the rest can be defined in figures. the so-called sequence dates (S. came to the conclusion that the and pharaonic periods were approximately' Hence S. Attempts have been made to give an approximate absolute value to S. using a different method predynastic equal in length. The scale consists of furniture.C* on Petrie's. 30 and 77 is that ordinarily termed predynastic while the newly discovered Badarian civilization can be fitted in before that date. 30 by estipa3ting the length of the predynastic age. Peake and Fleure. The accession of Menes assigned to S.
The whole volume entitled Egyptian Prehistory is scarcely Prior to 1895 the record in Egypt with the Pyramid age.D. were actually -found in ruined huts superposed upon those containing sherds of the supposedly older wares whose was thus deiijipnstrated. the adult death-rate averaging to-day one in four These figures seem altogether reasonable and years. on tablets of baked inscribed in cuneiform characters clay together with the Greek compilation of native 13 . assumed on the theory to be later. Dynasty while Petrie laid bare the still older series of graves that took us back to a time when only poor villagers ignorant of writing dwelt upon the banks of theJSTile. In the settlement near Badari the ceramic types. we incline to equate S. The " \ Bad^i was only opened prefatory chapter of^us volume entitled in 924^ and is not yet Incidentally the dis. priority we In ^Mesopotamia we stand in 1928 much where Written records stodd ~ in figypt in 1898. xroveries at that site did more than open a new chapter our confirmed they reading of the older ones by providing the first stratigraphical confirmation for Petrie's system of sequence dating. 'available to the general reader.C- It may not be amiss here to recall how extremely new our knowledge of Predynastic Egypt really is.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY similar in size to a modern fellahin village. 30 with 5500 B. Then Amdinau Jreally began and de Morgan chanced upon the tombs of the First thirty years old. the period represented by the cemetery would be two thousand years.
a dynasty funded by Amorites from single kingdom by the Semitic West termed the First Dynasty of Babylon. But the earlier Babylonian dates are even mofe dubious than the Babylonia was only finally unified into a Egyptian.000 yeajrs since the Creation* Could they be taken at their face value such lasted for 14 . tradition composed Its accession can be fixed by astronomical data to 2196 B. one or other of the. or nearly a thousand years after the unification Prior to that date Babylonia was divided of Egypt. up between more or Despite separatist ideals less autonomous City States.C. drawn up in the latter half of millennium have been unearthed that purport the third to give a list of the cities that had from time to time attained the hegemony with the names and reigns of their rulers Now several tablets 9 who enjoyed such documents in question in fact offer a list kings of Mesopotamia The imperial powers* of the high with the years of their \reigns . Even before that catastrophe they name eight or ten antediluvian monarchs reigning " in five or six distinct cities for fabulous periods before and describe an age of Anarchy descended from the heavens " that royalty lists had 259.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST by Berosus take us back as in Egypt for nearly five thousand years. going right back to an event termed the Flood.se cities and linguistic or racial differences from time to time was raised by energetic rulers to a position of hegemony or even paramountcy over more or less extensive portions of the land.
the tablets more than once present as consecutive dynasties that reigning contemporaneously Babylonia and. Unfortunately. represented principally derived from the French excavations 15 at .519 years 3 months and 3-^ days ! And equally fabulous reigns the> are attributed to some kings of Dynasty of Awan. A clear epoch was marked by the conquests ^ ofSargon of Agade and Nar^m-Sin. Finally.C. however. of later between the kings dynasties can often be laps proved conclusively from business and other documents dated by regnal years and can be inferred from archaeological evidence with high probability in the case of still The Prediluvian kings' reigns are all earlier kings. Even in the early historical period incredibly long. " " " " or archaic period pre-Sargonic only a vague by archaic sculptures and inscriptions. the fourth from the Flood and several yet later kings. The twenty-three kings of this house are said to have reigned together 24. the first dynasty after the Flood.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY would evidently give an exact framework for the chronology of Mesopotamia from its remote beginnings. Semitic princes who nrigedr But before that there was shortly after 2730 B. the years assigned to many kings are plainly impossible. when they come in in reality were different of parts down to the earlier Overdynasties. give figures that are plainly fabulous. So in the case of the First Dynasty of Kish. documents bearing the names of the earlier rulers anterior to the Third Dynasty of Kish were till recently / unknown.
none the less. While there seems at the moment to be more or less general agreement that the First Dynasty of Ur was in power just before 3000 B.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Lagash or Tello the mythical. lists a period that rapidly vanished into The earlier dynasts mentioned in the seemed scarcely better than mythical beings. The of the high stage of material civilization reached under. and perhaps even before this already dynasty. together with the discovery of yet more archaic revelation monuments now inscribed with pictographs at Kish have demonstrated that the traditions embodied in the lists dynastic rest upon a very solid historical basis. suddenly into the purview of sober history.. WoolleyVound an inscription of A-anni-padda. however distorted the chronology of the earlier periods must be. Thus a single stroke of the pick brought a whole epoch. and v some of them actually figured in mythology. it is at present quite impossible to find any historical basis for the chronology of the earlier dynasties to say nothing of the antediluvian monarchs* Tradition and legend throw. who appears in the tablets as the founder of the First Dynasty of Ur^ the third dynasty after the Flood. separated in the lists from the oldest previously known royal inscription by several obviously mythical dynasties. Such was the position till in 1924 Mr. son of Mes-anni-padda.two distinct ethnic elements speaking 16 . some light upon ihese ^earliest days of human life in the Tigris~~ iphrates plairi^ In historical times the valley had been pied by.C.
southern part. Lagash. for ritual and magic formulae* t)n the other hand. as we know c 17 . Opis. Hebrew. Which of these elements was the oldest or the most influential cannot yet be determined. we find persons with Semitic names among the rulers mentioned on the dynastic lists. akin to of Eridu. mixed with people speaking a Semitic dialect. Akshak. Sippar. and Arabic. and the towns of the north. Assyrian. even after the final victory of the Semites under the Dynasty of Babylon. Shuruppak (Fara) was dominated down to the unification of the land under the first Dynasty of Babylon by a curious people known to us as the Sumerians (from Sumer. cities The Ur.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY different languages. including the Larsa. at It had long been culturally thought that the Sumerians were least the senior people since their language was long used. and Agade (which latter gave its name in the form of Akkad to the whole of North Babylonia) were traditionally the homes of Semitic rulers. Dynasty of^KisJb). At an early time the Sumerians had spread also over the northern part of Babylonia and even into Assyria as the But there they were archaeological remains show. and Uruk. Kish. it has begun to look as if the Sumerians. As early as the First jf*?**\. the firstjafter the Flood. that Still more recently the priority belonged to the Semites. Umma. Eduard Meyer argued from the beards and headdresses of the oldest Sumerian deities. the Semitic name of the country) a people distinguished by language and dress. Adab. as represented in the' earliest figured monuments.
a semi-mythical king of the First Dynasty of Flood) Erech'i (second ! after the who reigned authorities. quite possible and Semites a third etjaaic element had inhabitfcdLtJxe " For this the name Subaraean * land at very early times. These people are in late documents described as of a fair complexion and in this respect are contrasted to is the black-headed Sumerians. a man-fish who swam up the Persian Gulf to Eridu. arrival ' and an to a coming into use. Some of were already a comtraditions.C. 10 Other 1200 Martu as age and the relative extent of the occupation by the wicked Martu cannot be defined* But later events would warn us not to minimize the precise The number of racial elements represented in Mesopotamia 18 . interpret years Semitic Amorites from North Syria. a designation properly applicable group of peoples spread along the foothills around the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates in Assyria and North Syria during the third and second millennia. however. such as the legend of the culture hero Cannes. Now some authorities would see a reference to the presence of representatives of this stock in early Sumer in the Sumerian legend " " of the expulsion of the wicked Martu under Lugal- bandat. millennium their B.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST them posite in the third folk. in addition to Sumerians it is that over.. But the cult of their deities on high places and the popularity of mountain animals on the oldest Sumerian seals suggest no less Moreclearly that the Sumerians were a highland folk. point to a southern origin from overseas.
the material Earlier excavators extraordinarily scanty.Typ'revealed the tools and weapons in use under the first These suffice to show that. this time a town where pictographic Writing was already in vogue. civilization had reached a very high level by the end of the IVth millennium B. . in Egypt. embodying available is ethnic divergences.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY at the dawn of history. that was not Of surpassed during the whole pre-Sargonic epoch. the prehistoric cultures that preceded. the Gutians. In historical times the land was overrun successively by the men of Awan. the Chaldaeans and the Persians from the highlands to the north and east and by the Amorites and other Semitic tribes from the west The political and ethnic diversity thus revealed by Mesopotamian history and tradition is naturally a handicap to the archaeologist. Instead of dealing with a unitary area and one or two compact groups as in Egypt he is confronted with a plurality of independent and despite a growing measure of as time advances.dscade have Anglo-American expeditions at JKish/ and . the Kassites.C. of a different type. was unearthed tQjISi^^jx at jfemdet Kfas? near Kish and later at Kish itseTfT We . it is often hard to distinguish uniformity between differences due to temporal causes and those communities. only preserved and published inscribed documents or First during the e^rrent objects of aesthetic interest. Moreover. even more than dynasties. the first settlement in Mesopotamia was uncovered at\Tell al'ublia Then in 1926 another prehistoric settlement in 1922.
20 . The script is still undeciphered. it remains to mention one region which. have revealed a true urban civilization where writing and the other arts of civilization were already flourishing. Having thus mapped out the historical world as it looked about 3000 B. to signalize the existence at the dawn of history of a third province that ought to be historical.or Sumer. cultures since at comparable to the two predynastic Susa the two appear to be consecutive. where recent discoveries. That region is the Indus valley.. Still we are probably justified in speaking of two prediluvian cultures.C. though not yet historical for us^could nevertheless already boast a civilization fully equal to that of Egypt .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST cannot yet say how much the differences between the two groups of sites are temporal rather than local. still only known from newspaper paragraphs. and no legends can be plausibly used to interpret the new archaeological data. In a later chapter we shall Here it suffices give some account of the remains.
too. Egypt. The plateau is of course interrupted by marked physiographical features. of chasm the th itself broken by great of that gap and the high gable beyond it the desert and the slopes away to the depression of Mesopotamia Persian Gulf. but is is separated from it by the rift of the Nile valley and East Red Sea.CHAPTER THE SETTING II OF THE STAGE THE our three oldest centres of true civilization last named in chapter lie on a belt between the twenty-fifth and thirty-fifth parallel that constitutes the hottest driest aridity climatic zone in the world to-day. and the Punjab rivers that traverse on the valleys of great permanent a more or less continuous desert plateau. though the causes are not case. the whole lie region. The farther side of the hollow is bordered by the Zagros and the parallel chains of Western Persia 21 . Sumer. constitutes its its western section t is by no means considerable surface is interrupted by quite ranges and depressions that sometimes fall below sea-level. The Sahara which flat . The Arabian desert forms the natural continuation of the Sahara. and Extreme to the three ancient foci and excessive summer heats are common features and to the intervening regions> precisely the same in each a certain unity characterizes Geographically.
The unity of the strip between the Atlantic and the Tigris at least is of such barrier to an order as to justify the employment of a term j#frasi^ to denote the whole region. physiographically the last-named chains constitute a of the So in dividing line than the inland sea* Asia. Italy. The northern frontier would seem to be provided by the Mediterranean but climatologically the winterrain regions of Spain. Then the Indian Ocean forms the southern limit of our zone and beyond the Indus it is again hedged in by the monsoon forest.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that frame a still more the elevated desert. however much diversified. are connected without any insurmountable physiographical transverse impede intercourse. common fringed with savannah passing over into tropical forest while farther east and in Southern Arabia the monsoon rains promote the tKe~ On south the Sahara is growth of a jungle border. the 22 . although the desert extends north of the Elburz into the Turanian Basin. continuous zone of desiccated which. other extremity the plateau breaks Atlantic coasts to the there is And then at the the the low sweltering plain of Western India. it is the continuation of the real more same lines of folding in the Anatolian mkssif. belonging tableland. geographically to Anatolian-Armenian but climatically nearer to Arabia. a down again to Thus from monsoon region of Central India countries. and Greece approximate more north closely to the Sahara than to the cyclonic lands And Pyrenean-AIpine-Balkan ridges.
Mesopotamia. and even the high country of Central Persia is virtually desert. which relies on cyclonic rain from the West. The Atlantic cyclones that water Northern and Central Europe reach the Mediterranean only in winter and miss the Sahara The same winter storms do indeed reach altogether.SETTING OF THE STAGE Caucasus and the Elburz and then in the Hindu-Kush and the Himalayas. except for the river valleys that cross a sparse and exiguous population. but they have been so largely drained by crossing the highlands farther east of is Palestine-Syria that the precipitation inadequate save along a in narrow belt North Syria. ice as far as the Harz. the present time the whole region suffers from a terrible insufficiency of rain that makes it virtually At uninhabitable outside the range of irrigation channels that tap the great rivers crossing it. the Arctic high pressure 23 . 1 In such conditions the whole region. Asian desert. and the Alps and the Pyrenees were capped with glaciers. conditions in the Central of our zone. particularly in the Tarim Basin. the Iranian plateau and even the Indus valley. it. But these conditions did not reign at the time our While Northern Europe was covered in story opens. can support only who have little encouragement to cultural progress and have in fact remained backward. At the same time a complicated set of causes prevent the precipitation of the monsoon rains on the Indus basin. are not very different. that forms the true northern border None the less.
and farther east the showers were not only more bountiful than to-day but were distributed over the whole restricted to the winter. strand-lines the Baluchistan. Such are the deductions of climatology and geology The dry wadi beds traversing the Nile on either side and draining the Sahara. While the when much of Europe was tundra on which the dust was collecting mammoth. 2 The cyclones that to-day traverse Central Europe then passed over the Mediterranean basin and the northern Sahara and continued. and the Indus valley parklands and savannahs such as flourish to-day north We of the Mediterranean at a time or wind-swept steppe as loess. across Mesopotamia and Arabia to Persia and India. instead of being On although insufficient the Iranian plateau the to feed extensive the great hollows that are now salt deserts with shallow inland seas whose presence tempered the severity of the climate. filled year. undrained by Lebanon. many streams should expect in North Africa. entering Arabian the plateau. rain-waters In Persia and they once carried off. North Africa 24 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST deflected southward the Atlantic rainstorms. The parched Sahara enjoyed a regular rainfall. testify to the erosive power of the confirms them. encircling the old high lakes bear witness to the flooding of those inland seas 3 as just forecasted and into them flowed that are now lost in the desert. Persia. in the woolly rhinoceros. precipitation. and the reindeer were France and Southern England. glaciers. Arabia.
Rock engraving in the Sahara at Algeria. and other parkland gazelles. and lions that preyed thereon* FIG. deer. In the very heart of the Sahara at In-Ezzan. have been depicted for us by their hunters on the rocks of the Saharan Atlas. 5 These animals panthers. the African elephant. and in Southern Oran 6 (Fig. and sheep as well as human figures and dogs. and perhaps another equid. oryx. the gnu. Similar 25 . i) hippopotami. the buffalo. Barbary sheep. camels. and ostriches are also depicted. a huge wild ox. 7 just south of the Tripolitan borders where to-day not a beast nor a tree is to be seen. are paintings of bulls.SETTING OF THE STAGE was supporting a fauna that is found to-day on the Zambesi in Rhodesia. jackals. 4 The Algerian contemporaries of our mammoth-trappers were hunting the Mauretanian rhinoceros. the zebra. ruminants as well as the bears. Kef Messiouer near Guelma. i. cave-hyenas.
When Europe was more or less icebound. 8 the environment The process of desiccation whose deplorable results we see to-day should have been only gradual. implies a storm track travelling least the much farther south than to-day so that at northern Sahara would have benefited from First with the onset of the a Mediterranean rainfall. deduced from the flora and fauna preserved in peatbogs and on raised beaches. geologists term Atlantic ". Somaliland. the Sudan. And it must be recalled that cyclone belt offers a climatic most favourable to human energy. " climate reigning in the north. did the cyclones begin to settle down into their present northerly track and to desert the north of Africa. In fact greater progress than in the it is somewhere in this region 26 . warm " moist phase that Swedish pleasant grasslands of North Africa and Southern Asia were naturally as thickly populated by man as the The frozen steppes of Europe. and even Arabia. and it is reasonable to suspect that in this favourable and indeed stimulating environ- ment man would make ice-bound north. the cyclone belt was displaced southward and approximated to the latitudes where the oldest civilizations of the world were born. Even as after the the so-called " main European Boreal ice-sheets had retreated.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST drawings have been reported from the vicinity of Lake Chad. the Ouenat oasis 600 miles west of Haifa. So as far as the archaeological evidence goes it confirms the inferences of meteorology.
associated with On implements of Mousterian type in $tenya. common to Western Europe. period. in Somaliland.SETTING OF THE STAGE that many would locate the first cradle of Homo sapiens? Lower Palaeolithic men have left their hand-axes all over North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. being But that queer perversion of the human type. has not been 10 except in Palestine. Implements of Mousterian type that were made in Europe principally during the earlier and culminating phases of the last glaciation have a very similar distribution to belong to the and at least in Syria seem same geological remains of a pluvial horizon. in Palestine and Syria and in many parts of India. of course very sparse and physically very primitive. Africa. specialized north of the Eurasiatic spine during the ice ages. associated with made Mousterian found in our area the contrary Mr. The North African ) Mousterians. 27 . the JSfeandertal species that implements in Europe. in addition to the monotonous series of points and side-scrapers manufactured by the Neandertal Europeans. These agree so exactly in form with those made in Western Europe during the last interglacial and before it that one assumes a more or less uniform population. In any case the African Mousterian exhibited a distinct superiority over its European counterpart. and Southern Asia. Leakey has recently found human remains that are certainly not Neandertal. could make very neat tanggfl points arrow This specialized Mousterian found or javelin-heads. but may well in the end find a place in the main trunk of our family tree3 .
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from Morocco to Egypt is designated Aterian. J . the desiccated belt of to-day was the cradle wherein our remotest direct ancestors were developing along more normal lines. Tunisia. 'Sbalkian (a> . points shaped rather like a laurel-leaf and worked on both sides quite in the manner of the Hungarian proto-Solutrean were current The latter industry is to some extent affiliated (Fig. *.) and Adrian (c.i.11 And about the same time. to a counterpart of our Acheulian and has been termed by French archaeologists the 'Sbaikian. 2. 28 .*4i- The inference from these facts is that. d) points. 2). a. It was not confined to North Africa since very similar implements are found south of the Equator. FIG. while in the was being meet the rigorous evolved through specialization conditions of North-Eastern Europe and Upper Asia north an aberrent branch of the stock to human during the glacial periods. or even earlier.
throughout Little Africa. all >the An Upper Palaeolithic industries of North Africa) Syria and even the northern shores of the Mediterranean under the common designation Capsian a term derived Gafsa in Tunisia where the individuality of the 29 . cases some can be asserted in default of .SETTING OF THE STAGE By last. but at present it is customary to group together individual art. The cultural remains from our area when better known may be assumed expected to throw more light on this be differentiation. races are represented Aurignacian population of the a fortiori^ therefore. can they Already distinguished from the contemporary Aurignacian. in Palestine and Syria and also in Egypt implements which are allied. and in probably ancestral. the pluvial period that belt or Wiirm. by must the human reservoir whence the Aurig- nacians were recruited have presented a variety of types. belonged to no single race but already embraced a diversity of types. Even at least infer that they But we may in Europe three times distinct .adequate skeletal material. was undoubtedly occupied by men of modern to be equated with the ice-age in Europe at any rate. which shows more highly specialized types of tool and an even greater internal diversity will surely come to light with the multiplication of discoveries. the desert is type as contrasted with the extinct species of Piltdown These have left their implements or Neandertal. to those introduced into Europe with the first neanthropic stocks in AurigOf the makers of these tools nothing nacian times.
Aln Mouhaid. are absolutely pre- dominant (Fig. 3. scrapers. 3). The Capsian tools are made from blades. till no comparable and even in Europe the harpoon does not appear a later stage. rounded FIG. for bone-work is known from North Africa. No less surprising is the Jove of 30 . Though knives finely worked on the back. awls and even gravers or burins common. Gravers in particular are all simple and not very common* But the great feature of the Capsian flint work exhibited by all tools to diminish in size is till the tendency in the later phases true pigmy implements 4).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Hints of diversity industry was first recognized. the within complex are already provided by the discovery of some primitive bone harpoons 12 in the cave of Antelias on the slopes of Lebanon . Capsian I flints and ostrich-egg disc. the types are less fine and varied than those of the Aurignacian of Chatelperron (Fig. J* are or on the ends of blades.
Morsotte and All Bacha. The animal remains noted on p. On the other hand the of North Africa were skilled at cutting little Capsians discs out of ostrich shell and perforating them for use FIG. as beads (Fig. Bone-work was apparently Apart from the Syrian harpoons no instances of finer bone-work have survived. But besides the industrial remains from caves and middens and stray surface finds of flints> the contemporaries . Later Capsian (Getulan) flints. 4. on the other hand. executed by the Aurignacians of Europe has come down to us from south of the Alps. On the coasts of North Africa and of Syria such Capsian remains are found in caves as in Europe. and certainly nothing comparable to the masterpieces of carving not far advanced. 4). the sites are principally enormous heaps of kitchen-refuse consisting largely of th shells of snails and freshwater mussels. 3). J.SETTING OF THE STAGE geometrical shapes that becomes ever more accentuated as time goes on (Fig. 25 have been collected in such stations. In Southern Algeria.
more vivid picture of life in North Africa during the pluvial period than any geological or archaeological excavation but indicate quite distinctly the existence of a multiplicity of artistic traditions that are best understood in racial terms. all label or then. the absence of extinct species or the appearance of modern intrusive beasts. expecting from the creative act of the artist a realization in the actual world of the good things These monuments 6 not only give us a far depicted. may mark some groups as later than others. cannot.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST of our reindeer-hunters have left other and regions more monuments of Like their their sojourn in now lively desolate. the older drawings having suffered much from blown sand or even rain. Again the extent of the weathering varies considerably. At the same time the drawings all contemporaneous. while the newer ones are relatively fresh. some at least are recent enough to depict men with guns and to include Arabic graffiti. rock-paintings petroglyphs palaeolithic or even very ancient . European contemporaries they have adorned the rock-faces and cave-walls with magical engravings and paintings. But there remain some which by the correspondence of their fauna with that of the palaeolithic sites and its We contrast with that of to-day or indubitably palaeolithic agreement with works in Spain must be assigned by their 32 . are by no means set one differences in fauna. In a few cases of drawings have been superposed on another older series whose authors had presumably been long 13 Or forgotten before the later ones were executed.
5. their magic efficacy depending upon their realism. in the Eastern Sudan.SETTING OF THE STAGE to the pluvial epoch that concerns us. in the Ouenat oasis. FIG. on the cliffs generally 33 . The latter are on the whole more conventionalized. high. Petroglyph depicting the extinct Bubalus antiques on the rocks near Er Richa. The larger buffalo is 6 ft. There are examples in Morocco and Algeria just north of Lake Chad. And others belong to the immediately succeeding ^prpalaeolithic perioclVhen climatic conditions were only beginning to growunfavourable. With the progress of thought from concrete to abstract the artist-conjuror found it enough to sketch the desired object in a sort of shorthand in order to create it in the real world. At the moment at least two distinct schools have left their records on the rocks of North Africa and also in South-East Spain and both can be traced south of the There is in the first place the widespread Equator. In each school the tendency had been at first to make the representations as lifelike as possible. Oran. of naturalistic or seminaturalistic series engravings on exposed rock-surfaces.
near G&yviHe. and armed with bows and arrows and carrying figure-8 shields. The whole scene is 25 ft. long. with much verisimilitude but always in outline and without is " even in North Africa " itself the attribution to a any attempt at regular composition. These are very far from constituting a chronologically uniform group.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST overhanging the Nile and even in Arabia and India. but the African figures are always active 34 . single But some engravings from the Saharan Atlas undoubtedly constitute a well-defined group. giraffes. is represented in some cases though that beast was extinct in North Africa by early historical times. elephants. 6. hippopotami and rhinoceros and other animals Even the camel that have long migrated to the south. 6 These depict. school naturally by no means established. buffaloes. and it is altogether uncertain whether the Arabian and Indian petroglyphs belong to this family at all . Rock-engraving showing elephants and leopards. Kuhn } 4 has justly compared this series to the Aurignacian drawings from the French caves which likewise use bare outline and make no attempt at grouping. Besides animals men are figured wearing a feathered crown FIG.
and combats. dances. In this school the painter depict his figures with movement and loved to hunts. regular scenes 35 . As in the by lively paintings in red or brown. and near Lake Tanganyika. But the East Spanish art had parallels. in the earliest The second series is constituted group 1S of so-called " Bushman " painting South Africa associated with an almost Capsian Links between Spain and South Africa are industry* in provided by analogous paintings in Tunisia. This series group by side with in which domestic gives place to another less naturalistic cattle and goats appear side ostriches. gazelles. and rare lions a fauna that plainly denotes a climate much moister than to-day. than by engraving. but curiously enough both styles seem to recur in South Africa.SETTING OF THE STAGE while placidity and repose is characteristic of the AurigSo that the independence of the African nacian art. the Central The uniformity Sahara. of artistic convention throughout this area combined with the community of flint tools means that East " Bushman *\ art are merely extreme outSpanish and a posts of great province whose centre must have somewhere aimed at filling lain in the Sahara. school is attested on purely stylistic grounds. Often the outlines are formed by battering the rock rather far as is known to-day the more Sudan and Egypt can at earliest easterly groups only be assigned to the younger series if a generic connection be admitted at all. The best and most famous representatives of this family come from South-East Spain. too close to be accidental.
7. page 36] . J. Scenes painted on the walls of a rock.shelter near Alpera. after Breui. South-East Spain.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST FIG.
maces. in the Khaimur range near Mirzapur 16 . On but otherwise naked save for tasseled bands below the knees . no scale given). 8. possible pendant to the East Spanish and African A paintings is to be found also in India. and perhaps FJG.SETTING OF THE STAGE inclusion in the Spanish scenes of a rhinoceros and later of a reindeer suffices to demonstrate the pleistocene age of the art-galleries there just as does the situation The of pictures at In-Ezzan. 7). cave-shelters we see men the walls of these Spanish wearing caps or feather crowns. Asiatic Society. In some scenes the dog assists in the hunt (Fig. 1883. Everywhere the figures in Spain survive in barely became conventionalized and recognizable shapes into the Copper Age. but the distinctive weapon is the bow and arrows. lances.- -Rock-painting from a skelter in Knaimer Range (after J. a long bell-shaped skirt. Bengal. The fell African school of painting like that of carving into decadence artistically. the women wear The men are armed with boomerangs. In rock-shelters is painted a scene 37 .
The age of such works of art is quite uncertain. 8). but is by no means necessarily quaternary. The rhinoceros has certainly been extinct in Central India for several centuries. with the implements of Capsian types also found in India these paintings really do suggest some ethnic community with the more westerly sections of the pluvial cyclone zone. one alleged to represent a wallaby. Outside a cave near Singanpur in the Raigarh District (Bellary) 17 are depicted a series of small animals. 9. Taken in conjunction FIG. depicted in scenes looks need be a late sort of but hunting weapon no more than a wooden shaft armed with microliths that The many-barbed harpoon might be extremely ancient.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST representing a rhinoceros hunt (Fig. Painting from a shelter at Singanpur. best understood The community postulated might be if we imagine a continuum of hunting whole belt defined We should then have to figure a loose chain of interrelated bands of hunting folk ranging all along the temperate grassland of North Africa and Arabia and extending even into India on tribes spread very thinly over the at the beginning of the chapter. 38 .
18 Of the continuum of peoples postulated for late pleistocene times. It was. only the western branch FIG. man's oldest companion. Nor 39 . like the European Aurignacians. apparently a people of hunters and shell-gatherers. or Brown race whose representatives appear in historical times in occupation of most of our zone. This population would belong presumably to the so-called Eurafrican.SETTING OF THE STAGE the one hand and into South-Eastern Spain on the other. Mediterranean. Unlike their European contemwere poraries they apparently assisted in 'the chase by the dog. however. Painting from a shelter at Singanpur. can be said to be really known to us. 19 Of other domestic animals there is no certain evidence since the date of the pictures of tame wethers is still undecided. 10.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST are there any indications of agriculture. a people physically not unlike some Aurignacian skeletons and manufacturing blades and scrapers of obsidian that recall This folk had already discovered Capsian shapes. Caucasus. and used boomerangs. perhaps at an even earlier date than our Saharan cultures. from the upper reaches of the Jenisei in Siberia and from the loess of the Shensi province of China reveal stragglers possessed of a cognate culture living north of the Eurasiatic spine. their kinsmen of Predmost Isolated finds from the caves in the and the Solutreans. 40 . Yet the hunters were already provided with mechanical devices so advanced as the bow. in Their organized orgiastic dances and in graphic art. other human groups were living and had made great progress. spears. On the southern edge of the Sahara recent discoveries have disclosed living in Kenya. Doubtless there existed other groups during the long period called the last Ice Age . We know something : of Europe of the less favoured hunting tribes the Aurignacians. : while the spiritual women draped life a skirt about their loins. for at its close we are already found expression confronted with a diversity of racial types. and maces. the art of pot-making and could manufacture truly excellent vases that sometimes even had flat bases* It is that in the then habitable tablelands perfectly possible of Iran and Anatolia that are still absolutely unexplored from the standpoint of palaeolithic archaeology. even the men They were no longer naked savages wore a short mantle and decked their heads with plumes.
It is quite possible that the makers of the hand-axes were not so much hunters as gatherers of roots and berries a mode life that might. lead on to agriculture. No skulls cer- tainly attributable to the makers of such Lower Palaeolithic on the implements have survived to show that they were not direct line of ascent to modern man. mind environment other groups were carrying on and improving the older core-industry represented in the Chellean and Acheulian hand-axes that had been in a different characteristic of Lower Palaeolithic times. usually grouped together under the name of the Alpine Race. to find Hence one might expect somewhere groups. Finally the possibility must be bor4' in that. while hunting folk on grasslands and tundras were elaborating ~a flint industry based on blades. and many therefore seek it farther north. Their previous history cannot be traced on the southern grasslands. evolving contemporaneously with the Capsian and other blade-using hunters but on divergent lines. more easily than the pursuit of game. The axes and hoes that characterize the neolithic period that we shall shortly reach must surely be connected somehow with the heavy tools of of Lower Palaeolithic times. the facts observed 4* .SETTING OF THE STAGE Those regions are reputedly the home of those round- headed types. direct evidence. in Such hypotheses are still unsupported by one shred of But they are perfectly legitimate and some cases seem almost inevitable in order to explain later. retaining the core tradition of the hand-axe.
and men would be herded together round pools and wad is were growing increasingly isolated by desert tracts. Afghanistan. That event would certainly tax the ingenuity of the inhabitants of the former grass-land zone to the utmost. Persia. and such enforced juxtaposition might almost of itself promote that sort of symbiosis between man and beast For that is expressed in the word '/ domestication **. seems inevitable to connect that revolution with the crisis produced by the melting of the northern glaciers and consequent contraction of the Arctic high-pressure over Europe and diversion of the Atlantic rain-storms from the South zone to their present course across Central Europe. From the present distribution of wild grain ^ it has been argued that the cultivation of cereals probably began in Asia. Mediterranean Enforced concentration in oases or by the banks of ever more precarious springs and streams would require an Animals intensified search for means of nourishment. Palestine and perhaps Arabia Petraea. Wild barley is as a matter of fact found in Asia Minor. But it has 42 . Transcaucasia. that the situation thus engendered to produce the desired effects It is clearly necessary that the men who had to cope with the crisis should find at hand the cereals and animals apt for domestication. and soon we shall encounter men who are masters of their own food supply through possession It of domesticated animals and the cultivation of cereals. Turkestan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST For now we are on the brink of the great revolution.
