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Published by: sijinvincent on Apr 30, 2013
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis grew out of a series of dialogues with my supervisor Professor Gordon White.

Through his Socratic questioning, Gordon brought me closer to the reality I had initially perceived, eventually enabling me to grasp its rich complexity. His comments on chapter drafts are themselves a course in critical thought upon which I will always draw. His capacity to combine critique with an immediate empathy and commitment towards workers and others engaged in struggle will always inspire me. Gordon was at the centre of our friendships at IDS, turning water into wine with his music, quick wit and incredible imagination. Amid the laughter and chapter drafts, Gordon was always there to offer quiet encouragement, at times embarrassed by his own extraordinary kindness. I am very grateful for my years at the Institute of Development Studies, made possible by the Overseas Research Students Awards Scheme, Development Support Fund, and the steadfast support of my family. I am also indebted to Professor Raphie Kaplinsky and the Industrial Group at IDS whose work inspired me to examine productive adaptation and industrial relations in Nicaragua. Raphie’s firm belief that a better way can always be found has influenced my approach to this research, as well as to daily life. His advice on interpreting the case study results and productive comments on an earlier draft directly contributed to this study, while his friendship, always refreshing, enhanced the DPhil experience. While working as chief economic adviser, Professor Valpy FitzGerald became teacher and friend to many in Nicaragua, engaging us in a perpetual dialogue with daily events. His insights into the Nicaraguan experience enriched this research. Nevertheless, he cannot be credited for the numerous references to FitzGerald as he recommended several other articles, leaving me to discover the unique relevance of his own work. Many thanks to Judy Butler and Julie McWilliam whose editing suggestions and precise sense of language contributed to the final copy. Julie provided decisive and energetic support during the write-up stage, clearing the path towards thesis completion in her solution-oriented way. The loyal assistance of Walkiria Soto, Patricia Campbell, Carly Gray, and especially Noemi Albuquerque, enabled me to bypass the more persistent obstacles to thesis completion. Also thanks to Carrie Parker for her assistance and willingness to discuss ideas at their initial stage. The author alone assumes responsibility for the conclusions of this thesis and any errors it may contain. Many thanks to the staff at IDS whose friendship and support have made it more than a temporary place of study for students and alumni from around the world. I would especially like to thank Sheila Burgess for her morning greetings mixed with advice and a sense of humour about life, Sue Ong for her fighting spirit, Charlie Morphy for his accordian performances of ‘Moon River’, and the Greenfield family for their warm welcome upon each return to IDS. This thesis gradually emerged amid the friendships that animated my IDS years and provided their most lasting lessons. My South African friends kindled a spirit of optimism as they initiated a new era in their country. Many thanks to Ketso and Roshene Gordhan, Moses Ngoasheng,

but will throw a large party instead. the latter is the outcome of a learning process initially made possible by a cherished Thomas J. Claudia Manning. I wish I could mention each individually. I especially remember today three who marked the way: Marcel Pallais who initiated this story. This research benefited particularly from the receptivity of workers. especially Ronaldo Bermúdez. poetry and chapter drafts. Herzan García. Shin-Yuan Lai. An early invitation goes to my neighbour Flor de Maria Escobar and the Thursday coffee group. schools and factories as journalist. researcher and friend. labour activists. Miguel Castillo. planners. Arturo Grigsby. who shared their recent history with me in a variety of settings. Kay Stubbs. main metalworking firms. Irma Jarquín. and Julio Valladares. conveying an Ethiopian sense of continuity. Watson Fellowship. I was privileged to share both the Nicaraguan revolution and IDS days with Betty Muñoz. This study drew upon the knowledge and experience of managers. the child who greeted me at the door on my first day of work in the revolution. Many thanks to all. while Comandante Victor Tirado provided perceptive comments on its findings.iv Zav Rustomjee. and Steve Grun and Amanda Lorio. Reynaldo Diaz. J. and so many others still sorely missed in Nicaragua. Likewise. who indicated a way forward. The understanding gained through these encounters and subsequent friendships formed the vital background to this more narrowly-focused study. Mammo Muchie provided valuable feedback at both the initial and closing moments of this thesis. and Judit Kiss offered constant support amid talk of politics. . they are appreciated for their individual contributions. Faizel Ismail and the Kaplinsky family who together showed me how generosity flows so naturally from a sense of being blessed. former director of the metalworking division. this research was possible due to the support of the Ministry of Industry. engineers and other employees in the main metalworking firms. Fabienne Marsh and Desiree Pallais have shared so many special moments. Carlos Borge supported this study from its first days. The warm support of all my friends in Nicaragua enabled me to complete this thesis and have a wonderful time along the way. In Nicaragua. I am grateful for having had the opportunity to carry out this research from within the corporation of state-owned enterprises. offices. Also special thanks to Charles Merrill for the poetry books and encouragement. especially Julia Vasquez and Mario Blass who always remember to bring me news of everyone. Special thanks to Rodolfo Pedrozo for persuading me to pursue postgraduate studies. In many ways. who provided steady encouragement during the write-up stage. particularly IMEP and METASA. From my first days in Nicaragua. national labour federations and enterprise unions. Although too numerous to name. Annie Posthuma. I am grateful to the many Nicaraguans who over several years have welcomed me into their homes. Father César Jerez S. administrators and enterprise directors. Terry and Julio Hernández. It is impossible to reference the knowledge and insights gained from ongoing conversations with its engineers. contributing to a common story whose colourful pages now lead me towards a new chapter. Wilibald Friedersdorf.

May and David Carswell. The creativity.v I am forever grateful to my grandparents. whose foresight and values paved the way for a privileged education. This thesis is a small tribute to an exceptional man from a student still anxious to learn from him. Life blessed me with the opportunity to meet Professor Gordon White. and to my parents Ann and Brian who gently offer counsel and unconditional support at each turn of the road. . and Alice and Hugh Sullivan. This thesis is dedicated to Brian and Ann Sullivan. determination and sense of joy with which they respond to life’s challenges has led me to seek this in others.

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