You are on page 1of 24

Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector



For the purposes of this chapter, building construction will concentrate mainly upon simple industrial/commercial building design and construction. Domestic dwellings are amply covered by other sources but it will be noticed that some of the design technology is very similar and therefore some items are included in the section in traditional buildings. At the end of this chapter you should be able to:

• list the parts of a simple industrial/commercial building • state the main functions of the components that make up a simple building • list the principal services required of a simple building • list how to gain safe access to services • describe typical materials found in the MES sector • describe how to deal with insulating materials found in the MES sector.


Heating and Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

Traditional building construction
If you have travelled around the United Kingdom you may have noticed that older style industrial/commercial buildings are built of the materials that were close to hand at the time of construction. Hence, in the North of England, Scotland and Wales we have a predominance of buildings erected with granite or sandstone walls, with floors of stone slabs, and roof structures made from timber covered with slate or stone. Southern areas more often use locally produced bricks, with timber roof and floor construction. Whatever the design and method of construction, all industrial/commercial buildings have the same requirement; that is, a clear unobstructed internal floor area to allow people to move about easily and accommodate office equipment or manufacturing production machinery. Therefore, you may have noticed that older, traditionally built buildings have strong thick walls supporting high roof structures that have wide clear areas underneath. An example of this would be a theatre that has hundreds of seats, all of which require an unobstructed view of the stage. When looking at the construction of industrial/commercial buildings we need to appreciate the division between traditional building methods and framed building methods in relation to the MES engineer. We will cover the latter in the next section. The installation and maintenance procedures may be different with each type of construction. Visit public buildings in your area and try to imagine how they were built.

Industrial buildings, e.g. factory, mill, warehouse, store. Commercial buildings, e.g. office, school, theatre, hospital. Can you think of any more examples?

Figure 6.01 Types of building

High rise (over seven storeys)

Medium rise Low rise (four to seven storeys) (one to three storeys)





J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF

The gap (or cavity) between the two walls acts as a barrier against damp and provides a measure of heat insulation.) Facing bricks 102. On the inside. in real terms the features of the domestic house have changed very little. making the building more thermally efficient. A continuous damp proof membrane in the bricks above ground level prevents damp being drawn up the wall. internal walls act in most parts as dividers to segregate each activity of the rooms. which is covered with plasterboard and then finished off. Window board 50 or 65 mm insulated cavity Solid ground floor Clear cavity DPM Weephole Load-bearing concrete blocks Strip foundation Partially filled cavity Figure 6. Outline of roof 6 mm cavity closer Block inner leaf (90 mm min.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Traditional buildings are those that are constructed along the lines of a typical domestic house.02 Cavity wall section Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0570 8/07/05 Cavity filling Clear cavity Clear cavity Partially filled cavity Fully filled cavity Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0576 8/07/05 135 Figure 6. The gap is increasingly filled with an insulating material. in that we have floors.03 Cavity wall with insulation . but larger. Solid walls do this quite well.5 mm Steel lintel (with insulation) Internal plastered reveal Direct glazed window frame Brick external reveal Wall tie DPC 150 mm min. as building materials have improved in quality and availability. We now employ a double wall construction. walls and roofing the same design as in bygone days. a wet one on the outside and a dry one on the inside. they have influenced what the building is constructed from. but are expensive to construct and have to be very thick to stop water from penetrating the building. Their construction could be of brick. which retains the original function of the cavity but slows down the transfer of heat from inside to outside. plastered over and then decorated. What we see today as a house has evolved over many centuries and. keep out water and to keep the occupants warm. They do not require insulation and therefore are made thinner. However. or a timber framework (called studwork). Wall construction The walls are there to hold up the roof.

you might find the cladding to be strips of wood (laths) nailed to the studding. made from concrete on a damp proof membrane and laid over hardcore or of block and beam construction. cladding and plaster.04 Internal wall construction Double joist support Did you know? If you were to look behind the walls of older type properties. plastered over and then decorated Section Flooring Elevation Ceilings and floors Internal ceilings in traditional buildings follow a similar framed walls. being made of timber joists. Some ground floors are solid.05 Timber flooring Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0567 6/07/05 136 .Heating and Ventilation. Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0577 8/07/05 construction to timber Floor construction in domestic buildings comprises floorboards or sheets of chipboard laid over timber joists. Can you identify any other examples where you live? Insulation Plastic mesh support Timber joist Figure 6. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 400 mm Ceiling joists Folding wedges against wall Head plate Noggins Stud 75 x 50 mm headrail Noggins Plan Ceiling joists 600 mm Sole plate Floor joists Sole plate Figure 6.