Asia Minor. North Syria. But the Hence on present distribution is thoroughly deceptive. 43 . The uncultivated form of another variety of wheat. Moreover. Triticum monococcum or dinkel. North Africa must have enjoyed precisely the same climatic conditions as those that nourish the wild wheats and barleys in Hither Asia to-day. implying an extension of the natural habitat of the ancestral plant from Palestine also across the Isthmus of Suez and the Delta during the pluvial period. grows in the Balkans. Vavilov. arguing not from the discovery of stray ears of wild barley but from the number of varieties cultivated. better argument is founded A upon the animals. and Kurdistan on the frontier of Persia. Some botanists hold that bread wheat. no wild been found. pluvial period. Asia does seem to have a better chance of being the original centre than North Africa. and are the same as in Palestine. would place another centre of in Abyssinia where. however. or at a certain stage just after In the it. any case no wild ancestor is known for the present distribution of the cereals. The wild ancestor of emmer has yet barley ^vheatN (Trificum dicoccum with fourteen chromosomes) domestication is alleged to in grow Syria it native in Western Persia and Meso- Palestine. Triticum vulgare. Obviously in the have grown still farther south might pluvial period on the edge of the Nile rift where the geological conditions potamia.SETTING OF THE STAGE been detected in Marmarica. especially wheat. is the result of a cross between the two varieties just . common in mentioned it.
for the so-called Barbary sheep does not really belong to the genus. The oldest Egyptian sheep. Still it period some is perfectly possible that in the pluvial sort of mouflon or even a urial lived in European species are conspicuously rare in the pleistocene fauna of North North Africa. (Plate XX#). the other hand three wild sheep exist No On in Asia all of which have given rise to breeds of domestic sheep. is the domesticated B. the If one argal. lives to the east may argue from the present distribution of the animals. especially the sheep. Baluchistan. it would . longipeS) is said to Turkestan. The mouflon. The oldest domesticated sheep found in the Swiss lake-dwellings and other early deposits in Central and Western Europe. Afghanistan. lives north of the Mediterranean in Corsica and Sardinia and once had a wider distribution in continental Europe. Asia. a long-tailed sheep. Ovis palustris. The Asiatic mouflon appears domesticated on a Sumerian vase dating from the beginning of the Illrd millennium European congener was only tamed at a relatively late date in European prehistory.C. Ovis belong to the same stock* The third variety of Old World sheep. but his descendant of the Asiatic urial (Ovis vignei). and the Punjab.be clear that the sheep at least was introduced into Africa and into Europe from of the urial. Ovis musimon. The home of this variety is the northern slopes of the Elburz. Though Asiatic or 44 . slightly A different variety inhabits the highlands of Hither Asia from Anatolia to the Elburz and the Zagros.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 21 wild sheep exists in Africa .
MOUFLON RAM URIAL RAM .
45 . Tanganyika territory come reports of a in a late pleistocene context near Moreover from fossil 22 sheep found Oldoway. And there of course the mysterious petroglyphs depicting tame wethers obviously belonging to the species Ovts are longipes. it would be possible to point to rock-drawings of camels as evidence that some such types were represented there.SETTING OF THE STAGE Africa as enumerated on p. 25.
still without leaving their home-land. they might remain at home eking out a miserable existence on such game as could withstand the droughts or they reshift might. three alternatives were open to the hunting populations affected. emancipate themselves from dependence on the whims of their environment by domesticating animals and taking to agriculture. following the climatic belt to which they were accustomed . Still we can detect evidence both of a The progressive degeneration of culture in North Africa and of migrations from the desiccated zone. Both phenomena seem to be signs of degeneration among groups oppressed by adverse conditions and unable to cope with them. Among the hunting folk of the Capsian culture the later industrial stages that should correspond more or less to the European Magdalenian are distinguished by the progressive reduction in size of the flint tools and conventionalization of art. They might move northward or southward with their prey. .CHAPTER FACED with the gradual III THE OLDEST FARMERS desiccation consequent upon the northward of the Atlantic cyclone belt as the European glaciers contracted. archaeological record of the sub-pluvial epochs is not very clear.
Moreover. the makers of the a pigmy flints took with them the(dog as the conventionalized art that had and companion Here we are evolved in North Africa and Spain. u). Ultimately the same types from across France to Great Britain and Spain spread the Baltic Lands. MicroHths from Vindhya Stone Hills. after British Museum Age Guide. in Poland and Western Ejstfope. Perhaps 47 . from Syria. across South at Russia least into Lithuania. natural size.THE OLDEST FARMERS Everywhere we find those puzzling little geometrically shaped pigmies the mode and purpose of whose manufacture elude us. The same types appear in the final from Spain right across North Africa to India Capsian and this parallelism illustrates more (Fig. clearly than anything else the cultural continuity of the whole belt during late pluvial times. x evidently dealing with a northward migration to escape the consequences of desiccation such as we had deduced as likely from a consideration of climatic shifts. ii. India. and along another line presumably FIG.
the use of ostrich-shell discs as beads 2 and again the dog. Nor were conditions in Little Africa particularly favourable to the rise of the new economy Farther east in Egypt conditions were better and the record is fortunately clearer. Getulans.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST about the same time there was a corresponding migration southward that brought to South Africa an analogous set of pigmy flints. conveniently termed gathering stage. living by hunting and snail-gathering. 3 sickle-teeth. 3 barbed or tanged arrow-heads 3 and probably also polished " "4 5 celts stone axe-heads or and ring-shaped maceso-called heads 4 of ground stone. This character . sometimes even with gravers. Egypt appears to-day above all as a corridor of fertile and habitable country drawn athwart the desert zone which divides the grasslands of the Sudan from the coastal belt of Mediterranean rains. " " neolithic . None of these migrants had passed out of the food- And others. but rather stagnant unprogressive savages. making pigmy flints but no more gravers rocks. coarse potsherds. remained in North Africa. the discoverers of agriculture or the tamers of animals. Yet there begin to appear among the microliths. These things are marks of the civilization of the first food- producers But the manner of their appearance in Tunisia suggests much rather gradual borrowing from without than local invention. and carving conventionalized pictures on the These do not seem the authors of any economic revolution.
giraffes and the lions and leopards and in the historical period hunts for such animals ate depicted on the walls of Middle Kingdom tombs. Barbary sheep. To-day the country south of Cairo is virtually rainless and would be utter desert save for the annual irrigation 6 by the Nile flood. The Delta. is an open and once marshy plain continuous is with the coastlands of Libya and Palestine and accessible from both quarters and from the sea. this including quite . is a narrow rift bordered on either hand by rocky walls above which lie the now arid tablelands of the Libyan and Arabian deserts. and elephants. These dry watercourses constitute entries to the valley for the caravans coming from the Red Sea coasts or from the chain of oases that lie in a depression parallel to the Nile's course.THE OLDEST FARMERS due exclusively to the Nile which is not only itself a moving road but which also fertilizes by its annual inundation a strip of the valley on either bank. antelopes. fringing the river. herbage must have nourished herds of wild asses. Even In the valley itself spread extensive swamps. Yet these rock walls are pierced at many points on either bank by the gorges of old streams that drained the plateaux on the east and west during the pluvial period. urus. possibly wild cereals. gazelles and that preyed thereon. and two kinds of wild pig 49 E . Upper Egypt. The valleys of the wa dis running in from the high desert must have been clothed with spring grasses. Yet Egypt is no physiographical unit. kudu. on the contrary. or Lower Egypt. But in the pluvial period conditions must have been very different.
Mr. . and along the channels leading only to to the Fayum." writes Perry. 7 just above Gebel Silsileh. And such would be faced with conditions calculated to induce the change from a parasitic to a 8 productive life.. crocodiles. To find a floristic and faunistic environment comparable to that encountered by the most ancient Egyptians one must On the travel far upstream into the monsoon zone. be growing wheat and barley for the Egyptians. plants that survived in historical Egypt only in gardens. All that would be needed.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST roamed in the jungle besides the hippopotami. It is be expected that. The annual flood and the rich soil it deposited would cause grains dropped on the ground to germinate without human intervention* " The Nile valley. and wild-boars that survived till recent times. Quite recently a branch of the Lower Capsian industry has been recognized in the valley itself at S6bil. Hunters from the high plateaux had been visiting the valley from Lower Palaeolithic times leaving their implements on the high terraces on either side. by means of its perfect irrigation cycle. ancestors of wheat and barley. Perry has stated in glowing terms Egypt's claim to be the cradle of agriculture. the influx of nomads towards the well-watered valley would be accelerated.. " would. 5 . White Nile the traveller will find. Granting the existence on the edges of the valley of the nobler grasses. growing wild. the idea of their deliberate cultivation would be suggested on the banks of the Nile as nowhere else. as the droughts became more frequent and acute on the surrounding deserts.
Such people. trees of kinds unknown to Egypt in historic and later at the foot of the desert cliffs .THE OLDEST FARMERS of the simple expedient of making channels for the water to flow over a wider Modern observers have described. the Badarians were a short and extremely Physically slender race with small. narrow skulls. among the area. fixed south of the belt of extreme desiccation. Here a community of farmers made their village on the edge of the flood the groves at the foot of the cliffs. in the eastern desert. a mode of life that might tribes Nilotic for would be some genius to think well represent the stage intermediate between the foodgathering culture of the Capsian hunters and the settled agriculture of the oldest sedentary inhabitants of Egypt. Then have perhaps preserved for us precisely the mode of Jife attributable to the immediate ancestors of the IJadarians. The Hadendoa lived last century as nomadic herdsmen But they maintained more or less within reach of the flooded lands to permanent villages which they would repair in force in the late summer." of the Sudan. they scattered millet seeds on the wet mud left by the recent inundation and awaited the harvest. 9 Tall fell regularly as high up the Nile as Assiut. prehistoric times grew their roots are found to-day among the huts and graves of the prehistoric settlement. to archaeology in the Nile or When rain still the earliest food-producers settled at Badari. the oldest agriculturists certainly disclosed valley "our gaze by anywhere else. They thus closely lands among 10 5* .
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST resemble the later predynastic Egyptians but are a trifle more negroid and in some respects show affinities to early Indian races particularly the Dravidians. pot-making. the Kolarians. are usually termed In addition they were neolithic.e. axe or The adze-heads. They lived regular villages. Thus they are offspring of that ancient racial continuum whose extension throughout the desert zone has been inferred from communities of industrial remains. and could with copper glaze stone beads. They clothed themselves in garments of linen or in goats* skins and were skilled in polishing hard stone. supply of marine Sea for necklaces and of malachite. acquainted Some sort of trade relations were already sufficiently established to ensure shells from the Red probably from Sinai. bone. Such implements. A belief in a future life found expression in a regular and careful funerary ritual. for eye-paint. i. barley and emmer and probably raising domestic animals. Celts. plentiful them a archaeological features of the Badarian civilization may be summarized as follows. though of course they also hunted and fished. basketry. weaving. and the carving of wood. as Myres has . and In a word they had mastered all the arts that ivory. Culturally the Badarians were a whole stage removed from the savagery of the Capstan hunters and were indeed superior to any " neolithic in " community in Northern cultivating Europe. were made by grinding or even polishing pebbles to a sharp edge. and even the Veddahs of Ceylon.
were needed primarily by wood-workers.) with the growing desiccation. Flint was very skilfully worked by pressure-flaking into barbed. presumably because the suitable timbers had died out 3 Inch* Fic. almost mitre- 53 . arrow-head (B). Sickle-teeth (A). and side-blow flake flake (c) after Caton Thomson in Antiquity > L a blow struck fcear its centre as c has been detached by (The shown by the bulb visible in the middle view. 12. In later predynastic times none are found in Egypt.THE OLDEST FARMERS recognized.
though otherwise there are no indications of the use of the line a much later The pottery date. But the most distinctive flint type is a curious curved flake struck ofF by a centrally directed . vessels. illustrate never excelled in the Nile valley. as with battered backs and flakes with denticulated blades serving perhaps as saws or sickle-teeth. and indications of the use of a mace with a stone-weighted head. some arrows. blow length (Fig. 12 c) flake. perhaps another were knife-blades. till 13). to produce an exquisite rippled effect that must be seen to designed for a perfection of ceramic technique especially those be appreciated. may perhaps have served as fish-hooks (Fig. were often fired inverted so that the lower part was exposed to the free air and hence reddened by oxidization while the rim and the inside were blackened 54 . Curious little three-quarter rings with a perforated projection. Besides the Round bow and throwing there are stick (Fig. The vases. carved out of bone. perhaps with a blunt-toothed comb. funerary use. a wooden boomerang or 13) was a favourite weapon. was also common. which were coated with a ferruginous wash. it at right angles to the greatest has been christened a side-blow bone-points sharpened at either end may have been used as an alternative to flint tips as arrow-heads. The finer ware is thin been and has decorated extremely by burnishing before firing. I2B) and thin laurel-leaf points.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST form arrow-heads (Fig. carpenter's tool. A steep-ended scraper or push-plane.
PLATE III a BASKET FROM FAYUM b POTTERY AND FLINT LAUREL LEAF FROM BADARI [/ircep 54 .
case being reduced to ferrous* The chief shapes manufactured in this fabric were bowls. Badari. the ferric oxide in this by the deoxidizing FIG. 13. after Brunton. Bone " hook " and wooden boomerang.THE OLDEST FARMERS action of the glowing ashes and the gases of imperfect combustion. often steep-sided 55 .
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST and sometimes even carinated (Fig. Carinated bowl. after Bninton. Badari. The shape of the beaker. however. Yet even in this fabric quite elaborate shapes. The sole shape known in this black incised ware is a tulip-shaped beaker (Fig. have been evolved in leather. or bar-chevrons arranged in horizontal zones or radiating from the base. Similar shapes and designs survive to-day in basketry from North-East Africa. triangles. Secondly. also looks very leathery. often with 56 . 14). 14. 6). there is a great abundance of very coarse ware containing much straw and shell and badly burned. may in the last resort in this case the basket-maker. . and one shape found in coarse ware. Finally. FIG. a globular flask with four handles on the belly (Plate III. 1 5). there was a fine black ware decorated with incised and patterns of hatchings. Here form white-incrusted and decoration allow of a glimpse into an era before for the potter faithfully pottery had been invented follows traditions handed down^by his predecessors.
Rectangular palettes perforated at the corners or with slits in the ends were made out of slate for grinding in a few. ornamented with carved birds. and spoons carved out of ivory. J. Even cylindrical basalt was FIG. flat the vases. beaker. Besides pots. sometimes shaped and hollowed out by grinding and with overpolishing to form a slightly conical vessel hanging bevelled rim. the Badarians used vases. possibly the^malachite used as an eye-paint . everted rims or necks. especially the finer ones. and pins of the same 57 . Though pottery was very plentiful. after Petrie. holes were bored on either side of the fracture and connected by grass rivets. Notable is a shallow square-mouthed bowl and the flask already mentioned. older. Ivory combs. flasks. graves almost square palettes of alabaster were used instead. were worn in the hair.THE OLDEST FARMERS bottoms. 1 5. Badariao. have often been wherever carefully mended in prehistoric times : inclination to crack appeared. were manufactured.
Ostrich feathers were apparently used as fans. 11 They. Female figurines modelled in clay or carved out of Such may be ivory have been found in the graves.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST material. too. and pottery. Some Badarian forms are missing. sheep or goats and swine upon the lake shores. and plugs of soft stone were stuck in the ears and nose. But trade brought to the Fayum shells from the Mediterranean as well as from the Red Sea. wrapped in mats or goat-skins. tubes. and sometimes lying on a rough bier covered with twigs. or perhaps even earlier. worked ivories. About the same time as the Badarians settled in Upper Egypt. in sometimes with grooved heads and an eyelet the neck. surface. They stored th6ir grain in straw-lined silos and possessed most of the other neolithic arts attested for the Badarians. were cultivated emmer and only the copper and glazed beads have not yet been found. but and barley pastured herds of oxen. for instance all the fine " fish-hook rings". The Badarians were interred in the contracted posture in shallow trenchgraves. the . glazed quartz. perhaps fastened the clothing* Copper other and of beads stones. felspar. and Red strung together as necklaces or girdles. while shell bracelets were worn on the arms. a cognate tribe took up its abode by the shores of a lake that then filled the Fayum depression to a height of 200 feet above the present lake fishers and hunters. were shells Sea discs cut out of ostrich eggs. images of a mother goddess or substitutes for the wife the deceased left behind him in this life.
: muddy and ill-baked.North (or at least North-West) Fayum We Africa.) types such as polished celts. Indeed. implements it may be confidently inferred that a kindred population was spread about the oases and watercourses as far south as the Kharga oasis and from Helwan to Siwa. the side-blow flake.THE OLDEST FARMERS most ornaments. for instance a few mitreform arrow-heads. and harpoons. with barbs projecting from a rounded stem. In every case the location of the implements shows that their makers chose sites suitable at once for agriculture and fishing. but includes mature forms square-mouthed bowls and others with flint a rudimentary pedestal. the origin of the latter m. tanged arrow-heads. the later seems to be the context of the radiations from the Badarianare therefore disinclined to seek industry. But on the whole the farther west we go. Plainly this is the source of the neolithic elements From the distribution of similar that we found arriving in Southern Tunisia and Algeria. discshaped mace-heads and a grooved type. mitreform arrow-heads. Sir Flinders^ Petrie 12 /assumes that the Badarians 59 . Strange to Badari are characteristic Badarian with ground blades. appear as strange interlopers among pure Getulan microliths. The pottery flint celts is all extremely coarse. and the boomerang are represented. in some of these western stations definite Fayum types. (It must be remembered that no On the other hand the most graves were found.
names in the Book of the Dead have also been cited in support of the Caucasian theory. Nevertheless not one specifically Badarian type has ever been reported from the Caucasus region or even North Syria and the delicate dolichocephalic Badarian skulls with their negroid affinities are the very last thing one would expect from the cradle of the Alpine Race. He once went so far as to identify them with a branch of the family a parallel movement of which their by a more northerly route brought the Solutreans to The supposed similarity of Badarian and Europe. been shown to be quite no Solutrean is known in Asia or the superficial and the African 'Sbaikian provides a nearer and Caucasus. equally plausible parentage for the Badarian laurelLater echoes of Caucasian and Armenian placeleaves.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST and kinsmen came from the direction of the Caucasus. 11 and Junker 14 on Caton-Thompson. . In that direction many Badarian elements survived in a pure form Brunton. 13 down to historic times in the so-called " C-group ". 60 . the arguments based on the Asiatic distribution are. of cereals and domesticable animals of course. and much weight is justly laid on the story of Osiris. however. for the Badarians were undoubtedly the And all founders of Egyptian agriculture. coming from Syria . to be duly considered. as the bringer of cereals. Solutrean flint-work on which the latter part of the theory rested has. the other hand have rightly insisted upon the Nubian analogies to the Badarian-Fayum complex.
figurines Similar figures survived into " neolithic Crete. There are indications that a racial type. just as steatopygy is of beauty in Hottentot women. the steatopygous from palaeolithic sites in France. and rather later from grotto shell-heaps at the mouth of the Tagus. was spread as far north as Portugal and Upper . and Russia have been interpreted in this sense. 16 It is therefore just possible that all these anthropoa logical and cultural phenomena are due to survivals of very old and primitive i^urafricw^JraditiQn whose adherents would have spread northward and southward 6l . Upper Italy.THE OLDEST FARMERS The authors of the latter in their turn are no less clearly linked to the most Egyptian element in predynastic to the purest Hamites. on the other. Austria. regarded as a mark " Europe the earliest pottery is a black incised ware whose shapes copy gourds. the 15 The Badarians Beja of the Eastern Sudan. would on this view belong to a branch indeed of the Egypt on the one hand and great Capsian stock but a branch specialized in the Nile valley or farther to the east. The negroid traits observed in the Badarian skeletons 'open up a vista of very curious speculation. Something of the same sort has already met us at Badari and it survives in Nubia in the C-group graves . recent time at Italy in late pleistocene and early in addition to the negroid skeletons from a Grimaldi near Mentone. possibly ancestral to the true negro but far less specialized. many of the vases from the latter indeed agree extraordinarily with early Danubian pots. In the same parts of times in Malta. and Thrace.
The Early negroid traits 18 had lost the Predynastic Egyptians in noticeable their Badarian forerunners. But the Badarians' ancestors were not the Getulan hunters of the Libyan desert and Sahara. introduced from without ready Far more probably was it autochthonous in the we can judge. specialized along divergent lines. otherwise the spread of that culture or its emanations can hardly be understood. increasing dryness eventually caused a considerable infiltration of Getulan elements from the west. as we have noted. In any case the oldest Egyptian civilization as far as made. it spread among the Getulan hunters to the Atlas and the Straits of Gibraltar. but was that of the Hadendoa mentioned above and who may well have been the Such a condition ancestors of similar modern tribes.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST following desiccated. the First Predynastic culture. From the fusion between these and the Badarians there arose in Upper Egypt. into the Nile valley. the immediate for assumed of semi-nomadism must be some group whose cultural level ancestors of the Badarians prior to their fixation. For. from a great number of settlements and a few villages extending from Badari on the north well into to us Lower Nubia. at a time when the rainfall was no longer sufficient for the growth of 17 It is known large trees. the rain belts as their and consequently homeland became would have become was not. 62 . Nile valley. The perhaps already affected by that westward cultural drift.
PLATE V a TUSK FIGURINE BLACK-TOPPED VASES I face p. 63 .
They are about 51 feet in height. conclude that the First Predynastic communities were 63 . small features lightly built with type identical in almost every straight hair. slender and and a long small skull. of the chase and of the representation on vases or amulets fishing. Petrie considers these represent survivors of a conquered race that would be identical with that substratum of Eurafrican protonegroids mentioned. often shaved their heads The women on the other hand and wore wigs that are separately modelled. Hence one is tempted to as the emblems of deities. The early ivories depict men clean-shaven or wearing long pointed beards with a prominent aquiline nose and a high domed forehead (Plates Va and VI la). A feature may be to-day. there another group characterized by marked steatopy^y (Plate VII). seen among the Beja of the Eastern Sudan Figurines of clay or ivory supplement the picture given by the well-preserved corpses. still later. and some at least of the symbols that now meet us recur in the succeeding period as clan-ensigns and. of undesirable animals such as crocodiles and scorpions 19 From the existence of a totemic cult has been inferred. And to the skeletal remains is besides a slender type.THE OLDEST FARMERS perhaps owing to the infusion of Getulan or Libyan blood. just Like the Badarians the Early Predynastic Egyptians lived as settled communities in regular villages on the hypothetical products of their crops and flocks. corresponding and the male statuettes.
Designs scratched 64 . on predynastic pots.EAST THE MOST ANCIENT D44 FIG. 16.
9. Needle. Late Predynastic after Petrie. and of captives with their hands bound behind them.THE OLDEST FARMERS totemic clans living in autonomous villages. the guished by All the industries carried on by the Badarians still flourished save that polished stone axes were no longer vases . 17. Early Pre- dynastic. Middle Predynastic. i. sufficiently distinguished from the rest to deserving such a title. Small copper implements from Naqada 3.3 : 9 FIG. The in the use of existence of personal property is implied " " scratched on the proprietary marks (=> o 1234. 17. o) it 65 F . be assigned to any personage Yet slaves already existed to judge by figurines of water-bearers. all manufactured presumably because timber requiring the use of such tools had become extinct. generally female. In compensation qopper was now used even for small tools such as harpoons. Pin. the vases in one grave are normally distinsame sign. Fish-hook.5678 v* . though except in the pins with looped head (Fig. in the kingship or chieftainship there early cemeteries no grave is in richness Of is no sign . $. like the Dinka of the Upper Nile mentioned in the first chapter.
recently observed by some 66 . 20 Foreign were more extensive and regular than before. and emery perhaps from relations Upper Egypt. obsidian and lapis lazuli from Western Asia. Perhaps such intercourse the Egyptians had evolved a very serviceable boat made out of bundles of papyrus lashed together (Plate VI). coniferous woods from Syria. progress religious belief is shown by the elaboration of the funerary ritual. But boats of this type are " " never depicted with sails spread while the later foreign " " trade barques are thus represented.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST was treated of its true properties like stone or ivory without any appreciation as maleable and fusible. signs whose origin is ultimately to be sought in palaeolithic marks. The still barbarous practice. It gave support for two square to facilitate Naxos 21 found their way to cabins amidships and was propelled by seven or eight pairs of oars. With the same might be connected the elaboration and widespread diffusion of those alphabetiform signs that appear scratched on our vases. Besides copper and malachite from Sinai and gold from Nubia. then the Egyptians would already have harnessed a non-human motive power. against the Nile current. Petrie believes that such boats must have been equipped with sails as rowing would be ineffectual If this reasoning be correct. The marvellous of the in the bodies hot sand of the desert preservation in The would suggest idea of the to the Nile dwellers a peculiarly vivid continuation of life after death. the steersman standing sheltered by a bough at the stern.
INTERIOR OF WHITE CROSS-LINED BOWL .PLATE VI a BASALT AND ALABASTER VASES ft.
Such scenes were not executed merely to delight the eye of the soul but. to secure to the defunct by their inherent magic virtue the actual enjoyment of such services and delights. Man's dumb servant. the kbours of his and his own pleasures at the banquet and the chase. The statuettes of women and of servants bearing waterpots on their heads. however. often forced to accompany his master in death and buried with him in the tomb. was. Other possessions such as cattle were replaced by clay models (Plate X#). from the First 67 . the dog. enable us to disentangle the several constituents of this culture and justify our initial assertion. of slaying wives and menials and burying them with their lord to attend him in the had apparently been abandoned because sympathetic magic offered a more economical alternative. as the accompanying texts show. In dynastic Egypt paintings on the tomb walls depict the bringing of offerings to the dead.THE OLDEST FARMERS Nilotic tribes farther south. In the prehistoric grave there was no room for paintings on the walls of the simple pit. are probably substitutes for living wives and attendants as were demonstrably the ushafai future life figures of historic times. let us now To examine some of No archaeological traits stone axes or adzes are known its more closely. but funerary vases and slate palettes were decorated with comparable scenes that are linked by a continuous chain of later monuments to the earliest painted tombs as will appear in the serfs 22 sequel.
1 8. flint work: i 68 . rhomboid daggers. arrow-heads (5 is 3 and and 2. Early Predynastic 4. after de Morgan. perhaps protodynastic).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Fie.
26. but. and a beautiful comma-shaped knife (Fig. 85) that is really just a Capsian point worked all over one \J FIG. but the flint tools include sickle-teeth. transverse arrow-heads of lunate or trapezoidal form now occur. 19. the latter probably used as razors. after Petrie. disc. at least Nubia.and end-scrapers.THE OLDEST FARMERS Predynastic period. Ivory vases and harpoons of . First and spoons of Second Pre- dynastic culture. face by pressure-flaking. 23 The arrow was tipped with concave-based or tanged points as before. 24 Notable types are the fish-tailed in .
Others are ornamented with the representations of men and animals. hafted by its point into a wood or ivory hilt and allegedly used for hamstringing game. more often of bone and always flatter than those from the Fayum (Fig. from basketry originals (Fig 20). a polished shapes the flasks. 31 and 35. like the vases they adorn. The commonest fabric.D. but the result was 70 . 1 8). rarely of copper. First there are vases adorned with simple rectilinear motives evidently copied.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST VII Lz). Fish were speared with harpoons. termed Black-topped Ware. but the lank tumblers are the most distinctive. red ware. Several classes of pottery. were now in use. bottom). sharp-edged stone disc or more rarely with a pointed blade (Plate head of stone (Plate VII. The designs belong to two series. " " or dagger blade lance and the great rhomboid The mace now used was weighted with a (Fig. already referred to as of magic purport and evidently intended to be lifelike. resembles the finer Badarian manner of its decoration by partial oxidization of the ferruginous wash but lacks the tasteful ripple burnish and the fineness of the latter fabric (PI. It is essentially red-polished ware ornamented with patterns in dull white paint. goblets on a low pedestal and twin vases are noticeable. all inferior to the best Badarian. VS). Cross-lined pottery that was only manufactured between S. Secondly. 1 9). fired wholly in an oxidizing atmosphere. was current as was a black ware produced by reduction and Yet more characteristic is White imitating basalt. Among the in the carinated bowls.
PLATE VII a -b TOMB GROUPS FROM DIOSPOLIS PARVA [face p 70 .
Wnite Cross-lined bowls showing basketry patterns after Capart. 20. T V some cases plastically In vases. Black-topped modelled animals generally elephants or hippopotami 71 . VI).THE OLDEST FARMERS not always very successful (PI. These painted scenes have ruder precursors scratched on Red-polished or FIG.
and scorpions give us picture of the prehistoric fauna of the Nile valley and its immediate borders. a fabric principally found in Nubia. The 72 material used for the Early . It corresponds in technique to the Badarian is beakers and like them is inspired by basketry models FIG. only Early Predynastic types are tall ovoid beakers on a pedestal with two lug handles just under the rim cylindrical jars with slightly convex sides and bevelled rims (PL Via). pendant to the White Cross-lined A the rare Black Incised ware. though not very often. These figures and the painted a lively giraffes. Black Incised ware. 21. Barbary sheep. .vessels. The and Stone was also used for .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST walk round the vase's rim. with the exception of some Nubian vases that imitate a gourd in a straw sling.
'^ . . ab. TOMB GROUPS FROM DIOSPOLIS PARVA [facep 73 . t R ~ K : l ^ \ i.^**h^ .PLATE VIII OQOOO . 5 ^ "* ^ i f T :% 1 ..^ $ ^ ^.** '''* - -VK .
or The arms were decked with bracelets of shell. worn. 73 . Naqada. bottom that palettes to represent animals The right) or carved (Fig. made out of ostrich shell or ivory. were stuck in the hair or wig. or flat ivory slips of a similar shape or well-carved stone models.THE OLDEST FARMERS Predynastic stone vessels was exclusively fine-grained rocks. tortoise-shell. FIG. 22). to judge by the figurines. steatite. and ivory pins may have been similarly Necklaces of ostrich-shell discs. ? The body was tattooed with various patterns. To them were attached slate pendants representing animals. J. are now either rhomboidal (PI. Slate palette in form of a fish. material was carried in little bags decorated with tags (Plate VIII) that may be either real tusks. Men. 22. birds.. Long- toothed ivory combs like the Badarian. to^ toilet articles Other vases were were still Turning we find that the eyes It was ground on slate painted with malachite. VII. lapis or green glazed beads and marine shells or coral were hung round the neck. principally basalt and alabaster. ivory. S.D. cornelian.pr v fishes that may have been ^totemie emblems or magjd amulets.
but were shod with sandals of grass. wore a linen apron. FIG. The graves were shallow oval pits in which the corpse was interred doubled up. and sometimes at least wigs. centre) and plumes stuck in their Women hair.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST went stark-naked save for the " Libyan sheath " or penistasche (PL VII#. Sometimes more than one body lies in a single grave. 23. and in other cases the bones 74 . Ivory combs. about J.
Block figures. The place figurines belong to several classes. Va). In the first we have the ivory tusks showing only the head (PI. The deceased was liberally provided with weapons. Next comes a series of complete statuettes also in ivory. and food for the future life as well as the magical apparatus already described.D. earlier examples are fine and realistically carved the end of the First Predynastic age about S.THE OLDEST FARMERS are found in disorder as if interment had taken place only after the skin had decayed from them. " " block figures showihg. Erect and squatting types occur and the arms be upraised or curved round below the breasts may (Plates VII and VIII). 24. The FIG. 75 . rougher.only they give way to rough the head and bust that survive into the Second period The clay or mud figures are generally much (Fig. ornaments. . Naqada. 38. 24).
short of the best achievements of his North African or Spanish confreres. the penis-sheath on clay and ivory figurines . S. the grains and domestic animals which made that possible. but the Egyptian fell artist. the anklets worn at Cogul are also indicated on an Early Pre- dynastic have figurine. are combs and all pins. ivory bracelets and glazed beads. pottery. the slate palettes. Thomas 25 a detailed conventionalized comparison elements of later has recently between the more Spanish cave art and the signs on White Cross-lined and Black-topped And he finds so many coincidences that it is clear that Early Predynastic Egyptian art was not only inspired by the same ideals but also developed along the same lines as that of East Spain. prototypes in the clay Beads of ostrich-egg discs Capsian middens of Algeria. shell scenes painted on White Cross-lined pots or incised on Black-topped vases or slate palettes betray in style and mentality the closest kinship to the Capsian paintings and engravings described in the last chapter. There are the same liveliness and impressionism in both groups. the east and west.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In the complex defined by the foregoing traits the sedentary life. experimenting in a new medium. Then there are many agreements in costume between vases. . the fine flintwork. the or less directly from them. the black-topped just improvements on the discoveries of the Badarians or are derived more On the other hand. The feathered head-dress of the Saharan rocks reappears on White Cross-lined vases. instituted E.
