Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements For the technical writing/seminar report work for the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering.





No 69122520002 for the technical writing/seminar report for the partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering of PRIST University puducherry. During the academic year 2012-2013.S. Staff in charge Head of the department Submitted to university practical examination held on……………………………….A. External Examiner Internal Examiner .BALAJI with Reg.PONNAIYAH RAMAJAYAM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PRIST UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING PUDUCHERRY BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project titled “TRENCHLESS CONSTRUCTION TEQUNIQUES” is a Bonafide Record of work done by Mr.

Associate Dean PRIST University.P.DHANAUSHKODI. I would be failing in my duty if I don’t acknowledge the immense help extended by my classmates. PRIST University. who have always be with me in all my trials and tribulations and encouraging me to complete . We also wish to express our thanks to our beloved Guide and Coordinator THIRU. An endeavor over a long period can be successfully only with the advice and support of many well wishers.S.KAILASAM KOUMARAVELOU.MADIVANAN. for his continuous encouragement and disciplined suggestions which helped us to complete our Technical writing report in the stipulated time.N.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We owe our thanks to the almighty and our beloved parents for their grace in making this Technical writing report work a grand success. We are elected to place in record our most sincere appreciation and thanks to our honorable Founder-chancellor Dr.MURUGESANAnd our Pro chancellor Dr.SIVAKUMAR for his constant inspiration and support for the successful completion of technical report writing work in time.PSM. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and appreciation to all of them.KANNAN and also extend my thanks to our vice chancellor Dr. puducherry campusfor helping us by providing all the facilities for the successful completion of our Technical writing. with in the stipulated time.S. I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to Asst Prof M. We acknowledge our grateful thanks to AsstProf.S. puducherry campus and also our Head of department of Civil Engineering Department for his constant encouragement during the Technical writing report.ETHIRAJALU We express our profound thanks to our beloved Director Dr.

4 Microtunneling techniques 3.5 description of micro tunneling techniques 3.6 pipes used for micro tunneling 10 10 11 14 14 15 .1 Trenchless construction Method and implementation support 2.2 Standard practice for Direct Design Of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction 2.3 Use of Trenchless Technologies For Comprehensive Asset Management Of Culverts and Drainage Structures.3 Various steps in pipe jacking techniques 3.CONTENT Acknowledgement Abstract Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Description of Pipe jacking method 3.1 Pipe jacketing techniques 3. 08 08 09 Chapter 3 Trenchless techniques 3.1 Trenchless technology 03 05 07 Chapter 2 Literature review 2.

13 Fig 1. Emerged cutterhead assemblyAfter jacked Concrete pipe emerges from theReception pit. View of cutter head assembly from inside of pipe Jacking equipment 13 Fig 1.2.6 Fig 1.5 Fig 1. Note track leading out of pipe for Spoilbucket removal 13 Fig 1. the pipejacking operation is complete.4.3.Conclusion Reference 16 17 List of figure Fig 1. Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutter Head assembly.7 Cutter head on Akkerman pipe jack apparatus polymer concrete reinforced pipe used micro tunneling process 13 15 15 .1 various steps in pipe jacking technique 12 Fig 1.

ABSTRACT Trenchless technology offers methods by which underground utilities may be installed without damage to overlying pavement. Trenchless methods offer several potential advantages. Trenchless technology covers any techniques. In the past ten years. which minimizes or eliminates the need for surface excavation or reduces environmental damage or reduces the associated costs for underground work. repeated improvements in technology. construction vibration. and other utilities are minimally affected. development of all kinds of underground napping techniques. dust. tunneling devices and specialist materials and equipment In addition. renewal and repair it includes in. including the equipment. Trenchless methods have minimal impact on economic activity in congested areas. and training in the technology for designers. Traffic is not interrupted. and inspectors has not kept pace with developments. and other environmental impacts. engineers. if proper precautions are observed. It can reduce environmental damage. Trenchless technologies are also generally safer both for the construction workers and the general public . Social costs and produce in alternative to open trench method of installation. processes or procedures. They can reduce noise. materials. machines and materials involved. and methods have advanced faster than the guidelines and specifications for use of the technology.

