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JUSTINE MAEDA LIS 601 DR.

CAMPBELL-MEIER SUMMER 2012

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER A BIBLIOGRAPHY PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

2 Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………...………4 Topic and Scope…………………………………………………………………………………..…….4 Audience…………………………………………………………………………………………………...4 Citation Style……………………………………………………………………………………………..5 Search Strategy…………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Library of Congress Subject Headings………………………………………………..……….5 LC Call Numbers………………………………………………………………………………………..6 Search Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………...6 OPACS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6 University of Hawaii Voyager Catalog…………………………………………………………6 Hawaii State Public Library System……………………………………………………………7 World Cat……………………………………………………………………………………………….....8 Databases and Encyclopedias……………………………………………………………………………….9 Alt-PressWatch.............................................................................................................................9 Breast Cancer Searchable Information Center…………………………………………….9 Britannica Online.........................................................................................................................9 Hawaii Newspaper Index…………………………………………………………….…………...10 PubMed……………………………………………………………………………………………….….10 Google Scholar………………………………………………………………………………………...11 Ingenta……………………………………………………………………………………………………11 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………12 Appendix A: Search Term Tables………………………………………………………………………...13

3 Appendix B: Annotated Resource Examples………………………………………………………...17 Resource Books on Alternative Treatment Methods for Breast Cancer………17 Studies Done on Alternative Treatment Effects on Breast Cancer………………18 Endnotes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4 Introduction Topic and Scope Apart from lung cancer, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, accounting for nearly 1 in 3 cancers diagnosed among women in the America. Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer death among women.i [1] A number of debilitating side effects are associated with the traditional cancer treatment of chemotherapy, such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, infertility, suppression of the immune system, fatal infections, among other adverse neurological effects. With so many harmful side effects and uncertainties in regards to the actual success rate of radiation treatment, interest in alternative therapies is growing in the United States.ii [2] This bibliography plan investigates alternative treatments without traditional medical treatment and without radiation therapy of breast cancer among women. For the most part, I tried to keep the resources cited in my bibliographic plan restricted to materials published within the past 15 years to ensure that my findings are current. Audience This bibliographic plan is aimed at graduate students or adults with interests or backgrounds in non-conventional treatments for breast cancer. It would be helpful to have some general knowledge of cancer, but an in depth understanding of the condition is unnecessary. A good reference source containing the definition of breast cancer, symptoms, cancer awareness, stages of cancer, and cancer prevention, among other related topics can be found in the Encyclopedia Britannica Online.iii [3]

5 Citation Style Citations have been completed in Turabian format, per A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers.iv Controlled vocabulary (CV) will be in capital letters, and natural language (NL) will be in lower case letters. Truncated terms will be marked with an asterisk (*).

Search Strategy Library of Congress Subject Headings BREAST CANCER BREAST CANCER –ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT BREAST CANCER—ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT—CASE STUDIES BREAST CANCER—DIET THERAPY BREAST CANCER—NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS BREAST CANCER—TREATMENT CANCER –ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT HOMEOPATHY NATUROPATHY HOLISTIC MEDICINE ONCOLOGY

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LC Call Numbers R733 – Naturopathy, Alternative Treatment RG491-499 Diseases of the breast RM214-258 Diet therapy RM259 Vitamin therapy RA648.5-767 Epidemics. Epidemiology. Quarantine. Disinfection RA773-788 Personal health and hygiene Including clothing, bathing, exercise, travel, nutrition, RC254-282 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology, including cancer and carcinogens RC280 – Breast cancer RX1-681 Homeopathy RX211-581 Diseases, treatment, etc.

Search Results OPACS University of Hawaii – Voyager Catalogv [5] The Voyager catalog is where I decided to begin my search. I did a subject CV search on "BREAST CANCER" and “ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT" and I got 23 results, one of which seemed relevant. I was somewhat successful using the CV "BREAST CANCER" AND "HOLISTIC MEDICINE,” whereby I found a few results that