77 . barbed form in the Early Pre- The appearance in the First Predynastic civilization of Upper Egypt of so many forms that have a long history in North Africa. That influx would help to explain the elimination of negroid elements in the Nile valley and the clash of contrasted cultures and divergent traditions would promote the great progress that marks the rise of the Early Predynastic civilization. accordingly confirms the view advanced at the beginning of the section that the Early Predynastic culture contains new Libyan elements Getulan nomads from what foreign to the Badarian. distinctively Capsian transverse arrow-head appears beside the Badarian dynastic of Nubia.THE OLDEST FARMERS The The 26 predynastic dog looks like that depicted at Alpera. superimposed upon a purely Nilotic Badarian substratum. was becoming the desert had invaded the fertile valley and mingled with the Badarian farmers.
possess well-shaped everted rims. in a black-faced ware which. and cognate remains have marked by diminution in the size of the flints and the reshaping by chipping of once polished implements. 1 The sole vestiges of this early civilization are a few ovoid vases. from the distribution of sites east of the Nile. In the Fayum itself culture gradually went down hill. exclusively from stray finds on the western bank of the Nile near Gizeh and from a poor settlement c and cemetery excavated by Bovier Lapierre near adi It is known Ma on the opposite bank. coarse and only roughly polished. despite their clumsy technique. found in a tomb near Ma'adi. and one basalt vase of the distinctive shape peculiar to the Early Predynastic graves of the South. 78 . But a culture similar to that of the Fayum must. But in Lower Egypt there grew up out of a like substratum a culture parallel to the First Predynastic of Upper Egypt but with a more Mediterranean tinge. the decline being whole belt.CHAPTER IV THE SECOND PREDYNASTJC CULTURE IN the Delta the oldest remains of human settlement are hopelessly buried beneath many layers of Nile mud. have covered the actually come to light on the western edge of the Delta and east of the Nile in the vicinity of Helwan.
D. And in Upper Egypt there is no sharp break between the the latter gradually First civilization and the Second . elements. as opposed to African. though its presence may be inferred with confidence in the North. At the same time the old culture becomes atrophied . degenerate children of Early Predynastic types. adorned a Black-topped pot from 2 Naqada in Upper Egypt. affinities. 39 Crete the use of ivory block figures. too. It is in fact only known directly from the latter region. but dominating. though Black79 . mixing with. and of the Libyan sheath. and this civilization ultimately dominated Upper Egypt. for their affinities are partly with the Libyan they elements in the First Culture. the older New types of vases. Refugees from the western Delta flying from Menes at a later date brought to S.3 But it is still uncertain whether these kinsmen of the First Predynastic folk of the South were the authors of the black-ware culture of Lower Egypt or whether represent a subsequent band of Libyanized intruders . trickled in. of weapons and orna- ments intrude in ever greater numbers till they predominate or even oust the old entirely. The that was to adorn red crown the King of Lower Egypt and symbolized the goddess Neith of before Sals in the Delta. but indirect evidence exists of the presence of an allied population in the Delta.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE The last-named Upper Egyptian culture has never been found north of Badari. In any case Lower Egypt eventually became the seat of a higher civilization with definitely Asiatic.
They do not grow naturally out of the older traditions but mark a definite break with established custom. 25) . Such denote. The Second Upper Egypt.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST topped ware continues to be manufactured no 4 new forms are developed after S. 40. The first group of features need mean nothing more than independent progress in arts and crafts. and a consolidation of religious and social ideas.D. 42) the disc type that only survives later as a cult object . on the other by the abrupt changes of fashion in weapons. and dress that denote a breach with the past. in its Predynastic civilization. differs as known in from the first on the one hand greater richness and its technical superiority. 38) to swallow-tailed shapes with a base (Fig. growth of wealth. the past is A pear-shaped mace indicated in the following replaces (S. scimitar- U V shaped knives (Fig. can only be explained in ethnic or political terms. The changes in armament and dress on the contrary. 45 oust the comma type . therefore. associated as they are with no less thoroughgoing modifications of religious ceremonial and burial rites. The break with traits. 84) at S.D.D. the adoption of ideas belonging to a different cycle and presumably effected by the infiltra- we That impression is confirmed when observe that the Second culture never penetrated into Nubia. the fishtailed blades (with base) give place (S. 26. 80 .D. pottery. flint daggers come in and arrow-heads with concave bases go out but the chisel-bladed arrow . tion of foreigners.
in ivory after S. but clay and stone vases are made in the form of animals and the ivory-carver turns 8l G . 45 . 25.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE occurs occasionally even in Middle Egypt .D. figurines are no longer modelled in clay after S. |. Naqada. Flint blades with V base. 43 nor carved FIG.D. after Petrie.
Middle. are radically altered. later Middle Predynastic. J. Though Blacktopped and Red-polished ware continue to be manufactured they are no longer the vehicle for new shapes.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST his attention to the manufacture of amulets and spoons strange to the first culture. 26. 82 .. 84. Flint knives : 83 and 85. 82 and 86. Early. of ethnic change. Household vessels. always the most sensitive indicator FIG.
STONE VASES AND POTTERY COPIES 4 WAVY-HANDLED JARS c V-BASED BLADE AND DAGGER OF FLINT d.PLATE IX a. FLINT KNIFE SHOWING SERIAL FLAKING .
SECOND . as rims and by their shapes. J. are to be sought in stone The patterns on instead of in leather and basketry* either the the earlier vases imitate mottling of coarsegrained stones or the protective straw jackets in which 83 . Decorated vases (and two wavy-handled jars in centre) stone vessels in shape and ornament. especially the "undercut" long tubular handles. Technically the production of a light-coloured fabric like this implies very different traditions to those embodied in red and FIG 27. Its the as ware is taken vases of typical place by light- coloured buff clay painted with patterns in brownish red. the so-called Decorated pots. disclosed The ancestry of the decorated pots.PREDYNASTIC CULTURE while White Cross-lined has gone out altogether. imitatinj black wares.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST such vessels. were carried. In addition we have the famous Wavy-handled jars FIG. Decorated pot figuring boat. 28. There are further a few spouted jars. and then a multitude of " < " Rough pots. and in colour vessels of clay or stone in the shape of animals. And actually many graves contain stone vases agreeing precisely in form with their clay copies and distinguished from those of the previous period both by their shapes and by the preference for variegated and coarse-grained rocks (Plate IX#). the whose progressive degeneration provided Petrie with first basis for his sequence dating (Plate IX#). Such " " been have theriomorphs regarded as signs of foreign influence but the animals represented include definitely 84 . like Chianti flasks or ginger-jars to-day. generally reddish and often provided with a pointed base. probably imported.
After S. after Capart. 29.D. ^. 29). animals. 45 subjects taken from nature. TKeriomorpliic and spouted vases. and ships are also depicted upon the Decorated 85 . plants. and some theriomorphs are made of just those variegated stones and with just those peculiarities that are exclusively FIG.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE Nilotic species such as hippopotami. characteristic of the Second Predynastic stone-ware (Fig.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
vases and the treatment of the themes
stylized as contrasted with the naturalism
of the older White Cross-lined painting. No less radical alterations are observable in dress
disappears taken by short-
Petrie, S.D. 65.
combs or combinations of such
with hair-pins. The rhombic slate palette goes out of fashion at S.D. 40 and with it the various tags and tusks that had decorated the malachite bags. Yet the eyes
painted with malachite, and theriomorphic
used for grinding
In the intimate domain of spiritual
SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE
ment of figurines and the adoption
of amulets in the shape
of bulls' heads (SJD. 46) and flies (S.D. 48), falcons, and other animals denote a new orientation (Figs. 30-1).
No regular orientation interments have ceased ; multiple no are buried with their masters, and weapons longer dogs are rarer in the tombs. The ornaments, vases, and
Burial rites are revolutionized.
Predynastic stone beads
row ckw and
time of deposition. perhaps Yet the change from the First to the Second culture
than the mere substitution of one barbarism
The high cultural level attained during the previous epoch was preserved, and fresh storeys
were erected on
a complex enriched by fresh ideas and wider relations.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
Farming remains the
importance of hunting has declined as the disappearance of hunting weapons from the tombs shows. But now some villages were well on their way to becoming towns,
the nuclei of the
cities that in historic
the capitals of the regional divisions termed nomes, and then designated by ensigns representing animals or plants. Most authorities agree that the historical nome banners are totemic standards representing the
patron or fetish of the region/
on the Decorated vases bear on a mast
an ensign (Fig.
the ships depicted in front of the
Not only do such ensigns correspond in nearly every case to later nomestandards, but when two or more ships are depicted upon the same vase, their several ensigns are always Hence it is those appropriate to contiguous nomes. 5
clear that the totemic clans,
vaguely discerned in the
First period, are now firmly established in their historic seats ; only a few are to vanish in the unification that
Additional proof of the totemic organization is perhaps afforded by the amulets already mentioned. And B6ndite 6 believed that rows of animals, repreis
yet to come.
sented on certain ivory knife-handles, are pictorial records of"conflicts between such totemic clans ; the
in a regular order
animals depicted are always the same and are grouped with the elephant, historically the
arms of the
nome of Upper Egypt,
idea of the houses in which the clansmen lived
EARLY PREDYNASTIC MODEL OF CATTLE
MODEL OF MIDDLE PREDYNASTIC HOUSE
SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE
by the model from El Amrah (Plate X), representing a solid structure of mud, or wattle and daub.
and dagger from Naqada,
J, after Petrie.
with a wood-framed doorway on one long area has been estimated at 25 by 1 8 feet. 6
'communities, specialization of labour and consequent
17) and tweezers. Flat and adzes chisels rare. Flat knife or razor. (Fig. 33. But coppeij! remained bear witness to such specialization.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST progress The craftsmanship are only to be expected. 90 . remarkable achievements of the stone-borer who in could work even the hardest rocks and of the glazier FIG. 33)5 and even needles (Fig. 32). knives and razors (Fig.
is that which is distinctive of Egypt at all later dates FIG. Flat copper dagger with ivory handle. 34). beginning soon knives current from S. J. dated to about S. 34. 3) none are specifically metallic types. but the method of hafting in a hilt from which crescent- shaped arms project enfolding the blade on either side. but with the exception of one dagger with a mid-rib of S. 32. 60 (Fig. El Amrah (restored). 50. culminated SPthe fifie 9* .SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE are found sporadically. And so the craft of the flint-worker flourished lustre.D.D. with undiminished flaking attained its Indeed in this pe^od^the acme which. These marvellous blades were just flakes that had been first ground before in the wonderful(^erial flaking after 40. (Fig. The earliest metal daggers.D. are flat and triangular. 55-66.
lead. Or the corpse itself might be enclosed in a wooden coffin or laid upon a bier of twigs. mentioned enjoyment of a game like draughts as well as in the advances in religion. to receive the corpse.. Progress in spiritual life is indicated in the may mean that these totems already to the rank of local had been promoted But no shrines or gods.D. in the previous period. an operation that served no practical purpose (PL IXrf). shallow oval pit of the earliest graves 'had given On place soon after S. and was divided into sepulchre at 8 92 . are found as well as amethyst. the Cow of Hathor. and in the Second Predynastic graves.D. 7 By the end of the Second period at S. Naturally trade was intensified. The use as amulets of the Falcon. 63 rich men had their graves lined with mud bricks.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the long parallel scales were taken off by pressureflaking. and the arms of other deities. In other cases a sort of wooden shelter was erected round the corpse. One such measured 4*5 by Hierakonpoliis 2-0 by i*5m. symbol of the dynastic god of Menes. : it is really the graves temples have been identified of the progress of ideas that give us the clearest idea at this period. one side of it after S.D. 35 to an oblong trench. and turquoise the foreign substances already silver. 40 a ledge was left to accommodate continually growing more whole pit might be filled the Alternatively with the funerary gifts and a small recess cut in the rock The the offerings that were numerous.
scenes of the chase.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE two equal compartments by a transverse contemporary graves wall. thus supplies the needed link between the avowedly magical art of historic times and the reputedly magical art of the remoter past. Painting on the wall of a tomb at Hierakonpolis. black. 35). crude though it the Decorated pots. Hierakonpolis tomb just mentioned offers one its walls had been plastered over with unique feature a layer of mud mortar which had been washed over The : with a coat of yellow ochre to serve as the ground for a mural painting (Fig. It 93 . in red. of the later sepulchral frescoes. The artist had delineated FIG. of combats ships. all in the style of The painting. Other offer parallels to this division. between men and and white. at the ancestor once is be. and the lineal descendant of the prehistoric vase-paintings. 35. and dances.
are_ obvious. on the other hand. according to the pioneer of Egyptian prehistory. The In any case Asiatic contacts pear-shaped mace. element at least to inhabitants of the eastern desert there the physical conditions would admittedly encourage the use of stone for vessels.D. culminating in the single painted tomb of Hierakonpolis. the spouted jug. series. Frankfort. have been connected by Petrie. 10 and Scharff u with Palestine and Syria. graves. In it we see has also a sociological increasing concentration of wealth and power. out of the equalitarian squalor chieftainship has arisen preparing the way for the unification of the land under a king. since before that date isolated Decorated Vases had occasionally found this their way into Upper Egypt. the theriomorphic vase.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST The tomb significance. No private clansman rested in that sumptuous sepulchre but at least a chief. and thence. probably the tradition of dark on light decoration and the technical processes it implies are all features of a great cultural province extending across Hither Asia as far as Kish and Susa 94 . just described. 39. Petrie 9 attributes . come pig-taildj3eople bringing to the first Pharaohs as tribute ^stone vases l of the type actually found in the Second Predynastic The Wavy-handled jars. agreed that the new elements that distinguish the culture of Upper Egypt in the Second Predynastic phase are derived from the north or northIt is universally east^ And innovations * it is almost certain that the autKorsT of living in tfrese had been touch with the Upper Nile for a considerable time prior to S.
Newberry has shown that out of 288 boars depicted on Decorated pots. the of olive-culture according to Newberry. And Newberry has shown that the chief port of Egypt lay in the western Delta in the Harpoon nome. quite isolated cylinder of S. but emerges on the oldest . less attempt an inscription at least is 46 bearing a meaningpoints in the same of the struck direction./Egean ships. disappears from historical Egypt.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE that we shall come at to know A better in a later chapter. Now. and probably some Syrian influences too were transmitted across the sea through 95 . and with its southward extension that first unification of the land under the authority of the eastern Delta as deduced by Junker from the legend of the contest between Osiris and Seth and other fables. It would therefore be through the mediation of the western Delta that Egypt came into contact with Crete. 1 66 fly the ensign of the Harpoon nome situated in historical times on the Canopic mouth of the Nile. Another sign.D. 12 One With root Second Preinto dynastic civilization Asiatic soil. of Egypt this down deep complex then might reasonably be connected the Osiris legend^ that point to Syria. while 80 others bear the emblem of adjoining western Delta nomes. its focus came to lie in the western if But Delta. the Second Civilization belong culturally to an Asiatic province. of j^tron immediate vicinity were extensive deposits that could be used in the manufacture of 13 glazes". the Fish. original in an<^ There home its lay the land of the Libyan Tehenu.
D. coincide approximately with S.C.D. in one Second Predynastic gravte was found a miniature celt. 4236 ? B. All these theories signs for The later hieroglyphic somewhat seem the mace and the arrow are the pear-shaped and chisel-ended types of the Second Culture. reflect the political domination from the north implied in the legend of the Shemsu Hor as interpreted by Sethe ? Are the barques flying the Harpoon standard Harpooners spond original u the ships of the advance of the to who accompanied Horus ? new Second Culture southward infusion Mesniu or Did the corre- that of Semitic' elements into an Hamitic ? philologists Was linguistic stock postulated by many it at this time that the calendar Memphis and Heliopolis and the script of the Delta were diffused throughout the whole of Egypt ? Does of then the first Sothic cycle. 45. pierced for suspension a type very common in Crete and Syria. as illustrated in the boat vases imported after S. is Of attractive theory by no means . Thus Does the imposition of the new culture on the South and the power of the western Delta. as an amulet this channel. : the Second Predynastic culture was largely a product of Lower Egypt.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In any case.. and its extension to Upper Egypt denotes the cultural ascendancy of the North. 45 plausible. In the immediate vicinity of Horus* southern sanctuary we find a tomb that might almost be designated course this royal. The Falcon Horus appears the on Decorated vases and the amulets among signs in Second Predynastic graves.
63. On the carved that knife handles to the end of the Second ivory belong the Horus e Predynastic age and record. it Here is its Down superposition on the native culture of Upper Egypt. a victory over Libyans in the western The interpretation of the Egyptian legends Deltal correlation with archaeological monuments their and its is And theme To the theory of a are matters for the philologist. these . the Falcon Hence the French savant contends that monuments are pre-Horian that is to say the conquest of Upper Egypt by the Shemsu Hor must be The oldest record of the successes dated after S. 97 H .D. of the Falcon clan is the Lion Hunt palette that cannot be dated very much anterior to Menes or about S. 70. race we shall later in dealing return ourselves dynastic with the Mesopotamian connections of Protodynastic important only to show that tradition is compatibly with the archaeological deduction of a high civilization once centred in the Delta and of civilization. according to Ben6dite. is absent. Though more than one racial element contributed to it and we distinguish two civilizations.D. doctrine of a dynastic race from the south to whom clan must be assigned. The Second civilization has indeed Asiatic connections.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE Sir Flinders Petrie endorses the universally accepted. the struggles of the clans of Upper Egypt. all the more important discoveries and inventions may have been made within the Nile basin. to this point It has been possible to explain the growth of civilization in the Nile Valley as a self-contained and continuous process.
faces with malachite. that all the elements that distinguish neolithic and chalcolithic culture as defined in among the barbarian Europeans had been created Egypt out of the common palaeolithic heritage of south and north.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST but nothing proves its indebtedness to Asia . had already social sanction in Early Pre- It may therefore fairly be contended dynastic times. It is generally admitted that the cultivation of the olive was initiated Being accustomed to paint their the predynastic Egyptians were constantly handling copper ore the conversion of which to metal might easily happen before their eyes if some in the western Delta. assuming the presence during the pluvial period of suitable plants. the parallels reflexions as interpreted Mesopotamian may at least theoretically be of a civilizing current from Egypt. been devised. of the ore fell on to hot ashes. the conditions were ideal for the rise of regular agriculture. At the same time the Egyptians could not live in . In Badarian times the valley was still sufficiently wooded for the need of a tool to split timber to be felt thus evoked. In the Nile valley. And the First Predynastic people. already possessed a boat that has been claimed by many as the ancestor of all later ships. favourable and the development of the polished stone celt to be The riverine conditions were eminently for the first experiments in navigation. The rudiments of a script. as we have seen. and given based upon older palaeolithic hunting signs.
despite their dispersion. whatever her past. malachite. and individual. The Late Predynastic and Protodynastic epoch of Egypt is distinguished by the appearance on the Nile of objects. independent. are in any case now reaching a point when definite contacts were established with another centre of civiliza- of We tion that. At the same procure obliged A time the grass-lands to still extending from the Atlantic Zagros were occupied by scattered nomadic tribes. and North Thus there were abundant opportunities for and discoveries of the Egyptian to be inventions the disseminated and copied on the Iranian plateau. Minor and the in Crete. in Asia Syria. was at this epoch originative. We must later inquire whether autonomy of Egyptian all civilization and the dependence others be really as complete as is alleged.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE isolation. technical devices. the In any case foreign substances in Egyptian graves attest relations extending as far as Persia. progressive people with needs like the awakening predynastic clans would be these from to without. spices. which. and artistic motives that were native and lasting in Mesopotamia but in Egypt occur only sporadically or enjoy a quite temporary vogue. must have formed a real continuum like the rare atoms in a vacuum tube. 99 . (after land lacked adequate supplies of timber Badarian times). Armenia. and other The necessary raw materials.
social hierarchy. advance of time and concentration of wealth the tomb was dug ever deeper through the sand and into the Then steps had to be cut for the underlying rock. The cemetery of El Kab illustrates the soul. cities nothing remains differentiation of the and it is only the gradual tombs 1 that allows us to infer the is emergence of an ever more complex while their furniture given to art and and the termination of internecine wars. entry of the coffin-bearers and subsequent bringers of offerings. At El Amrah attention was turned to the/ 100 . the investiture of petty chiefs with the majesty of divine kingship and the union But of the of the warring clans into a compact State. the The elaboration followed With the growth of the trench-grave downwards. and a roof had to be built with posts and wooden beams. richer men who demanded a more elaborate home for divergent lines that only began to converge again after the unification of the land. 63 and 76 saw the transformation of villages into cities. the sole index of the impulse industry by contact with distant lands Throughout the period the poorer citizens were still But now there were buried in simple trench-graves.CHAPTER V THE THE RISE OF THE DYNASTIES period between S.D.
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES o I o ! VO 6 W 101 .
and it is thought by Reisner that the earlier bricked tombs were surmounted by some structure on the ground level to serve as a monument 102 . the wicker partition being In other cases the trench replaced by a brick wall. slabs of desert sandstone roofed undateable.D. 37. Early dynastic chamber tomb. unfortunately polis. 77 a superstructure begins to appear above the ground. was lined with brick or timber walls and eventually divided into a grave proper and a chapel of offerings by a transverse wall as in the painted tomb at HierakonIn another tomb 2 at the same site. Some neolithic graves near Helwan had been marked above ground by a pile of stones. In a second series beginning about S. FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST recess for the original pit formed into a distinct room. divided from the by a wicker partition and eventually trans. body it was enlarged. the chamber was formed by three upright by a fourth after the manner of a dolmen.
In the Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty at Abydos 4 FIG. 38). In its centre stood lined pit 43 by 48 feet square. buttresses projecting from the walls of the shaft forming a series of small store-rooms. a wooden hall 28 feet The planks enclosing it were supported by square. Small masta&a Tarkhan. this and communicating with it by two low slits was a smaller chamber. In the private First Dynasty the grave proper was just a deep shaft above which was a brick-walled chamber But on the west side of apparently filled with sand. always found filled with vases and 8 presumably serving as a mortuary chapel (Fig. a serious attempt was made to reproduce underground The grave was a huge brickthe house of the living. The whole structure was surrounded with rows of smaller tombs containing 103 .RISE OF THE DYNASTIES and a chapel tombs of the for funerary offerings. the burial chamber proper. 38.
39). Great brick mastaba. dug. In other tombs of the same reigns.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the bodies of courtiers and dependents. the superstructure. By the end of the First Dynasty the plan was completed by the addition of a stepped passage leading down to the chamber. and the pit was sometimes floored with granite slabs. was converted into a monumental erection termed a mastaba (Fig. 104 . It is uncertain whether these had been slain to accompany their royal master to the grave. FIG. seen in a rudimentary form at Tarkhan. 3 This was an enormous rectangle of brickwork enclosing several small chambers under the central one of which the grave-shaft proper was The outer wall was recessed in a peculiar manner. 39. Tarkhan. however.
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES two of the recesses on the eastern wall being distinguished by a wooden or brick pavement. The rise has sometimes a rounded butt. These recesses served The whole complex was encircled as funerary shrines. and in the passage between the wall with a brick wall. the concentration of power. evolutionary is a apparent question a description of other aspects of protodynastic culture has been completed. the superposition of a series of mastabas one upon the other produced under Zoser the famous stepped pyramid of Saqqara. The growth of wealth. Under the Third Dynasty the whole structure was translated into stone while the subterranean portions were enlarged and provided with a stepped entrance passage. The tools in use include flat axes (celts) with parallel sides and no expansion of the blade. It is thus possible to present the funerary monuments from Middle Predynastic times down Dynasty as to the Third a self-contained Whether to this continuity is real or series. and a battle-axe with rounded blade. neither The adze provided with sockets. Finally. and the face of the mastaba the bodies of attendants and in one case of two asses were interred. use for tools and weapons and also for vessels. but just stuck into the shaft. shall return which we when and the rise of city life are equally reflected in the ' Copper is now in general progress of the industrial arts. adzes with rounded butts. of such types coincides with a revival of carpentry consequent upon the establishment of regular com- 105 .
But metal had by no means ousted even under the earlier dynasties Indeed. 40)5 but the fish-hook of copper (Fig. copper was rare. 1 7. Copper daggers have a rhomboid outline and are strengthened with stout mid-ribs. core-casting. ferule encircles both shaft and tang in an example from Tarkhan but no socketed weapons are known and it is certain that the Egyptians were unacquainted with flint. Late Predynastic copper harpoons. first with appears for the time under Menes' dynasty. and as late as the Pyramid age the tools for great constructional 106 . The spear-heads had a flat tang which fitted into the split end of a shaft . and a copper ' FIG. 9) Syria. f .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST munication double-edged knives and copper harpoons were taken over from an earlier age (Fig. 40. Flat.
rough blades. |.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES works. sickle-teeth. to say nothing of agriculture. From the early town 5 sites come hundreds of hoes chipped FIG. 107 . 41). 42. were of stone. and other flake-implements. Flint razor bkde. often well worked though never reaching the perfection of the disc-scrapers. out of flint nodules (Fig.
43).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Middle Predynastic later serial flaking. i (Zer-Ta). the pearshaped mace. chip perfectly flat on the bulbar surface and evenly bevelled on the opposite face. Some interesting series illustrate the connection of the early flints with razor with one end rounded metal implements. was a toilet implement. 43. the boomerang ia8 tailed blade . " (as in the classical end-scraper on blade ") and the other squared can be traced from Menes' time till in the A occurs side by side with its In the same tomb gold counterpart. perhaps descended from the swallowof the previous epoch (Fig. a rectangular tomb of Hetep-heres it FIG. the chisel-headed arrow. a tanged razor. the final form of the square-ended flake. Chisel-edged flint blades. chiselended flint blades. evidently it. appears associated with an exact copy in gold . Royal Tombs. too. Other protodynastic types are finely flaked.
precise parallels are common in Mesopotamia. double-axe sign.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES and the shield with concave sides. * On the one hand earthenware is ousted by metal and fine stones from the tables of the On the other with the specialization incident rich. pointed bases and a rim-collar are absent. but some think that a sort of potters' wheel was coming into use. Probably we are here dealing with a grooved mace-head an approximation to which at least has been found in the Fayum industry. is noticeable but handles S. that the shaft does not pass through the head as in the Minoan weapon but round it. been at pains to show axe. 70 is important type appearing first about the open tubular stand whose walls are often An perforated with triangular apertures .D. however. uncertain whether the same interpretation can be applied to two figures. On the Lion Hunt palette we see also a weapon often taken to be a double The artist has. Painting dies out during the sixties and eventually only red or The preference for drab. scratched on protodynastic vases. the potter becomes industrialized and turns from craft-work to mass-production. 7 The decline of fine ware has a dual cause. however. 6 ^Esthetically the pottery declines. hard-baked vases survive. though vessels of obsidian and rock- 109 . upon city life The stone vases are again on the whole more varied stones sought monotonous. identical with the Minoan It is. The beautifully out in the Second Predynastic are now abandoned for the alabaster and basalt that had enjoyed a preference also in the First.
a pedestalled goblet made in two pieces. 44. . And metal vessels are represented by dishes. with a ring encircling the stem where foot and body join (Fig. J. in is them provided by blocks with twin cups bored out has very this type. appear in the Royal Tombs. though squat bowls with tubular handles and undercut rims derived from a well-known Second Predynastic shape are very popular. 66. definite Mesopotamian Besides clay and analogies. The craft of the carpenter may be illustrated by 8 . no . 44). couches with the legs carved to represent bulls' hoofs such served as biers from SJD. vases of glaze and fayence FIG. Royal Tombs. however. An important new type.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST crystal from the Royal Tombs constitute exceptions. and rather later by jars with a spout brazed on. tumblers. stofte. like the clay stands. Copper goblet. By far the commonest shape is a tall cylindrical vase.
BRACELETS FROM TOMB OF KING ZER
and amulets may be noted here. animal form, but generally highly conventionalized survive till the beginning of the Dynastic
Slate palettes in
age, and indeed in a magnified version serve as a vehicle for the records of the Falcon clan and of its princes,
but the normal type after SJD. 70 is rectangular. Among the ornaments spiral beads of stone burnished with gold
Figures of apes in stone and fayence, about J.
occur between S,D. 65 and 72 9 and iron beads 1U are Under the First Dynasty fayence dated to 72 likewise. is quite common and a spirally gadrooned long barrel
bead (Plate XII) is very characteristic. The original form is given by coiled gold wire this was then copied by engraving on lapis. A large number of new
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
gaming-pieces, notably the lion after 64, the baboon before 77, the frog or toad about 65, the scorpion after 70, and a bird perhaps a dove about 77. All these
A camel from Abusir el Meleq
however, very puzzling,
and may be a descendant of a hypothetical pleistocene race from North Africa. Cylinders appear as amulets after S.D. 65, and under
the First Dynasty at latest they are used regularly as seals for the authentication of documents and bear inscripdate too, writing is in regular use ; though the hieroglyphs, have not yet assumed their final form, the main principles of the script, the use of
determinatives, for instance, are already established. But even as early as S.D. 63, one of the characters
of the later script appears on a slate palette apparently 11 The ancestry of the script, whose already as a glyph.
signs are essentially Nilotic, should perhaps be sought in some pictorial records kept by the clans which are
implied in certain ivory knife-handles, already mentioned and dating from the end of the Second Period. Alternatively a body of magic pictures such as are illustrated in the funerary paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric
times might have supplied the material for a system of writing, since the later hieroglyphs possessed not only
a phonetic or ideographic value but also a magic power. The development of the regular script would in any case
be promoted by the emergence of individuals, royalties 112
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES
names and For the existence of an urban
to perpetuate on monuments their personal also by the necessities of trade. foreign
such as had
grown up already in protodynastic times was only
through the maintenance of permanent and regular relations with outside countries. Copper ore must be mined in Sinai, gold in Nubia, and cedar wood for the Royal Tombs was brought by ship from Byblos. Marble was imported from Paros and from Asia came
obsidian, now in quantities sufficient for the facture of vases, lapis lazuli, and other stones.
Direct proof of protodynastic intercourse with North
afforded by the French excavations at Byblos 12 where a flint knife, a late theriomorphic palette, a vase
form of a camel and other articles of ihdubitably Egyptian provenance have been unearthed. By the Second Dynasty a stone temple had already been erected
at that site, perhaps the oldest stone building in the world.
Corresponding proof of trade along the Red Sea is afforded by a late predynastic cemetery at Ras Samadai ' 13 59 N.) containing Late Predynastic (latitude 24 vases and slate palettes. The multitude of Red Sea
shells in protodynastic graves and town sites indicates the regularity of trade in this direction, and the Tridacna
begins to appear in Crete must have come by way of Egypt.
about this time
certain or problematical Mesopotamian contacts be considered in the light of the trade relations
evidence consists in the temporary
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
by the protodynastic Egyptians of devices and artistic motives that constituted permanent elements in Mesopotamian civilization. 15 None of the actual objects found can possibly be regarded as Babylonian the Mesopotamian devices were elaborated products
thoroughly Egyptian way; the Mesopotamian motives adorn purely Egyptian objects and the contacts
are spread out over the whole of the Late Predynastic
and Protodynastic age.
the very beginning of the period at S.D. 63 we encounter a whole group of foreign objects and motives
depicted together on two thoroughly Egyptian monuments. The monuments in question are an ivory knife-handle found at Gebel el-Arak and the painted
tomb of Hierakonpolis already mentioned.
of the discoveries are significant ; they lie near the termini of well-marked caravan routes to the Red Sea.
Both documents depict a boat, foreign
to the ordinary
monuments and represented
as in conflict with the usual
Nilotic ships as depicted so frequently on the Decorated The foreign vessel is distinguished from the
papyrus barques above
Decorated pots (Fig.
by its tall prow and high Egypt besides only on two 46) and on a few isolated
can hardly be derived from the old papyrus boat but on the other hand might easily grow out of the type of boat
monuments of the
by the oldest monuments found
in fact representations
of boats very
we see a group representing a hero dompting two The theme is strange to Egyptian art. " Foreign " ship from late Decorated pot. hand was very popular in Babylonia. yet. while the cap on his head and the long robe that drapes him The whole scene are no less typically Sumerian. but on the other FIG. different from the older Egyptian greyhound identical with the oldest Babylonian. 46. and in the tomb-painting. The Gebel very el-Arak knife-handle again depicts a dog. but type On the knife-handle again. . the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea than a " Gilgamesh epic .RISE OF THE DYNASTIES ours are found on Sumerian vases early in the third millennium. lions. to illustrate the might be used 16 The hero looks more like a god of Hall rightly says. The impression of Mesopotamian inspiration becomes irresistible when we observe that the hero is wearing a full beard.
86. Ivory handle for a flint knife like Fig. 26. 116 lion grasping a bull The Gebel-el . 47.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST a god conceived by his Gilgamesh or an Elamite worshippers under a form strongly influenced by Meso- potamian and Elamite ideas brought to the coast (?of Magan) by sea and executed by a predynastic Egyptian artist/* FIG. by the hind quarters on the Arak handle and the processions of animals on others are again themes that recur repeatedly in So too do the monsters with entwined Mesopotamia.