000 centres 102 � 89 � 9. tile.5 fixing cleats to both sides of gusset precast concrete padstone 8 mm thick gusset plate rivet or bolt connections 64 � 51 � 6.5 angle cleat 89 � 76 � 7. a roof constructed on an angle.07 Solid floor construction Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0568 6/07/05 Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT g0564 6/07/05 Roofing In a cold and wet country the roof keeps out rain and snow. 150 mm min. plus any increase in weight brought about by the addition of rain or snow.5 angle purlin 152 � 76 � 9. Short spans could use a traditional timber design but longer spans require a different approach. lattice beam or portal beam construction. trusses spaced at 3. Reinforced concrete beam 1 metre 150 mm hardcore Weak concrete in cavity below ground level Mass concrete strip 600 x 3000 mm Figure 6. and covered with slate.08 Example of a steel truss roof 51 � 51 � 6. Longer spans tend to be constructed using reinforced concrete. aluminium or lead as well as traditional roof coverings. as it sheds water quickly into gutters at the eaves or lowest edges of the roof. Medium spans generally utilise the truss roof construction made from steel sections. It can be pitched or flat. known as pitched. even on traditional buildings. A roof must be able to support itself.5 angle cleat 8 mm thick gusset plate 8 mm thick mild steel gusset plate 64 � 51 � 6. There is no typical industrial/commercial building roof.2 angle tie all centre lines converge on common points 137 J6990 .Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Poured concrete Sand/cement Sand/cement grout screed Block 50 mm 100 mm DPC Weephole 150 mm 50 mm screed 100 mm concrete slab DPM 50 mm insulation DPM DPC 150mm 150 mm min. For centuries. stone or metal sheeting.8 angle rafter Figure 6.3 angle struts alternative ~ 200 � 75 s/w purlin screwed to 152 � 102 � 9.06 Block and beam floor construction Figure 6. Commercial roof covering can sometimes include decorative finishes like copper.2 angle tie 8 mm thick gusset plate 64 � 51 � 9. was the most efficient. The only limiting factor is the practical ability to span distances.

10 Example of a steel portal J6990 roof HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF AW_085 AW by HL Studios 138 .09 Example of a castellated beam roof J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF UB spanning AW_084 member or beam AW by HL Studios Welded gusset to haunch or knee Floor level RC foundation Typical steel portal frame profile Welded gusset to apex Did you know? It is not uncommon to come across flat roofs that are not exactly flat but have a very slight slope. but the pitched roof is generally preferred UC supporting member or column Purlin cleat UB spanning member Angle purlin Welded apex gusset plate out of UB section Ridge plates welded to spanning members and bolted together on site Welded web plates to both sides Alternative apex details Sheeting rail cleat Web plates welded to both sides Purlin cleat Welded haunch gusset out of UB section Alternative knee joint details Fixing plate welded to beam and bolted to column Column Figure 6. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration top flange web butt weld bottom flange hexagonal voids Figure 6.Heating and Ventilation.

PVC for window frames. gutters and drainage. in more recent years. plaster board and. 139 . joists and rafters tile and slate for roofs plaster.11 Examples of timber roof construction Construction materials Typical construction materials for traditional buildings are: Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0590 13/07/05 • • • • brick. stud work. roof beams. concrete block or lightweight insulating block for walls timber for floor boards.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Punctured holes Galvanised steel plate Truss plate Alternative truss plate Weatherboard so t Spikes pressed out from plate Trussed rafter Fascia Ridge Heinemann NVQ2 Plumbing 9pt Zurich BT fig0581 9/07/05 Rafter Purlin Rafter Joist Fascia Joist Wallplate Strap Soffit boarding Figure 6.

