Republic of Iraq Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research University of Technology Department of Computer Engineering and information


First Class

Year 2010-2011

Fundamentals of Electronic Circuit Design
Contents 1- Structure of an Atom 1.1 Material Photo effective 2- Material types (Conductor, and Semiconductor, Insulator) 3- Intrinsic semiconductor 3.1 Extrinsic semiconductor (P-type and N-type) 4- P-N Junction (Diode) 4.1 Diode Equivalent cct. 4.2 Diode DC analysis 5- Diode AC applications 5.1 Rectifier 5.2 Clipper circuits 5.3 Clamper circuits 6- Zener Diode 7- Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) 8- Field Effect Transistor FET 8.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor ( JFET) 8.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Reference 1-Thomas L .Floyd “Electronsic Devices” 2005. 2-U.A Bakshi “ Electronics Engineering “ First Edition ,2008 3-Jacob Millman”Microelectronics “ second Edition 1987

1.Structure of an Atom
Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali

Ekbal Hussian Ali . 1-2 The Number of Electron in Each orbit(or shell) Dr. The basic particles of negative charege are called electrons In a normal atom the number of protons is equal to the number electrons .as shown in the Fig.1.1 The nucleus consists of positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutron.The number of protons in an atom is called as its atomic number . Electron + Nucleus Fig.While the atomic weight is approximately equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.1 The nature of the Atom The atom consists of a central nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons . The fource of the the attraction between electron and proton follows by Columb's Law.1 Atom structure Orbital The charge of proton ( inside the nucleus) equal to the electrons charge.

The first orbit can occupy electrons ( 2 ×12 =2) The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the second shell is Ne=2 (2) 2 =8 The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the third shell Ne=2 (3) 2 =8 All shells in a given atom must be completely filled with electrons except the outer (Valence )shell 1-3 Bohr Atom The hydrogen contain one electron in his orbital call (Bohr Atom).602 *10-19 C m : electron mass = 9. FP = FK = q2 4πε0 r 2 (1) FK FP r + m v2 r (2) where q: electron Charge = 1.The electrons are arranged in the different orbits at an orbit can contain maximum number of electrons (Ne)can be calculated by the formula Ne= 2n 2 .The electrons which are revolving round the nucleus .do not move in same orbit . (2) Bohr Atom (H v : velocity of electron (m/sec) r : radius of the orbit (m) The condition for equilibrium the two force is equal.859 *10-12 F/m )+Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali . There are two attractive Forces FP : Potential Force FK : Kinetic Force.n is the number of orbil. that lead to Dr.11*10-31 Kg ε0 : permittivity of air = 8.

q2 4πε0 r 2 v2 = = m v2 r (3) q 2 4πε0 m r The stationary state is determined by the condition.(6) the r by q2 v = 1 2 h ε0 n (7) 1-4Atomic Energy There are two types of energy at the atom.626 * 10-34 J. iPotential Energy EP of electron at distance from the nucleus Dr.(3) with Eq. the angular momentum of electron in this state be integral multiple of nh 2π h /( 2π ) as mvr= (4) where h : Plank'c constant = 6. (5) the result is h 2ε r = 0 π m q2 n2 (6) by using Eq. (3) by Eq.Ekbal Hussian Ali .sec n : orbital number nh 2π m r v = (5) by using Eq.

6 (ev) n2 ev : the electron volt unit. h 2 in equation (10) for electron inhydrogenatom .we have ET = − 13. Example Determine the first three allowed electron energies in the hydrogen atom and draw the energy level diagram ET = −13.6 (ev) n2 For the First energy level n=1 Dr.q.EP = − q2 4πε 0 r (8 ii. Kinetic Energy EK for the electron moving around the nucleus m v2 2 EK = (9) therefore the total Energy are ET = Ek+Ep ET = Ek + Ep = ET = − q4 8πε 0 r = − q2 m v2 + 2 4πε 0 r 2 2 2 − m q4 1 8h ε 0 n (Joule) (10) Putting values of m .Ekbal Hussian Ali . εo .

G) 1=n ) ve 6.0E= T 3= n ve 65.6 32 (ev) = −1.51ev (n = ∞ (Ionization Level ET = 0 ev 4= n ve 78.31ET = .6 12 (ev) = −13.More energy level indicates that the electrons of that shell are loosely bound to the nucleus as having highest energy level .ET = − 13.(3) Energy level increases from first shell to valence shell as the distance from the nucleus the increases Dr. The Energy levels of Bohr atom (H 1-5 Atomic Energy Levels The energy level of shell one is lowermost while the energy level of valence shell is highest .39ev For the third energy level n=3 ET = − 13.3E= T S.6 22 (ev) = −3.1E= T 2=n ve 14.6ev For the second energy level n=2 ET = − 13.Ekbal Hussian Ali .Nucl (Ground Level ) (+Fig.The concept of energy level is shown in the Fig.

The photon Energy EPh calculated by hC EPh = h f = λ (11) where f : Photon frequency (Hz) λ : Photon wavelength (m) C=3*108 (m/sec) Hint: Angistrom (A0) = 10-10 m Dr. if the photon transfer from upper state to lower state radiate photons this case call photon emission. The atom by ionize is absorbed energy equal to the level energy. An electron which is not subjected to the force of attraction of the the nucleus is called a free electron .More the number of free electrons .Lowest energy level Valence shell highest energy level Fig.S) absorbed an light (Photon) then transfer to upper state this case call photon absorbsion.6Photo Affective The electron in ground state (G.(3) Concept of energy level The Ionization level is the level of number n =∝ .better is the conductivity of the metal 1.Ekbal Hussian Ali .

the atom in this case call Ionize and this phenomena call Photo ionization see Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali . The Photon energy calculated by E 2 − E1 = hf ….(4).(6) Emission Dr. The energy of final orbital can calculate his energy by E 1 − E 2 = hf (12) E2 EPh E1 Fig.(13) E2 EPh E1 Fig. this phenomena called (Emission). (5).It jump from higher energy level to lower energy . Fig. =n EPh >=E1 Fig.(4) Absorbsion If photon Energy greater or equal to the Energy level then the electron transfer to level n= Inf.a- Absorbsion The electron absorb energy when it excite from lower energy level to higher energy level ..(5) Photo Ionization E1 b- Emission In this case the electron loss the amount of energy as photon (Light).

Semiconductor is subtended material between conductor and Insolate material. Energy Gap (E. Valance Band (V. this electrons cause conducing in material. Semiconductors and insulators (on the basic of band diagram) The different electrical behavior of materials can be explained qualitatively in terms of their energy band diagrams because each solid has its own Ec characteristics energy band structure as shownband in Fig(7).Ekbal Hussian Ali E E(ev) ev Forbidden gap Valence band Valence Eg >=3ev band Ec x x Metals Semicoducors Conductors Ev Conduction band Insulators Forbidden gap . There are two type of Bands.B) and Conduction Band (C.2 Material Types There are three type of material : i. Insulator is very poor conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very high. the energy gap between valance band and conduction band small. (14) 2. ii.B call free electrons. it’s the region separates between valence band and conduction band. Conduction Conduction band Eg Valence band E ev Ev Dr. for that the semiconductor is transfer case between conducted and insolated material.(two types intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor) Energy Band. its know as group of orbital have the same performance.EV ….G).B).1 Metals. The energy gap is Eg =EC . As shown Fig. The electron in C.(). iii. Conductor is excellent conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very small.

Ekbal Hussian Ali .(7) Band diagram for conductor. semiconductor and insulator Dr.Fig.

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