Vi- With the rise of the First Dynasty still more are ments with early Mesopotamian usage are agreenoticeable.. very long history in Babylonia and was regularly used So too a there as the vehicle for votive sculptures. 48. Some of the oldest dynastic monuments carved mace-heads. 16 FIG. the animals that appear as novelties in the Late Predynastic plastic the lions. toads. the earliest Egyptian sculptures of the lion (Fig. Gaining piece in form of a lion from First Dynasty Royal Tomb.such carved vases were very popular in early Sumerian times and enjoyed a long vogue in the Tigris-Euphrates valley 117 . 48) depict the beast with gaping jaws in the manner of Susa and Babylonia a treatment which was subsequently abandoned in Egypt. 47)3 and on the later slate palette of Menes. and Among In particular scorpions all recur in Mesopotamia.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES necks and the rosettes carved on another knife-handle (Fig. apes. couple of broken vases with figures carved in low relief suggest Mesopotamian influence jsyaee. one of which represents the Sed festival Now the piriform mace has a of the first Pharaoh.
Royal Tombs and The recessed brickwork in particular Babylonia has parallels in from the earliest times onward. are certainly painted to imitate wood. and at Tarkhan 17 wooden panels that could be fitted together to give of the sort precisely the assumed effect were actually found. On one view the recessed wall represents the fa9ade of a pillared hall between the pillars of which were fixed light wooden doors. and survives in Irak to-day. Great importance has also been attached to certain architectural features observed in the early mastabas. objects have been found in the oldest strata at Assur. and elsewhere in Mesopotamia and also in the of baked earthenware second culture at Susa. brick-architecture of Sumer to the prediluvian huts of matting supported by posts. On tomb tomb the other hand.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Still more while they never took root on the Nile. But it must be noted that this sort of facade only copies in brick a type of building originally evolved in wood. even if the similarity 118 . and Woolley has pointed out that these mats bore Syrian and not Egyptian The same author has traced the recessed patterns. Later Egyptian coffins illustrate something the false doors of the early stone mastabas . Fara. so that. everywhere decorated with the same triangular excisions as in Egypt. unmistakably Asiatic are the tubular stands or supports Similar already mentioned. the paintings of the recesses in the of Hesy at Saqqara and the tiles of Zoser's new show that in some cases the spaces between the 18 columns were closed with reed mats.
and at Ur the king's whole retinue was slain and buried with The two asses 19 and a menial buried in the him. corridor of a mastaba at Tarkhan recall the harnessasses and their drivers found in the tombs of Kish and Ur. The tombs successors represent attempts to scale at the bottom of a great Menes and reproduce on a small And so do the earliest royal shaft the hall of the king. All these agreements in funerary structure and courtiers practice are certainly more than accidental. The cumulative effect of all these comparisons is 119 . And though its elements plants and animals. tombs of Ur just excavated. it rests on a community of And the reed and types. in every case with indigenous to Mesoafter it potamia that persisted there long had been abandoned on the itself. The bodies of Menes' were interred in annexes to his tomb . pre-existing architectural But the potamian of earliest in more than his Egyptian tombs resemble the Mesoaccidental features. The cylinders that under the first ciynasties were used as seals are. agrees the hieroglyphic script consist of purely Nilotic so strikingly with the Babylonian in its curious combination of phonetic that the two signs with ideographs and determinants systems must be somehow interrelated. though inscribed a device Egyptian characters.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian brickwork be not due to direct imitation. Nile. timber prototype is not attested for the Nile in predynastic times.
Many of the phenomena would indeed be radiated simultaneously to better explained by the assumption of a third centre from which influences Egypt and Sumer. responsible for the introduction of writing. too. transferred to 120 . appears in Egypt was for the first time. note that in the Royal Tombs a new physical type. And the traders need not have been Sumerians but intermediaries such as the inhabitants of Magan. The issue between commercial and ethnic explanations of the Mesopotamian ^contacts is not a profitable theme. As to the mechanism of these relations opinions differ. artistic sense. however. still dolichocephalic. upon stone. that the among the upper classes. a sea-faring people often mentioned by the Sumerians.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Sumer and Egypt at the time of the oldest kings were no longer mutually isolated but were in direct or more probably indirect but regular communication. 20 along the scale. carpentry and the monumental relations Other authorities are content to invoke trade Red Sea supplementing those by Syria that may go back to Second Predynastic times. conclusive. Petrie speaks of invasions by Elamites and with de Morgan invokes the intervention of a Sumerianized " The latter would have been dynastic race ". but larger and more robust than the earlier predynastic people. sculpture on a large tomb. Let us. the intelligent use of metal. And later on when the capital Lower Egypt under the Third Dynasty " " a brachycephalic Armenoid type becomes prominent 21 Let us note. the potters' wheel.
Copper chisel with "flanged" blade from the tomb ' of Hetep-heres. the mother of Cheops. [page 121 .FIG. 49.
ethnic and commercial explanations Petrie's dynastic race might altogether incompatible. Petrie 22 distinguishes as are many as six. of Ur the existing display a higher at that date. as we have the growth of Egyptian. On than we have in Egypt In addition to wheeled vehicles Sumerian metallurgy had attained a far higher degree of perfection than that by any Egyptian finds of the first two Yet when we come down to the end of the dynasties. " be identified with those followers of a god of the Eastern Desert conceived under a form strongly influenced by " Mesopotamian and Elamite ideas brought by sea postulated by Hall. Third Dynasty the sculptures and architecture in stone illustrated under Zoser far surpass any Mesopotamian achievements. It is of much greater importance to decide to what extent Egypt was merely passive in her relations with Mesopotamia. 49).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST racial types protodynastic slate palettes certainly depict a variety of among the enemies and followers of Menes . . If the Sumerian s had invented the shaft-hole axe. Plainly then the racial prehistorian Nor the has plenty of material to play with. That is a question partly dependent on the chronologies of the two countries which are uncertain just at the vital evidence the Royal Tombs civilization points. and the metal work of (^een Hetep-heres' tomb is nearly as good as anything produced in Sumer. the Egyptians discovered the principle of the flanged But a just comparison can only be made when we have traced the genesis of Sumerian civilization celt (Fig. 122.
In the seventh century B. The sites of the great Sumerian cities farther north may just have been emerging from similar lagoons in 123 . alluvial plains where Sumerian civilization attained apoge are of quite recent formation. from the mouth of the At the beginning of historical times a tidal lagoon extended inland almost to the foot of the limestone ridge on which stand the Euphrates to reach its estuary. To-day the deposit of the rivers up the head of the Persian Gulf so rapidly is silting that the coast line advances about one and a half miles a century. which now joins the combined stream of the Tigris and Euphrates debouched into the Persian Gulf. 2 1 ruins of Eridu. the Kerkha. that was presumably at one time flooded by the sea. opposite Sennacherib had to sail 1 60 km. and Basra.CHAPTER THE VI FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE HUMAN The its lithic flints remains comparable in antiquity to the palaeoof Egypt can hardly be expected in Babylonia.C. the first royal city of Sumerian tradition. The detritus from the Armenian-Persian mountains brought down by the Tigris and Euphrates is gradually filling up that pocket at the eastern end of the tilted peneplane of Arabia and at the foot of the folds of the Persian Mountains.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the level of the plain has been raised over 25 feet by deposits of silt since the first settlements were established there. 124 . To counterbalance the country's wealth in food- stuffs. At Kish The alluvial plain that was being slowly raised by the streams as the surrounding lands fell a prey to drought took on the aspect of a paradise in the eyes of its neighbours. wherein order is fruitful conjured out of the primeval chaos by the separation of land from water. The snow-fed rivers by their inundations and with the aid of canals might be made to supply the deficiencies of the heavenly waters. And the same ranges support mouflon sheep and goats capable of domestication. it is even worse provided than Egypt with other primary materials. The ancient Sumerian creation legend. fifth the millennium. Timber and stone for building and the raw materials for industry must all be imported. mountain slopes to the east wheat and barley are said grow wild. The alluvial flats were ideal soil for the date palm that would provide food for man and whose cultivation would help to instil On the sedentary habits in the breast of the nomad. Egypt the gifts and habitable the settlers must combine to dig canals and to raise mounds that should put their settlements above the reach of inundations. while the marshes were inhabited by swine. preserves a vivid recollection of the task imposed upon the first colonists. But even more than in to of nature could only be enjoyed by man To render the marshes at the price of co-operation.
From the west came repeated incursions by Semitic tribes whose leaders carved Iranian eventually secured the sovereignty. was consequently intimately bound up with that of surrounding countries while Egypt in comparison enjoyed a fortunate isolation. The latter country is easily defended. on of clefts. gives access from the and Armenian tablelands to the basin of the The fate of Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE Even more than the Egyptians. for 2. in early historical times. the fact that stone and flint were almost Incidentally as hard to obtain as copper ores would encourage an intensive use of metal where the Egyptians were content. and from the beginning of the historical period successfully closed her doors against foreign aggression. even tools. and the Euphrates provides a path Through the leading down from Syria and Anatolia. to keep to ancestral flint But the relations between Babylonia and her neighbours were destined to be of a different order to those of Egypt. Westwards the land despite its up gently to the heights of the Arabian plateau. the inhabitants of Babylonia must maintain regular intercourse with So they would be in a position to adjacent lands. the a mountain walls north-east series steep by tributary streams. diffuse the light of such civilization as they evolved.000 years. The Tigris-Euphrates slopes valley is far more exposed. The Semites have 125 . save for brief episodes like the Hyksos interlude. always a nursery of peoples dryness.
At al disturbed by the oldest Sumerian interments. language. and other folk from the opposite side of the valley are less easily estimated. Kassites. the encircling mountains are rich in copper and other metals . and armament of the ancient Babylonians. when the rains of the and lapis lazuli the depressions with standing waters. And it was no less well provided with noble grasses and domesticable In addition. Woolley has unearthed on virgin soil hut ruins. the conditions were ideal for the rise of a progressive civilization while the desicpation that was to pluvial filled epoch had be so beneficial for Mesopotamia might impel emigrations from the plateau.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST left their stamp on the religion. that the oldest It is certain human remains found to in Southern Babylonia are connected with a great cultural province whose centre lies the east on the 'Ubaid near Ur of the Chaldees. These discoveries enable us to assign to the prehistoric or in let us say Prediluvian harmony with Sumerian tradition 126 . and on the eastern frontier there are deposits of tin. and graves. buried deeply beneath protohistoric foundations. the Iranian plateau was in all probability already habitable. Yet it is quite possible that the oldest colonists of the Tigris- Euphrates valley that quarter. Hence. reached Southern Babylonia from While the lowland was still marsh. obsidian animals than Babylonia. The contributions made by the no less frequent incursions of Elamites. highland. men of Gutium. both occur.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE period. site Susa 4 and 'Ubaid. the First Prediluvian civilization is a far looser and more abstract unity than the First Predynastic civilization of Egypt. Ur. Indeed. in fact. and even Tell Zeidan far away on the sites Lower Balikh.5 At the former the remains that concern us are overlaid by others containing monuments of a different. come remains of this at all these 3 prediluvian culture. The civilization revealed in the lowest levels at culture that is also found in Susa and at al 'Ubaid may accordingly be the First Prediluvian qualified provisionally as culture in contrast to that shall describe its general traits as of Susa II. Mesopotamia. Eridu. chance finds of implements and pottery from From Bushire on the Persian Gulf. but apparently exclusively in the north. notably at Kish and the adjacent site of Jemdet Nasr. revealed by the excavations at both sites with the reservation that in many respects the remains from the We Babylonian site seem more advanced and actually later in date than those from Susa. indeed the hall-mark of a great cultural province occupying the whole plateau and best illustrated at Susa in Elam. other sites. But the pottery found has the closest affinity Mesopotamian with a series of wares from sites It is on the tablelands extending from Elam and Western Persia to Seistan and even Baluchistan. as might indeed be expected considering its enormous 127 . Samarra. The tions only sites in on a large scale the province where scientific excavahave reached these prediluvian al levels are. but still pre- historic.
At al 'Ubaid there are traces of posts from which hung reedmats plastered with bitumen to constitute the houseemergence.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST geographical range and the diversity of countries comprised within its bounds. The site of al 'Ubaid was an island of river silt just rising above the marshy alluvial plain that was still in course of The dwellings had flat or barrel-shaped and walls of wattle and daub or of matting. township at Susa was planted on a low spur above the plain of the Kerkha and defended with a wall first The of sun-dried brick or perhaps just stamped earth. Inside the huts stood hearths the doors were pivoted. 50). is the technical term but had been merely dried in the sun and not kiln-fired. The bricks were flat on one built of mud-bricks. and of the cupped stones lying flush with the threshold on which. Del. Sickle teeth and saddle quern from Susa Perse. In all But they probability they possessed domestic animals. roofs FIG. walls and cushion-shaped on the other plano-convex like the oldest Sumerian bricks. 50. side The villagers in both cases certainly cultivated grains which they milled on saddle-querns (Fig. as in all later Babylonian houses. 128 . I after Mem. xin.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE hunted and fished and. A vitreous paste was also manufactured. at Eridu. copper only known. 51. town outside the Normally the bodies were interred in the contracted posture. factured boats with high at least in Babylonia. at Susa lying just fully buried in regular cemeteries. but sometimes sort 1 129 K . and stone-grinder. FIG. and The dead were careat Tell Kaudini in Baluchistan. were sufficiently well established to bring obsidian in abundance from Armenia to the banks of the Kerkha and Southern Babylonia together with bitumen from the wells near Hit. manuprows and sterns like the modern Arab vessels. but even at Susa its properties as maleable and fusible were fully appreciated and it was employed for tools and toilet articles such as mirrors. wall. flourished. Commercial relations of some the arts of the potter. Clay figurine Susa I. and carpenter was not Moreover. Fine garments were woven of linen. Lapis lazuli from Central Persia or Afghanistan has been found at Susa I.
bUMHUij^ TO. J. 35. Arrow-heads and celts. figures indicate that the hair was done up in a bun behind while the beard was allowed to The Prediluvian archaeological culture may celts. these give the only idea we have of the appearance of At Susa the representation of the eyes as the people. The South Babylonian T. 52. Flint arrow-head and stone celts. TO. since in a FIG.O. round discs is peculiar (Fig. 53. FIG. the skeletons have rotted away in the alkaline soil. Polished stone trapeze-shaped in outline and often 130 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the final burial only took place when the skin had decayed from the bones . TO. 281. 380. 7 Figurines of men and women were also manufactured and. in such cases the skull was deposited bowl and the long bones in a big tumbler. traits grow long. 382. T.O. TO. 284. 51). TO 3 8r. al 'Ubaid. Susa. that distinguish the First be summarized as follows. 379.
from 'Ubaid may have served as net-sinkers as Woolley supposes. and rock-crystal blades were worked up flint. 55). chert. hand-axes. Fkked chert hoes. into . served presumably as hoes Stones with a groove round the middle FIG. Everywhere obsidian. but they may in reality represent those grooved hammers that throughout the world are found in the oldest prehistoric mines. 52. 54. J. At Susa semicircular knives were fashioned out of limestone pebbles al by grinding (Fig. al 'Ubaid.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE with squared small sides were used as axes or adzes at all sites (Figs. sometimes Palaeolithic ground but more often fashioned out of chert by flaking and strongly reminiscent of Lower (Fig. Spatuliform implements. 54). 53).
with flint teeth. may have been armed But copper also was already employed at this date the copper flat-celts for the manufacture of axe-heads . FIG. and prototype for most sickles. Moreover. are solid implements whose blades are splayed out in a word thoroughly metallic types implying a full comprehension of the properties of copper and the methods and a regular and adequate supply of the material. 55.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST knives. In arrow-heads. and sickle teeth. Susa I. In this case the First Prediluvian people in Southern Mesopotamia must be 132 . Limestone pebbles ground to form 'chisels and a knife. a clay model of an axe with a hole for the shaft from al 'Ubaid is almost certainly of working it a copy of a metal original. Southern Babylonia curious sickles were made of clay . borers. that served as the they imitate the animal's jaw-bone.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE accredited with the discovery of the process of corecasting and the invention of the shaft-hole axe. Pointed stone mace-head. Susa I. 56. Susa flint I. Besides axe-heads. 6 FIG. at Susa and at al 'Ubaid sometimes triangular but never hollow-based or barbed as in Egypt (Fig. And clay models of nails from Southern Babylonia suggest that FIG. the bow and The the vases. The sling-stones at Susa were often painted red. Flint arrow-heads. 56). 57. often depicted on The were the sling. 57) not unlike the First . arrow-heads were of or obsidian generally lozenge shaped. there at least copper nails were already in use as they were in the immediately succeeding period. punches and even needles with an eyelet were made out of copper at Susa. stout chisels. and the mace. The normal mace-head was 133 pear- shaped but a pointed type (Fig. less often tanged. principal weapons arrows.
The main shapes in order of frequence are lank tumblers. squat carinated pots with shoulder-lugs (Fig. and a small goblet on a stem. spouted jugs (Fig. -J. Yet the vessels are so regular that many authorities believe that the wheel or at least the tournette was used in their manufacture. pottery of Susa available for study is exclusively funerary ware as the excavators did not take the trouble to bring back one single sherd from the contemporary The sepulchral pottery 7 was marvellously settlement. it was fired. 58^). thin. with four propiriform mace-head was embellished tuberances. in the spouted vase. 58. however. The commonest vessels are therefore of quite simple forms whose manufacture does not presuppose any long established ceramic tradition . open bowls.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST More rarely still the Predynastic Egyptian occurs. too thin in fact to The be of much often porous owing to the low practical use and temperature at which a FIG. 580). Susa I. we have 134 a form superior to . ovoid jars with everted rims. b Carinated pot and spouted jug.
Frankfort has shown that some of the shapes might be based upon leather models. most effectively combined with figures of animals all and plants elaborated and stylized with a view to with outspread wings. equids. are including chequers. Maltese crosses. 59. but others are unmistakably inspired by basketry as decoration. ibex. Frankfort calls this treatment decorative scheme. is 135 . sheep. wild goats. swastikas. is a good deal of the funerary vases are ornamented with designs executed in a dull black paint. The geometrical patterns. Aquatic birds. Sherds from Susa I. and even men or quivers are depicted. Dr. eagles verisimilitude completely subordinated to the whole Dr. depicting hnman figures. The FIG. dogs. steps. but all are so rendered that decorative effect.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE anything produced in Egypt in predynastic times.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 8 young and abstract. But in the uniformity to the of ceramic tradition from the Euphrates fabric has silicates in Helmund is unquestionable. but Pettier justly remarks that it would be possible to distinguish stages in the subordina- tion of naturalism to decorative effect . Frankfort 7 to be evidence of foreign influence at Susa. however. The finest been fired at such a high temperature that the the clay have often partly fosed. The fine ware in question was decorated as at Susa with patterns in a matt black paint. There is. are almost exclusively 136 . certainly has analogies with sherds found on more northerly sites of the First Culture as far away as Erivain and Mohammadabad and perhaps will in the last resort prove to be connected with a series of Indian wares. represented Dr. a class of more practical vases by four vessels from the necropolis of Susa L These are made of a reddish clay but agree in form and decoration with the normal globular and keeled This red fabric. thought by pots from the cemetery. giving the sherds a greenish appearance. The domestic stantially from ornamentation it agrees so strikingly with and technique the sherds collected not only on Mesopotamian sites from Bushire to Samarra but also far to the east at Seistan that pottery from al 'Ubaid differs subthe funerary ware of Susa. The designs. realistic repre- sentations do occur and perhaps belong learned to transform to a time before the artist had such into mere elements of a complex and gorgeous pattern. But no slip was applied nor is the use of the wheel attested. however.
though there are a few Isolated representations of natural objects. bowls with ring-stands to give them of beaker from Samarra. al 'Ubaid has yielded other contemporary fabrics. a sort like a modern sauce-boat from al 'Ubaid (Plate XV). 60. and a vessel stability. In addition to the fine painted ware. Square vase of alabaster. at most of the At the same sites that have yielded this pottery at all. bevelled rims. small keeled pots with a sloping shoulder from which rise four lugs and spouted jugs. The commonest shapes as known in Mesopotamia are open dishes. 137 . always highly stylized. after de Morgan. others agreeing technically with the painted ware but decorated with a comb drawn over the surface of the moist clay to leave a ribbon of parallel furrows. final result time a certain number of the motives seem to be the of that process of stylization that had been at work at Susa and either recur there or at some mounds to the north-west near later Musyan where we seem to have a and more conventionalized edition of the Susian art.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE geometric. Susa I. often carinated and provided with broad FIG. some fired in a smoky furnace.
while many of same the carinated dishes with their bevelled rims look to Dr. 61. was a curious little trumpet-shaped receptacle for face-paints termed by the French a cornet (Fig 61). Stone receptacle for paint in the form of a cornet after de Morgan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In these fabrics we meet new with true handles forms. Besides clay. 60) said to come from the cemetery. indeed the profile is to be seen on some alabaster dishes from Susa belonging to the Second Period. Hall like copies of stone vessels . FIG. apart from one square-mouthed vessel of alabaster the only type (Fig. From Susa. particularly in Seistan. in particular cups apparently the earliest dated examples of such a device. Bitumen was also 138 . stone was employed for the manufacture of vessels both in Elam and Southern Babylonia and probably at other sites. But at al 'Ubaid a hemispherical bowl of diorite with flattened base was dug up in a prediluvian grave.
Plugs in the shape of little cylinders with concave sides as at Badari were apparently worn in the lips at al 'Ubaid. together with fish-vertebrae. From the same site come numerous little nails of obsidian or rock-crystal that were probably used as nose plugs . shell. particularly cornets. at Susa. a pair of rather similar objects made of grey limestone were found in a grave at Susa. An important type found at the same site is a spirally fluted bead of white paste. were hung round the neck. and were kept apart by flat spacerbeads of vitreous paste. and white paste beads. limestone. To assist them in their painted with various colours. 62. 59). of carnelian.9 At the latter site rings The person was of shell were worn on the fingers. Bead seal. necropolis of Susa I. 139 . Strings lapis. Feathers were worn in the hair which was allowed to grow long (Fig. At Susa the strings were sometimes double. FIG. toilet the ladies of Susa were provided with substantial copper mirrors.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE used for the manufacture of vases. rock-crystal.
with a perforation parallel to the flat face which is engraved with a rough animal figure (Fig. 62). Any 140 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST two almost hemispherical beads. And that impression is confirmed by the fact that both at al 'Ubaid and on there are points of contact with the group of remains that at Susa appear in the ruins of the second the Helmund city that overlies the first. as cannot be effected by the Under existing conditions tracts of horrible desert where the habitable areas are separated by wide its rise would be inconceivable. On the other hand. they represent a later stage of that culture than that represented in Susa I. It implies such a synthesis of contraries continuity and dispersion " blessed word trade ". spread over the huge area between the Euphrates and the Indus. existence. The culture there revealed and evidently native to the highlands appears as the parent of the oldest in civilization The of the Tigris-Euphrates plains. of a culture characterized by dose agreements in a craft so domestic as that of the potter cannot be explained by any common-place formula. Susa yielded ! while the Mesopotamian sites belong to the same complex as the Elamite. These are the oldest known seals From the foregoing analysis it would seem that Finally. given restricted but easily interconnected habitable areas the colonization of vast regions by early agriculturalists is quite comprehensible. It seems that the First Prediluvian civilization reached the plains of Babylonia at a later stage of its evolution than that represented Elam.
a device that has been used universally in of a signature till writing became a generally familiar art. but the immediate result of sedentary of life congenial overflow. often on sites now utter desert.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE community taking conditions or first to agriculture under favourable at once multiply rapidly. 10 notably the discovery of metallurgy in the true sense. Bitumen. obsidian. the same time nomads from the grasslands to the north and south would be likely to contribute fresh contingents to the young communities in prosperous centres. for And they may claim credit have revolutionized human life. And each new colony of farmers would in its turn become a centre whither artisans would At congregate and whence new colonies must be sent out. The same people were apparently the first to devise inventions that that convenient method of identification of course also of consecration and at by stamping on a first soft material the image of the owner's animal patron or ancestor. and lapis lazuli are lieu 141 . evidently maintained con- tinuous interconnection. in a environment is a surplus that must and and Indian deserts seem alluvial basins The valleys between the Arabian in fact to have encouraged the multiplication of communities by a slow process of budding off. that are The world of villagers which thus arose. finding such for its application would In the long run no doubt the population would adjust itself to the means subsistence.
Struck by certain similarities between the Second Predynastic and the First Prediluvian cultures he contends that colonists from out Egypt had sought 142 . and the traffic substances must have been at one time conducted by In fact we find lapis the people under discussion. and west. Dr. east. The appropriate plants and animals were certainly available and. Mr. substitutes for the vessels made not from skins that had been hitherto employed. though we have no traces of pre-neolithic man. Pettier 6 I is has indeed shown that the civilization of Susa mature. M. no serious search has yet been made. Perry. He sees in Susa I the first settlement of a tribe of hunters. in this sense primitive but is on the contrary already But his arguments do not necessarily mean zone ready-made. And given a higher culture on the plateau. vases would be the first efforts of potters forced to find. north. 11 on the other hand. crisis that the culture in question was brought to the highland On the contrary at the moment of succeeding the full pluvial epoch conditions would have been propitious for the beginnings of agriculture and the domestication of animals. lazuli in their settlements as far away as Baluchistan. just taking to agriculture as incipient desiccation diminished The exquisite but useless Susian the supplies of game. would like to reverse the process and derive the culture of Susa I from the Nile valley.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST in these products of the highland zone. Frankfort 7 would go much further. incipient desiccation would ensure its propagation to adjoining regions. for funerary purposes.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE
the Iranian plateau and settled there to
approximate synchronism between the Second Predynastic culture and the First Prediluvian is indeed
And some relation between the two is beyond dispute; common to both are the pear-
shaped mace, spouted jugs, needles, flat celts of copper, dark-on-light ceramic decoration, as well as the use of
But some of these elements, for obsidian and lapis. instance the spouted jugs and of course the obsidian
look like foreign intruders in Egypt, whereas are at home in the domain of the Asiatic Prethey diluvian culture whose frontiers had extended at least into
Accordingly a better case could be made out Syria. for treating Susa as the parent of the Egyptian Second
Culture than for the contrary relationship postulated by Perry ; the only objects at Susa for which an Egyptian
might plausibly be claimed are the paste beads, from any predynastic Egyptian In other respects Susa seems specimens known to me. to be ahead of Egypt.
the cultivation of cereals, the polishing
of stone for axes, pressure-flaking in the manufacture of arrow-heads, the arts of the potter and the weaver,
the use of stone beads and other more or less significant common traits do challenge us to find a point of contact
between the oldest
of Susa and Egypt
anterior to the relations between mature cultures dis-
Middle Predynastic times 143
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
view of the apparent southern affinities of the Badarian civilization in Egypt such a point must lie to the south. The late Professor Ramsay would find it on the bottom
of the Persian Gulf that would have been dry land during the ice-age and only flooded at the time of that general
transgression of the sea which produced the 25 foot Such a hypothesis is not only a beach in Scotland.
confession of ignorance but in effect a denial of the
Very tempting are the speculations of Dr. Christian The former and Professor Menghin of Vienna. 12 claims to find linguistic and ethnographic evidence
a stratum of
garden-culture practising peoples, acquainted with navigation, both in India, Elam, and These would have been the inaugurators the Sudan.
negroid) not un-
That at once of agriculture in Hither Asia and Egypt. calls to mind the affinities exhibited by the Badarian
skeletons to the primitive races of India. Menghin reminds us of those broken fragments from a chain of
Lower Palaeolithic traditions, detected
both in Somaliland and India.
by hand-axes that might easily be taken as the ancestors of the hoes of al 'Ubaid and Susa. And in the same
Kenya colony the oldest yet known pottery has to light. One can well imagine that as climatic zones shifted northward with the melting of the
of hand-axes too might travel towards the Lower Nile and the Iranian plateau. But such a
glaciers, the users
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE
the adherents of Lower Palaeolithic
planted grain and tamed
moment hardly even a legitimate inference. on rather more solid ground when we refer
from the hypothetical culture of that southern whose domain once embraced Egypt, steppe Mesopotamia, and Western India. Such a survival might perhaps be seen in the feathered head-dress worn In Mesopotamia it is more obvious in the at Susa. zoned decoration of the beaker from Samarra. That is certainly sprung from the same family of grass baskets as the Badarian beakers and their later Spanish relatives. But the differences in this case suggest independent
translation into established ceramic groups. The prediluvian culture before it first meets us has already
possesses a mentality oldest artistic products quite different expressed in its from that evinced in Africa.
become highly individualized and
OF WRITING AND THE HARNESSING OF
ANIMAL MOTIVE POWER
the time of the Second Prediluvian civilization
find that the dwellers in
Mesopotamia and Elam have
learned the lessons sternly taught by their environment. The overflowing highland folk who had colonized the
put their dwellings beyond the reach of flood. They have built them sacred cities raised above the swamps on platforms of brickto
work. They have submitted to the temporal guidance of rulers whose palaces crown the citadels. They have
extended those trade relations essential to existence
on an alluvial plain till they exchange goods with Anatolia and Egypt. For the conduct of their business they have devised a script and have applied the seal to the
a rudimentary form at least, those legal premeans, scriptions and financial conventions that gave rise in classical Babylonian practice to the contract and the
They have harnessed
the strength of bulls and asses. For its application have the invented chariot and the wagon. they
marks an era
SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION
domain at Jemdet Nasr * we find the oldest written documents to which an approximate The script in which they are date can be assigned. drawn up, although its characters are still pictographic, is the direct ancestor of that which was used thenceforth for
nearly three thousand years as the
and diplomatic correspondence throughout the ancient It was, moreover, already used for accounts east. and business documents, not merely for the transcription of personal names or the commemoration of kingly
seal-impressions implying something of the legal system so well known from documents of the third millennium
and yet so surprisingly modern.
