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Atul Khare, Ph.D., M.B.A.
Director, Customer Innovation and Technology Strategy FONA International Inc., 1900 Averill Road, Geneva, IL 60134, USA firstname.lastname@example.org, (630) 578-8684 Presentation at the IFT Pre-Annual Meeting Short Course on “Microencapsulation in Food Applications”. New Orleans, LA June 10-11, 2011
© 2011 Institute of Food Technologists
Introduction Examples of Nanoencapsulated systems Liquid-Liquid System Solid System Emerging Nanoencapsulation forms Regulatory Update Summary
© 2011 Institute of Food Technologists
Why Nanotechnology? • Increase in surface area, may lead to improvement in bioavailability of flavors and food ingredients • Improvement in solubility of poorly water soluble ingredients • Optically transparent (Important in Beverage Application) • Higher ingredient retention during processing (Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Reduction) • Closer to true molecular solution (Homogeneity in system properties such as density) • Higher activity levels of encapsulated ingredient, e.g., antimicrobials
Journal of Food Science 71 (2006) R107-R116; Trends in Food Science & Technology 15 (2004) 330-347; International Journal of Food Science and Technology 41 (2006) 1-21
© 2011 Institute of Food Technologists
Bottoms up approach 4 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . Top down approach • Particle formation (Precipitation).Nano for food encapsulates Size range from 10 nm to 1000 nm (1 micron) Examples of nanoparticles and encapsulates occurring naturally: • Casein micelles in milk (<100 nm) • Mitochondria (500 nm-10 microns) • Viruses (10-300 nm) Formation of nanoparticles • Size Reduction (Communition).
Technical difficulty. metal oxides -Films/Coatings/ -Ceramic powders Nanolaminates -Carbon tubes and -Microemulsions spheres -Micellar solutions -Ferrofluids -Quatum dots -Liquid crystals -Dendrimers –Liposomes -Porous supports -Capsules. yrs Nanodispersions -Metal. fibers 5 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists -Fabrics -Optical components -Orthopedic material -Polymers . today Nanotechnology Roadmap Nano-devices Nano-systems Nano-materials + Tools 2000 2005 Nanoparticles 2010 2015 2020 Nanocomposites Time.
g. flavor perception. Polysaccharides Proteins Control physical stability (lower energy state) Low energy processing (controlled selfassembly)Effectiveness of ingredient delivery (controlled release) Improved control of food properties (e. 6 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . texture) 2.Multidisciplinary Approach is Required 1. Water Lipids Air 3.
safety and quality” value added packaging •Functionality: barrier. sustainability. thermal. but overall tech is at very early stage Food Processing “fast-good-low costsafe” food processing at nanoscale Food Engineering “pleasant-nutritive-high quality” organoleptic properties. biodegradable Driver Nanomaterial s 2000(FACTS) Nanodevices 2010(NEAR REALITY) Nanosystems 2018(FICTION ?) 7 •Molecular filters •Nanofiltration •Microreactors •Portable sensors •Target delivery and control release •Novel food matrixes •Sensors for diagnostic •RFID •Active packaging •Molecular Manufacturing •Bio-mimetic materials •Intelligent/Active Packaging © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . and functional food •Ingredient encapsulation •Leverage intrinsic nanostructure of food stuff and food additives Food Packaging “Cost. convenience.Many potential applications for food. mechanical.
(Solid-Solid) Generally Water is the main component If liquid form required Filtration and/or pasteurization step or other sterilization step 8 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists If dry form required Removal of water to form a dry encapsulated powder form. freeze drying or other unit operations . Drying can be done by spray drying. (SolidLiquid).Steps involved in Flavor and Food Ingredient Encapsulation Mixing step to obtain as homogenous mixture as possible • Particle Size • Particle Size Distribution • Concentration Gradients For Dry Powder Form: Removal of water by drying step Mixing of Components (Liquid-Liquid).
porous starch granules.Reverse micelles Emulsion bilayers – multilamellar.g. pp 463. (2008) Goal: Maximize protection. surfactants. lipids * N. multivesicular. and Advance Delivery Technologies*” = Edible Nano sized delivery systems Micro/mini-emulsions (droplet size < 1µm) Surfactant micelles.(e. Chapter 18. Garti. casein micelles) Functional Interfacial Nanolayers – biopolymers. unilamellar Colloidosomes Association colloids Nanotubes Nanocochelates Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Biopolymer Nanoparticles . Delivery and controlled release of bioactives in foods and nutraceuticals. .“Structured Food Systems. trigger and control the release pattern of © 2011 Institute © 2010 of Institute Food Technologists of Food Technologists 9 9encapsulated matter for food systems – safely and effectively.