7 somewhat matched my topic, including a video vi [6] and two books vii [7], viii [8]. These items were about holistic approaches to cancer treatment, and the video resources described holistic complementary therapy (i.e. utilizing massage, aromaand hydrotherapy to support women in need of additional mental, emotional and spiritual support after breast cancer surgery.) Doing a keyword search with CV "BREAST CANCER" AND "DIET THERAPY" produced only somewhat relevant results, with 32 hits. Many of these hits were related more to cancer prevention rather than cancer treatment. I therefore did not find anything here that seemed to fit well with the scope of my topic. Finally I did a keyword search on "BREAST CANCER” and “HOMEOPATHY", which gave me 0 hits. My first attempt at searching for resources relevant to my topic through Voyager therefore left me a bit discouraged. I began to grow a little concerned because I found so few relevant results, especially since I began my search with the University of Hawaii's own search catalog. And I had been utilizing the LCSH terms that I had looked up, expecting more than what I ended up finding. HSPLS ix [9] I decided to try the Hawaii State Public Library System because I was curious to see what would be available to people interested in this topic but not affiliated with the university system. In my first search “BREAST CANCER” and “alternative” I came back with a list of about 45 somewhat relevant results related to breast cancer prevention and treatment, self examinations, guide books, rehabilitation, survival manuals, but not necessarily alternative forms of treatment. Three of which I found relevant were books x [10], xi [11], as well as xii [12]. Broadening my search to “CANCER” and “ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT” gave me more results that were relevant: xiii [13], xiv [14], and xv [15]. Overall, I would describe my HSPLS search as somewhat successful. I found a few resources that highlighted alternative treatments, one resource that provided an overview of conventional treatments and the risks that one needs to know in order to make an informed decision. I did encounter some problems with the

8 available levels of sophistication of my search. Searching “BREAST CANCER” and “alternative”; “BREAST CANCER” and “ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT”; “BREAST CANCER” and “DIET THERAPY;” “BREAST CANCER” and “natural cure”; “BREAST CANCER” and “HOLISTIC MEDICINE” which all led me to the same sources. I then tried to broaden my search to just “CANCER” and “alternative,” and I was happy to find a couple more books on alternative treatments without the use of radiation, such as xvi [16], xvii [17] and xviii [18]. However, a large majority of my hits were related to handbooks, prevention through nutrition, etc. It seems to me that online database searches allow for more variability in searching, since the public library search options are rather general and did not enable me to conduct a more focused topic search. However, this is understandable, being that the public library targets the general public more than academic researchers. WorldCat xix WorldCat was somewhat helpful to me. I ran several searches on “ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT*,” “NATUROPATHY,” “natural medicine*” “juicing", “diet,” “HOMEOPATHY”, “natural healing,” and “alternative medicine,” with "BREAST CANCER*" as a qualifier to help narrow my focus. I got hundreds of results, with some relevant resources that met my search needs, including a video xx [20]. I liked that WorldCat searched different resource formats, and I could narrow my search results by media type. I did find several resources including reference resources that were relevant to my topic, such as xxi [21], xxii [22], xxiii [23], xxiv [24], xxv [25], xxvi [26], xxvii [27], and xxviii [28]. I found that the language I used primarily mirrored the controlled vocabulary and subject headings that I had used in other searches, so that may have affected my search results. A lot of my results actually overlapped with each search term.

9 Databases and Encyclopedias Alt-PressWatch xxix [29] Searching “BREAST CANCER” and “natural med*” led me to a few somewhat relevant results such as xxx [30], xxxi [31], xxxii [32] and xxxiii [33]. Some of these articles (i.e. the ones about shark cartilage for cancer treatment) seemed more descriptive and written narratively with a subjective perspective rather than research-based. Breast Cancer Searchable Information Center xxxiv [34] It seemed logical to search this site since its title states that it is all about breast cancer. This site contains materials from government agencies such as the National Cancer Institute, National Breast Cancer Coalition Fund, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, United States Food and Drug Administration, Office of Women’s Health, among other authoritative sources. I found one relevant article in PDF form xxxv [35]. Since many of these resources were from the government, I did not think I would find too many natural or alternative breast cancer treatments here, being that the government promotes scientifically-based research on the topic, and there may not be enough government-funded research done on alternative or natural treatments of the condition. Britannica Online xxxvi [36] I was not expecting too much in-depth information on my topic with this encyclopedia. I assumed that I would find general information on breast cancer, but not with a focus on alternative treatments. My intuition was correct. I first tried using the LCSH to see what would happen. Unfortunately, the results I got were either too broad or not relevant to my topic. I attempted to narrow my search by entering "BREAST CANCER" and "ALTERNATIVE