At Kish 2 the Oxford-
Expedition has recently unearthed tombs that contain as far as we can judge the oldest known wheeled
known of the by man of any source of energy beyond human
be the use of
on Predynastic boats,
cognate invention was that of the potters' wheel.
time, as counterparts to the many indications of Babylonian influence in Egypt noted in, a previous
Mesopotamia and Elam maceheads and ape-statuettes of Egyptian form and glazeware possibly imported from the Nile valley. Unfortunately the culture of which so much may be
is still a On the one hand, very vague entity. seems to grow out of the First Prediluvian culture yet it is distinguished therefrom by features, especially
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
the pottery, that seem to belong to a distinct tradition, a new ethnic element. On the other hand, the Second civilization overlaps both with the First Prediluvian
in the dynastic Sumerian civilization as represented and First Second oldest tombs at Ur. Only at Susa are the civilizations contrasted at the same site and separated
And even at Susa, thanks stratigraphically in time. to the obscurities of the excavators' reports, the relation
of the Second culture to
predecessor on the one hand,
the earliest historical culture of Babylonia on
very far from clear. read in one place that over the ruins of Susa
the excavators found a sterile stratum, suggesting to Dr. Frankfort a desertion of the site. But the sterile
most probably really the debris of the platform upon which the Second City proper was erected. Then
level many characteristic second prehistoric traits of the Second civilization, such as polychrome painted in the
though it is above
alabaster vases are very poorly 4 represented, its main outlines are already discernible. And
this layer that the sterile
levels which first superimposed " " in its classical form the Susa II culture
stratum intervenes. "
are already confronted with
to the ordinary protohistoric or pre-Sargonic
may be regarded as an outpost of a great cultural province whose remains are also
and Susa II also built rested on a similar substructure. Ceramic remains similar to those from the sites just mentioned allow us to assign to the same province remote as Rhagae and Nihavend in Western Carchemish and perhaps even Sakje Geuzi and Persia In Southern Babylonia. the Second is distinguished from the First by certain features which can hardly be regarded culture is as the simple result of direct evolution in either of the regions where the First well known Elam and Sumer but which in fact suggest a break with local traditions* These points of contrast can be better discussed when the main outlines of the culture 7 are known. in North Syria. at al 'Ubaid and These were not planoall pre-Sargonic Sumerian 149 . private houses built At the former site They were convex as of and a palace were unearthed. represented on the Iranian plateau east of the Kerkha and even in Western Persia only in a belated variant. Sumer proper. the Second Civilization is apparently lacking save for a couple of vases from al 'Ubaid and one or two more stations as Nor is it characteristically from Shuruppak (Fara). 15 miles to the north-west. Jemdet Nasr was that raised the city several on a platform of mud-brick above the marsh. sun-dried bricks supplemented in with true kiln-fired bricks. 6 culture Besides the discordance in distribution.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION found further to the north-west in the cemeteries of Tepeh Khazineh and Tepeh Aly Abad near Musyan on the upper Kerkha 5 and then in Mesopotamia at Kish and Jemdet Nasr.
or 3 23 by 9 by 6-5 cm. The industrial division of labour is disclosed in the variety and excellence of commodities lapis. The documents were inscribed on biscuit-shaped clay tablets. felspar. But obviously these cities were much more than communities of farmers. too. The palace itself was a monumental 2 complex of rooms covering an area of 92 by 48 m. Only industry and commerce fisherman. Jemdet Nasr and Kish commerce facilitated by written records and accounts. are the direct ancestors of those . is supplied by two copper fish-hooks from Jemdet Nasr (Fig.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 3 buildings but parallelepipeds 20 by 8-5 by 8 cm. *vulgare^ And now The ordinary bread wheat. by the impression of stamp or cylinder seals just as in 150 . and sheep and swine grazed thereon. such as formed the regular vehicle for all contracts and ores. used by the oldest Sumerians but they were still pictographs only slightly conventionalized though some signs seem already to have acquired a conventional The documents were authenticated phonetic value. and approached by a staircase. conclusive evidence of the use of the line was still from Jemdet Nasr active and the first could nourish the large aggregations of people suggested by the size of the ruins and the monumental character of the buildings. rock-crystal. building timber. characters. 65). Fields in the vicinity supplied the citizens with cereals. manufactured and trade by the importation of agate. too. alabaster. riticum was being grown as a find shows. and was At least at The correspondence in Babylonia throughout historical times.
exclusively stamp seals which can be paralleled at Jemdet Nasr. 63). 64) that are extremely common at Susa often approximate closely to the shekel . of animal figures com- plicated geometric motives (Fig. sometimes made of The button clay. They include besides the hemispherical bead seal already appearing under the first culture. Button seals. In the lower levels of Susa II no such written documents have been recorded. J. seals bear instead and theriomorphic seals.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION historical times. same types of stamp found at both sites. button seals. seal and later of cylinder were II Apparently the lowest levels of Susa yielded FIG. Susa II. The seals in animal form (Fig. 63. and curiously later Elamite hieroglyphic script seems quite the enough Yet the different from that current at Jemdet Nasr.
and chert II hoes current Susa were still in clay sickles GJL FIG. 64. represented there only by a clay at The shaft- 'Ubaid. model as at But the tombs round Musyan and a late Susa 8 have yielded a type with a tubular hoard found 152 . But everywhere copper was regularly used chisels for tools and weapons. Besides flat and axe-heads Jemdet Nasr has yielded the oldest known copper is hole axe al fish-hooks (Fig. Susa II. both implements in precisely the same form as at al 'Ubaid.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST or some multiple thereof when weighed even in their present imperfect condition . 65). they may therefore have served as weights as well as for the authentication of Hence the classical Babylonian system documents. J at Jemdet Nasr. Even Stone implements were found at most sites. of weights and measures goes back in part at least to the Second Prediluvian age. Theriomorphis seal or weight.
flint or copper heads and reed shafts into the fitted little 5 since copper forks there was a danger of the reed splitting if a notch for the ends of which were . Fig. while the hoe-like type with the blade at right angles to the shaft is illustrated in the Susa hoard of Sargonic age.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION shaft-socket for the shaft and a narrow sloping blade. was inserted at right angles into a split wooden shaft cast but there are specimens from the of a much more primitive type in FIG. Copper fish-hook. 66. In these cases the shaft-hole has been late Susa hoard which the shaft-hole is formed by bending the butt of the implement back so as to itself form a Presumably the butt upon loop. 665 10. The adzes sometimes had rounded butts as in protodynastic Egypt (Fig. Jemdet Nasr. As to the weapons the mace generally has a pear2 shaped head but sometimes the head is disc-shaped as in arrows had The the First Predynastic culture of Egypt. 65. f. and the projecting end then folded over round the shaft. 2).
spear-heads The Susa hoard were not socketed but had pokercontained model daggers with elongated leaf-shaped blades . however. being in fact Sargonic in age. Copper pin. The there illustrated include carinated the bowls. FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST string were made in the base of the shaft (Fig. 66. spear head. 9). the hilt overlapped the blade projecting to form rudimentary guards from which the shoulders sloped back steeply to a flat grip with parallel sides. arrow-heads. types body " " being convex and the neck slightly concave and deep bowls with long open spouts projecting from the rim and even strainers perforated with fine holes. which. Copper was certainly in use for vessels and a number of these have been preserved in the Susa hoard. ring. arrow butt and axe. 66. But stone vessels were really more distinctive of the } 154 . celt needle tubes. belongs to a later date than the other types here described. The butts. J. cemeteries round Musyan.
I Q I i i .
Others. pigs.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION Porphyry. superior to that of the previous epoch and the surface that most vases are wheel-turned Some frequently coated with a fine slip. of the vases are painted. 68). but even in the coarser is unpainted wares technical progress attested by the In particular in the very earliest (transitional) forms. and unrecognizable animals pottery of the period in is is The (Fig. however. 67. levels at Susa II 4 as also at Jemdet Nasr the cups and 155 . The animal vases that The are very abundant at Susa represent ducks. are little twin vases (Fig. twin vases recall the compartment bowls of protodynastic Egypt. 1 keel and almost cylindrical jars with bevelled rims recall from the Susa hoard. dishes with a wide bevelled rim and slight particularly culture. Yet some of the shapes. like Egyptian forms. in alabaster. the flattened hemispherical bowls and square-mouthed vessels. toads. is said to be a local stone. J. apes. The most distinctive forms. Twin vases of alabaster from Susa II. 67) and theriomorphs FIG. granite and above all alabaster The alabaster were employed in their manufacture. are reminiscent of the products of the First Prediluvian civilization.
. These. the shoulder is generally angular and . In all wares. Other coarse vessels were decorated with plastic mouldings quite often representing serpents or even human busts. The distinction is between the various is members of the vessel well attached at the base where a ring. Theriomorphic vases of alabaster from Susa II. of the domestic pottery is of course quite plain.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that often jugs were equipped with genuine handles These are the oldest rise above the rim of the vessel. set squarely on the shoulder. maturity is shown by foot structural features. since in later periods the handle was not in vogue. that serve Much 156 . the rim is bevelled and everted. Finally the best wares were painted. the necks are cylindrical. accentuated by a ridge. vessel stability Spouts have been inherited from the previous epoch but are much more common. however. at al 'Ubaid and specimens of handled vessels except remain isolated. and sometimes decorated with a plastic ring . 68. to necessary give the marked FIG.
SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION to define the culture. Store jar painted in red and bkck from Tepeh Aly Abad. 69. nevertheless differ very materially in points of detail from site to site. is A zoomorphic common groups a deer with reverted 157 . all above the more realistic treatment of such natural objects as FIG. pattern. J. Common to all regions is the use of red in addition to black paint. are represented. and double-axe to all figures. a metopic arrangement of the designs and the general use of hatched triangles. chains of lozenges.
Bowls and flasks with spouts. the red is often badly fixed and plays only a secondary r6le .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST head. the' hero dompting lions and other themes reappear in Babylonian art from archaic times onwards. In Elam the vase-surface is normally matt . a motive that can be traced through later sculptures right into the Scythian art of Europe. indeed in a large class of Susian vases. the The guilloche for example and concentric semicircles. covered with a red wash and only a panel is reserved to receive the hatched But the red surfaces are normally black patterns. forms include notably great store jars with bowl-shaped lids and some fancy shapes such as triple bowls in addition to the types already whole culture. the bird with outstretched wings grasping his prey in his talons. thought by Frankfort to be later than the rest. Geometrical curvilinear patterns are also found at the latter site. ' enumerated as common to the 158 . polychromy has been altogether abandoned. framed 'with black lines. At Jemdet Nasr such paratively naturalistic patterns are com- rare and rectilinear motives is In many cases the whole surface predominate. The zoomorphic themes include rows of fishes and beasts as on the oldest cylinder-seals. The vessels are often polished. and this motive recurs on archaic asphalt reliefs from Susa II. The Musyan vases figure rayed semicircles that suggesting the rising sun. small biconical jars with steeply sloping shoulders on which stand lugs are the commonest shapes.
w a. .
in view of the very different treatment of the themes in the two groups. relation of this The Moreover. survive into the Second the ovoid vase and the carinated pot with shoulder lugs. One jar in this material was included in the Susa hoard already mentioned. bitumen. 70. Besides pottery. be admitted LnY I r& lA& tHi mm FIG. from Jemdet the water- The chariots miraculously preserved in 159 . and metal vessels there are a few examples of glaze-ware. Several of the forms belonging to the First certainly for instance the spouted jar. however. stone. many zoomorphic subjects are common to both groups. Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh My Abad.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION Second Prediluvian pottery and in particular of the Second Style at Susa to that of the previous period has been the subject of much debate. near Musyan. J-. while a vase in the shape of a pig Nasr is said to be in the same material. Continuity cannot.
The were oxen or asses which pulled in pairs harnessed on either side of a pole on which was mounted an ornamental ring for holding the reins. while models of four-wheeled wagons from Kish illustrate an alternative type.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST give us a quite unexpected glimpse into the art of the carpenter. and other pins were provided with a globular bead of lapis lazuli to serve as a head. 5 But toggle-pins with an eyelet already were worn. perforated a -ihe centre which are generaRj^Vermed spindle-whorls. As implements of the weavers discs. The wheels apparently draft animals turned with the axle. Probably the two-wheeled cars would look exactly like that illustrated in Plate XVIILz. is still 1( Second Prediluvian people. Those current at Susa II agree exactly with the stone mace-heads of predynastic that m^rm E^yot and the painted limestine implements of the same form appear in protodynastic deposits there. 9 But . 5 The former type must have been used to in the shaft fasten a sort of cloak. described as solid and were fastened to the copper-cased felloes by large copper nails. Simple burial in the earth of contracted skeletons still as hi the previous epoch was practised also in the Second the newly discovered Prediluvian period as of Susa II under the cemetery Apadana seems 160 to show. The dress of the to the absence of figure. The vehicles were provided logged soil of Kish 2 These are with one or two pairs of wooden wheels. may be interpreted clay and sometimes painted. owing competent representations of the human unknown.
. Brick tombs from the necropolis of Tepeh Aly Abad near Musyan. 71. the sepulchres at from the vicinity of Musyan 6 Kish excavated in 1928 were just enclosed by low M 161 . Examples have long been known ^^'^-7 ^' ^^V .SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION more this elaborate time in and almost monumental tombs were by use. J ^ FIG.
The plan of the chamber was rectangular and its area at Tepeh Aly Abad seldom exceeded 2 by r j'o m. Two or more skeletons were occaAt Kish attendants and sionally found together. and ornaments and the provision of food and drink offerings. charioteers had been life slain to accompany their masters had the oxen or asses that drew his car. corpses are described as partially consumed by fires. 2 though one tomb even at that rural site measured as much as 5 by I m. 71). while in other cases the bodies were interred in the At Musyan some extended position. The tomb was now a small subterranean house of brick-work resting in some cases on a stone foundation. kindled apparently in the tomb. of human revival of the extremely ancient practice sacrifice in the first tombs that make the least The pretension to be subterranean reproductions house of the living is significant. 2 The roofs were often barrel-shaped or ogival vaults formed by the junction of overlapping courses of bricks each projecting inwards a little further than the one below on the principle of corbelling (Fig.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST brick walls but not roofed over. This savage practice had been abandoned without leaving a trace by the time when Sumerian literature to the future as Yet it is only the natural and logical of those corrolary eschatological ideas that prompted the deposition in the tomb of the deceased's weapons commences. Here in effect of the Babylonia was given to the full implications of the philosophy 162 .
alabaster From and the same levels lapis come very remarkable statuettes of apes that resemble the Late Predynastic Egyptian representations in every respect. The aim of the vase- 163 . 10 the art of the second period is essentially naturalistic. lonian The by pressing the liquid clay into a negative figures no doubt represent the old Babysince identical models are Mother Goddess found as votives in the temples of the deities who in every city represented the local revelation of the primordial divinity. however. While the principles of decorative composition and a few individual themes have been as inherited from the previous epoch. Prediluvian art of the second phase is illustrated by the above-mentioned statuettes from Susa as well by the archaic glyptic and the theriomorphic vessels and the paintings on the clay vases.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION embodied brutality. The date of the specimens from Susais. Other evidence of the religious ideas of the Second in Predynastic civilization are perhaps to figurines of a female personage that be found in the were modelled clay or formed mould. in such a tomb without any mitigation of its The tombs thus distinguished have therefore a good claim to be placed at the head of all the series of chamber-tombs that archaeologists have distinguished and tried to correlate. All these monuments illustrate diverse aspects of what is an essentially homogeneous group. uncertain. That site statuettes earlier has none the less yielded miniature alabaster of a female figure safely assignable to the phases of the Second City.
Other 11 Prediluvian cultures. This race from the northwest that brought the Second Prediluvian culture to Northern Babylonia to the exclusion of Sumer proper. the Akkadian element in Babylonian civilization. specialized North Syria who would have brought to Northern Babylonia and Elam this naturalistic tradition in art in together with the use of polychromy. in the an element previous epoch he had used animals merely as in the decorative scheme. naturalistic pottery appears. would be Semitic. But a partial solution of continuity between the First 164 . and the theriomorphs and cylinders and compartment-vases might conveniently have reached Egypt in predynastic times from the same North Syrian focus from which they were brought to Elam. Primarily on this contrast between the first and second of two great cultural styles of Susa as representatives groups. Similar theriomorphic vases. and twin-pots of stone. And both might be designated Sumerian since the tablets from Jemdet Nasr are 12 apparently Sumerian and have analogies in Sumer. The Second would be the natural outgrowth of the First.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST painter in depicting animals was verisimilitude . Frankfort has built up an ingenious theory The Second of the ethnic diversity of their authors. Prediluvian culture would belong to a race. deny altogether a break of the kind here assumed between the First and Second authorities. though admittedly at a later date. cylinder-seals. in Palestine from a northern source. 7 however. Dr.
seems undeniable. the script there used is no doubt the immediate ancestor of the oldest Sumerian And curiously enough the writing. At the same time the genesis of the Second culture involved a direct or indirect interchange of ideas with other civilized peoples. Elamite. the ape-statuettes and even the 165 . the men of the First culture must have opened up the ways of communicametal. possibility must therefore be borne in mind that the Second Prediluvian culture belonged to a third element. are endorsed with seals tablets bearing human figures and lions while no such seals were actually found at the site. indeed. the stamp-seal . The glaze ware from Susa. the spouted jar. and the disc-shaped mace from Jemdet Nasr is certainly an Egyptian type. a cultural standpoint at any rate the Second Prediluvian culture is really rooted in the First as specialized in Babylonia. From From thence it derived the of all its arts and even such concrete devices basic principles as the shaft- hole axe. but that is all. at Susa at least. was neither Sumerian nor Semitic. Nor is it yet certain that the language of the Jemdet Nasr tablets is truly Sumerian . The perhaps Subaraean.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION and Second cultures. Relations with Egypt are implied by the theriomorphic vases and compartment bowls and need by no means have been exclusively one-sided . tion that supplied their successors with obsidian. lapis. Egypt has as good a claim as any country to be the cradle of the theriomorph. At the same time the Second culture at Susa seems if not certainly quite definitely continuous with the proto-Elamite which.
And engravings such hunters might indeed have spoken a Semitic tongue. The plastic decoration and the high-handles on the other hand that appear only to vanish again in the lowest levels of Susa II and at Jemdet Nasr are at home in a different region. purely hypothetical centre of higher civilization far away in North Syria where only belated monuments attest man's emancipation from barbarism. But the change in the art so clearly mirrored in the Susian vases may in truth be due to the infusion of a ethnic element.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from which they and many vases are made may all have come from the same quarter. namely Anatolia and its maritime The appearance at a later date in Troy and extensions. The solution of the racial problem and even a just new were responsible 166 . seals in Elam This dual set of contacts therefore confirms Frankfort's views in so far as the specialization of the Second Civilization out of the First must have taken place in Northern Mesopotamia rather than in Sumer and in the valley of the Euphrates rather than on the highlands of Persia That does not oblige us to postulate a or in Elam. even in Europe of clay stamps reproducing the forms of the button seal and motives peculiar to the oldest of such alabaster or Babylonia implies relations going back to the Second Prediluvian period. The new realism may be inspired a by fresh draft upon that reservoir of hunters who still inhabited the grasslands and whose distant kinsmen for the naturalistic paintings and of North Africa and South-East Spain.
an organic unity. as we they. like European civilization to-day. including the royal tombs which by their furniture and ritual recall those later as and Ur show. Egyptians and Babylonians were no longer isolated communities who at best bartered their 167 . was current at Jemdet Nasr was tablets in use in Southern Mesopotamia though the cities of its by excavations. the greatest And inventions just described. But even if it be thought at necessary to invoke the infusion of such a new ethnic element to explain the polychrome pottery. little if at all than the shall see. contain chariots Writing. can in point of fact be latter. the sole credit for the great inventions of the Second The same pictographic writing as Prediluvian age. wheeled vehicles. therio- morphic vases and seals. One point at any rate may be asserted : Oriental civilization was now. seem all purely Mesopotamian. not scribes have yet been reached from Umma of Kish.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION appreciation of the degree of cultural originality to be assigned to the Second Prediluvian Babylonians are seriously complicated by the uncertainty reigning as to the chronological relations of the earliest levels Susa II and Kish to the oldest group of remains just brought to light in Sumer. too. compartment pots and other is there no reason to ascribe to the intruders innovations. They may still be due to the Sumerians even if it should be proved that the men who employed them at Kish were Semites or Subarseans or proto-Elamites or at least mingled with such outsiders. The earliest cemetery at Ur.
is partly at least Second Prethe result of this fruitful dawn burst of splendour that heralds the of the historic period is no less due to the opening The intercourse along the Red Sea and as we shall see to the entry into the system of yet another centre of higher civilization. the human response to the conditions of the one and inventions. in Late Predynastic The progress of in Egypt and of Babylonia diluvian times intercourse. whether commodities passed through the hands of one or ten alien intermediaries. the fabrics industry were being marketed on the Nile of Egypt were in use in Elam.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST manufactures for the gleanings of barbarous Bedouins or sent out occasional expeditions to win copper in Sinai or the Taurus. were crystalized as concepts proffered to the inhabitants of land. The products of Babylonian . It matters not whether a citizen of Memphis ever beheld one of our nameless Babylonians. Caravans were travelling across the deserts ships were sailing and up and down the Euphrates . up of new channels of 168 . between Syria and the Delta. with commodities ideas passed from one civilization to another. the other to adapt or reject. India.
first stand the monumental buildings of the dynasts. and separated therefrom in each case by an artificial platform.CHAPTER VIII SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION AT THE END OF THE IVra MILLENNIUM JEMDET NASR perished rebuilt. in a conflagration and was never the ruins of the First Prediluvian above But culture at al 'Ubaid and of the Second at Kish. but. The progress achieved by protohistoric civilization over the prediluvian is expressed not so much in revolutionary industrial inventions as in the stabilization of and a widened and horizon opened up by the extension regularization of foreign trade. The huge cities with their monumental institutions. increased amenities of life 169 . First Dynasty Sumerian And at graves belonging to the age of the have been laid high up in the shafts Ur The latter must take us leading to yet older tombs. like the protodynastic remains from Kish and 'Ubaid. back to the middle of the IVth millennium and may well overlap with the Second Prediluvian graves of Kish. these tombs are revealed as Sumerian by the same evidence from inscriptions and dress. And the al writing is already in advance of the pictographic script of the Jemdet Nasr texts.
in the round and tastemodels are adorned with life-size The music of harps soothes the ful friezes and inlays. The complicated urban life is controlled by a regular heirarchy of princes. tin. The Sumerians had discovered alloy of tin and copper . If the commerce with abundantly attested by the discovery at Kish. In such a milieu inventions and discoveries might reasonably be expected. and officials. priests. and obsidian from the Iranian plateau and Armenia. Ur.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from the temples and sumptuous palaces must result synoicism of smaller towns. beasts distract their leisure hours. and its security is preserved by a well-drilled The temples and palaces and well-equipped army. lapis. stone for vases and doubtless cotton and apes from the Indus. seals. But epoch-making though these it is the fine articles turned out 170 . of bears and other exotic the antics heart of princes. and a game like back-gammon played on richly inlaid boards provides diversion. also metallic iron or at least made large they possessed tin and sometimes at least used an implements from meteoric innovations doubtless were. and Lagash of peculiarly Indian seals. intercourse with Egypt and the exchange of ideas as well as is India goods shell is no less dramatically demonstrated by an archaic And plaque depicting a jackal brandishing a sistrum. not just beads like the predynastic Egyptians. Commerce brings cornelian beads. Umma. dancing to its tune is a bear surely a native of 1 Armenia or Syria (Plate I). cedar wood from Syria and glaze wares and even the sistrum from Egypt. iron.
1 the oldest human remains yet rescued from the saltimpregnated soil of Mesopotamia. the people buried in the graves. This type was alone represented in the First Dynasty cemetery of al 'Ubaid and predominated in the more or less contemporary graves of Kish. though they spoke Sumerian or at least scratched Sumerian legends on their vases. skeletons x series The reveal a to the moderate stature and modern Arabs of the region. Perhaps this impression is due to the incompetence of the early sculptors. The early Sumeriainspeaking inhabitants of al 'Ubaid would accordingly " " Mediterranean race belong in a general way to the but the skulls are less dolichocephalic population. who are indubitably represented in the statues. But at the latter site in Akkad one skull was "brachycephalic of Armenoid type. * '* The impression produced by thef * archaic statues 2 is rather different. prognathous and more capacious than those from Upper Egypt. of light build approximating closely like the predynastic Egyptians. the body solidly built and almost fat. by the goldsmith and the engraver The Sumerians are known to us from their skeletons. were in fact a small ruling caste . The head seenfs round rather than long. and from a long of competently executed statues and engravings.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION that give a true idea of the high technical skill of the early Sumerians and the elaborated specialization of crafts that it implies. may have belonged to an older conquered 171 . the neck thick and massive. On the other hand it may be that the Sumerians.
as far as the existing material goes. the class most often portrayed. or a palm- worn in India and the Pacific to-day. but doubtful whether the garment represented. The tassels may appear it is in several rows forming regular flounces. As an infallible mark of the Sujnerian can only be admitted the tasseled skirt worn round the loins. naked in the performance of those religious ceremonies that form the subject of most representations. the differences in fashion seem to The dress of the Sumerians depend upon the rank of the person portrayed and the age of the monument. perhaps Semitic as Buxton suggested. That. was of wool. is again quite distinctive. was uniformly longChristian 3 claims to be able to recognize headed. manner of wearing the the in variations small though hair have been seized on as proofs of racial diversity* Actually. shaved the head. ornamented with hanging loops. wigs were worn. Priests. but normally was covered by some loose garment worn like a plaid and fastened at the throat with a toggle pin. a practice attested from Early Preleaf skirt such as is The bust was left 172 . usually termed a kaunakes. or In some cases it is supposed that falling over the ears. several racial types among the statues. but the laity frequently wore the hair long and done up in a bun at the back of the head. hardly seems likely since the Armenoid type is found at Kish in what was historically the Semitic part of Babylonia while in Sumer proper the population. however.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST stratum. however. but the value of this evidence is open to question.
O 3 s .I i I U.
kohl (antimony sulphide). These Sumerians dwelt in real cities. 4 malachite was used for the purpose. judging from an archaic engraving found at Nippur. products. which were invested with a sacred value and fondly depicted upon the walls of temples and palaces. a practice paralleled among other primitives to-day (Plate XVII). asses derived from the wild species of the vicinity and. The wheel-made pots are regular factory The incomparable skill of the metallurgists. industry and trade were highly specialized. The scenes show that cows 5 and goats 8 were milked from the rear. pomegranites were cultivated in the gardens. 173 . Gold models of the fruit and of ears of grain were among the precious jewels of royalties. But naturally Celtainly dates were cultivated. Some early Sumerians wore a chin beard and others whiskers too. Besides wheat and barley. but the townsmen loved the simple occupations of the husbandman and farmer. The person was painted as in Egypt. besides oxen and to the The antelope may even have been goats were tamed. it would 9 seem. and a blue paint of undeter- mined composition. Sheep with perverted horns directed nape of the neck as in the typical mouflon. but the moustache was generally shaved. even long-horned antelopes. the male milkers apparently blowing up the vulva of the animal. All these fashions are illustrated on the mosaic depicting a banquet recently discovered at Ur.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION dynastic times in Egypt. harnessed to the plough. together with red iron oxide. and many were clean-shaven.
at least were engraved with a peculiar device the reproduction of which upon a tablet would be the equivalent of a signature. We have indeed chariots 7 of this date which are much like those from Kish already described. if they were not actually mariners themselves. leathertired and turning in one piece with the axle. The wheels were made of solid pieces of wood. together regular schools of trained craftsmen. in labour and of a high degree specialization All this. gem-cutters. 174 . if they did not script. For inland trade wheeled vehicles were doubtless used. jewellers. And the Sumerian love for shell-work implies maritime connections. whose structure is excellently illustrated by the c silver model from a royal tomb at Ur (Plate XVIII. engravers. Plate XX). There were also light vehicles on runners. by sea. that would travel easily over the alluvial mud and the loose sands in dry weather. resembling a sledge. with *the foreign trade it entailed and the legal and governmental system that presided over all. None the less we have no indications of sea-going ships at this date . and so we find that by the time of the First Dynasty of Ur and even in the allegedly older graves the old pictographs had been simplified into those unrecognizable forms that characterize the pre-Sargonic Most people carried seals which. must have conducted some of their trade. required written documents. used in the the only boats preserved are river-barques as marshes to-day. But the Sumerians.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST bespeaks and sculptors carpenters. notably with the Indus. bear the owner's name.
SILVER BOAT FROM ROYAL TOMB. 174 . UR b. UR [face p.PLATE XVIII a. BAS-RELIEF SHOWING CHARIOT.
architecture. or by recesses retreating : have already seen that this correspondingly.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION complex system can only be briefly sketched. were likewise of limestone . huts. The retaining walls of the platform at al 'Ubaid rested on two courses of quarry-dressed limestone blocks that must have been transported for a distance of forty miles. was entirely discarded after the protohistoric The archaic palace at period was the use of pillars. of panelling might be inspired by the alternation system between the reed mats and the projecting palm-tree uprights that constituted the walls of the prediluvian Another survival of architecture in timber that. Kish boasted a regular portico of four brick columns. that may. Sub- sequently stone was used in architecture almost exclusively for door-sockets. in this case the material was available in the immediate vicinity. now first attested. Stone. One of the royal tombs of Ur was built entirely of rough blocks of And the same valuable material. The most momentqus discovery of the 175 . too. date from a later period. We however. the walls of Eridu. work of facades the monotony of the front was relieved by broad piers or buttresses. projecting one or two courses beyond the main face of the wall. was used to some extent. Brick was the principal material of the Sumerian The industrial products of this highly and the type now in general use was the planoconvex form characteristic of the pre-Sargonic period A permanent feature of all Mesopotamian in general. forming a corbelled vault. however. was the recessed brickarchitect.
is and the type with a looped tang for handle to be regarded as Sumerian. It was equipped with a tang flat. the other for in-fighting. As a new tool appears the bronze saw. on an inlay recently discovered at Ur included both charioteers and infantry. The implements the handle.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the arch. however. nothing more than the casts in the ground of the chariots and other constructions have The banqueting scene recently discovered survived. in the front of the chariot. By this date too the "jaw-bone for sickle had been translated into metal. and the serrated blade curved away " slightly from the base. at Of woodwork Ur discloses some articles of furniture. houses in whose construction timber must have been of the protohistorical period were almost entirely of metal which had practically ousted stone in the urban centres. One of proto-Sumerian period was. The chisels were long and often with a pointed triangular butt. Some clay models of date unearthed at Assur seem to represent two storeyed freely used. notably folding stools and thrones or couches with bulls' legs as in rather later protodynastic Egypt. These as illustrated The Sumerian army weapons were carried in a special receptacle. one designed for throwing. apparently of basketry. the royal tombs at Ur was roofed with a vault constructed of a series of brick arches though the apse at the end was surmounted by corbelled work. The footmen 176 . The charioteers were armed with spears of two types. The chariots were manned by a warrior and a driver.
These were FIG.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION were divided into skirmishers armed with arrows and heavy pikemen who fought in the phalanx. the spear. Sumerian single-bladed and double axes. anticipating the Macedonians by three thousand years. Sumerian transverse axe. the mace with pear-shaped head of stone. Ur. The weapons include the battle-axe. J. protected by copper helmets and wore in addition to the kaunakes a cloak of some spotted material hung over both shoulders and fastened at the throat. 72. FIG. the bow and arrows. 73. Ur. and a curious smashing weapon resembling a boomerangN 177 .
74. J. 724) were of course provided with a shaft-hole and include both the sloping and the transverse type already club armed with a copper blade. 740) and specimens of this primitive It is. still was formed 178 . The FIG. Kish. described. Sumerian axes. however. curious that the shaft-hole in some cases by folding the butt over into a loop (Fig.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST axe-heads (Figs. A.
UR a.PLATE XIX I GOLD TOILET SET AND CASE. GOLDEN DAGGER WITH LAPIS HANDLE AND ITS SHEATH. UR ? 178 .
two. prototypes evolved. may represent the (Fig. or three rivets the junction of hilt and blade was sometimes . now first time has two axe that for the of appears type A Fourthly. blades it is in fact the oldest double-axe. weapon . Cones of sheet copper perforated with rivet-holes butt-pieces (sauroters) of the pikes. but never curved round it as in early 179 . 73) have flat ogival or long blades triangular strengthened with a midrib and extended by a tang projecting from the base. They are accordingly provided with forks of metal to serve as notches. lanceolate spear was no less typical than the axe in Sumerian The majority of the actual specimens have or poker-shaped blades and rectangular tapering butts (whence the head) (Fig. little the aid of a sling. The spearbutt fitted into a reed shaft which name poker-butted was frequently strengthened with a metal ferrule or Some of the throwing spears were hurled with casing. axe and the sword (Fig. 75). boomeranga sort formed of intermediate between the club. This often overlapped the blade. covered with a carefully shaped ferrule.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION variety were found side by side with highly finished third examples provided with a cast tube for the shaft. a with blades back mounted in scalloped segmental from wooden derived the curved shafts. 74<5). They constitute the from which the harfS was subsequently The armament. The hilt of wood or lapis lazuli was riveted to the tang by one. The shoulders The daggers are square or steeply sloping.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Egyptian specimens. and poker-butted spear-head. Ur. semicircular indentation (Plate XIX#). so that the meeting-point and hilt formed a straight or even line convex. never a of blade FIG. i. For sharpening the dagger warriors carried whetstones suspended from the belt by a ring passing through a perforation at one end. 180 . Kisk A. 75. Sumerian dagger blades.
ERECH CIRCULAR BAS-RELIEF SHOWING A HUNT IN THE MARSHES .PLATE XX STONE VASE CARVED WITH PROCESSION OF ANIMALS.
The shafts were reeds often equipped with little metal prongs. to replace the notch. but the edge opposite the blade has been narrowed down tail. one bunch of arrows from the tomb of Mes-kalam-dug at Ur had been tipped with chiselbladed heads of flint. flint lunate obliquely at the end vessels Among silver. electrum. drab in True handles do not 181 . These were based upon the trapeze. They look like metal versions of the type formed by setting a of a reed. known in any case some bows were bound with were tipped with curved pieces of ends the and gold copper to which the string was attached. However. obsidian. sometimes most are tanged but some have barbed or four-sided tubular sockets formed by folding the beaten copper. lapis lazuli. The bow 6 was probably composite . copper. like the spear-butts on a smaller into a sort of scale. but technically of good quality. The harpoons used in fishing were chisel-ended and single-barbed. The arrowheads were normally of metal and leaf-shaped.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION Royalties who were armed with golden daggers sharpened already of the variety them on as lapis whetstones. hard-burned. Sumerian pottery was a thorough factory product colour and turned on the wheel. . of gold. the Sumerians alabaster. and ostrich-shell had ousted fine pottery from the tables of the wealthy while the friezes of animals painted on the prediluvian clay vases have been replaced by the processions carved in low relief on the stone vessels.
Jars with anthropomorphic handles. after Mackay. 76.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST B33 823 B13 FIG. 182 . T^-. Kish A.
76). Clay basins or offering tables. are and this other forms having Spouted jugs very common. after Mackay.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION occur. but on some jars from Kish the rim of the neck is joined to the shoulder by a flat strip decorated on its B16 B33 815 620 I FIG. outer surface with the features of a human face (Fig. ^-. 183 . 77. Kish A.
The most distinctive shape from the older tombs was. 77). Spouted 'Ubaid cemetery. " " on a^high hollow pedestal. 78. at the top is omitted " " a tubular stand such as we have altogether. leaving often Sometimes the shallow basin in met protodynastic Egypt. al FIG. T3^ perforated with triangular apertures (Fig. however. Nevertheless there is 184 . the large table of offerings XCIV xcv XCVJ jars.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST been taken over from the prediluvian period.