roof and floor span between main beams Upstand beam as parapet Columns Main beams to columns to centre access corridor Floor slab spans between main beams and acts as a tie to frame Main beams span along length of building Figure 6. It may be a low rise building. You may have noticed that some new buildings look like they are made totally from glass. the external glass and metal (and sometimes brickwork) of the building is there to make the building look nice and keep out the elements. AW_087 AW by HL Studios 140 . Floors and stairs tend to be made of concrete to take the load of the furniture and people.Heating and Ventilation. attached to the frame. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Modern industrial/commercial building construction The design of modern industrial/commercial buildings is based on a totally different concept from traditional methods. aluminium. HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF metal sheet cladding. walls.12 Modern building framework Typical framed building materials would be reinforced concrete. roofing as well as services. or a multi-floor high rise building like an office block. and to help isolate each level in the event of a fire in the building. floors. for example a retail store. The underlying idea of the modern industrial unit is to produce a building that can be modified quickly and cheaply as the building tenancy changes. It does not hold up the roof. sub-beams and columns. glass. The flexibility to alter the internal features is now built into the design. steelwork J6990 concrete block work and columns and beams. However. brickwork. The core of the building consists of a steel or reinforced concrete frame made up of beams. with everything else.

ductwork and pipes installed in the space between. spaces above a ceiling. Pipes or cables G. like roof spaces. and. see page 76) incorporating both building climate control and security. Flexible pipe Access panel Insulating board Floor finish Filling with plastic material (a) Flexible services (b) Floor duct Removable panel Insulating board Tee or angle type support Chase Frame Plaster Access door with insulating board at rear Plaster (c) Recessed type (d) Partially recessed for medium-sized pipes and cables Figure 6. L. ductwork and plant generally utilise spaces formed naturally in the building structure. A lot of older schools and hospitals are like this. air conditioning. Piped services may start from plant rooms in a basement (known as up feed systems) or more typically at roof level (down feed systems). services have been installed as an after thought. As walls are temporary partitions within the building. The pipes. usually as the building has been modernised. The inclusion of mechanical services in modern buildings is now seen as essential to the whole design. and provision is included for all items that service them: electrical. In some cases they are not concealed but left exposed as a feature of the building. These are the access points to floor ducts and are there for maintenance access. most heating and air conditioning equipment is suspended from the underside of the reinforced concrete floor above. The ceilings also hang from the floor above and are removable to expose the cables. or basements and cellars. J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF AW_088 AW by HL Studios 141 . heating. Ease of access for installation and servicing is part of the overall plan. The exceptions to this can be where floor ducts or wall ducts and shafts were introduced in the original design. They were originally built without the need for heating and air conditioning. therefore. These buildings do not cater for the easy inclusion of mechanical engineering services like pipes and ductwork. as we know it today. waste water. The basement area is usually where the central plant is housed and pipework and cables rising in vertical shafts supply all the floors above. You may have noticed rectangular panels in the floor at your school.13 Sections through wall and floor ducts Services typically are contained in a central service core and radiate out to the outer perimeter of each floor. concealed by a false ceiling. together with central control systems (BMS – building management systems.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Mechanical services in buildings It is a more difficult job to install heating and RAC components in older traditional buildings.

each of which can be lifted out for access.16 Computer flooring Base plate screwed or bonded to structural floor There are always variations! J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF AW_091 AW by HL Studios 142 . J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF AW_089 AW by HL Studios Cables Pipes Figure 6.14 Ceiling grid Composite panel or ceiling tile Tee support frame Luminaire Vertical shafts have access doors on each floor level. ventilation ducts and pipework Figure 6.15 Vertical service shafts Built-out for large pipes and cables Open plan offices now have a special floor above the structural. The upper AW level of Studios the two floors can be entirely by HL formed of square sections. reinforced J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BWpurposely PDF concrete floor. The concept was originally introduced for computer rooms but is now extended to general offices. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Cable tray and conduit Pipework secured to structural floor Air conditioning duct Structural floor Fire stopping Steel angle cleat and hanger (length varies to suit service provision) Figure 6. with the small space between the two there to AW_090 accommodate services. Countersunk screws into support plate Adjustable leg 600 � 600 mm floor panel.Heating and Ventilation. 30–40 mm thickness 100 to 600 mm Lock nut Void for cable trays.