and the training of engineers. have not kept pace with new developments. availability of new and different . construction specifications. new and more stringent safety regulations. design and operation of these systems. The development of these technologies provides new solutions for installing and maintaining urban utility systems but also introduces new issues into the planning. Most all governmental agencies. and underground conditions (containing natural or artificial obstructions. impacts on the conduct of site investigations for utility work. with a few notable exceptions. there has been remarkable progress in development of new trenchless technology equipment and methods. Trenchless technology has become Popular for underground utility construction road crossings. Environmental concerns.1 TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES Demand for installation of new underground utility systems in congested areas with existing utility lines has increased the necessity for innovative and economical systems to go underneath and alongside inplace facilities. and impacts on the long-term arrangements of urban utility systems as the techniques are used more extensively. materials. high water table. Preparation of design guidelines. equipment. process Inspection. In recent years. are not current with capabilities and limitations of the newmethods. construction and permit inspectors in contracts and bid documents. difficult types of pipe and other advancements. improvements in steering and tracking systems. social (indirect) costs. These new issues have impacts on the engineers who plan and design the systems.) and new developments in equipment Have increased demand for trenchless technology. etc. materials testing. These developments have produced improvement in jacking force capacity and increased drive length.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION: 1. Trenchless technology methods include all methods of installing or renewing underground utility systems with minimum disruption of the surface or subsurface.

Director. anew material specification has also been added to the Standard Specifications as a result – Section 1075 –Centrifugally-cast Fiberglass Reinforced Observation Polymer of an Mortar actual Pipe.E. Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education. Field observation and testing of four different types of horizontal boring and four different borings pipe has types led of for a to installed the forthese successful performance Installation how to prevent settlement and heave during highway construction in the future formaintaining pavement integrity. Michigan State University. such a s construction pipejacking installation was followed by three separate horizontal bore installations on property of the University of Missouri-Columbia. P. The design criteria include: structural aspects. 2.CHAPTER 2: Comparison of the four types of horizontal boring has led to a better overall understanding ofthe processes involved. Center of Louisiana University Technological development specification new Pipe Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction covers design and recommended installation procedures for precast concrete pipe for jacking in byHorizontal Boring. . stormwater. crack width control. thrust. as well as for utilities and access ways.2 Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction Bennett David. In addition. piping This Standard for the intended conveyance of sewage. P. and requirements for handling and installation. One of the horizontal bores installed centrifugally cast fiberglass reinforcedpolymer mortar pipe for the very first time in the world using horizontal directional drilling. and LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Trenchless construction method and implementation support Mohammad Najafi. Brett Gunnink. Department of Civil Engineering Montana State University. Section 734 of the Missouri Standard Specifications for Highway Construction.E. circumferential flexure. MoDOT trenchless addresses construction. Department Chairman. and drainage. longitudinal thrust produced by jacking. shear and racial tension strengths. industrial wastes.

inspection of renewal.The structural design of concrete pipe is based on a limits state design procedure that accounts for strength and serviceability criteria and is consistent with the procedures in Section 17 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for technologies are not disruptive to transportation systems and provide safer construction operations for both workers and the general public. a distribution infrastructure assets and environmental exposure. Lacking is a comprehensive multi-scale engineering study that would be conducted for decision making at upper this management project level. While the challenge is well understood. trenchless technologies are many and some of these methods are new. P. asset management procedures for culverts are a complex issue. Culverts have the peculiarity of being characterized as both buried pipes in small diameters with no access and worker entry and larger ones with possibility of manual inspection and repair/renewal. However. Further challenges geospatial for DOT’s are of the wide limitations. Each method has its own capabilities and Highway Bridges. and while viable. culverts renovation. appreciated and addressed. budget allocations and resources limitations represent a major barrier to a comprehensive asset Therefore. and and management program. .3 Use of Trenchless Technologies for Comprehensive Asset Management of Culverts and Drainage Structures. Sam Salem. provides comprehensive study and decision making procedures for asset management using trenchless technologies to address the construction. As such. and can benefit a great deal from an optimal asset management program that incorporates new trenchless technologies.E. 2. have little field performance history in culverts and transportation systems. Trenchless drainage infrastructures. and can be applied in certain existing conditions to be effective. University of Cincinnati DOT’s and cities in the US are facing severe and rising needs of renewing heavily deteriorated infrastructure. they provide a new design life to existing culverts and drainage structures that may double or triple the original design life of these assets. If they are used at appropriate application.