30-36.1-100 microns 100 nmmicrons Thermodynamic Stability No Appearance Surfactant to Oil Ratio <1:10 Example Emulsion Opaque Milk Liposomal CoQ10 enzyme NutraLease Technology Products High-Pressure homogenized emulsions Liposome Yes Clear-Cloudy N/A Microemulsion 5-50 nm Yes Clear-Cloudy >1:1 Nanoemulsion 10-100 nm No Clear-Cloudy ~1:1 10 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists Food Technology.Liquid-Liquid Systems based on emulsions Name Particle Diameter 0. March 2006. .
Microemulsions Basics: • Mixture of Oil. CMC) • Thermodynamically stable • Optically Transparent (Particle Size 5-50 nm) 11 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . Water and Surfactant • Oil in Water (Continuous Phase) mixture with surfactant at the interface of oil and water phase • Swollen micelle system (Critical Micelle Concentration.
typically to mix two immiscible phases. oil and water • Mixing − Gentle low shear mixing − High shear mixing • Homogenization − Low Pressure − High Pressure • Self emulsifying systems 12 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Microemulsions How are they made? • Energy input is needed. viz..
Microemulsions Stability • Kinetic Stability: Stable during storage and product use (environmental condition) − Gravitational separation • Creaming or sedimentation − Flocculation due to non-steric hindrance − Coalescence or Oswald Ripening due to solubility of one phase into the other phase. • Thermodynamic stability 13 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .
shape and concentration) • Stability Product performance • Appearance • Flavor/ingredient stability • Texture 14 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Microemulsions characterization Particle Properties • • • • • Concentration Mean particle size Particle size distribution Particle charge Interfacial properties Product properties • Optical clarity • Rheology (strong function of particle size.
List of ingredients which can be solubilized by nanoparticulate encapsulates in two-phase liquid system Alpha-lipoic acid Alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) Ascorbic Acid Astaxanthin Benzoic Acid Rosemary Extract Beta-Carotene Sorbic Acid Citric Acid Unique Weight Management Solutions Coenzyme Q10 Flavor Oils Flaxseed oil Gama-tocopherol (Vitamin E) Isofavone Lutein Lycopene Mint 15 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists Omega-3 fish oil from fish and algae Orange Phytosterols Rice bran oil Vitamin A Acetate and Palmitate Vitamin B Vitamin D Vitamin D3 Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitmain A .
Microemulsions in beverages Micelle based system.zymesllc.com 16 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . US Patent 6. temperatures and mechanical shear. (Zymes LLC) surfactant based solubilization systems • Micelles with <30 nm size solubilize lipophilic flavors and ingredients to form a transparent solution • Stable at wide rage of pH. AQUANOVA AG and Zymes LLC • Polysorbate (Tween).048.de.aquanova. http://www.566. (AQUANOVA AG) and Polyoxyethanyl-a-tocopheryl sebacate (PTS). http://www.
NutraLease Technology based on Nano-sized Self-assembled Structured Liquids (NSSL) technology • Micelle based system • Self emulsification when ingredients are mixed • Useful for solubilizing lipophilic flavors/ingredients Ingredients solubilized are • Omega-3 fish oil.950 . flavors and others US patent 7. http://www.Microemulsions in beverages Self Emulsifying system. nutraceuticals. phytosterols.182. vitamins.nutralease.com © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists 17 .