10 TREATMENT", as well as "BREAST CANCER" and "alternative medicine", “BREAST CANCER” and “natural medicine”, then “BREAST CANCER” and “NATUROPATHY”. I did not come up with anything that I could use. However, when I entered "alternative medicine" into the encyclopedia, I got a general reference source for alternative medicine that was useful in providing me with other related keywords I could try searching, such as folk medicine, holistic medicine, and homeopathy. Therefore while it was not the most productive of searches, I did get something out of it. Hawaii Newspaper Index xxxvii [37] I was unsuccessful in finding any results pertaining to my topic in Hawaii Newspaper Index. The terms that I had previously had success with in searching other databases got minimal results. When I searched "BREAST CANCER" and “alternative" as a subject search, I got 2 hits. Unfortunately, none of them were relevant to my topic. The first article was about island researchers looking at scans as an alternative to mammograms, but this had nothing to do with the alternative treatment of breast cancer. PubMed xxxviii [38] This is another of my tried-and-true databases that I tend to go to. I first tried to search for "BREAST CANCER" and "ALTERNATE TREATMENT" as well as “BREAST CANCER” and “HOMEOPATHY,” which resulted in many results but only a single highly relevant hit: xxxix [39] through the advanced search keyword mode, such as xl [40] and xli [41]. I found that the advanced search runs automatically in keyword mode. Using search term “BREAST CANCER” and “natural medicine” gave me some highly relevant results, such as very scientific and medical-based articles: xlii [42]

11 Google Scholar xliii [43] Google Scholar is another of my preferred research databases. time, I found it to be both easier and harder to use when searching for a topic. After using more "official" databases to search, I found the advanced search format for Google Scholar difficult to navigate at first. However, the results were promising. While none of my searches were very relevant, I did find useful articles when running each search. Also, I found that the best matches to my search queries usually appeared within the first 1-5 pages of results, especially since I was getting thousands of hits. One of the more promising articles that I found was xliv [44], xlv [45], as well as xlvi [46]. Searching breast cancer and natural medicine led me to xlvii [47], xlviii, [48], xlix [49], l [50], and li [51]. I used "BREAST CANCER" as a qualifier to narrow my search, then ran searches using "ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT", "natural healing" AND "natural medicine*", and "NATUROPATHY". Again, I found some articles that were relevant to my bibliography plan topic and others that were not useful at all. It was simply a matter of combing through the pages of results that my searches turned up. Ingentalii [52] I chose to use Ingenta figuring that somewhere in the database existed resources that would be of use to me. Ingenta uses keyword and natural language in its searches, and is reflected in my results for each search. I was most successful when I entered "BREAST CANCER" and "alternat* med*" into the advanced search, in which I found an article liii [53] by Ernst, the “Complementary/Alternative Therapies for the Treatment of Breast Cancer. A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials and a Critique of Current Terminology.”

12 Conclusion Completing this bibliography plan was actually quite enlightening in terms of the breadth of information that is available on the topic of natural cures for breast cancer. Throughout my search, I found that that there seems to be a lack of research done on the effectiveness of alternative or natural medicine. Perhaps this is because there does not seem to be any single alternative treatment that can be used to treat cancer; it must be done complement to other interventions. However, I learned that a substantial amount of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies, even without a supportive evidence base. This project definitely encouraged me to work outside of my comfort zone, particularly in regards to the type of databases that I used. I normally prefer using main databases like Google Scholar. This time, I found myself searching Ingenta and PubMed to name a few. This forced me to adapt my search strategies, especially with respect to Ingenta, which seems to only use natural language to search. Also, while I had previously used the descriptors that were offered by these databases, before this class I had never thought about the fact that these were controlled vocabulary "tags". I think that being consciously aware of controlled vocabulary made it easier in some ways to modify my search strategies. I think that doing this project has given me more confidence in my ability to utilize available resources when doing research, and has introduced me to other databases that I can use in the future. I see much potential in this bibliography plan for expansion into other areas of breast cancer research. For instance, I could look further into natural treatments used in different countries, or I could narrow my search down to vitamins that are shown to inhibit the growth of cancer. I am glad that I chose this topic since this bibliography plan congealed areas of my current interests quite well and is something that I may refer back to as many in my own family have been affected by breast cancer as well as the damaging