If there is any possibility of the excavation face collapsing. The thrust power of the hydraulic jacks’ forces the pipe forward through the ground as the face is being excavated.1. For personnel health and safety. When referred to as a process.2 DESCRIPTION OF PIPEJACKING METHOD: Pipe Jacking is a method for installing a prefabricated pipe through the ground from a drive shaft to a reception shaft. slurry systems. Both the excavation and spoil removal processes require workers to be inside the pipe during the jacking operation. After each pipe segment has been installed. 3. Excavation can be accomplished by hand mining or mechanical excavation within a shield or by a tunnel boring othertrenchless technology methods. the rams of the jacks are retracted machine (TBM). a minimum pipe diameter of 42-inches is recommended. Chain conveyors.CHAPTER 3: VARIOUS TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUES: 3. auger systems. soil stabilization techniques must be considered. Dewatering or grouting are common methods of soil stabilization. pipe jacking is regarded as an installation technique. As the excavation proceeds soil is transported out of the jacked pipe and drive shaft either manually or mechanically. The design of the drive shaft is critical to the success of the project. it implies a tunneling operation with the use of thrust boring and pushing pipes with hydraulic jacking force. This concept of a jacking system is adopted by manytrenchless technologies. and vacuum extraction systems. belt. However.PIPE JACKING: The term pipejacking can be used to describe a specific installation technique as well as a process applicable to so that another pipe segment can be placed in position for the jacking cycle to begin again. including auger boring and micro tunneling. The excavation method selection is based on soil conditions. The pipe is moved by jacks located in the drive shaft. for the purposes of this researchreport. The soil conveyance systems include wheeled carts or skips. The shaft floor and thrust reaction structure must be designed to withstand the large jacking forces required to push the pipe through the .

such as unanticipated and obstructions changed soil boulders. Shaft size will vary depending on the type of jacking and excavation equipment used. Other concerns include proper design of the shaft to withstand the large jacking thrust and that jacking thrust is uniformly transferred through a properly designed joint material. conditions that would require different equipment to excavate. Major factors to be considered are the presence of groundwater. Typically. The over excavation above or ahead of the pipe is to be avoided. Pipe jacking equipment that has a pipe lubrication system can decrease the jacking forces necessary by 20-30 percent. external grouting is usually required. the working space should be from 4 feet to 10 feet wider than the diameter of the pipe and from 10 feet to 25 feet longer than the length of pipe sections being installed. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. The required working space must provide adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft. prediction of subsurface soil behavior. With the use of the proper excavation methods many types of ground conditions can be overcome. if overexcavation occurs or voids develop. The primary concern is the the pipe invert.ground and withstand the weight of heavy pipe segments being placed on them repeatedly. Sandy clay is the most favorable soil condition if the water table is not above .


4. Note track leading out of pipe forspoil bucket removal Figure 1.3. Emerged cutterhead assembly.Figure 1.Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutterhead assembly. . View of cutterheadassembly from inside of pipe jacking equipment Figure 1.Cutterhead on Akkerman pipe After jacked concrete pipe emerges from the jack apparatus Reception pit. Figure 1.2.5. the pipejacking operation is complete .

and changed soil conditions that would require different equipment to excavate. including boulders and solid rock. length and equipment dimensions. Typically. • Pipe lubrication system.3. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. A wide variety of MTBM cutter heads are available that provide the capability to handle a range of soil conditions.01 percent of the drive length depending on many factors. the most important being the skill of the machine operator.4MICROTUNNELINGTECHNI QUES Micro tunneling (MT) is a method using a remotely controlled.5 DESCRIPTION OF MICROTUNNELING TECHNIQUES • Microtunnel boring machine. • Laser guidance and remote control system. Wet sand for slurry MT and stable sandy clay for auger MT are the most favorable soil conditions for each. Major factors to be considered are the presence of groundwater. The primary concern is the prediction of subsurface soil behavior. Microtunneling is very accurate. • Spoil removal system. • Jacking or propulsion system. guided pipe jacking process that provides continuous support to the excavation face. Line and grade can be maintained to 0. independent systems are incorporated into Microtunneling systems. unanticipated obstructions such as boulders. The required working space must provided adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft. the drive shaft would range from 16 feet to 50 feet wide and from 35 feet to 100 feet long depending on pipe diameter. Five Working space typically would range from 20 feet to 40 feet wide and 75 feet to 150 feet long. 3. Spoils are removed by either a pumped slurry or by mechanical auger. . It can be used in a wide range of soil conditions while keeping close tolerances to line and grade.