However. in most instances. Fixings into reinforced concrete should use good quality anchors made for the job and avoid the structural reinforcement where possible. the removal of false ceiling tiles for access to building services requires some safe procedures to be observed. Any fixing to them must clamp to the structure. The area above the ceiling should be checked for dust and foreign objects left behind from previous operations. Trailing leads should be not present as a trip hazard to others. so that the management of the building can control where and how people work.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Safe working methods in industrial/ commercial buildings Fixing to the frame of the building Beams or columns should not be cut into or welded to. It is normal to have to obtain a permit before starting work and the permit will stipulate the safety precautions required for the task. 143 . • • • • • • The area should be cordoned off to warn others that work is in progress and notices posted to that effect. by simply lifting and twisting to one side and then dropping out through the hole in the grid. These precautions could include: • • • • barriers around the work area with signs advising of the hazards a check on air quality if the shaft or duct is sealed ensuring that adequate lighting is available in some cases confined space procedure may be required. Access equipment used should be suitable for the purpose and carry a current safety certificate. Adequate lighting should be arranged. Safe methods of working around open shafts and floor ducts Access to services contained in floor and vertical shafts are readily available but it is important that some safety procedures be adopted when open access is being gained. Ceiling panels should be removed carefully with clean hands and placed where they will not be damaged. If the site is occupied there should be a ‘permit to work’ system in place. Safe access to ceiling spaces False ceiling panels or tiles are easily removed.

when cutting holes for services in building structures. It is also an alloy of iron and carbon. which involves forcing the material out through a circular slot under high pressure Low carbon steel (LCS).Heating and Ventilation. They should be cut carefully to conform to the structural features of the building. Of the range of steels available. If there is no builder on site. sheet and plate. including the following: • Definition Extrusion is a process for forming pipes. Stainless steel is a corrosion resistant steel. Aluminium is a base metal used in the MES sector as a material for producing cast components. to provide the corrosion resistance. It can be alloyed with magnesium and silicon to improve its mechanical properties. Steel is primarily an alloy of iron and carbon. Galvanised steel is a product that is made from LCS and coated with zinc. The role of the engineer is to indicate accurately where the holes are to be cut or formed by drilling. which adheres to the surface. It is a basic material for pipes. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Holes in structures It is common practice. for instance cutting brickwork in sympathy with the bond of the bricks. Holes in brickwork are usually formed using a hammer and chisel. but with the addition of other metals. It can also be obtained as extrusions and sheet materials. Alloys of copper are used extensively for the production of valves and other fittings. It can also be obtained as a sheet material for weather cladding on buildings. which is strongly resistant to oxidation. which is used in the formation of pipes and fittings. Making good should also follow the original pattern of the bond and be of similar finish. The galvanising process involves cleaning the manufactured object in acid and then hot dipping it in molten zinc. pipe supports. for instance on a domestic property where the installer may be alone. MES materials There is wide range of materials used in the MES sector. Holes in reinforced concrete structures are normally cast into the structure as the construction proceeds. Copper is a base metal. then the engineer would be responsible for the task. sections. like chromium and nickel. • • • • 144 . or core drilled. gunmetal and bronze. It is normal for the MES engineer on site to liaise with the builder to ensure that mistakes are kept to a minimum. fittings and components like sink units and work tops. The principal copper alloys are brass. LCS is next to pure iron in being soft and easy to shape and form. to use a builder to cut the holes and make good. In its low carbon form it is used for the manufacture of pipes. with the amount of carbon determining its properties. fittings.

J6990 HED Mechanical Eng BW PDF AW_092_J6990 AW by HL Studios Copper tube and fittings Copper tube is produced by extrusion. and heavy. or just plain. Fittings for LCS pipe are manufactured from either steel.4 metres and can be obtained with screw and socket ends. 40. and special skills and precautions are needed to work with it. more correctly. and even internally for pipes. so the product is of uniform size throughout with no seam. with nominal bore in millimetres. During manufacture. guttering. Remember Copper pipe fittings intended for plumbing and heating systems are not compatible with RAC systems 145 . Identification.17 LCS pipe fittings near the ends. This produces a bore diameter that can fluctuate in size. Cast iron fittings are used extensively for fire control systems and large valves. traditionally indicated by a red band painted around the pipe Figure 6. nominal bore – nb for short. 150. There are two main grades of LCS pipe: medium. It is toxic. supplied with end caps to prevent ingress of moisture and foreign matter. It has been used extensively on roofs. are: 6. 80. Refrigeration and air conditioning pipework requires specific graded or pressure rated copper tube suitable to the types of refrigerant in use. 25. Low carbon steel pipe and fittings LCS pipe used in this industry is made to BS 1387. for many centuries. Copper tube for the refrigeration and air conditioning industries is supplied in either soft drawn coils or annealed half hard rigid lengths. Its use is fast reducing but MES engineers will still come across it. 50. 15. Malleable iron is a heat-treated cast iron and is the typical material for LCS pipe fittings. 20. Hence the sizes of pipe are referred to as nominal or. 32. traditionally indicated by a blue band painted around the pipe near the ends. 8. LCS pipe is now being supplied with a red oxide paint coating. A standard length is approximately 6. with the grade of pipe printed in black along its length. Steel fittings include flanges and tubulars (fittings made from pieces of pipe). The range of LCS pipe sizes. 65. characteristics and some uses of common MES materials are covered below. 10. It is supplied either as black or galvanised pipe (see above). the outside diameter of the pipe is kept fairly constant and any difference taken up in the bore of the pipe. 100. Tube size relates to the outside diameter of the tube. It is supplied by grade or ‘table’. 125.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector • Lead is a very soft material and corrosion resistant. malleable iron or cast iron.