13 effects of radiation therapy. To know as much as I can about this condition will help me to help whomever may desire an alternative form of treatment. Appendix A: Search Term Tables Relevance Key: Very Relevant: VR Somewhat Relevant: SR Not Relevant: NR University of Hawaii – Voyager Catalog Search Terms BREAST CANCER AND ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT BREAST CANCER AND DIET THERAPY BREAST CANCER AND HOMEOPATHIC BREAST CANCER AND HOLISTIC MEDICINE Relevance SR NR NR NR Results 1 32 0 2

HSPLS Search Terms BREAST CANCER AND alternative BREAST CANCER AND ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT BREAST CANCER AND HOLISTIC MEDICINE CANCER AND alternative BREAST CANCER AND NATUROPATHY Relevance SR SR (same results as above) SR (same results as above) VR SR Results 2 2 (same as above) 0 Hundreds 10-20 but only a few relevant since many were about prevention, rehabilitation, or

14 integrative medicine (combined with traditional cancer treatment) Less than 100 but not relevant, as most involved use of radiation therapy

BREAST CANCER AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS

NR

WorldCat Search Terms Breast cancer* AND Alternative treatment* Breast cancer AND naturopathy Breast cancer AND natural medicine Breast cancer AND juicing Breast cancer AND Homeopathic Breast cancer AND natural healing Relevance SR SR SR SR SR NR Results 946 49 457 7 29 69

Hawaii Newspaper Index Search Terms BREAST cancer AND alternative medicine Breast cancer AND Naturopathy Breast cancer AND natural medicine Breast cancer AND natural Relevance NR VR NR NR Results 2 0 0 0

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Breast Cancer Searchable Information Center Search Terms ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT Natural medicine and BREAST CANCER Natural medicine AND TREATMENT Natural and BREAST CANCER Relevance SR SR SR Results 1 25 1

SR similar results to above 21

PubMed Search Term BREAST CANCER and HOMEOPATHIC BREAST CANCER AND alternat* BREAST CANCER and natural medicine BREAST CANCER and ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT BREAST CANCER AND natural alternat* Relevance VR SR HR NR NR Results 42, one of which was relevant 6866 880 3532 16

Britannica Online Search Term Breast cancer Breast cancer and Alternative treatment Breast cancer and Naturopathy Breast cancer and natural medicine Relevance VR NR NR NR

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Google Scholar Search Terms Breast cancer*; Alternative treatment* Breast cancer*; natural healing* Breast cancer*; Naturopathy Relevance VR VR SR Results 1,340,000 59,400 5,890

Ingenta Search Terms Breast cancer AND alternat* AND med* Breast cancer AND natural med* Breast cancer AND natural healing Breast cancer AND naturopathy Relevance SR SR NR NR Results 11 291 2 1

Alt-PressWatch Search Terms Breast cancer and natural med* BREAST CANCER and alternat* med* BREAST CANCER and natural heal* BREAST CANCER and NATUROPATHY Relevance SR SR SR SR Results 349 388 678 6

17 Appendix B: Annotated Resource Examples Resource Books on Alternative Treatment Methods for Breast Cancer Alschuler, Lise. 2007. Alternative Medicine Magazine’s Definitive Guide to Cancer: An Integrated Approach to Prevention, Treatment, and Healing. 2nd ed., completely rev. and updated. Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide. Berkeley: Celestial Arts. UH MANOA Call Number: QZ 266 A461a 2007 This book covers various cancer treatment approaches, beginning with an overview of conventional treatment, followed by complementary and alternative treatment options. This resource also includes an integrative treatment plan that highlights the importance of a strong nutritional plan, lifestyle factors, supplements during conventional treatment, and ways to enhance immunity by reducing inflammation. Cassileth, Barrie R., and Gary Deng. 2004. “Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer.” The Oncologist 9 (1) (February 1): 80–89. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.9-1-80. This review describes alternative and complementary therapies commonly used today by cancer patients. Herbal remedies are discussed. Evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) is reviewed. Frähm, Anne E. 1997. A Cancer Battle Plan: Six Strategies for Beating Cancer from a Recovered “Hopeless Case.” 1st Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam ed. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. HSPLS Call Number: 616.994 Fr Written by cancer survivor Anne Frahm, A Cancer Battle Plan describes Frahm’s journey of restoring her health through a dietary program. Frähm, David J. 2000. A Cancer Battle Plan Sourcebook: a Step-by-step Health Program to Give Your Body a Fighting Chance. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. HSPLS Cal Number: 616.99406 Fr This resource provides practical guidance for those who want to build a natural program as an alternative way to fight cancer. Identifying the stressors impacting health, detoxifying the body, restoring the body's natural healing power and protective system, assessing how the body is performing and what help it needs are covered in this sourcebook. Anon. 2002. Breast Cancer: Beyond Convention: The World’s Foremost Authorities on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Offer Advice on Healing. New York: Atria Books. HSPLS Call Number: 616.9944 Br