The metal vessels supply the prototypes for many of vra xm FIG. 79. The bases were often a to form cupped ring stand. and " wood or some other perishable material. originally supported a basin of Herdst&nder ". In a few cases wire loops have been . the rims were occasionally strengthened by doubling over. spouts might be soldered or brazed on. Beakers.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION evidence that these as the " Germans call " Opferstander them. the forms reproduced in clay. al 'Ubaid cemetery. T ^.
186 . and offering tables exactly like the As a curiosity we clay ones described above. Kish A. various spouted jugs. We may note among the shapes graceful tumblers resembling in outline those from Susa I. after Mackay.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST metal beads soldered on to passed through perforated the rims and the large copper cooking pots were provided with movable handles like modern cauldrons. from the base that might be supplemented by engraved bands below the rim and simple patterns such as the rosette on the base. but jugs and cups were always handleless. J. The metal vessels are often tastefully decorated with flutings radiating FIG. Copper vessels. 80.
resemblance that these cylindrical alabaster vases to protodynastic Egyptian types suggests 10 importations from the Nile valley. the vessel Cardium and cockle contain shells were regularly used to the face-paints X1 both at Ur and Kish. By the time of the First Dynasty in form and material of the may be of Ur at least the limestone vases were often carved with figures in low relief while even in the supposedly older tombs of Ur geometrical patterns are carved on the vase walls. far alabaster were commoner. 187 . The shell lamps were then copied being open all over. and The steatite. first leaving a narrow strip which is shaped and engraved to represent the head and neck of a bird. Ostrich shells were also used as vases and were sometimes decorated by a band of bitumen inlaid with lapis lazuli. and a second hole is cut in the enlarged volute. Among the stone vases the greatest variety is observable both in material and shape. For the toilet the Sumerians were indeed well provided. At Shuruppak palettes of alabaster are mentioned. Lapis lazuli and obsidian were naturally reserved for royal persons.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION may in cite a silver wine-skin from left Queen Shub-acTs grave legs which even the lugs by the have been faith- fully imitated. Calcite. is In typologically late specimens the opening by cutting. but no petrographic examination has yet been made to confirm this hypothesis. in metal or alabaster. And mother-of-pearl shells 6 served as lamps.
flat oval blades with a short tang rather like Fig. and tweezers were 188 also in use. 33. Copper pins.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST The facial hair was removed with razors. Si. copper strips with an edge at one end and turned over or rounded at the other. " Cutters/' narrow FIG. seem to have served a similar 9 purpose. Kish A. The latter . J.
6 ring and enclosed in a case. Pins fastened the garments or adorned the hair. Favourite types are the bead-headed variety attributed also to the Second Prediluvian culture and the toggleat pin in which the shaft is flattened round the eyelet. 82. and Kish sometimes decorated with an engraved pattern that recurs on pins of the (Fig. same family in Central Europe Less common are the pins with a stylized one surmounted from Ur is The ape unique. hairpin with raquet-shaped head shown in Fig. 8 1. Ur. J. on the principle of the knot-headed pin (Plate XIX). has been formed by hammering out the upper end of the implement into wire and then twisting this wire back The looped head through which the common ring of each upon itself and coiling it round the shaft in a word. instrument. 82 is another type bull's head. passes. Raquet pin. FIG.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION were combined with prickers and earscoops in regular The three instruments were attached to a reticules. while by an 189 . 3). represented at Kish.
. The arms were decked with bracelets and the fingers with rings. the ends were magnified to an extravagant size. 83. In the ears were hung helical rings the ends of which have generally been The ear-rings. by strings of beads from which hung pendants and amulets. but these ornaments were always of the that recurs in Central Europe . rosettes encircled by a hoop and groups of helical cones of gold wire soldered on to a The throat was encircled gold hoop (Plate coils XXI).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Woolley is no doubt right in suggesting that the tube formed by rolling over the head was designed to support two feathers. Copper bracelets and ear-rings with flattened ends. engraved punctured A was sometimes worn on the brow as a frontlet. Among dandies of gold or patterns. Kish A. and pendants illustrate better than anything supreme skill of the Sumerian goldsmiths and so give a welcome indication of the level of civilization attained. No less admirable are the amulets 190 . The pendants include heart-shaped leaves. necklaces. simplest type. else the FIG. diadems. The execution of these little and their mounting attests the consummate skill of the goldsmith. flattened out to a boat-form (Plate XXII). fillet decorated with or silver.
PLATE XXI a REIN RING AND MASCOT FROM QUEEN SHUB-AD S CHARIOT .
deer. Woolley 6 states that the head had been consumed by a fire kindled apparently in the as grave " itself. barrels and tabular or biconical faceted beads are the commonest types. long bicones. though shell and various less valuable stones were used. as wearing a false beard. The Royal Tombs 7 discovered during the campaign of 1927-8 at Ur belong to a quite different world of 191 . birds sheep. though sometimes he might be wrapped in matting or enclosed in a pottery coffin variations which apparently go back to the protodynastic cemeteries at Ur. 5 6 9 In some cases. phenomenon partial cremation but Hall 10 questions whether the burning was deliberate. gold and The splendour Turning to burial rites. fishes. cylinders. and fayence (the latter substance not in the oldest cemeteries at Ur) were the commonest material for beads. The excavator describes this ". particularly in what seem to be the earliest graves. and other animals. but there are multitubular and other spacers. cornelian. gadrooned globes and barrels (at Kish as in Protodynastic Egypt) and compounds for instance two axially gadrooned globulars united by a segmented tube. some represented pecking at silver fruit. of the head-dresses of the queens and harem beauties from the older tombs at Ur baffles description. Lapis.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION in the form of bulls (Plate XXII#). the common citizen was normally interred in a simple trench grave in the flexed posture. Discs.
84. Plan of two Royal Tombs at Ur. G 192 .FIG. showing disposition of victims in P 789.
PLATE XXII .
2 At might measure as much as 12 by 8 m. and bitumen models of boats were deposited in later Naturally these discoveries suggest comparison with the* funerary boat of the Nile. while her in-waiting. king lay soldiers. and grooms (Fig. ladies- and grooms lay in the shaft where Outside the tomb of a nameless they had been slain. Old Kingdom onwards. and armed guards were obliged to follow their sovereigns to the future world. in Yet there is no textual evidence for such a belief Babylonia whereas there are documents implying that the boats were perhaps designed to carry away the o 193 . One consisted of three parallel chambers of undressed stone each measuring 5-90 by 2*50 m. but drivers. as at Kish.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION ideas real . Not only the draft animals. for the sepulchre underground house. courtiers. royal dead had been conveyed to the tomb on chariots or sledges dressed in full insignia. to the other world is The Egyptian evoked by also idea of a voyage several seals from Kish. of was built the bottom the underground dwelling brick or stone. 84). the bodies of twelve women in court dress. The ideas underground house were here. In the King's grave was found further a silver boat. fully armed. attendants. attested from the graves. musicians. In the same chamber as the body of Queen Shub-ad lay the corpse of an attendant. 2 in shaft that evidently intended to be a The burial place was a huge is area associated with the and roofed with a corbelled vault. harpist. ladies-in-waiting The and the women of the harem. carried out with barbarian logic.
generally upon bitumen. Egyptian religion that has been inspired by Asiatic ideas. But the Sumerians were already executing 194 . The familiar gestures. Sumerian art too was fully individualized by the time of the First Dynasty of Ur. Yet in other respects the main features of Sumerian it in the third millennium. that typically Babylonian monsters are shells or seals. the already engraved on himself. even Gilgamesh peculiarly Sumerian hero.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST of the departed. seem to religion. All this is in striking contrast to only in the story of Isis and Osiris. we already have the temple of such a deity at al 'Ubaid under the First Dynasty of Ur. as we know have been already established by the fourth. seems to be an on engraving from one of the very oldest depicted graves of Ur (Plate I). approximate to such a conception. did the Nilotes . Both - might therefore be inspired by Egyptian ideas. not and subsequently rejected. The oldest concept in Sumerian theology was the Mother Goddess who under many names was worshipped in the several cities . perfectly assimilated. Both practices seem restricted to the late prehistoric and earliest historic period. The characteristic media for the school were engraving on shell (particularly mother-of-pearl) and inlaying with shell and other materials such as lapis and cornelian. But of course there is an equal absence of epigraphic testimony to the slaughter of sins victims at royal burials. and evidence for the cult of another at Kish quite as early. ritual dress. and vessels are already represented at that date.
spirals in the series of eyes used as a frame and the guilloche. and plano-convex bricks were already indeed a far cry from the Yet links are not 'Ubaid. It is quite alien to Egyptian Among the motives should be noted the running gold wire decorating the reticule from Ur (Plate XIX^). the trefoil and quatrefoil.C. are apt to be so dazzled by the complexity of the We institutions and the perfection of the art revealed in the newly discovered tombs that the whole civilization looks like a miraculous child for which a foreign divine parent must be sought.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION monumental sculptures at least in wood and bitumen by the time of the earliest graves from Ur and began statuary in stone (trachyte and limestones) about 3000 B. Sumerian types can trace their pedigree to that remote period. wings. cylinder as a form for seals. The use of granulated and filigree work in round surfaces definite affection for the jewelry also deserves notice. 195 . and the The mountain origin of the Sumerians inferred from later legend and ritual could be explained by a First Prediluvian in . the spouted jar. for instance the shaft-hole axe. use many distinctive ancestry. the bird with outspread " " bun of hair at the back of the head. copper. bitumen. the rosette and star with an even number of points (generally eight). It is prediluvian village at al In the First Prediluvian period altogether wanting. 12 as the supports for bas-reliefs or A engravings is noticeable in the carving of stone bowls and mace-heads and may have dictated the choice of the taste.
and the relations were most intense in contact As in the earliest period as represented in the graves. shell-inlay bulls it and engraving. with some of the most distinctive traits of the Second Prediluvian.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST would equally be false to set up an impassible culture and the gulf between the Second Prediluvian It The latter certainly has dispensed proto-Sumerian. " it is And to explain the " higher civiliza- was is natural to invoke Egypt. that Sumer with Egypt in the protodynastic period clear enough. Now. vase-painting. a counterpart to the Babylonian constructional artistic Ur methods and motives appearing in Egypt we 196 . man-headed may simply be leading inventions from the Second. compartment bowls. In any case the protohistoric culture derived must be admitted that all its writing. But the loss of painting may of pottery just be the result of industrialization . awaiting discovery. The only distinctively attested in the Second culture the kaunakes. other traits may be Elamite peculiarities. There are indeed those who would see in the Sumerians an invading minority who had imposed their language and their culture upon the autochthonous inhabitants tion of Mesopotamia. cylinder seals unless Jemdet Nasr and Musyan provincial be dismissed as Sumerian civilization back-waters reflecting imperfectly the true as disclosed in the oldest royal tombs at Ur. not common to the whole group. chariots. theriomorphic vases and seals. while others again may really have Sumerian elements not persisted.
and no 197 . the funerary the chamber tombs and the alabaster vases. In any case in material progress and wealth Sumer was far ahead of Egypt. such as the socketed axe. is hard to determine which partner made the the apparent continuity architecture on the Nile it might leading contributions. however. be inverted. In Sumer the funerary ritual was carried out with a primitive logic unknown in Egypt even in the Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. From of funerary ritual and well be argued that the chamber tomb as represented at Ur or at Kish had been suggested by Egyptian originals and consequently that the whole system of ideas embodied in the oldest Sumerian graves was introduced from Africa. and wheeled vehicles. the sistrum (from an early tomb). " It would be an easy step to argue that the "heaven " " whence the kingship descended to make such tombs possible and necessary was located on the Nile. that the dynasts responsible for the synoicism of the " " Children of the Sun 1 cities were That argument might.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION now have barque. on the same inlay as the sistrum appears Gilgamesh and on the very same panel a bear ! We two It are dealing accordingly with intercourse between mature cultures. for instance. But the same tombs contain a host of objects that are thoroughly Babylonian and often specifically Sumerian . the finer types of metal tool. especially as it persisted on the Nile while no later parallels have been found in Babylonia. The latter country lacked.
that at the point we have reached no one-sided relationor colonization. The native genius of the people who could invent writing and wheels and harness the ox and the ass will doubtless explain very much. making glazes must be understood in the same way. In each country there existed specialized craftsmen who.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Egyptian jewelry anterior to the Third Dynasty can compare either for sheer wealth or artistic merit and The fact is technical excellence with that of Shub-ad. and thither would come artificers native crafts from other lands bringing with them their and inventions. At the time Sumer was the focal point. 198 . can ship. as Sidney Smith 13 very pertinently suggests. Egypt and Sumer were citizens civilized whose were not restricted to the external relations of direct or indirect barter or to the planting of mining colonies such as Perry seems to have in mind. But such percolation would in no sense affect its radiating power. stone-workers trained in the Egyptian school may very well have been the makers of the much discussed alabaster vases of Mesopotamia. still less theories of conquest explain the facts. diffusion of the art of The Nevertheless the concentration of wealth itself and trade demands explanation. were emancipated from the bonds of the primitive clan and would gravitate in accordance with purely economic laws to the centres where trade and wealth were concentrated. The mere fact of the land's material superiority would expose it peculiarly to percolation by foreign ideas. Thus. whether free or servile. countries.
have been found rectangular stamp seals of steatite. Ur. 14 Then in the archaic tombs at Kish Mackay found beads of cornelian etched with an elaborate patterns by process. But such events are equally it . in pre-Sargonic deposits. the oldest other two is indisputable instances in the world of manufactured goods of precisely defined provenance being transported for long distances from the centre of their fabrication. Perhaps the dynasts who concentrated wealth and power in the cities were foreign conquerors. But would seem that some special factors came into play. These were partly political and as such elude our grasp perhaps ethnic forces too were at work. Finally from al 'Ubaid come fragments of vases made from a rock. At two instances Umma. to which Ur has now yielded parallels. The first prosperity of Sumer was bound up with Indian intercourse. But one cultural factor that may lie at the base of the becoming accessible. and Kish. material. identified as the 199 . which agree precisely in shape. Such beads. are in Mesopotamia confined to this one period. incapable of proof with the evidence at our disposal. in some instances glazed. The regularity and intimacy of the intercourse with India is proved by the occurrence on Sumerian sites of objects imported from the Indus valley. the Indus valley. and design with those found in great abundance in the ruins of prehistoric in the last cities in Lagash. but in India they are common and enjoyed a long popularity.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION since Babylonia failed to maintain the position of supremacy she had acquired as compared with Egypt.
there many of the distinctive elements of still the Sumerian's cultural superiority existed in a developed form. TKe survival of such scraps is some indication of the liveliness of commercial intercourse between the two distant lands. The legend of Cannes who came up the Persian Gulf to found the the same direction. 15 Dr. first Sumerian city at Eridu and the Sumerian location of paradise in the south point in Those who believe that the similar kaunakes was a palm-leaf skirt can cite the use of a garment in modern India and above all its association with the pre-Aryan goddess Parna?avari.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST " " which is used still in India for the manupot-stone facture of vessels. And now the discoveries on the Indus have revealed a civilization than that of Mesopotamia still more advanced before the middle of the third millennium .C. more Do the trade relations attested about 3000 B. we must see what is known of the Indus 200 . It has. however. just continue older ethnic relationships ? Were the higher elements of Sumerian culture inspired by India ? Did Sumerians themselves as a conquering minority bring those devices to Mesopotamia ? Before answering the these questions civilization. been suggested that denotes more than trade. Hall 16 has drawn attention to the resemblance of the Sumerians as represented in their statuettes to the Dravidians of India. this intercourse popularity of mother-offor inlays connects the Sumerian pearl as a material civilization by one of its most fundamental traits with The the south.
including the humped Indian oxen or zebu that on one theory are the ancestors of a common breed of early domestic cattle in Babylonia and the West. like Irak. The great Thar Desert. is a recent alluvial plain watered by Its one. Upstream the Indus plains lead into a submontane zone comparable to that of North Syria. many species being shared with the desert belt between the Zagros and the Atlantic* tropical jungle. east of Sindh. outside the true already indicated. 1 The foot-hills to the north and west are still the haunts of urial sheep from which the oldest European 201 . balances the Arabian Desert west of Babylonia. western border consists of steep ranges leading up to the same high tableland that constitutes the eastern frontier of Mesopotamia. as monsoon area and rely for their rainfall largely on the same Atlantic storms as water Mesopotamia. or originally two. The river valleys give pasture for cattle capable of domestication. They are not encumbered with but nourish principally drought-resisting plants. The region.CHAPTER THE INDUS IX CIVILIZATION SINDH and Southern Punjab form in a sense an eastern counterpart to Mesopotamia on an enlarged scale. mighty snow-fed rivers. lie The lowlands.
2 Its antiquity is proved not only by the representations on its monuments of animals now extinct in Western India but also by the Mesopotamian connections. the wild ancestors of have extended into Western India. In any case in the pluvial period all the conditions for the rise of a high civilization were fulfilled in India. fact.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST domestic sheep were descended. the Great Mihran. 202 . and the elephant in the Southern Punjab and Sindh. And from a purely typological study conclusion of the stone implements. Copper ores are available in the Salt Mountains to the north and in the western ranges. had spread right across into Central India. palaeolithic man. Within the last six years proof of the existence of a mature and complex civilization flourishing in the Indus basin under precisely such climatic conditions has come to light. If Vavilov is right in deducing an original focus of wheat cultivation in the plant must once Afghanistan. In glacial and early postglacial times the Indus basin enjoyed a more bountiful rainfall than to-day owing to In the deflection southward of the Atlantic cyclones. that Though buried in his relics on the alluvial plain are naturally silt. allied culturally to the early inhabitants of North Africa. That country certainly was the home of cotton. carried the waters of the Sutlej to the sea. Obermaier was led to the that the transition from palaeolithic to neolithic industry very possibly took place in India. the rhinoceros. we now know there were extensive tracts of jungle that sheltered the tiger. Parallel to the Indus flowed another great stream.
In Baluchistan and Waziristan there are humbler sites that have yielded C9gnate remains of a barbaric sort. Harappa. no less than ten superimposed cities have been identified. The the Punjab. had reached such a surprising level.C. Of the antecedents of the civilization that soon after 3000 B. But not only is the civilization thoroughly urban. though only the three latest have hitherto been explored. 3 But the high antiquity of the Indus civilization is proved in other ways. Our material is derived from vast cities with regular streets. And then there is Tell Kaudeni 4 with primitive tools and weapons and a pottery that invites comparison with Susa L Do these cultures represent rude forerunners of the Indus civilization ? Or are they mere stages in considering alternatives. the necessity of which was only recognized in relatively modern times. . was apparently abandoned sooner and the material gathered there is on parallel site in the whole older than that reached further south.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION Indian seals already mentioned. houses. nothing is known. that appear in Babylonia early in the third millennium belong to the latest The phase of the civilization at home. At the one site. such as drains and baths. in its detail peripheral degeneration ? Before the implications of these two we must summarize what 203 has been vouch- safed to us in newspaper reports of the Indus civilization. Indeed the Indus civilization is already old when we meet it. its authors have dwelt in towns so long that they have devised amenities. and temples. Mohenjo Daro in Sindh.
Buffaloes. opened up by the twin conditions. Two varieties of dog. and a shorthorned stock. perhaps but practised cremation. elephants. the alabaster statuettes same impression is produced by depicting a type not unlike the Sumerians with prominent nose. A A kilt or skirt was draped round the loins like the Sumerian kaunakes. The upper lip alone was shaved. have also been reported. on the The other hand was pronouncedly brachycephalic. Bos indicus. and horses were also kept. one like the modern and another^ pariah reminiscent of our mastiffs. 204 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Indus civilization apparently a number of skeletons.[exactly as in Sumer. Wheat similar to that grown locally to-day was accordingly cultivated as the staple article of diet. the zebu race. Fish. hair a short chin beard being allowed to grow. The cattle belonged to two stocks. pigs (of the variety Sus cristatus). sheep. apparently resembling the One skull. The primary the basis of life then prevailing climate was agriculture for which and the possibilities of rivers afforded ideal irrigation. interred by itself at belong to a dolichocephalic " Mediterranean race ". The was worn long done up in a bun at the back of the head. And true cotton was grown for the manufacture of textiles. and receding forehead (Plate XXIII). the victims of a pestilence. thick lips. including sea-fishes imported presumably dried. were found in a late house at authors of the The Mohenjo Daro. Mohenjo Daro. Domestic animals were also kept. turtles and tortoises were also eaten. These all type. patterned shawl was worn over the left shoulder and under the right.
DC (d X 1 it E W H UJ 1 .
3 by 8*5 in.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION A proportion. The signs are found stamped on copper bars or engraved on seals that served to authenticate documents which have perished. however. in cities. temples. as These were regularly laid already remarked. Stone was perhaps baths. In one or two floorings as well external walls niches two to three feet wide and nine inches deep were used decoratively just as in Babylonia. out with streets. biscuit-shaped (n in. of the population dwelt. to the east or the west. and in drains damp-course But wood was employed for used for pillar bases. Naturally such a civilization subsisted on trade. by 5-5 in presumably as for roofs. 205 . or 17 in. bitumen perhaps from Mesopotamia. A system of weights was recognized which differed from the Babylonian. and baths. from fish the sea shell^ird coasts. Harappa hood over it. the bricks being thin and by 2-75 in. The universal building material was brick. This trade was facilitated by a system of writing which was still partly pictographic. Copper was imported from the neighbouring highlands from Khorasan or Burma. The principle of the arch is not illustrated by any monument . at Mohenjo Daro) but kiln fired and Bitumen was used as a set in genuine lime mortar. tin The Indus people employed animals in industry and commerce The elephant and the horse can only have been domesticated for such purposes and a copper model from depicts a two-wheeled cart with a gabled the motive-power of as did the Sumerians. by 3 in. drains were covered over with a corbelled vault..
made None scrapers. Copper dagger and chisel. Moreover the secret of producing glazed fabrics had been mastered. goldsmith. evidently regular intercourse were artizans The urban expert in working metals. ousted stone tools had by no means was used for sickle-teeth. is presupposed in the Navigation. and knife-blades. even make an The alloy of copper with crafts of the potter. weaver. by hammering but also to some extent by principally casting. Harappa. the less even in the cities metal .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the Indus. 85. FIG. and jeweller were no less flourishing. and beads and larger articles were of a blue encaustic fayence. Stone was perhaps used for 206 chert . and could from 6 to 12 per cent tin. at least on with the coast.
We may axe-heads and adzes (celts). below the butt. the sides then contracting only to and pottery.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION At the same time copper was spheroid mace-heads. One Spouts and handles were apparently unknown. 86. 85). Copper beaker from Harappa. copper vases resemble tall beakers with narrow cupped bases and splayed out lips (Fig. silver vase is cylindrical in while some shape. flat is particularly small. 86). narrow tapering daggers with pointed tangs but no FIG. Vessels were made of copper. The pottery types 207 splay out again at the blade. employed for the manufacture of many tools and even and was alloyed with tin where a specially durable edge was required as in Few types have yet been published and the razors. silver. rivet holes and straight backed saws with a convex little Some of the chisels broaden out a blade (Fig. for vessels of considerable size number of weapons note here long chisels. . shell.
Elaborate metal plugs made in two pieces were worn Strings of spherical. jadeite. Multiple silver. This triad of interlaced implements forms an almost exact counterpart to the Sumerian reticules. hung variegated stone. 8 It consisted of a yielded an interesting toilet pricker. These ornaments are often of the penannular type. gold. Pins do not seem to have been used but Harappa set. tubular and rounded lenticular beads of cornelian. great elongated piriform jars with very*narrow bases craters and well-formed necks. silver. necklaces of five strings. and the patterns are predominantly geometrical. shell. or fayence were round the neck or worn as girdles. not otherwise represented in the most ancient east. ivory. but painted ware The paint is generally black on a red slip or wash. but very popular in Europe during the bronze age. fayence. and show that the idea of the knot-head was familiar on the Indus. occurs especially at Harappa. plain. The butt of each implement had been hammered out into wire. barrel-shaped. or shell. 208 . Some Most of the pottery is stand on pedestals. Some of the barrel-shaped beads are divided into segments by deep cuts. in the ears. and a pair of tweezers. a narrow knife. including concentric circles and rosettes.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST include many similar beakers. The arms and ankles of the women were encircled with bangles and anklets of gold. which was bent back and twisted round the stem to form a loop. seems to have been specially popular. separated by spacers.
SEALS. PAINTED POTTERY AND FIGURINES FROM INDIA .
sanctuaries importance is a fayence plaque representing a female deity sitting cross-legged between two serpent-votaries There are. but accompanied with vases and offerings. and other beasts are admirably executed and thoroughly life-like. Stone figures rings. moreover. tigers. some of enormous " size and others quite " small. If these interpretations be correct. hybrid in attitudes of adoration. that no doubt existed at points where later The now stand. The seal-designs of Brahmani bulls. many features of later Indian religion must be rooted in the prehistoric Indus civilization. engraved on the seals that have been compared to the Sumerian monsters of the Gilgamesh cycle.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION general practice was apparently to cremate the dead and deposit the ashes in cinerary urns or in small brick shrines. large tanks are supposed to have been connected with temples. No less successful are fayence statuettes of 209 p . elephants. However. In any case the cross-legged deity between serpent adorants directly anticipates a well-known theme of Indian iconography. Female figurines of clay are quite common and may be votives denoting. as in Of great Babylonia. and on the seals the pipal-tret is already represented as an object of sanctity. the cult of a Mother Goddess. Then there are little stone columns that have been taken for phallic symbols. The art of the Indus is best illustrated by the glyptic. are assigned to the class of ritual objects by the puzzled excavators. in one case at Mohenjo Daro. The a skull had been ritually buried without the other bones of the skeleton.
adzes. however. the trefoil and the rosette occur on the seals as in Mesopotamia as well as elaborate maze patterns* What looks like a provincial variant of the same to light at Nal in the Zhob valley. Axes. were quite total common in Mohenjo Daro by one example at Nal. particularly 210 . It is apparently. work is particularly other and statues of for the eyes inlay of attention. copper was used at Nal too. a clay animal with hand are thoroughly barbaric . apart from worthy movable head is of animals. The use shell particularly quaint. all of the are Indus type. Though flint implements more numerous than in the plains. often very mature. at other sites in the hill countries of Baluchistan culture is coming and and Waziristan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST monkeys and dogs. We have and Sindh is seen that direct intercourse between attested Sumer region of typical by the importation into the former Indian products. though cremation and contracted posture were also interment the practised. represented at only. and daggers. and presents at a variety of shapes. But even here the houses were of brick. and even copper vessels have come to light. and boasted several rooms. have been found. chisels. seals. Among the motives. Fractional burials. of the same general wheel-turned type. Painted pottery is commoner than Harappa or Mohenjo Daro. Carving in marble had made some male heads from Mohenjo progress as is shown by the than the earlier Sumerian finer are Daro that certainly The clay and copper models on the other statuettes.
from Mohenjo Daro invites comparison with the alabaster vessels of the same shape from Ur and Susa. The Sumerian and Indus toilet-sets cylindrical vase of silver are in principle identical. civiliza- But does not some ethnic proved up these commercial ties ? kinship perhaps underlie The figurines from Mohenjo Daro certainly fortify tions Hall's identification of the Sumerians with early Indian races . but to a more primitive stage. had been Judging by the domestic architecture.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION possible reflex of this traffic in India is the bitumen used for damp-courses at Mohenjo Daro. even religious themes such as monsters. the seal cutting and the grace of the pottery. are It is fantastic to common to both countries. the Indus civilization was ahead of the Babylonian at the beginning of the third millennium. ranges and farther west is in Baluchistan. None the commercial intercourse between two mature to the hilt. tht way of dressing the hair is identical. The Indus and Sumerian The beakers have an unmistakable family likeness. But that was a late phase of the Indian 211 . Motives like the trefoil and the rosette. The daggers from Harappa. show the same peculiar Artistic devices like the use of shell inlays connect the two regions strikingly. suggest that the wheel and carts independently invented in both lands. for the features are really similar. But it cannot A be positively asserted that the material itself came from Babylonia in view of local supplies available in the Sulei- man less. and each construction of the looped head. again. belong to the same tanged family as the Sumerian.
concentric semicircles. A minority from the Indus or saturated with its inspiration might well have been the bringers of wheeled vehicles. to both groups : the rosette. mother-of-pearl. must in the long run belong to the same family as that described as the Prediluvian in In fact several distinctive motives are common Iran. despite material and significant differences in technique. distinctly to historical Indian ideals earliest classical Sumerian do the and iconography foreshadow the And there is another set of Babylonian. the step-pattern.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST culture times. and decoration. 4 Were its Indian elephant Harappa and Mohenjo 212 . Tell Kaudeni in the Zhob The valley very truly links the two provinces with and its Persian lapis. inspiration come from its the Indus or at least from some region within immediate sphere of influence ? Some of the above-mentioned agreements are of an order that might almost be termed ethnic. toiletsets. " the double-axe ". Yet the Sumerian script is not that of the Indus despite agreeThe Indus art and religion point already as ments. may have Were then the it enjoyed no less lead in earlier innovations and discoveries that civilization characterized proto-Sumerian not native of Indian developments -on Babylonian soil but the results Sumerians themselves the had If ? so. forms. cults as art and contacts to be considered. and other Sumerian specialities to Southern Babylonia. the sloping oval. . the dot-ringed circle. painted pottery from Harappa and Baluchistan. monochrome pottery.
Already the laden caravans were crossing the wilderness of Iran that the merchandise of the mysterious east might be bartered for the raw products of the young barbaric west in the marts of Kisbu Already the Arabian Sea was ploughed by dhows. The to recommend it that it second alternative has ancient this could be harmonized with those hints of an immensely province traditions in the south. That discovery completes the graphic picture of the ancient Oriental world that the treasures of Ur disclosed. freighted with the stuffs of Sindh consigned to Babylonian river towns* 213 . rooted in Lower Palaeolithic of But with industry. that. reaching back into the fourth millennium before our era. such a speculation we leave at once all hold on the solid world of fact. where agriculture first originated. Remember that hair was worn in a bun at the back even in the prediluvian Daro offshoots Eridu and al village of al 'Ubaid. we find on the now impoverished banks of the distant Indus a brilliant civilization in touch at once with the prediluvian villages of the Iranian plateau and the nascent city-states of Babylonia. rooted in It would be India. is Surely that world romantic and exciting enough 1 Here.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION from the prediluvian highland culture 'Ubaid ? Or was the highland culture like itself an early branch from the tree. grew into the Indus civilization ? choose between to these to sheer guess-work attempt alternatives or to decide whether either suffices to between Sindh and Sumer explain those similarities racial that presuppose kinship.
unanimously termed and might certainly depicted on a vase from Babylonia But have grown up out of the native river-craft. It was inhabited by sea-faring people. and has been plausibly 214 . is The Arabian Sea named after them. Part of the commerce and the Euphrates was surely conducted by sea as throughout historic times. and India. historical times the southern coasts of Arabia and especially the region of Oman have been the homes of inference is The that there bold sailors trading with Ethiopia. the vase which figures them belongs to a special alien class " Babylonia and Elam . folk nor the Sumerians appear to us as seafarers. was a fourth party. Mesopotamia. throughout Egypt. The author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea extols their exploits and mentions how the commerce of India and Egypt met in their ports. whence diorite and metals were obtained. The Babylonian records from Sargon of Agade onwards make mention of the land of Magan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST It is this worth while dwelling upon the implications of between the Indus picture. a maritime people who acted as intermediaries between Now. The monuments are deep-sea ships on the oldest Egyptian Similar vessels are foreign ". The Egyptian evidence cited in Chapter VI no less implied maritime intercourse between the twin rivers and the Red Sea terminals of the But neither the Indus caravan routes to the Nile. Sindh. and gulf ports. no certainly native representations of the vessels are found only sporadically in known.
that belongs to the same family as the incised Nubian wares found on the Nile from Badarian times The fabric is only known from pyxides onwards. It is perfectly legitimate to infer that the fourth millennium. Geographically the highlands of Southern Arabia are intermediate between the Abyssinian plateau Persia. . Later on it . Archaeologically we should expect there the links between the core postulated as the industries of found both in was producing a dark-faced ware decorated with incised and punctured patterns. But the region in question is not ill-adapted to have been also an originative centre. certainly the source of frankdistorted incense. And Yemen. such centres of maritime commerce flourished even in Only so does the peculiar indirect- ness of the relations between Sumer and Egypt in Late It can hardly Predynastic times become intelligible. found at Lagash and Susa but its provenance is fixed by the boats figured on the first named example it Palaeolithic ancestry Lower India and Somaliland. on later the of Arabia be fortuitous that coinage appears a version of the twin-serpent motive that one of the links between the Nile and the constituted Euphrates.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION located in Oman. together with a brachy cephalic majority. and the ranges of Southern remnants Ethnologically these coasts are inhabited by " " of that stock that Christian negrito first authors of agriculture in Egypt and Elam. is just as likely as Somaliland to have been the original Land of Punt. that figures so prominently in the oldest Egyptian traditions.