It may be plastic coated for installing in concrete floors. Maximum operating temperature is 60°C. Annealing also uses controlled heating and cooling to soften it.Heating and Ventilation.) 146 . It is the thickest copper tube available and can be obtained plastic coated. mains water. and ‘full hard’ relate to the final condition of the material. and new products are being developed all the time. yellow for gas services and blue for cold water supplies. and with a high resistance to chemicals and corrosion. Sizes range from 15 mm to 54 mm. ‘fully hard’ condition and with a very thin wall. the terms ‘half hard’. It is used for process pipework. Table Z. gas and oil installations. Standard sizes are 15 mm and 22 mm. Refrigeration copper tube is manufactured to British and European Standards BSEN 1057 (BS2871 Part 2) and EN 12449. 10 mm and 12 mm diameter. Figure 6. (It is also sold as UPVC or PVCU.18 Copper fittings Plastic materials The types of plastic material used for piping are extensive. Produced for all piped services in buildings. The common plastic products in use for industrial/commercial installations are: • Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC). They are made to be compatible with heat jointing or mechanical jointing techniques. 28 mm. Produced for underground services. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Definition When referring to the condition of copper products. Copper is hardened by cold working and tempered to increase its toughness by controlled heating and cooling. Table X. Standard sizes are 15 mm. It is light. and other liquids that normally would be incompatible for use with metals. Produced for small bore heating installations. 8 mm. Available in rigid lengths. 35 mm. It is available fully annealed and in 25 metre coils. Supplied in ‘half hard’ condition and in rigid lengths of 3 metres or 6 metres. 40 mm and 54 mm diameter. Tables of copper tube suitable for water / plumbing applications are: • Table W. easy to handle and install. It is supplied fully annealed. Table Y. and in coils. with EN378 being the standard for safety and environmental aspects of design and installation of refrigeration systems. 22 mm. • • • Fittings for copper tube are produced from copper or copper alloys. Standard sizes are 6 mm. so that it is easy to work. chlorinated water.

tees. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). face mask and gloves.e. like cylinders or pipework. i. Polypropylene. Used extensively in laboratory waste systems. This has a lower operating temperature range than polypropylene but with a higher resistance to attack by acids. Although classified as inert. i. all services are either insulated to keep heat in (as in heating systems) or to keep heat out (as in cooling systems). The common sheet material used is galvanised low carbon steel.Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector • • • • High impact polyvinyl chloride (HIPVC). The materials that fittings and pipes are made from must be compatible with each other to ensure a good leak free system. Produced for the RAC industry as an insulation for cold surfaces. This is similar to uPVC but able to stand more external wear and abrasion. therefore an operative having to work with these materials should wear full personal protective equipment. Polyurethane foam. glass fibre and foam should be considered as irritants. especially around pipes. It is now very common as an insulating medium. This has an operating range up to 100°C and is very resistant to attack by acids. A natural product that is used less and less but may be found insulating chilled water plant and pipework. Thermal insulation In the pursuit of enhanced thermal efficiency in buildings. unions. Glass fibre. This tends to be on the way out for insulating building services but is still used extensively for building structure insulation. flanges etc. The standard range of fittings are available. 147 . Again. When handling insulation materials a risk assessment should be conducted to ascertain the degree of hazards involved. it will be found in laboratory waste installations. overalls. head covering.e. Cork. elbows. and cover panels for boilers etc. MES sheet materials Sheet materials found in the sector are related to those required for the production of ducting. The range of common insulation materials are: • • • • Foam rubber. Low and high density polythene. It is suitable for all waste water systems and most corrosive chemicals. Sections of insulating material are either provided as sheet that is intended to be cut and formed to shape or preformed to fit around cylindrical items. This has a higher operating temperature to 80°C. Other people in the area should also be advised of the work being carried out.