18 This book describes treatment options available to help cancer patients determine their next appropriate course of action. Leading authorities and “breast cancer experts” Dean Ornish, Susan Love, Rachel Remen, Michael Lerner, and Jon Kabat-Zinn lay out conventional and alternative approaches. There is discussion of complementary conventional medical treatment and alternative medicine, such as the incorporation of traditional Chinese medicine (herbs, qigong, and acupuncture.) Vitamins, minerals, and natural foods are overviewed. Informative case histories are described. Null, Gary. 1998. The Complete Encyclopedia of Natural Healing. New York: Kensington. Natural healing techniques are described in this resource. It provides a complete listing of diseases, as well as effective, and inexpensive cures that are comprised of herbs, salves, and vitamins to help reduce discomfort, pain, and promote lasting well-being. Studies Done on Alternative Treatment Effects on Breast Cancer Chang, Eugene Y, Margie Glissmeyer, Shavonne Tonnes, Tori Hudson, and Nathalie Johnson. 2006. “Outcomes of Breast Cancer in Patients Who Use Alternative Therapies as Primary Treatment.” American Journal of Surgery 192 (4) (October): 471–473. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.05.013. This resource covers the outcomes of breast cancer in patients who used alternative therapies as their primary treatment instead of standard surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Of the 11 patients who initially refused surgery, 10 developed disease progression. Of the 10 patients who refused local control procedures, 2 developed local recurrences and 2 died of metastatic disease. By refusing chemotherapy, 9 patients increased their estimated 10-year mortality rate from 17% to 25%. Alternative used as primary treatment for breast cancer are associated with increased recurrence and death. Homeopathy instead of surgery resulted in disease progression in most patients. Johnson, Jerry Alan, and International Institute of Medical Qigong. 2001. Medical Qiqong for Understanding, Preventing and Treating Breast Disease. Pacific Grove, CA: International Institute of Medical Qiqong. This resource presents Qiqong as an alternative therapy for the treatment of breast cysts, tumors, and cancer. Zhong, Zhangfeng, Yuanye Dang, Xia Yuan, Wei Guo, Yingbo Li, Wen Tan, Jingrong Cui, et al. 2012. “Furanodiene, a Natural Product, Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth Both in Vitro and in Vivo.” Cellular Physiology and