What is Nanoemulsion? 1-100 nm droplets dispersed in a continuous phase Metastable system (Thermodynamically Unstable System) Need high energy input to obtain nanoemulsion They do not form spontaneously Nanoemulsions are different from lyotropic liquid crystalline phases such as micelles. which are equilibrium structures Physical properties can be different from microemulsions Potential benefits Higher surface area: much larger surface area to volume ratio Optically clear Reduction in viscosity Reduced amount of surfactant required J Phys. mesophases. Matter 18 (2006) R635-R666 18 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .: Condens.
BEE International. Microfluidics Corporation. Niro-Soavi and Others 19 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . high pressures of the order of 10 to 20K psi are typically used to obtain nanoemulsions • High-Pressure homogenizer manufactures are: Avestin.Nanoemulsions: How to make them? Use of high-pressure homogenizers • The oil/water/surfactant/ingredient slurry is forced through microns size piston-gap under high pressure to create cavitation and turbulence leading to particle size reduction − Milk is homogenized at low pressures typically < 4000 psi • For nanoemulsions.
This can be avoided by using a film coating around the oil droplet 20 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Stability of Nanoemulsion Nanoemulsions are kinetically stable systems. Mechanism of instability • Coalescence: Avoid by steric hindrance or repulsion due to electrostatic charges • Ostwald Ripening: High solubility for dispersed phase in continuous phase.
Nanoemulsion for delivery of Nutraceuticals Solubilization of phytochemicals.. 119:669-74. 2010).g. Bcartotene.. resveratrol. 2010. e. 1. nanodispersion (B). e. R50-R57 21 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . lycopene. and water solution (C) (Food Chemistry.g. epigallocatchin gallate) and cartoenoids. zeaxanthin Improves bioavailability and solubility Factors affecting the bioavailability • Size of the emulsion droplet • Lipid components in the formulation Photographic images of curcumin nanoemulsions (A). Nr. Curcumin. JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE—Vol. 75. lutein.
providing a non-irritating fortification with superior absorption properties and bioavailability • Minerals.com/NDS/NDS_Overview. masking the unpleasant taste. and protecting the gastrointestinal system. which is stabilized and protected with unique emulsifiers. vitamins. odor and color of nutrients. Japan. functional oils 22 http://www.asp © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Solubilization of Hydrophobic Functional Ingredients Taiyo Kagaku Co.taiyointernational. • Bioavailability confirmed in several clinical trials • Delivery system based on emulsification technology • High stability against heat and oxidation. • SunActive Fe is composed of micronized ferric pyrophosphate (~300nm).
Surface active antimicrobials are lysozyme. 2009. antimicrobials will have a better activity Some antimicrobials have surfactant like properties and can stabilize the nanoemulsion. Pages 425-479. 23 Book: Global Issues in Food Science and Technology.Chapter 24-Nanostructured Encapsulation Systems: Food Antimicrobials. Julian McClements . Jochen Weiss. Michael Davidson.Nanoemulsion for delivery of Antimicrobials Due to small size and large curvature. nisin and lauric arginate. Sylvia © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists Gaysinsky.
1002/jsfa Courtsey: Mr.Liposomes Spherical Particles formed from Polar Lipids Size: 100 nm-microns Good carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic food actives Expensive to manufacture J Sci Food Agric 86:2038–2045 (2006). Charles Brain. Ingredients Innovation International (3i) 24 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . DOI: 10.
US Patent Application US2006/0264130 A1 25 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . improvement in bioavailability of ingredient Controlled release of flavor including stimuli responsive fast dissolve or burst effect Unique surface morphology may prove beneficial in improving shelf life Near room temperature process may work well for encapsulation of thermally labile ingredients. How are they made? Dissolve the polymer carrier in an organic solvent/water mixture with the flavor/functional ingredient to form a suspension/solution.Nanofiber based Flavor Encapsulation Why Nanofiber? High surface to volume ratio. leading to very high surface area. Electrospin the fiber using a very high DC voltage of upto 30kV Food Hydrocolloids 23 (2009) 1427-1432.
74 (2009) C233-C240. 26 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Electrospinning of Fibers Zein fibers were electrospun using this setup Journal of Food Science.
Electrospinning of Nanofibers. Case Study: Beta-Carotene encapsulated in Zein Nanofibers Zein Nanofiber mat Zein with Beta-Carotene Nanofiber mat Food Hydrocolloids 23 (2009) 1427-1432 27 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .
2% by weight 28 Food Hydrocolloids 23 (2009) 1427-1432 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .Electrospinning of Nanofibers.61. Case Study: Beta-Carotene encapsulated in Zein Nanofibers Beta-carotene is light sensitive. zein was able to protect Betacarotene from light The B-carotene loading was 0.
Jochen Weiss.Chapter 24Nanostructured Encapsulation Systems: Food Antimicrobials.New Nanoencapsulation technologies Double-layered nanocapsules based on layer-by layer (LbL) electrostatic deposition method: Polyelectrolyte complexes Multi-assembled nanocapsule aggregates 29 Book: Global Issues in Food Science and Technology. Julian McClements . Sylvia Gaysinsky. Pages 425-479. Michael Davidson. 2009.
TX .Precision Particle Fabrication Technology based on vibrating nozzles (Orbis Biosciences) Minimum 2 micron size particles Core-shell morphology Monodisperse particle size distribution High Loading of the active 30 Professor Cory Berkland. San Anotonio. Presentation from 14th © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists Industrial Microencapsulation Workshop. University of Kansas.
Presentation at IFT 2009 Nanotechnology preconference workshop Berna©Magnuson. Office of Food Additive Safety. McCarthy.D. Ph. Cantox Health Sciences International. USFDA. Annette M. Additional research on toxicity of oral exposure to engineered nanomaterials must include: Characterization of nanomaterials.D. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). March 2011 31 . Presentation at 14th 2011 Institute of Food Technologists Industrial Microencapsulation Workshop..Regulatory Considerations Questions to consider: What are the appropriate criteria for defining their specifications of identity and purity for determining safety? What types of toxicity testing protocols are appropriate for establishing safe conditions of use? Do existing authorizations cover these products? Concerns regarding safety of nanomaterials in general will result in required safety assessment of nanoencapsulated bioactives .. Established protocols and/or validated in vitro assays. Ph. San Antonio.
Summary The nanoparticulate formulations for food and flavor ingredient encapsulation offer distinct benefits: Improved active retention Reduction in surface oils Increase in solubility leading to higher bioavailability Improved shelf stability Controlled release of actives Nanoencapsulation is an emerging area for food ingredients and should be used to enable distinct benefits. 32 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .
26 (2008) 816-835. 1. Y. E. Matter 18 (2006) R635-R666.. pp. and B. Inc.M.Useful Citations on Nanoencapsulation in Food Design of Nano-Laminated Coatings to Control Bioavailability of Lipophilic Food Components. Nr. Trends in Food Science & Technology. Journal of Food Science. pp 411-424. Wilking. 75 (2010) R50-R57 Book: Global Issues in Food Science and Technology. Weiss. Augustin. 33 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists . Graves..G. Y. Mason. David Julian McClements. Decker. Augustin and P. McClements. Yu and Q. Shimoni. 425-479. D. Chapter 23.B. Jafari. 58 (2009) 183-213. Drying Technology. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. Nanoscale materials development – a food industry perspective. MA.. Q. J.: Condens. 2009 Elsevier. Chapter 24. C. Bioavailability and delivery of nutraceuticals using nanotechnology. Park and J. Nanostructured materials in the food industry. Chang and S. K. 49 (2009) 577-606. R30-R42 Book: Global Issues in Food Science and Technology. E. structure and physical properties.J. Assadpoor. Science and Applications 2010:3 1-15. T. Nanotechnology for foods: Delivery Systems. Meleson. 17 (2006) 547-556.N.S. 2010. H. E. Structural design principles for delivery of bioactive components in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Ru. Sanguansri. Bhandari.A.M. Nanoemulsions: formation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Inc. 75. Encapsulation efficiency of food flavors and oils during spray drying S. Phys. Sekhon. He. JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE—Vol. Food nanotechnology – an overview.A. Nanostructured Encapsulation Systems: Food Antimicrobials. B. N. Nanotechnology. 2009 Elsevier. Sanguansri and M. Huang. P.
Thank You! Questions? 34 © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists .
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