Ohm's Law Formulas for D-C Circuits.

E ' IR '

P ' PR I

P ' I 2R ' EI '

E2 R

Ohm's Law Formulas for A-C Circuits and Power Factor.

P ' E ' IZ ' I cos1

PZ cos1

P ' I 2 Z cos1 ' IE cos1 '

E 2 cos1 Z

In the above formulas 1 is the angle of lead or lag between current and voltage and cos 1 = P/EI = power factor or pf. Active power (in watts) P R pf ' ' pf ' Apparent power (in volt&amps) EI Z Note: Active power is the "resistive" power and equals the equivalent heating effect on water.

Voltage/Current Phase Rule of Thumb Remember "ELI the ICE man" ELI: ICE: Voltage (E) comes before (leads) current (I) in an inductor (L) Current (I) comes before (leads) Voltage (E) in a capacitor (C)

Resistors in Series

Rtotal ' R1 % R2 ' R3 % ... Rt ' R1 R2 R1 % R2
Resistors in Parallel, General Formula

Two Resistors in Parallel

Rtotal '

1 1 1 1 % % %... R1 R2 R3

Resonant Frequency Formulas *Where in the second formula f is in kHz and L and C are in microunits.
f ' 1 2B LC , or f ' 159.2( LC L ' 1 , 4B2f 2C or L ' 25,330( f 2C C ' 1 , 4B2f 2L or C ' 25,330( f 2L


G '

1 R

(for D&C circuit) 1 2Bf C

G ' 1 2Bf XC

R R %X 2

(for A&C circuit) XL 2Bf

Reactance Formulas

XC '

C '

XL ' 2BfL RX R %X
2 2

L '

Impedance Formulas

Z ' R 2%(XL&XC)2 XL R XC R

(for series circuit)

Z '

(for R and X in parallel)

Q or Figure of Merit

Q '



a resistor marked blue-red-gold-gold has a resistance of 6. Electric power for ships commonly uses the delta configuration. But if third color band is gold. 2-7.1 and if silver multiply by 0.2 ohms and a 5% tolerance. Do not confuse with fourth color-band that indicates tolerance. while commercial electronic and aircraft applications commonly use the wye configuration.Frequency Response Inductor * Capacitor * Resister Pass Block "Cartoon" memory aid DC Blocked DC Attenuate DC Passes Low Freq Attenuate * Attenuate * AC High Freq Block Pass Attenuate High Freq Passes Attenuate * Attenuation varies as a function of the value of the each device and the frequency High Freq Blocked Sinusoidal Voltages and Currents Effective value = 0. switching any two of the phases will put it back in the proper sequence.637 x peak value Peak value ˆ Effective value = 1.707 x peak value [Also known as Root-Mean Square (RMS) value] Half Cycle Average value = 0.2 .01. Thus. Color Code for House Wiring: Black or red White Green or bare PURPOSE: HOT NEUTRAL (Return) GROUND Wye (Y) or Star Delta Color Code for Chassis Wiring: Red White Black Third band Multiplier .01 Silver Fourth band Tolerance 5% Gold 10% Silver 20% No color Color Code for Resistors: First and second band: (and third band # of zeros if not gold/silver) 0 Black 5 Green 1 Brown 6 Blue 2 Red 7 Violet 3 Orange 8 Gray 4 Yellow 9 White The third color band indicates number of zeros to be added after figures given by first two color bands. multiply by 0.1 Gold .11 x average value Peak Effective Average TIME Three-phase AC Configurations (120E phase difference between each voltage) If the connection to a three phase AC configuration is miswired.414 x effective value = 1.