19 Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology 30 (3) (August 2): 778–790. doi:10.1159/000341457. This study evaluates the anti-cancer activity of furanodiene. Results showed that Furanodiene suppressed breast cancer cell growth and could be a new lead compound for breast cancer chemotherapy. Lee, M. M., S. S. Lin, M. R. Wrensch, S. R. Adler, and D. Eisenberg. 2000. “Alternative Therapies Used by Women with Breast Cancer in Four Ethnic Populations.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92 (1): 42–47. In this study, ehe alternative therapies used and factors influencing the choice of therapy varied by ethnicity. Blacks most often used spiritual healing (36%). Chinese used herbal remedies (22%). Latino women often used dietary therapies (30%) and spiritual healing (26%). Among whites, 35% used dietary methods and 21% used physical methods, such as massage and acupuncture. Women with higher educational levels or incomes, who were younger, had private insurance, and exercised or attended support groups was more likely to use alternative therapies. More than 90% of the subjects found the therapies helpful. Cui, Yong, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Meng-Hua Tao, and Wei Zheng. 2006. “Association of Ginseng Use with Survival and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients.” American Journal of Epidemiology 163 (7) (April 1): 645–653. doi:10.1093/aje/kwj087. The authors evaluated the associations of ginseng use as a complementary therapy with survival and quality of life (QOL) in a cohort of 1,455 breast cancer patients who were recruited to the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study between August 1996 and March 1998 in Shanghai, China. Compared with patients who never used ginseng, regular users had a significantly reduced risk of death. Oh, B., P. Butow, B. Mullan, S. Clarke, P. Beale, N. Pavlakis, E. Kothe, L. Lam, and D. Rosenthal. 2010. “Impact of Medical Qigong on Quality of Life, Fatigue, Mood and Inflammation in Cancer Patients: a Randomized Controlled Trial.” Annals of Oncology 21 (3) (March 1): 608–614. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdp479. This study aimed to evaluate the use of Medical Qigong (MQ) compared with usual care to improve the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients. 162 patients with a range of cancers were recruited. This study demonstrated that MQ may improve cancer patients’ overall QOL and reduce specific side-effects of treatment. Ernst, Edzard, Katja Schmidt, and Michael Baum. 2006. “Complementary/Alternative Therapies for the Treatment of Breast Cancer. A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials and a Critique of Current

20 Terminology.” The Breast Journal 12 (6) (November): 526–530. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2006.00340 This study evaluated randomized clinical trials of ``alternative cancer cures'' (ACCs) for breast cancer. Review methods included a systematic review of RCTs involving breast cancer patients treated with ACCs, survival, disease progression, cancer recurrence, and cancer cures. The treatments tested included various methods of psychosocial support such as group support therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive existential group therapy, a combination of muscle relaxation training and guided imagery, the Chinese herbal remedy Shi Quan Da Bu Tang, thymus extract, transfer factor, melatonin, and factor AF2. The result findings for melatonin were encouraging but not fully convincing.

Endnotes i [1] DeSantis, Carol, Rebecca Siegel, Priti Bandi, and Ahmedin Jemal. 2011. “Breast Cancer Statistics, 2011.” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 61 (6): 408–418. doi:10.3322/caac.20134.

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ii [2] "Nausea and Vomiting in the Cancer Patient". Oncology: 1482–1496. 2006. doi:10.1007/0-387-31056-8_83. "Nausea and vomiting are two of the most feared cancer treatment-related side effects for cancer patients and their families."

iii[3] Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. "Breast Cancer", via UH Manoa Library; available from http://www.britannica.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/EBchecked/topic/78533/breastcancer; accessed 7 August 2012

iv [4] Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2007).

v [5] University of Hawaii at Manoa, "Voyager Catalog," University of Hawaii at Manoa Library; available from http://library.manoa.hawaii.edu; accessed 7 August 2012.

vi [6]ʻŌlelo (Television station : Honolulu, Hawaii). 2001. Life Healing Foundation. Videorecording.

vii [7] Anon. 1999. Apoptosis and Cancer Chemotherapy. Cancer Drug Discovery and Development 5. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press.

viii [8] Alschuler, Lise. 2007. Alternative Medicine Magazine’s Definitive Guide to Cancer: An Integrated Approach to Prevention, Treatment, and Healing. 2nd ed., completely rev. and updated. Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide. Berkeley: Celestial Arts. UH MANOA Call Number: QZ 266 A461a 2007

ix [9] Hawaii State Public Library, "Horizon Information Portal," Hawaii State Public Library System; available from http://ipac.librarieshawaii.org/ipac20/ipac.jsp?profile=; accessed 7 August 2012

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x [10] Anon. 2002. Breast Cancer: Beyond Convention: The World’s Foremost Authorities on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Offer Advice on Healing. New York: Atria Books. HSPLS Call Number: 616.9944 Br

xi [11]Smith, Terry L. 2006. Breast Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. 1st ed. Cancer and Modern Science. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

xii [12] The Breast Cancer Book: What You Need to Know to Make Informed Decisions. Yale University Press Health & Wellness. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press.