Egypt centres of agriculture in that order. Sumer. a maritime civilization on the Arabian Sea in the fourth and Sindh is quite a millennium. to the time of Herodotus a tradition that they had come from the Persian Gulf a tradition quite as worthy of credence as that referring to the foundation of Melqart's It is sanctuary that excavation has partially verified. There legitimate deduction. The first investigators of the Elamite and the Indus scripts were alike struck with the resemblance of many signs to the Minoan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST comes from our assumed maritime centre. thus quite possible that the sudden rise of a brilliant 216 . as in historical times. and Crawford upheld that thesis. 6 Such a general similarity scripts would be to a intelligible if the respective went back common system in use among The Phoenicians preserved early nautical merchants. A good case might therefore be made out for Arabia as the cradle of 5 and Schweinfurth have both civilization. a counterpart to that which flourished on the Mediterranean in the third. Quite apart from such speculations which are still premature. must have been already. The similarities may be more than fortuitous. the r6le of the maritime peoples of the Arabian littoral as intermediaries between Egypt. Schweinfurth speaks of a triangle placing the first of civilization Yemen. Crawford asks whether the Sumerians and the hypothetical dynastic race of Egypt did not both set out from Southern Arabia along divergent routes to Babylonia historical and Egypt respectively. Sumer.
THE INDUS CIVILIZATION maritime civilization on the Mediterranean was due in the transplantation across the Isthmus of Suez part to of some of the coastal culture of the Arabian Sea. The rise of higher civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt must be interpreted in the light of the facts already adduced. The final result of such specializaactivities tion was exclusiveness. Trade into conducts diverse ideas and inventions. The cities of Babylonia throughout history have owed their prosperity to their position at junctions of the great overland and Inner Asia on the one hand. with the maritime route to India and Abyssinia. crystallized out in response to varying environmental conditions. Their fusion produces not a a single crucible. and predatory 217 . One condition for the progress there exhibited seems clearly to have been the enlargement of the mental horizon by contact with distant lands. mere mechanical aggregate but a new compound endowed Commerce with India itself with generative powers.C. hostility. a peculiar Before three thousand communications between peoples in North Africa and South-Western Asia. and the Mediterranean on the other. The climatic changes were producing a continuum of human groups that were gradually sorting themselves level and finding a permanent cultural and by adaptation specialization to meet peculiar local circumstances. trade routes to India to Syria and conjuncture of circumstances favoured the establishment of far-reaching B. of wealth and also of the concentration rapid explains ideas in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
The latter was rather a terminal country. cities Hence Sumer of the East. and return for incidentally exported necessities like grain in luxury and cedar wood. The clan villages or petty townships of predynastic Egypt on the other hand were unable to defend their local mutual suspicions. Finally. is thus resolved : it showed The Sumer definitely ahead of Egypt at the end of the fourth 218 . Harappa even earlier. articles like spices powerful enough to retain or at least demand local autonomy while their mutual interdependence would promote jealousies. autonomy. there was an internal source of weakness in The city-states along the two rivers were Babylonia. 7 Secondly. against the unifying powers of Menes and the Falcon clan. which owed its special prosperity to its intermediate position. for all their The conqueror gave Egypt internal peace just at the moment when the high material culture of the Sumerian cities was making their hostilities peculiarly dangerous and destructive. Mohenjo Daro was deserted about that time. lost her civilized partner in the commerce apparent contradiction. it looks as if some catastrophe overtook the of the Indus basin shortly after 3000 B. So Babylonia was rent from very early times by wasteful and destructive internecine wars. These obstacles would affect Sumer. revealed by a comparison between Egypt and Sumer.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that eventually seriously impeded intercourse as did the increasing extent of desert tracts. sooner and more adversely than Egypt.C.
but often alien. could barely hold her own against the savagery that encompassed her. and lacked the energy for further progress save during the short a strong. rent by civil war. dynast could win for his city hegemony over all the rest. entrenched at the head of the trade-routes. Egypt. had prospered. her trade oppressed by barbarian neighbours. supplying . and exacting deprived of Indian inspiration. Sumer.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION a few centuries later the mutual positions millennium of the two countries had been completely reversed. intervals when 219 . indispensable commodities and blessed with internal peace.
By the end of the IVth millennium the material culture of Abydos. or of any mediaeval town.CHAPTER X EUROPE AND THE EAST IN the preceding pages I have tried to conjure up a B. and its general employment on a comparable to that exemplified in Susa I dates only from the second. The stage of higher barbarism represcale sented at Badari and in the Fayum must. have been reached in the sixth millenbefore our era. unless perhaps the disgusting savages who left the shell-mounds on the shore of the Littorina Sea cultivated a little barley. The first picture of the Oriental world prior to 3000 salient feature in that picture is the hoary antiquity of under review. Metalcivilization in the region by historians as marking an epoch in human progress. had certainly been practised intelligently even a thousand years earlier. In the whole of Europe we can attribute to such a remote antiquity not one single nium food-producing community outside Crete. on the most modest reckoning. Ur. Yet Badari itself was already a stage removed from 220 . In no part of Europe outside Crete was metal demonstrably in use before lurgy. rightly taken the third millennium.C. or Mohenjo Daro would stand comparison with that of Periclean Athens.
for all their common and regular intercourse. in the rather hypothetical Campignyan culture. and swine. the and pin all presuppose a long period of apprenticeship. unity of the eastern world embraces a diversity. centres of Oriental civilization can be shown to bind thereto the European barbarisms of prehistory. And the same threads that held together the various postulate be accepted. sheep. stability The The inventions Orient's claim to the origination of all the primary is thus beyond dispute.EUROPE AND THE EAST the beginnings of food-production as illustrated. each possess a ripe and distinct individuality by 3000 B. Babylonian.C. the methods of preserving metal beads grains. and Indian civilizations. for instance. of settlement. foundations of life are not just agriculture and stockraising but the cultivation of cereals and the breeding At the same time the of cattle. The This continuity is not an abstract identity. were even able to formulate questions as to political We 221 . The factors promoting and maintaining the unity of the Oriental world at the end of the fourth millennium can legitimately be summed up in the blessed word " In the last two chapters we have tried to trade '*. Egyptian. a precise connotation and to indicate term that frive the" rather special sociological. the perfection of the pottery. and climatic basis conditions that favoured intercourse at that juncture. economic. once the diffusionist But the accuracy of the postulate is guaranteed by the fundamental continuity that characterized the Oriental world no less than its antiquity.
3 A partial transplantation to Phoenicia is of South Arabian maritime culture are to a legitimate inference from traditions. 2 The first impetus to Minoan civilization in Crete was given by a colony of plausibly regarded as refugees from the conquering Menes. The accumulation of wealth and the aggregation of population in great cities obviously intensified enormously the demand for all sorts of raw materials. on the Anatolian coasts and far away in Macedonia. 4 From Egypt were derived amulets in the form of claws. no less than necessities like copper and timber. 1 apparently colonized Byblos in early dynastic times. of 222 . Ships flying the standard of a predynastic Delta nome anchored in Cycladic ports. And so trade goods of Egyptian or Babylonian ancestry be found on the islands of the ^Egean.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST events that might have contributed to the realization of the possibilities inherent in the situation thus defined : the unification of " race from the south ? civilizing conquerors Was Egypt the work of a " Were dynastic the historical Sumerians from the same quarter ? The same terms can legitimately be used to account for the propagation of a higher barbarism on the fringe of the Oriental world. Egyptianized Libyans. The same circumstances would stimulate an intellectual ferment and a spirit of adventure to which the histories The Egyptians of Greece or Venice offer parallels. Semitic merchants were established in Cappadocia. luxury articles like spices and precious stones. before the rise of the dynasty of Agade. working the mines to supply the Babylonian market.
At Troy we find filagree spiral too. These com223 . 6 As far away as Turkestan the third settlement at Anau 7 in the Merv oasis yielded figurines. the raquet pin like Fig. and on the great caravan routes that traverse Central Asia similar trade goods are found. work reminiscent of that of Ur. of the dove or falcon and The jewelry toilet articles such as palettes and tweezers. eventually made its and using the as at Kish. a pin with knot-head formed on the principle illustrated by the toilet set of Plate XIX. copper daggers and sickles. and fayence and lapis beads all suggestive of western influence. 82. of East Crete and the smaller islands includes articles such as gold rosettes and diadems whose prototypes have recently come to light at Ur. 81. word " In another direction beyond the Caucasian passes. or the young barbarisms of the Eastern Mediterranean or Upper Asia. wheel-made vases. The trade " is quite significant if invoked to explain such phenomena. model carts.EUROPE AND THE EAST of the papyrus sceptre. whether the higher civilizations of the river valleys. 3. flies. 5 and ear-rings with flattened ends named type to the tin-lodes of way right up Bohemia where it is associated with the The lastDanube other Babylonian forms. stamp-seals. But the intercourse thus defined was already between autonomous communities. Gold vessels of archaic Sumerian style were unearthed in a tumulus near Asterabad in Northern Persia. and later with eyelet pins whose shafts may be engraved shown with the same patterns as those from Kish in Fig.
As for magicians or the of tribal custom would be warriors. " its therefore have been a "craft". the transformation of the properties of for the changes undergone by clay Metal working must are superficially less drastic. must entice or compel such a one to live among them or have one of . And this very fact would give adjoining 224 communities the chance of enlisting the services of a . At the same time initiates must have enjoyed a position of privilege in their own society. are unmistakably linked by cultural traits that can hardly have arisen most obvious instance independently. And most people will have to import their material. a mystery ". their number initiated. merely acquiring through barter a copper pin or a hatchet A they must acquire a smith . Metallurgy is the of this interdependence. great bondage eased for them. The crafts of the miner and smith are distinguished from all others by the peculiarly mysterious nature of the The extraction of copper process upon which they rest. despite their autonomy. that is the oldest industry depends upon the transinto mutation of one substance hard brittle stone another maleable and fusible metal that does not less in the least resemble the first externally. practice presupposed initiation into the properties of rocks that look to the layman quite commonplace and into a number of complicated and highly technical given people cannot learn the art by processes. Hardly revolutionary metal by heat is .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST munities.
supplemented by a ferrule. attached by rivets to a hilt from which arms project downwards in a crescent gripping the blade on either side. The protodynastic Egyptian axes have straight sides and a straight or rounded blade that is never splayed out the adzes normally have a rounded head the daggers are triangular . the types current in Egypt. Yet by the end of the IVth millennium. where in many regions metalworkers constitute a distinct caste. the Caucasus. the hammers used for breaking the ore all consist of a grooved stone. The thing is and no to the Smith ". the adzes Q . Spain. of tradition in metallurgy. hafted with the aid of a tang. fitting in the groove. Archaeology affords positive proof of the continuity In ancient mines in Sinai. and Cornwall. .EUROPE AND THE EAST privileged position of such is abundantly illustrated in Africa to-day. into a hilt that met the blade in a straight or convex line. universal metal types are the flat celt (axe the triangular dagger. and Sindh are easily distinguishable. The generic similarity of the is still oldest metal tools and weapons better known. lashed into the fork of a stick by thongs. Indeed. or adze) it is The most and generally greatly exaggerated. In such the smith often figures as a mysterious and alien personage. Babylonia. or rhomboid. The oldest Indian celts are long 225 and narrow. In historical Sumer the axes and adzes were alike provided with a shaft-hole the daggers were . In Europe the same smith. the Austrian Alps. reflected in the popularity of the name less in traditions and folk-lore traceable right back " Heroic Age of Greece.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
often have almost a shoulder
and the daggers are hafted
with the aid of very long tangs without rivets. The developed Egyptian axe-heads and adzes seem
The Egyptian method of peculiar to the Nile valley. the dagger was, however, known in the ^Egean hafting
over the Western Mediterranean from
the earliest times and thence into
Bohemia and Central was certainly a which The shaft-hole axe, Europe. Babylonian speciality going back to the phase of pre-
culture represented at al 'Ubaid, has never8 It is unknown in theless a very limited distribution.
(Anau), Africa, or Western Europe. reached Elam, the Caucasus, South Russia, Syria,
Even Anatolia, the VEgean, and the Danube valley. so, the archaic type illustrated in Fig. 72 is confined to
Babylonia and Elam.
go back to the
and Cycladic form represented
'Ubaid and Jemdet Nasr. The Babylonian shaft-hole adze is confined to Babylonia, But the tanged daggers Elam, and the Caucasus. characterize the whole Asiatic area as far as Turkestan,
the models from
and Troy, and reach Crete and South Russia.
Indian types cannot be exactly paralleled elsewhere, though the adzes must have some connection with the
we must go back to (S.D. 56) in Egypt and the Susa I phase of the First Prediluvian in Elam. At that date the flat axes and adzes show the same profile in
reach really universal types
Middle Predynastic times
EUROPE AND THE EAST
both areas and disclose a type from which the Cretan, be directly Cypriote, Trojan, and other variants may
But even at this date (S.D. 50) the Egyptian daggers were hafted in the peculiar Nilotic manner described above, which was already applied to flint
mid-rib as a device for
These differences give some idea of the enormous antiquity of the craft of metallurgy. They imply distinct
Egyptian and Babylonian schools as early as 4000 B.C. And the subtle differences in the axe-heads
and Anatolia early
assumption of other centres of metallurgy in the IVth millennium. As
far as Crete is
concerned that might be inferred from the " " discovered recently in a pre-Minoan level at Knossos, and from the use in the island of shaft-hole
axes and tanged daggers that must be inherited from a time before Egyptian inspiration became supreme.
does this affect the question of the original work ? Should the credit be given to the First Prediluvian culture of the Iranian plateau, or
focus of metal
the unexplored layers at Mohenjo Daro contain the oldest products of intelligent metal work ? From the later distribution of raquet,
and rolled pins and ear-rings with flattened ends Frankfort 9 argues in favour of the Caucasian end of
the highland equally shown
Reisner and Lucas
that, despite the
absence of local ores, the
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
of making the Egyptians did really enjoy opportunities And there is one type, later very widely discovery.
back to Early Predynastic the loop-headed pin. (The date of the specimen times with a knot-head is still obscure.) That is not perhaps From the extreme rarity of copper in quite decisive.
distributed, that goes right
predynastic graves one
use of their
admit that the discovery. But
the oldest manufactured articles of metal in the world
are the beads
and pin from
question of priority can accordingly to-day only be settled according to the prejudices of individual writers.
In either case
'Ubaid should be
50 or 4236
so hard to identify the original cradle of metalcan we hope to locate the first centre of how lurgy,
food-production ? Speculation here becomes almost uncontrolled guess-work, that is positively harmful, Yet such a centre is more than a methodological postulate.
be absurd to suggest that
in nature is quite limited,
barley, at several
circumscribed region. to assume that the domestication of
independent centres It would be hardly
sheep and swine happened more than once. The common " traits of what is not very neolithic happily termed the " culture are too numerous to deny some unity behind it.
The oldest food-producing people of whom we
any approximately dateable remains are the Badarians.
EUROPE AND THE EAST
undoubtedly enormously strengthens the claims of Egypt as advanced already by Elliot Smith and But of course it may just be an accident his school.
due to the nature of our data. Archaeological exploration in Egypt has been far more thorough than in any other
The recent discountry, except perhaps Denmark, coveries at Ur and in Sindh have shown the danger of
the argument ex silentlo or rather ab ignorantia. They show that by 3000 B.C. Mesopotamia was in the lead.
India had progressed still further. It might hence be inferred that these countries had a start in the race
So India or some intermediate country the Iranian plateau or Southern Arabia, may still
put in a claim to be accepted as the cradle, a claim that might be supported, as we have seen, on other grounds.
Inner Asia too
Very far-reaching from rather slender
evidence obtained from an absolutely undateable settlement at Anau in the Merv oasis. 7 The few animal
bones found in the lowest levels here were described by Duerst as belonging to wild species higher up he
claimed to detect marks of domestication on the bones
of similar beasts.
any case the Anau-Ii were from
the very beginning cultivating bread wheat, and using copper and lead. In the present position of studies on
climate, flora, and fauna in late quaternary and early holocene times, Upper Asia seems far less likely to have been a cultural centre than the more favoured
regions south of the Eurasiatic spine.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
the passes leading into Central Asia, is a place where the southern inventions would soon be implanted.
to define the focus
of diffusion. permissible to consider the conditions In the first place the cultivation of cereals by the primitive methods at first adopted is by no means in-
presumably nomadism of a sort. The case of the with compatible Hadendoa has already been cited (p. 62). But there are numerous^ peoples, notably in the Sudan, practising
are necessarily Very far particular spot. The fields are tilled
garden- or hoe-culture,
from rooted in any by hand with a hoe and not manured
rotation of crops or regular fallowing is means that the land is quickly exhausted,
of course, no observed. That
and open up fresh
where the available land
less unlimited, for
community to break up. Some of the younger folk, irked by the restraints of the elders, will swarm off and
glacial and subglacial periods, such movements would be accelerated. They would be taking place within a zone occupied thinly by hunting folk. The farmer and hunter are no doubt mutually antiBut in lean years the nomad from the high pathetic. desert would turn for succour and sustenance to the
enlargement of the community through the absorption of the refugees or at 230
cultivators in the oases.
EUROPE AND THE EAST
propagation among the hunters of the better and safer mode of life may result from such contact.
the same time the restriction of the habitable land
extend the range of each migration. The ultimate result would doubtless be a curb on the growth
of the population and a specialization in nomadic life involving the abandonment of cultivation. The typical
Arab or Bedouin
no doubt exceedingly rude.
not, however, primitive, but the result of specializa-
meet very adverse conditions. On the other hand, " " Arabs one might really find all among so-called
between pure hoe-culture or even sedentary and unmitigated pastoral nomadism. Some agriculture
sorts of stages
of these tribes
may very well preserve The Fayum folk, in
vestiges of really the later stage of
their evolution represented by the microlithic industry, were apparently tending towards an ever more nomadic
Again, from ethnographic considerations it is certain that some sort of primitive navigation sufficient to take
of a very lowly palaeolithic culture across the into Australia is extremely ancient. The
presence of Azilio-Tardenoisian fishers on the island of Oronsay at a time when it was submerged 25 feet more
The Syrian to-day has the same implications* and presumably also the shores of Little Africa
were occupied by fishing-tribes in Upper Palaeolithic Such may very well have ventured upon short coastal The hoe-cultivators of the interior voyages.
The diffusion of the new culture termed neolithic. not irrelevant in this context to recall how early voyagers were supplied with food-stuffs. At the same time the paths of folk-migration 232 . would impinge upon Mutual accommodation cultivation their might result in a new economy based upon plus fishing. On the jEgean the a of horse by water is depicted on a transportation Minoan seal. During the bad season. across the drying grasslands of Afrasia and along the adjoining coasts can thus be intelligibly pictured without recourse to vast migrations that would be fatal to herds of swine. this time It is by maritime routes. But the wanderings of people that it implies were necessarily very erratic and the cultural drift would be modified by all sorts of crosscurrents. they planted grain and awaited the harvest before proceeding.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST in the course of their expansion the maritime communities. At least on the Nile by the beached their time of the vessels. numbers augmented by the improved food-supply thus assured. would then participate in the work of propagation and colonization. is by no means incompatible with quite early means of navigation. boat from Nubia to including the transportation of cereals and even animals. New Kingdom cattle were transported by Lower Egypt. The communities of the coast. The sailors sent by Necho to round Africa took a stock of grain with them in their ships. together with the plants and animals that formed its economic basis. The propagation of culture by sea ways.
however. The same European complex apparently shared with Badari-Fayum pebble of celts. None the less some traces of the spread we have been as contemplating are detectable in far afield as North Africa and how in Western Europe. flint sickle-teeth. in Spain one ofrthe oldest ceramic types is a globular bottle formally allied to the Badarian flasks of Plate III. and some other traits. disc-beads shell. though likewise beginning in Badarian times. Even slate palettes are found far 11 As far away as Southern away in North-West Africa. a second and more indirect spread which. The discoveries in any case confirm the reality of that cultural drift across North Africa which I deduced new Egyptian from the Almerian evidence four years ago. The archaeo- of the supposed movements and drifts logical vestiges are not therefore likely to be elucidated tiy any simple formula.EUROPE AND THE EAST would long remain channels for " trade ". 12 There was. shell-bracelets. And the is decoration of the pottery from the Abri Redeyef " " neolithic sherds recently collected paralleled on Northern Egypt. 233 . In fact leather beakers of identical form together with no less leathery carinated bowls are presupposed in the oldest stratum of West European pottery as disclosed by the Michelsberg culture. We have already noted Tunisia and Algeria the advent of the neolithic is culture heralded by arrow-heads of Fayum types. To the same context belong leathery vessels with pointed bases betraying the same leather ancestors as have left their mark on the Badarian beakers.
The Badarian perhaps followed a more southerly beakers are quite clearly off-shoots from the same complex as gave birth to the much later European bell-beakers. though the reminiscence of older leather vessels still Now in Spain shows through. invaders who as is well known also reached Spain.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST later date and which only affected Europe at a much road. Were the beaker-folk forerunners of these later Arabs ? Is the original centre of beakers to be located 234 . bell-beakers in decoration of the European bell-beakers are admittedly inspired by a family of grass-baskets. The European and even the Badarian specimens be from the same stem. hollow-based arrow-heads. and Western Europe this superimposed upon older cultural strata to complex is which belong the leathery types of Badarian-Fayum affinities. Common to both groups are the form and incised zone decoration of the beakers. Hence the proto-beaker complex must have maintained itself practically unaltered presumably on the southern edge beakers are due to a late of the Sahara. The arrow-heads found with Spain often approximate very closely 13 The form and to the mitreform type of Badari. a knowledge of metal. Now the offshoots may only beakers were made and used by brachycephals. European 14 has shown that much of the Seligman brachycephaly thrust from this centre in North Africa to-day is due to invaders from Southern Arabia. representatives of which are still to be found in North-Eastern Africa today. The Badarian beakers go back immediately to just the same prototype.
the upper Danube and the upper Nile (Nubia) we find dark-faced wares derived from gourd forms and On ornamented with incised patterns inspired by the straw With these are sling in which gourds were hung. In a short article contributed to first number of Antiquity I tried to show how propagation along the Danube valley have taken place. The propagation of culture eastward across the open tablelands of Iran and past Anau along the now desert steppes of Central Asia can be interpreted in precisely the same way as has been applied to North Africa.EUROPE AND THE EAST in Southern Arabia ? We certainly have proof of the existence east of the Red Sea of the family of grass-baskets from which the beakers were sprung in the vase from The hypothetical Samarra illustrated in Plate XW. and still more in Egypt. but the remarks on navigation introduced a few paragraphs back may help make it intelligible. and the -ffigean coasts is less easily understood. Anatolia. In these regions. 235 . might Some rash guesses based upon abstraction according to to the y the culture-historical fill method might be permitted to up the 15 picture. perhaps also steatopygous figurines* tradition A similar ceramic seems to underlie the oldest pottery of Crete and Anatolia and steatopygous figurines crop up again in the island. The northward drift that civilized Crete. associated disc-shaped mace-heads and shell bracelets. oriental elements in Badari would be satisfactorily explained on that bold assumption.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the complex and the certainly masked by later accretions divergent local developments. 236 . but it is possible that was Danubian and Nubian backwaters preserve very faithfully the image of a primitive culture on which the civilizations of pre-Minoan Crete and predynastic Egypt rested.
Sethe's inferences 6 . . Seligman. however. of the legends expounded by Moret. p. p. 151 ff. .NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 I If the Sothic date for the Xllth Dynasty be accepted it is necessary reduce the interval between the Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties resulting from a mere addition of the reigns as given in later sources by assuming that the XlVth. 665. So Moret. and Egypt also. Anc Hist. as See Grundzuge. 1928.. eighty-four. note 7. 73 f.. p.. Seligman. i. XVth and XVIth Dynasties of Manetho were Sir in fact partly contemporary. p. Eg. years assigned to Dynasties IV and It would for instance follow that certain princes who state on their tombs that they had seen several reigns had lived on a minimal reckoning Scharff therefore eighty-one. 6 So Scharff following Sethe . 1913. 7 Petrie. 70. And the " Mesniu " associated with them are not " smiths " but rather " " who harpooned hippopotami in the Delta marshes. 92) must be abandoned in view of Sethe's researches. 4 Newberry and Sethe adopt the former view. The traditions p. p. and 114 years respectively. Junker on the other hand would explain the Semitic analogies in Egyptian by the assumption that Semitic and Hamitic had a common origin and denies the validity of from the terms for east and west. Grundzugt. Schmidt-Festschrift. 48. 892. 261. Anc. cf. ruling in different parts of the land. It is. 73 Scharff. pp. 1915. JRAI. 597 ff. pp. would put the to of the Xllth Dynasty a whole Sothic cycle earlier. 1913. 52 . rise 2 together involves serious difficu ties. p. p. Sethe's interpretation ff. unwilling to admit of any such reduction. Nile. harpooners c Moret. The attempt to connect the Shemsn Hor with the Land of Punt (e. 108. Triit to Empire. pp.. 3 its seat at Memphis.g* Hall. open to doubt whether the totals given in the fragments Scharff points out that the figure of 300 actually justify this inference.. Flinders Petrie.. Nile. 237 . inclines to the belief that the calendar was introduced under the IVth V Dynasty that actually had OZZ. JRAL. and Hall in CAH. while Junker espouses the doctrine that the east-Delta Osiris worshippers subdued tipper pp.
stated So Sayce in Ancient Egypt. cf. 42. Fenus Tablets of is Ammizaduga. Constantine. It must be remembered that the formation of glaciers depends not only upon depression of temperatures but still more upon increase of the snow fall. 1924). On the f.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST about the Land of Punt cited by Hall none the less prove conclusively an element in dynastic Egypt allied to the people of this unidentified southern region in Abyssinia or Arabia. . 25 feV. xlvii (1921). p. 6 Frobenius and Obermaier. the bear was Ursus laterti. pp.. scientifiquc.. 2i4fF. Hadschra Maktuba . 387 .. Pierres ecrites Oases. xxvii. (London). pp. The most authoritative statement given by Sidney Smith in the Early History of Assyria. Sven Hedin. The contrary view NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 II Soc. p. Oxford. 1921. Brooks gives maps showing the assumed paths of the rainstorms in various prehistoric See also the same author's Tte Evolution of Climate (2nd. 16. p. 72 by Sidney Smith. p. i. ii. canadensis* Cf. p. u. and 10 now Langdon and Fotheringham. 1908. Cf. op. Met. de Morgan believes of Western Persia were glaciated. 151 2 In Q. Monsoon in India see Simpson in Q. cit. 1928. pp. 4 Boule in UAnthr. ii. 1928.. 571. pp. Let The Lost 238 .J.J. The system Prehistoric 9 Egypt and the new sequence dates are appended to Prehistoric is Egypt* Corpus of Pottery. p. Hyana spelafa.. Overland to India. as amended by corrigenda in vol. Boule. The f. Met. 5 Fauna actually found in human habitation sites in Northern Algeria . 83 ff. cf. Hassanein Bey. the hysena. 1923-4. i. 96). UAnthr^ 363. x. Breuil in Rev. phases. . also Professor Langdon's chapter in Cambridge Ancient History. Fkmande. but cites no evidence (Prlhistoire orientale. 8 First worked out in is elaborated in Diospolis Parva. 1924. pp. that the mountains 3 Rec. vol. 150^. edit. Blankenhorn. Fossil Man. Soc. and the deer something between Cervus elephas and C. p. 205 .
the phases of Bushman art and its relation to the Capsian see Miles Burkitt. literature Mechta The 1923-4. xxii 8 Abd (1925). iii. 1928. 1928). ibid. VAnthr. Researches in Prehistoric Galilee. 22 Nature. pp. On 17 18 J. p. p. Constant. Library).. xxiii. 83.. Ancient Egyptians. 12 Figured in de Morgan. Mar. 505 el-Adhim. Sergi. 10. Prlhistoire orientate. p. p. As. p. 409. JRAS. 26. 547 . his remains are reported from the Capsian midden of el-Arbi.. 13 pp. 1927. according to Mr. . no rocksurface was re-used till the original artist had been entirely forgotten. 1928. September. iz.. 112. Obermaier in ReaL. collected scores of flints of Upper Pakeolithic and Neolithic types in the heart of the Syrian Desert.. 56 ff. p. pp. On the Capsian affinities of the Bushmen see Goodwin. 95 ff. 1899. 15 14 Z/. 8. South Africa's Past. Soc. is summarized with and The Origins of Agriculture (Benn's 6d. The Mediterranean Race . 428 F. 1923-4. Beng. Huntingdon. p. 499. 353 . 11 Burkitt. iii. pi. Cossar Ewart in Proc. Soc.. Highland and Agric. Native Races of South Africa. Constant. UAnthr. 21 See J. The Human Habitat (London. p. xxxvi. ff. 228 ff. So for instance Fleure. iv. 1926.NOTES 7 Antiquity. Rec. NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 III On the Capsian affinities of the users of the European pigmy flints... . 59 19 f.. p. 1926. Prehistory. Addendum. 1 60 ff. Elliot Smith. 1928. see Childe. 18. Iii (1883). 14. Presidential Address to the British Association. p. 1918. 20 Represented according to Breuil on the painting of Alpera. p. 298. Sci. Bihar Orissa Res. pp. According to Stow. 31. Jour. 94. H Field's report to the British Association. 7. Turville-Petre and Keith. The Field Museum Desert Expedition. 358f. and Schapera. JRAL. Rec. pp. 2 Dawn. xxv (1913). question of the distribution of cereals abundant by Peake.. p. 8 9 i. A. 16 J. pp.. Cambridge. Section 10 H. p.
212. pi.. 1925. 18 Elliot zliii. arcL or. pp. p 29 Nature. 78. 1924 p. 301 pp. 1927. 10 Antiquity. p. 125. fig. Soc. Assoc. p. cit.. 200 ff. 670 . graves. 22 Frankfort. Nub. 30 Brunton. . 9-1 1 . Ivi. iii. p.. xxxi. p. Report.> 605 . 78 . Bull. Studies. ii.. inst. Arch. iroff. cit. Schmidt-Festschrift. 17 fig. Survey Nubia. op. Junker. JRAX.g. 1928. . Man. 17. Debuts de I'art en Egypt. 16. Caton-Thompson in JRAI. ib. The view there advanced of the history of the lake has been confirmed against Petrie's objections by the campaign of 1927-8 . 12 13 14 15 Anc. 8 9 The Growth of Civilization. I ff. 17. Jf and Arch. p. 1907-8. pis. Preh. ki (1926). 139. 1925. pp. . 16 Cf. Dawn. M. op.. xxiii . p. 155. 867. 49 Petrie. 1928. Vignard argues that this new " S^belian " industry derives directly from the local Moustierian. 80. 85. 28th May. Presidential Address to Brit. Franc. 7 Bull. 1924. pp. p. p.. Seligman. pp. 22. Man.. Prehistoric Egypt . Eg. see Diospolis Parva. 1922-3. xxii. p. 21 AZ. 50 and 26 A fuller enumeration of such points ff. supple- mented by verbal information. 23 24 For the flint work p. i (1927). . Scharff has omitted these 25 62 . e. p.. 78. 6 On the climate. Rec. and flora of early Egypt see Newberry. with similar pottery to that from Abd el-Adhim. pottery as above. 21. L'Anthr. fauna. pp. Junker.franf.. pp. 5 Jebel Fartas. El Kubanieh Nord. rviii (1921). Capart.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 4 Abri-Redeyef. Man. Scharff.. 240 . is given by Scharff. Caton-Thompson and Petrie. Surv.Eg. Biometnka. On the Predynastic culture in general see Petrie. Constant. Grundzuge der ag Forgeschichte. Cairo.. 326 ff. "Report^ 99. p. Badari and Qau. 250. with Childe. 34. Wainwright Capart. The Ancient Egyptians. Section H. 1907-8. in Anc.. p. 19 20 21 Smith. 11 1928. 103. 5-6. xix (1927).
