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in 18th century. came to India in  Features of labour: Low wages Long working hours Poor working conditions No concern for safety & health .Industrial Revolution  Started 1850s.

job security. good working conditions & participation .Growth of Trade Unionism  Started in India in 20th century of workers: United we stand  Philosophy  Workers demanded economic benefits.

placement Mental Revolution .W. not rule of thumb Harmony in group action. not restricted output Scientific selection. not discord Maximum output.Taylor.Scientific Management  Concept given by F. Features: Science. training.

 Planning the task  Standardisation  Scientific selection & training  Differential piece wage plan  Specialisation . time study. fatigue study. motion study.Techniques of Scientific Management  Scientific task setting  Work study: method study.

Industrial Psychology & Behavioural Sciences  Concept  Calls proposed by Hugo Munsterberg for application of Psychology to in Personnel testing. monotony study. human engineering. learning theory. training. interviewing. . industrial purposes  Applied attitude measurement. safety. job analysis.

1932 Started the trend of being ‘nice to people’ Conclusions: Performance also determined by social norms Workers respond to total work situation Complaints & criticisms are symptoms of deeper problems Informal groups.Human Relations Movement     Started by Elton Mayo & associates Discarded the theory given by Taylor Conducted Hawthorne Experiments from 1927. informal communication & informal leadership are important in determining productivity .

1948  Labour Laws relations tradition  Industrial .Growth of HRM in India  Royal  The Commission on Labour (1931) Factories Act.

2. 7. 6.Approaches to Managing Human Resources 1. 3. 5. 8. 4. Factor of Production concept or Commodity concept or Mechanistic approach Paternalistic Concept Humanistic concept or Social System approach Personnel Management Human Resource Management HRD concept Partnership concept Human Relations Approach .

not just happier Seeks to build human cooperation To create a positive work environment Guidelines to achieve effective human relations .Human Relations Approach Factors affecting human relations: Individual Work group Work environment Leader Features of human relations approach: Focus on people Ultimate goal is to make workers more productive.

Basis Focus Philosophy Nature of function Pervasiveness Motivation & team work Techniques PM Organisational interest Functional area of management Staff function For personnel manager Not important Pressure tactics HRM Individual development philosophy in itself Line function For all Very important cooperation .