xiii [13] Cameron, Ewan. 1979. Cancer and Vitamin C: a Discussion of the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment of Cancer with Special Reference to the Value of Vitamin C. Menlo Park, Calif. : New York: Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine ; distribution by Norton. HSPLS Call Number: 616.994 C

xiv Frähm, David J. 2000. A Cancer Battle Plan Sourcebook: a Step-by-step Health Program to Give Your Body a Fighting Chance. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. HSPLS Cal Number: 616.99406 Fr xv Frähm, Anne E. 1997. A Cancer Battle Plan: Six Strategies for Beating Cancer from a Recovered “Hopeless Case.” 1st Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam ed. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. HSPLS Call Number: 616.994 Fr

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xix WorldCat, "WorldCat.org: The World's Largest Library Catalog," WorldCat; available from http://www.worldcat.org; accessed 7 August 2012. xx Johnson, Jerry Alan, and International Institute of Medical Qigong. 2001. Medical Qiqong for Understanding, Preventing and Treating Breast Disease. Pacific Grove, CA: International Institute of Medical Qiqong. xxi Servan-Schreiber, David. 2009. Anticancer: a New Way of Life. New York: Viking.

xxii Eyre, Harmon J. Morris, and American Cancer Society. 2002. Informed Decisions: The Complete Book of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment, and Recovery / Lange, Dianne. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.

xxiii Wooddell, Margaret J. 1998. Women Confront Cancer Making Medical History by Choosing Alternative and Complementary Therapies / Hess, David J. New York: New York University Press. UH MANOA CALL NUMBER: LC: RC280.B8

xxiv Murray, Michael T. 2002. How to Prevent and Treat Cancer with Natural Medicine. New York: Riverhead Books.

xxv Pfeuffer, Charyn. 2003. Breast Cancer Q & A: Insightful Answers to the 100 Most Frequently Asked Questions. New York: Avery. LC: RC280.B8; Dewey: 616.99/449 xxvi Null, Gary. 1998. The Complete Encyclopedia of Natural Healing. New York: Kensington.

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xxvii Kaur, Sat Dharam. 2003. The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to Breast Cancer: a Practical Manual for Understanding, Prevention & Care. Toronto: R. Rose. LC: RC280.B8; Dewey: 616.99/449

xxviii Fundukian, Laurie J. 2009. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Variation: Gale Virtual Reference Library. Farmington Hills: Gale Cengage Learning.

xxix http://search.proquest.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/altpresswatch xxx Ruggieri, Mary Jo. 2000. “Healing: Medicine’s future; Complementary alternative healthcare, old and new, is here to stay.” Columbus Alive, August 17.

xxxi Gover, Tzivia. 1997. “Dr. Love and the politics of disease: Susan Love makes no excuses for her controversial views on breast cancer, hormone replacement, and AIDS.” The Advocate, March 4.

xxxii Rabin, Ed. 2006. “This Cure Really Bites.” Boise Weekly, May 3, sec. THE ANTIDOTE.

xxxiii Christensen, Jen. 2005. “Sharks don’t get cancer.” The Advocate, October 25.

xxxiv http://site.ebrary.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/lib/breastcancer/ xxxv NCI’s Annual Report on Complementary and Alternative Medicine : Fiscal Year 2007 National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine. xxxvi Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. "Breast Cancer", via UH Manoa Library; available from http://www.britannica.com.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/EBchecked/topic/7853 3/breast-cancer; accessed 7 August 2012

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xxxvii http://ipac2.librarieshawaii.org:81/ipac20/ipac.jsp?profile=

xxxviii pubmed.gov

xxxix Chang, Eugene Y, Margie Glissmeyer, Shavonne Tonnes, Tori Hudson, and Nathalie Johnson. 2006. “Outcomes of Breast Cancer in Patients Who Use Alternative Therapies as Primary Treatment.” American Journal of Surgery 192 (4) (October): 471– 473. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.05.013.

xl Murphy, Conleth G, and Patrick G Morris. 2012. “Recent Advances in Novel Targeted Therapies for HER2-positive Breast Cancer.” Anti-cancer Drugs 23 (8) (September): 765–776. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e328352d292.

xli Zhong, Zhangfeng, Yuanye Dang, Xia Yuan, Wei Guo, Yingbo Li, Wen Tan, Jingrong Cui, et al. 2012. “Furanodiene, a Natural Product, Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth Both in Vitro and in Vivo.” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology 30 (3) (August 2): 778–790. doi:10.1159/000341457.

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