Tnfc. I. Royal Tombs of the First Egyptian Dynasties. 46. Prehistoric Egypt. i. NOTES TO CHAPTER V On the sepulchral architecture see Maclver. 61. 2. i. A cf. pp. Egypt. p. 12 18 14 El Amrah. (1918). p. p.. p. p. 10 Studies. Third Egyptian Dynasty. and fig I delta-Expedition (Denkschr.NOTES NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 . 9 and Peet. p. Nile. El Amrah. Bovier-Lapierre. 18 v. Congrts intern. 27. i and ii* 4 Petrie. Reisner. Cairo. 241 R .. Schmidt Festschr. liv pi. Akad. ii. 7. p. 10 London. pp 225 7 ff. 1925. Wien. Tura. Gerzeh. p. p. vi. . is (1923). i. El Amrah. p. n. from Geraeh. p. 3 4 Evans. 10 f. 3 There are good illustrations of mastabas in Tar khan. 21. 123. f. 25 Frankfort. Under the Vth Dynasty there was a nilt-object represented >n by this sign. Cf. 104. 6 For the general features and Scharff. 7. . Grundzuge. Newberry. Studies. 50 Moret. Civilization of Greece the 7 3 Branxe Age. pp. v. 95. 108. Evans. Abydos. Palace. 304. Palace.. 68.pLvii. y^u/. 9 Dated specimens in University College. p. . ^Z. p. JEA. Wissen. IV . p. 27 Scharff. i. C. i. . AZ. LA A. Hall. 873 WestJunker. p. R. 239. 2 Rierakonpolis.^. Petrie. 8 9 Hierakonpolis. p. 134. . 28.. 1 5 Cf. Pr^.. ii. Camb. Cf. 30 Prehistoric Egypt. p. 3) 1928. pp. 23 and 51. p. 134. p. Moret. de geographic. n J. LAAA^v. . ^W/r... Hist. Naga ed-Der. ii. Anc. d. 2 Wainwright. 32 but see Junker's criticism in Schmidt-Fe&tichr. Studies. 11 Grundzuge. p.. p. Garstang. of the Second civilization consult Petrie. 120. and Frankfort. 6 i. phil-hist K!.
1928. i. Mon. (1923). R. Seistan. D/L Pcrse> xvi . 6. 10 11 12 MAG PT t Frankfort. . ff. p. 14 6 de Morgan. 4 Al 'Ubaid Ur Excavations \\. p. i. Centenary Fal (1924) p.. xxxi. p. Dtl.. Ant. viii. i ff. Hall and C. 57 ff. 46. Arch Ixx . 19 20 ArUbaid. xxiii. 3 Eridu. esp. 243.. 230. 7.* iii. p. p.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST xxv p. /. Contenau. for Hesy see Quibell. Man 1926. xni . vols. pp. v. Burhngton Mag . Ancient Egyptians. cit. 25 f. Bushire Mem. 28 and 47. 242 . 26. Studies> Rev. Perse. h. p. On the technique and style cf. L. 25 . loc. Growth of Civilization. 395 ff. 252. loc.. 20. 1928. yJLf. Arch. kx. p 8. cit. Dll.. Prlhistoire orientale> pp. Perse.. 228 F. 81. 17 Tar khan. ii. 1926. Btometrika. Frankfort. Plot. Tarkhan.. Mem. . Dec . 15 The evidence has recent y been stated in great detail by Frankfort. . 11. 68 Z0W. pp.. 124 and Hall. y liv. 17. Rev. R.. Dll. 1 21 E Hot Smith. : Woolley 5 Susa f. 25 22 pp. freshwater character see Campbell-Thompson -n Arch. . p. pp. 460 F. Saqarra. xvri (1925).A. TeS Kaudeni near Fort Sandeman in Baluchistan. for Zoser. Vol. Manuel d Archtologie 7 8 9 orientate. p.) . by H. pp.e. 1926. J. I. 14 Evans. pp. NOTES TO CHAPTER VI 1 2 Mem. Asiatic Soc. 108. 10 f. pp. pp. Arch.. 25off. 1926. Arch. R. figs. i. i. p. Palace. Tarkhan. vii. For its Perse. pp. ZfE^ 1898. ZDMG. p. 3 Mem.S. 13 12 Man> xxiii Studies> i. Rev. i. Jan. " 18 ///.Al' Ubaid. xiii. 7. 118 f. 20-7. News. pp. Te'l Zeidan. Samarra and Mohammedabad.1925 (other sites some perhaps belonging here are mentioned by Herzfe d.Cent..
. Musyan. p.. May. xxi (1924. pp. kretische Biegel. . M*/ar. pp.NOTES NOTES TO CHAPTER Jemdet Nasr. Cf. xxiii (1926). Assyria .. Ausgrabungen Deralte Orient. Ass. Sidney Smith. p. tombs. lii. I7th 1 1 . PrShistoire orientate. pp. viii. It looks as if in Elam a good deal of the material here described may be in fact inspired from Babylonia. Langdon in Archaeologia. p. 107. Susa II. VerSffd. Langdon's Kish at 'Ubaid. " " argument rests upon a too literal interpretation of a theoretical section of the mound at Susa given by de Morgan. FriihFor a new element only Contenau. hx. 10 For complete continuity especially Pottier in Rev. 60 ff. I. see JRAS. 75-7. xxiii. 40 ff. Arch. Die archaiscken Iscktartempel in Assur (Wissen. 8 The . 2 3 VII seit> 1 in Babylonien 1918. XVItf the seals found in Susa hoard was contained in a characteristic store jar like PI. 26 (1927). Arch. 12 Tablets of the same kind have been found at Umma and elsewhere in Southern Mesopotamia. i. Langdon II. D//. xxi. Hence these vases in monochrome paint were certainly still in use in the period which in Babylonia was early Sumerian. Rev.. also Matz. cemetery. 16 . Perse. D. Manuel. For a break.. 1 928. Intermediate stratum. Orient-Gesell. Representations of Sumerians : see especially Andrae. it include type current in the period of Agade. D/t. * from Kish described by Dudley Buxton in these from al 'Ubaid by Keith in Hall and Woolley. xiii . 61) . Langdon. Kish. vii. J. pp. Studies.e. in Times. Mem. 1928. Rev. Perse. NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 VIII Physical remains . p... For the general character and area of the Second Culture see Frank- fort *n Ant. viii. DtL Susa 4 5 6 66. 7 de Morgan. p. 35 f. 243 . Pene. xii. 86. pp. 11 Mr. 70 ff. 9 Rev. 85. Woolley went so far as to assert that the Second Style at Susa was only the domestic pottery and the profane art of the people who His archaistically used the First Style vases for funerary purposes. Frankfort. Ass. Mem. p.
liv. 698 ff. Hall 3 and Woolley. Antiquity.. p. pp. cf. Excavation of the at Kish. 42. i ff. 14 Indian imports . MAGW. 1925. excavations at this early . 14 The main sites are : 5 Christian in 4 Kish MAGW. 7th and I4th Jan. Archaic Sumerian palace. liv.. Paris. p. temple and cemetery of the First Dynasty of Ur. pp. . viii.. p. Anc. pp. Hist. 8 Kish. 1926. royal tombs possibly older than the First Dynasty. Excavations at Kish. History of Burner and Akkad. Ant. pp. ii. p. 9 and King. 'Ubaid. seals. Near East. Ass. viii (1928). 9 "A" Cemetery 11 site Shuruppak (modern Fara) . Woolley. 17 xyii. Mackay.. 1924. 28. The Early History of Assyria. seals and beads. cf. and Christian. p. viii (1928). JRAS. Ant. i ff.26 ' . and 4th Oct. 27th Feb. pp. Hall in Antiquity. xv. J. cf. 26. i.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST A. 1927. 6 Ur cemetery of time of the First Dynasty. p. . i ff. Indian pot-stone. J. al Vbaid. cit. al p. 10 Cf. : The German . Archacologia> kx. 26th and 27th Sept. ii. gives accounts 244 . t zxii (1925). Field Museum Anthrofoligical Publications. 175. 173. 60. Fruhkretischen Siegel. 1928. also Ant.. and 6th Mar. J.. NOTES TO CHAPTER IX 1 Lyddeker. Kish. 16 For a racial connection. p. viii. Sidney Smith. The Ox and his Kindred> of this culture by Sir John Marshall in the issues of 1924. 133. z The Illustrated London News p. MDOG. p. 1928. and Andrae. The discussion of the foreign relations of the early civilizations of the Ancient East on these pages is far the most sensible that has ever appeared. i. 9 6 al pp. *Ubaid> p. loc. Ischtartempel \ Langdon and others hold that the tassels on the kaunakea are of wool and imitate a natural fleece. Rev. 89. 7 Ur. Langdon. Oct. Ant.. 56 and 99 . Hall. J. Mackay. Al Ubaid. 12 See 13 Matz. Mackay. . vol. 15. 15 For the leaf skirt see Christian. archaic cemetery. have never been properly published p. 52 ff. p. and literature there cited..
Zeitschrift. has worked out a " " comprehensive theory of an Upper Palaeolithic Hand-axe Cycle of culture Ascalonian). 12 13 14 Childe. p. 2 1 detail by Sir Arthur Evans. 16. 83. 1928. 58 ff. 169. pp 73 6 e. J. vol. p.. derived from Oman.^. . " p. and by Peake and Fleure in Peasants and Potters 8 9 7 and in Priests and Kings. Report." Geographical Rev. 51-4. Ann. 1923-4. that the Sumerian copper ore was probably thus to a large extent confirming the proposed shown NOTES TO CHAPTER X Cf. pp. 214 and 232. Cf. 136 . 4 5 I Ibid. identification of Magan. . 230. The Addendum. Pettier in Mem.. No. 57.) xlvii (1917). ni. p. 34.. . xiii. p. 4 5 Birthplace of Civilization.g. 5 5 f. pp. Ant. by an application of this method on a much more sweeping scale with the aid of ethnographic evidence. Ibid. 15 JRAI. 44 et passim* under-estimated the extent of Egyptian influence. Smithsonian Publications. In a report it is issued to the British Association in September. 1898. 1928'.NOTES 3 Archaeological Survey of India. fig. The cultures of Anau are described in Pumpelly's Explorations in Turkestan. 1926. 3 This has been demonstrated in great Palace of Minos. JEA. 188. would representative is the so-called Campignyan (Bayer's various flaked flint picks or hoes of mesolithic times represent intermediate phases between the hand-axe and the whose The 245 . pi. xiii (1927). op cit. 104. p.. f. 2 56. 73. Assyria.p. Prof. p. Prahist. Dawn. Childe. ZfB.. xviii (1927). 460. have certainly Dawn of European Civilization. Lucas in JEA. Menghin. 7 This argument is borrowed from Sidney Smith. pp. 10 The Ancient Egyptians 11 Reisner.. pp. DIL Perse. y viii.v\. p. Sidney Smith. 90. 113. ii. Summaries are given by Burkitt in Ouf Early Ancestors. p. cf. 7he Aryans. Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der Elliot Smith.
None the less there is a great deal of truth in Menghin's general position and his researches are bound to lead to useful results. 246 .g.) One trouble about this sort of argument is that the flaked implements are in some cases. demonstrably later than the polished ! They are commonest where undeniably early neolithic or historical remains are rare and late. xx (1925). as for instance in Syria and North Palestine. 535 ff. e. in the Fayum.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST polished celt. pp. and their users would be the first cultivators.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Institute. Mitteilungen der deutschen Qrient-Gtselhchaft. . Anthropos .ABBREVIATIONS + PERIODICALS Ancient Egypt. London (edited by Sir Flinders Petrie). . *Anc. . . S. JRAS. .JMrtJSec. ZeitschriftfUr Sgyptische Sprache usw t> Leipzig. . Paris. . . Antbropos. by O. . . Revue archtologique. . . Pdris. Arch. Anthropological Berlin. *Rec. . Recueil des notices et Memoires de la archlologique de Gonstantine. . Southampton (edited * Antiquity . . Rev. Antiquity. Journal of the Royal Anthropological London. MDOG. . . *Ant.Eg. and Anthro- MAGW. Man. LAAA. . VAnthr. . Crawford). Antiquaries* Journal> London (Society of Antiquaries). . G. Institute).Const. . Mitteilungen der anthropotogischen Gesellschaft in Wien. London (R. . *JRAI. . Journal of Egyptian Archeology 9 London. Liverpool Annals of Archeology pology. . Arch. Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society. . Modling. Man . *JEA. .J. UAnthropologie. London. Q. London. 247 . London ( Society of Antiquaries) . AZ. Archaeologia.
vol. . . CHJLDE EVANS The Dawn of European Civilization. Die archaischen Ischtartempel in Assur^ Wiss. COLLECTIVE WORKS CAH.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Rev. Leipzig. Institute. 61. *Mem. Berlin. Zeitschrtftfur Ethnologie. ' vol. Paris. London. . 1924. CAPART Les De&uts de Fart en Egypte (transkted as Primitive Art in Egypt> London^ 1905). AUTHORS AKDRAE . i. Ass. ZflS. 1928. W. Excavations at Kish. The Palace of Minos at Knossos. . Real. Modling. 1918. Veroffentlichungen der deutschen Orient- GeseU. *FRANKFORT Near East. . 1925. ZDMG. . references to the French text. D/L Memoires de la Delegation en Perse* Paris (Ministry of Public Instruction). Studies in the Early Pottery of the vols. . Revue d'assyriologie. Anthropological HALL *HALL and WOOLLEY LANGDON. Excavations at Ur^ArUBaid^ London. Cambridge Ancient History. 1918 (Der Leipzig. Schmidt-Festschr. Schmidt. Occasional Papers of the R. 1925. Festschrift P. 248 . London. Nos. London. 1928. 1925-7. Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenland-Gesell- schaft. Berlin. 6 and 8). 26). . 2 London. The Ancient History of the Near East. . Paris. S. Ebert's Reallexikon der Forgeschichte. No. Perse. 1927* seit Ausgrabungen in Bafyhnien alte Orient.
Leipzig. The same author's reports on special sites Naqada and B alias. MORET . 12). . 249 . and Tarkhan (published by British School of Archaeology essential. The Nile and Egyptian 1927. . *PETRIE . . J. 1927. Abydos. From Tribe to Empire. 1925-7. Hierakonpolis . (published by Egypt Exploration Fund). 1925. . Diosfoils Parva. . London. London. Civilization. Prehistoire orientals> Paris. but taken in conjunction it with works cited in the notes to the several chapters will give students some guide for the as to the main sources where fuller references Of the above-mentioned works those marked immediate subject-matter of this can be obtained* * are of first-class importance book. 1927. SIDNEY . etc. 1920. Prehistoric Egypt > London. SMITH.ABBREVIATIONS DE MORGAN. vol. . are also *SCHARFF . Royal Tombs. . This list does not pretend to be exhaustive. in Egypt). The Early History of Assyria^ London. Grundzuge der agyptischen Porgeschichte (Morgenland. . .
144 Badarian culture. discovered by Sumerians. Copper. see Magic Asses. tanged. cultivated. 178. 163. lozenge-shaped. 15. 86. 59. Arch. 157. 226. possible . 223 Beakers. 147. 31. hollow-based. 171-19^ *95> Assur. 164. character of. 17. 233 Barley. defined. in. toad. 98. Epoch of. 105. 229. 133 . Capsian. 176 Arrow-butts. in prehistoric India. 19.194 Baths. 43. Predynastic.INDEX A-anni-padda. 31. 59 86. 191. 112. 170. Range of wild. Harness. 32-5. spirally gadrooned. 171. Sumerian. 51. Discoveries at. 60. 96. 42. tanged. 52. 191. 112 Anau. falcon. 181 . transsee also verse. 214. 76. 96. Principle of. 48. 223 ape. 112 . diluvian. 235 Apes. 220. 13. 176 Army. 34 Amulets : celtiform. 41 Aurignacians. 223 . 171 al 'Ubaid. 173. 41.181. 115. 203 Battle-axes. Sumerian. 50. 208. 233 f 73 . 176 Aterian industry. 153. 135. cultural focus in. 128. 191 . 145. 150 Adze. 181 . 56. 56. 139. chisel-ended. 16 Account-tablets. 96 73 fly. 163 Arabia. 226 Alpine race. 69. 51 ff. 181 117. . Copper. . Predynastic. ff. Former climate of. . 80. 209 Magic origin of. 207 Agriculture. 86. 229 Arabian desert. under Celts Badari. 58. 21 220 Basketry. 228. 181 Arrow-heads : Flint. 153. 142. bull's . 69 . 177 Beads: ostrich shell disc. Proto58. 152. 223. Art. socketed. 139. 70. 26 . models of. 178. Art. 160. Indus. 28. . 76 213. 93 117. glazed. 17 Akkad.79. Or gins of. 43. 173 148. 228 Afrasia. 22 Agade. 226. Axe-heads with shaft-holes. prototypes for vases. 126140. 124. 53> 5 8 69. 24 remains in. 129. 58. 86. 194. 105. 195. 153.2 35 Bas-relief as decoration for vases. 153. 73. 70-I35* 145. 29. 137. head. 77. slate theriomorphic. 48. 132.
ivory. 132. 191. 105. 129. 88. 173. 63. 35 Buxton.207 Christian. 45. 195. 120. 217. Egyptian. 154 Carpentry. 94 90. 140. of. 227. 105. Adze. 170 Celts : Boomerangs. 54. 206 Brunton. G. 2x6 252 . 130 fiaked. Bracelets : shell. vases of. 149 Carinated vases. Climatic changes. 173 204 Bears. 47. 172. Brick. 63. Corbelled vaulting. 113. 37 under Arrow-heads Bow. 190.INDEX Beards worn. sources of. Use of. 208 58. 58. Bitumen. see also under . 58. 78 Axe. 34. 204 Crawford. 222 Clans. 240 Coffins. 187.. Chisel. 130. Camel. 52. dancing. 86 Conventionalization. 207. . 129. 222 Calendar.. 167. . 209. art. no. 114. 43. 78 and arrows. 113. 210. 191 191 . 48. Composite. 113. 73 of. 240 Domestic. 74. 176 133. Metallurgy. 29 fT. 193. 100 no. 34. 37. 42. ro. see also of Human Cremation Bushire. sacrifice. 214. 74. 205. 66. 205. 172 Byblos. 191 . Combs. 181 polished stone. Bow . 105. Caucasus. see Dress Cotton. 60. 82 Boats.8. 17. rg2. 40. S. 161. 1 60. 115. Chieftainship. 1 60. 96 245. 73. 66. 2ii . 153. 60 Bull's leg couches. 139^59 Black-topped ware. 152. 169. Totemic. partial. . copper. 174. Bushmen. 98. 49. O. City life. 124. 239 . 5. B&iedite. tion. 73. Hoes Chariots. 162. 225. 128. 92. see also copper. 70. 170. Use 92. 65.. 128. flanged. 37. Use 206. 53. Chisels. Dudley. 58. 58. in North Africa. 60. m aho Metal Malachite vases.* multiple. 134. 127 Capskn Tombs. 65. see also under Art. 56. Flint 197 Berosus. 57. 97 Capsian industry. 144. 203. 67. 175. 108 Boomerang-club. 177 Bovier Lapierre. 112. 128. 133 Costume. V. 46 Copper. 174. 33. 215 Plano-convex Bronze. 137. in Egypt. 74. 202. 14 Carchemish. 170. 233 metal. G. 176 Cattle. 58. 88. 149. 227 204 see also Naviga- Cedar-wood. 159. 176 Burial: Contracted. 102. 130. 144. 146. Sails Caton-Thompson. 210 . disarticulation before. 205 ^ore-casting. Getulan. 70. 129.176.
see Shuruppak Diadems. 207. Emmer. 179. 58. in. Africa. 49 . 3 5. 66 En-Izzan. Skirts. 99. 53. 223 . 201 58. 92. 189 Gafsa. see Wheat 127. 7. see Arrow-butts Frankfort. 139. The. 195. 223 Diffusion of culture.204 Domestic animals. 223. sentations see also of. 69. 124. 63. see Amulets Forks. Fraser. 210 Crete. 90. prehistoric Double-axe. 38. folk. 4 ff. 48. 87. 226. 220 Dress. 204. 175. 190. see Carpentry. 93 . effects of. 74. 17. 99. 162. 44 Domestication of animals. 107. 142. 109.211. 42. 220. 170. etc. 197 Furniture. Remains from. 40-3 74. 59. i5of. Flint. 197. 227 135. 130. 131. 203 Dravidians. 30. 205. 164. 37. 179 Drains. 97. Egyptian. 123. Prediluvian. 173 Decorated pottery. . 96 . of pleistocene N. 52. Repre- 92. 165. 223 Fish-hooks. 227 Ear-scoops. Eye-paint. 205 Cremation. Amulets Fans of ostrich feathers. 193. of Egyptians. 25. of early India. 113. 109. see also Feathered 94. Original homes of. in prehistoric India. Emery. Eridu. 1 24 Elephant. 57. Meaning of term. Egyptian.73. Steatopygy Flood. 69. Fly amulet. 229 . 221 Dog. 58. 150. ro6. 76. Sumerian. J. Bull's leg couches. 80 . 62. 204. 136 Daggers. 42. domesticated. 140 Falcon. 144. 231 Figurines. 208 ' Earrmgs. see also under Statuary. 125. 39. 52. 106.. The. of prehistoric Egypt. . 209. etc. 213 Erivain. 190. 210 of Gapsians. Domestic. 54. 77. 37 234 Cyclonic storms. 222. 148. 78. 50. clan. 29 Games. 91. 152 Flint work. Indian. 209. see also under the several species Filagree work. 23. 120. 47. Babylonian. Ear-plugs. 96. Capsian. 154. 200. 170 . 163. 129. 83 Desiccated zone defined. 86 225-6 Dances. 172 of Indus 204 . 2 5> 3 r > 34> 238. 14 Fayum. 9 Funerary barques. 47. Dynasties. 142. headdress. . Fauna. see also under Bears Date-palm.INDEX Creation. 21 Desiccation. 52. 112. 39. Copper. 115. 95. 58 Fara. 14 f. 80. 202 Cylinder seals.
215 Handles to pots. 163 Incised decoration on pottery.235 Former climate 24. of. 138. 66. Harappa. Flint. 27. 24 House. 172. 59. 203 to metal vessels. 48 as clay Immortality. 193 Harpg. Iron. 66. 181. 27 139. 8. 27. i47&> i68E. 129. 61. 88. r8i Headdress. 204 Kenya. 170 Glazing.215. 203.206 Gold. 139. 229 in. Discoveries at. 226 204. 56. 72. 191. 48. 65. 109.191. 162. 90. 107. 58. 67.223 **9> J '63. Egyptian. Dynasty of. R. 194 Glazed ware. 90. 237 fF.212. 63. 38. 6 1. 19. 195. Flaked. $. 17. 77 Gilgamesh. 131 Lagash. a 4 Lamps. 211. 152 ni. dressed in bun.72. Tell. 73. 235 Gravers. 142. 193 Human sacrifice. 16.198. Knife-handles. 51 Hair. 70. 187. JemdetNasr. 170. 30. 74. long. Grooved hammers. 156. 59 King. 73 Hadendoa. 37. 144. etc. 165. 69. 15 88. 193 Harp. 205 as a subterranean.215 Lakes in Persian desert. Getulan industry. also 119. 39 J S^ 179. 103.137. 195 59. see King. 199. Tomb Indian. Egyptian. 208 iir. 113.. Divine. 200. Sumerian. 144 Kharga. for Gourds prototypes vases. 186. Indian. 30. 162. 100 Kish.INDEX Gebel el-Arak. 168. 200.. 126. Feathered. 1 86 fF. 202. Ground stone. 34. 19 Lapis lazuli. 60. 128. diluvian. Mohenjo Daro Harem. 28. 114 Knives. 93. 57. no. 1 14 for climatic Houses. at burials. 59. Pre- Geological evidence changes. 225 Guilloche. Art of. 115. 147 130. 112. 158. 61. 118. 80. Divine Ice Age. 138. 19. 41. 131. Belief in. 95.145 Helwan. Iranian plateau. Shell. 62. 1 06. 114 Hoes. 191. see also worn 135.237 Hamitic elements in Egypt. Junker. 131. 172. Hall. 212 Kaunakes. Copper. 208 Langdon. 129. 124. 115. 40. 193. 9. Headdress H. 166 . Laurel-leaf points. Skying of. see also Kaudeni. 61 Hand-axes. 102. 119. 102 Hierakonpolis. 179 Harpoons. Carved ivoryr 97.. Capsian.. 124. 54 . 170 Ivory vases. 66. 170.
210 Ma'adi. etc. 206. 245 Magic of pictures. 113. 88 Nubian cultures. 1 8 Mastaba. 27 Negroid traits in Mediterranean populations. 52 Lion-hunt palette. 128. Discoveries 158. Rhomboid. 220. 133. 117 Mousterian implements. 131. 80. 86. 45 Olive. 57. 157. 39. 227. 212 Palaces. 210. i35> 2 33 Libyans. 51 of. Sources of . 237 Nihavend. 177 Navigation. 150. 92. also Beads 173 181 . 204 Newberry. rir. 32. 133.. 201 de Morgan. 120. 147. 154. identified with Magan. sheep. Mesopotamian.239 . 37. 122.. Monsoon. 200 Menes. 109. 171. 54. etc. 175 Mediterranean race. 174. 95. see Mining. 84. 1 1 8. 27. see 77 Manetho. 215. 193 56. 95 Ostrich shell vases. 71. 17 MicroUths. in Peake. 86. 137. H.. Methods Millet. 59. 243 Motive power. 67. 95. 224 Mirrors. 124. 66. 173 169 Palettes. 199 Magan. 3. 23 5 Cannes. 223. also no. 7. 78 Mace-heads. Neandertal man.INDEX Lead. 227 Nails.. Finds at. 126. 70.214. Rectangular. see Oldoway.245 Oronsay. Legend of. 15 Nal. 40. Oman. 79. Mats. 59 Milking. 52. J. 173 also Copper. Sails Mackay. 66. 231 Osiris. 1 8. O. 73 . Menghin. Theriomorphic. 222 Lion in art. 207 under several metals . 205 Mouflon. 112. 12. First use of nonhuman. etc. 95 Metal ) vessels. Origin 220. Eduard. 153. 93 Malachite. Meyer. 7. 97. 245 Metallurgy. 144. 232 . 60. 73. Painting of pottery. 227 of. 208. 149 Nomes. 27 Leather prototypes for pots. 97 Lucas. 170 98. 203 ff. 139 Naram-Sin. 135. 108. see also Boats. 149 Myres. 139 Mohenjo Daro.. 73. 187 . 141. 60. 44. io4f. Musyan. 229 Leakey. 27 Musicians. 129. 146. J. 161. 98. 77. 47. 66. L. 214. 116. 4 Martu. Obsidian. 117. 29 Neanthropic man cradled in Africa. 6r. at.
C. 120 . 237 'Sbaikian industry. Red Crown. 195 Plough. 205 Pillars. 28. 136. 55 5 Sumerian. 140. 208 Rhinoceros. Indian. 135 Seligman. 223 used in Mesopotamia. 205. 175. 79 Petrie. Pre- Scrapers. 74. Sumerian. 37 Rosette. 107. 65. 16. . *75 Pins: eyelet. Pettier. Incised. 50 Stamp. 51 . 102. 128.. 210 Script: Decorated. 37. 188. 207 Recessed brickwork. 59. see also 120. E. 215. 79 Perry. in India. 235 Saws. 200 Pottery: I 237 30. 170. 119. 209. 136 Semites in Egypt. 25. Sakje Geuzi. 207 Sayce.120. 70 . 202 Rings. 147. 96 $ in Mesopotamia. see Proprietary marks. see aho Pistographic Writing. 12. 189.D. 205. etc. 171 .INDEX Penis sheath. 60 Scharff. S^belian. 117 Punt. 142 Prediluvian defined. 181 . 117. 210. of Egyptians. Indus.97. 176. Seals. 223 roll-headed. 189. raquet. 164 256 . 127. 66. G. 2ir. 128 Quivers. Reisner. G. used in Sumer. 8. 90. 139 204 Pictographic writing. Beakers. 127. 167. Metal. 58. 34. S. A. 165. n. 34 . 73 175. Razors. 146. 136..94. 94. 198 Persian Gulf. 189 . 50. 147 Plano-convex bricks. 105. 237 Seistan. Geography of. 9. in North Africa. Black-topped. see aho Cylinder seals Sed Festival. 223 . Wavy-handled. 145. 189.. M. 237 Querns. Changes in coastline of. 234. 54 f. of Badarians. Sails. 126. Painting. 63. 17. 58. 25. 199. 150. 66. 40. early Rock paintings and engravings. 149 Samarra.237 Phalanx.. 19. dynastic. 96. Mesopotamian. 227 66. . H. 63. 118. W. 9 Reticules. 160. Land of. 223 . 24 ivory. 205 123 F. 210. 65 Egyptian. 170 Property. (as Sequence Date) defined. 177 Physical anthropology. etc. 69. Resurrection. ii Sahara. 169. 173 Poker-butted spear. 208. see Spear Pot-stone. 142. Leather. Prediluvian. Flint. Basketry. 127 Priests. 206 Sculpture in stone. 21. industry. 76. Badarian. Gourd. Indian. 108. 54.. 195. 34^> J Indian.
57. Sumerians. 243 Skves. 92. 205. 84. tanged. 171 Discoveries at. 57. 72. 198. 215. 18. Metal. between 146. 89. 167. of 58. on prehistoric boats. 57. 150. Sickle-teeth. 40. 66. Susa. Climate Sinai. 240.. 119.. 81. 73. 210 Shemsu-Hor (Followers of Horus). vases of. 102. 174 Tattooing. 223 Spoons. 95 i Stone. 28. 129.INDEX Range Sheep. E. 229. 257 . early 59 methods Steatopygy. 170. 127. no. Evidences for prehistoric: Egypt. 66. of. 197 Skirts. 118. 7. 136 ff. Types of built. 139. 8 8. 179 . 3 $ Timber. of. once native in Nile valley. 76 "Smith". 52. zoo. 17. 189. 96. see also House. 149 Sickles. 88 Trade. Shuruppak. 17 of. 138. 26. of the Sidney.63. 147. 132. Burial. 155. 150. 54. 109. 8. 17. 194. see aho I3 8 > r 55> l8 75 Clay. 109. 82 Spear-heads: Poker-butted. 195 prehistoric India and West. architecture in Egypt. 95. n Sumer. 5.206. 69. 109 132. 223 ^ . 154. 235 Subaraeans. wild. Shields. Carpentry Tin. origins 211 . 237 South Spanish art. Sociology Significance surname. Totemic cults in Egypt. G. <55 in predynastic Egypt. characters of. 9 6 > 2 37 i5? 113. polished. 211 Tombs. 174 Silver. 135 ffl. 54. 58. 98. 198. 51. 65>94Solutreans.233 flake.173. 215 Sothic cycle. 34. 66. to be imported. 20. 161. Elliot. Sistrum. 61. 204 113 Sindh. 48. 148 Swastika. 155 Standards. Smith. Domestic. see also under 124. 173 Temples. 195. 37. 183. S. 92. 193. 44. 156. 175. Spiral motive. 204. 106 Specialization of labour. 244 164 Thomas. Sculpture. Definition of area. 203. 83. 84. 208 201 172. 107. etc. 120. 142. etc. Urial Square-mouthed vases. Sledges. Side-blow Signature. 223 Toilet sets. 225 of predynastic Egypt. 81.207 Spouted vases. 174. 8. 237. Bell-shaped. 113. see also Mouflon. 203 Theriomorphic vases. 60 SomaHand. Celts. 170. 165. 73. 152. Shell-inky. etc. physical 196. 208. 59. 169. in Mesopotamia. 176. 164. 170. 150. 134. 165 Sumer. 223 Flint. 63..
205. 70. Discoveries 19. 198. Pictographic etc. 155. 172 Wine-skin copied in silver.. 49* 51 Yemen. etc. 180 White Cross-lined pottery. Twin* vases. 42 . 216. 211. 202 Vegetation. 22-9 Wheel. 173. 155. 190. 127 Wavy-handled jars.INDEX 199. see also under 146. 63. 204 Weights. 151. of prehistoric 191. 44. 70 Umma. 210. 166. 52. 160. varieties of.* 167. 208.. . Script. 23. 217. no. 221 Troy. 215 Zebu. Ltd. 201 Vavilov. C.243 Writing. 17. 208. 187 Woolley. 20 1.150.Tell. 164. Potters'. 66. 181. Range and. 16. 205 Printed in Great Britain by Stephen Austin W Sons. 199 of. 204 Zeidan. Ur. 223 204.* fftrtftrJ. 120. of prehistoric North Africa. Wigs. njechanisrfi of early. 174. 52. 167.. 223 Whetstones. 147. Dynasty. Urial sheep. 122. tablets. 91. 43. 129. 74. 43 ^ cultivation* of. 131. 118. 214. ' 214. 147. 147. Egypt. Beginnings of. 127. 16 . at. 84 Weaving. 210 Wheeled vehicles. Wheat. 226 Turanian Basin. 188. L. 23 Tweezers. 222 197. 169 ff. 223. 112.
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