For linkage of pipes special pump buckets are used in order to eliminate water entry through connection joints.6 PIPES USED FORMICROTUNNELING Polymer-concrete. ceramic.1 MICROTUNNELING PROCESS . FIG 2.3. glass reinforced plastic and asbestos-cement pipes of all diameters are used for trenchless laying of the communications with microtunneling. reinforced concrete.

52pp. they are the only way to get the projects done.CONCLUSION: The Indian trenchless market is now on the path of growth and expansion. In addition to these presence of INDSTT for the last eight years has lent substantial support to providers presence the to and REFERENCES 1) American Society of Civil Engineers. as the demands for such services are rapidly growing today. we are reusing the old pipe. All that metal that we are replacing means that traditional excavation is not only inconvenient but wasteful. Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Box Sections for Jacking in Trenchless global trenchless service achieve the market networking. ASCE Standard 27-00. One must Construction. By relining (or by replacing smaller sections for water pipes). Further. 51 pp. 2) American Society of Civil Engineers. 2000. presents a challenge for the global stakeholders but the opening markets have somewhat mitigated such risks to certain extent. as the magnitude of projects available in the Indian markets is substantially large. with the project owners realizing that these techniques are useful and. Other positive points are the stable currency and the democratic governance systems. Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction. Horizontal Auger Boring Projects. ASCE Standard 28-00. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. Its always a good policy to repurpose and reuse. 2004. in certain cases. As a society. therefore consider expanding in the Indian markets for a better future. turning it into a form for a new Cast-In-Place Pipe as well as structural reinforcement and a bonding surface. 106. however. Trenchless technology is yet another extension of this same idea. 52pp. 3) American Society of Civil Engineers. need to take notice of this market. there is need for more trenchless service providers and specialists. 2000. The low wage economy that is prevalent in India. Globaltrenchless service providers conservation. we are looking more towards renewable resources and .

12) Wilde. Jadranka. and Renewal. June 12. Report No. HDD Consortium Horizontal Good PracticesGuidelines. Controlling and Reducing theFrequency of Pavement Utility Cuts. Raymond L. Champaign. Najafi. 23pp. National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCHRP Synthesis 242. prepared for the United States ArmyCorps of Engineers Engineering 5) Trenchless Installation of Conduits Research And Development Center. and Crovetti. Manual for 7) Najafi. 1985. National Research Council of Transportation Research Board.4) Bennett. Tanwani. Vermont.. Final Report for the Street Excavation Impact Assessment for the City ofBurlington. Highway Trenchless Technology – Pipeline and Utility Design. Jadranka. Raymond L. Grant. United States Department of TransportationFederal Administration. James. TechnologyCenter Technological University Technical Report #2001-03. Ariaratnam. Iseley. M. 19pp.. Guidelines for Pipe Ramming. 1997. Construction. Tom.... of Trenchless Louisiana and Como. 8) Shahin. Mohammed. McGraw-Hill. Prepared by ERES Consultants. David.. Tom.. Raj. W. 1999 Trenchless and Soil Engineering Research And Development Center. Beneath Roadways – a Synthesis ofHighway Practice. 76pp. 173 pp. Carolyn A. 2001.Y. and Sterling. 2001. and Sterling. J. Samuel. 2001. Construction Methods CompatibilityManual. 2004. 11) Simicevic. 10) Moiling. and Gokhale. 9) Simicevic. Mohammad. and Nelson.A. 489pp. 3rd ed. prepared for the United States ArmyCorps of Engineers 6) and Iseley. Patricia K. 102pp. Trenchless TechnologyCenter of Louisiana Technological University Technical Report #2001-04. Guidelines for Impact . 2002.Sanjiv B. 1985. FHWAIF-02-064. Casey. IL.

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