List the two grades of LCS pipe. Explain where table X copper tube would be used in a building. Under a management of asbestos policy all that may be required is to seal the location and leave it undisturbed. it may require the resources of a specialist contractor to remove and make safe.Heating and Ventilation. such as flues and building panels. 6. Samples will be taken and analysed. Explain what a floor duct is used for. or as asbestos cement products. Knowledge check 1. 148 . An engineer always has the responsibility to be sensible when working around old heating and ventilating plant rooms and not to disturb old insulation. 2. 9. Ensure that any work carried out is completed within the site policy requirements. Redundant materials should only be disposed of via licensed centres. Asbestos is responsible for many deaths each year due to uncontrolled exposure in the past. 4. in the form of insulation around pipework and steelwork. State the purpose of a wall in a traditional building. 7. advice should be immediately sought from the site manager. 8. List three roof covering materials. List three copper alloys. Explain what would need to done if white flaky powder covering pipework is discovered in a plant room. if found on site. Asbestos cement products contain only a small amount of asbestos but still need careful handling when shaping and cutting. 5. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Asbestos may be present in older buildings. Asbestos insulation is very hazardous and. 3. Explain what is meant by the term ‘low carbon steel’. If white or grey flake-like powder is found on a job and is suspected to be asbestos. Wetting the surface and using only hand tools should suppress any dust created from cutting operations. Describe what Personal Protective Equipment may be required when handling insulation materials.

What is the most important item of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) when working on or near a highway? a) safety boots b) high visibility vest c) hard hat d) waterproof clothing. 5. 3. The amount of heat required to raise one kilogramme of a substance through one degree Celsius is its: a) specific heat capacity b) total heat capacity c) latent heat capacity d) sensible heat capacity. A risk assessment is: a) a document completed after an accident b) a document completed by the Health and Safety Executive c) a means of identifying hazards and what might go wrong d) the site engineers office. basic safety and communications 1. If an operator has a grievance he should first raise it with the: a) clerk of works b) site agent c) immediate supervisor d) general foreman. In relation to a building contract a Building Merchant is responsible for: a) ordering materials on time b) controlling material costs c) supplying materials d) selecting materials. A cubic metre of water at maximum density has a mass of: a) 100 kg b) 500 kg c) 900 kg d) 1000 kg 149 . A fire which has started due to an electrical fault and still involves electrical appliances would best be controlled by the use of: a) water b) an asbestos blanket c) sand d) a CO2 extinguisher Chapter 2 Identify the physical forces that have an impact on the MES sector 1. 3. 2. Boyle’s law relates to: a) pressure and temperature b) volume and mass c) pressure and volume d) mass and temperature 2. 4. Complete the following sentence.Multiple choice questions Chapter 1 The MES Sector organisation.

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Chapter 3 Interpret drawing. buildings and spaces is: a) a detailed drawing b) an assembly drawing c) a site plan d) a block plan. What is the colour of propane gas cylinders? a) Black b) Maroon c) Red d) Blue 2. Chapter 5 Calculate and quantify from drawings and set and mark out 1. The formula for calculating the area of a circle is: a) πr2 b) πr c) 2πr d) πr3 Chapter 4 Tools and the work processes used in the MES sector 1. d) Employee holding a full driving licence. One litre of water has a mass of a) 6. d) Painting makes the wood brittle. specifications and data and describe the use of IT in the sector 1. A compression fitting which requires the end of the copper pipe to be worked is referred to as a: a) non-manipulative fitting b) primofit fitting c) manipulative fitting d) victaulic fitting. c) Painting makes the rungs slippery and unsafe.25 kg b) 1 kg c) 10 kg d) 14. Who should operate a plant and equipment? a) Only people over 18 years old. 4. c) Trained and authorised employees. A 5mm length shown on a drawing to represent a true length of 1m is drawn to a scale of: a) 1:50 b) 1:100 c) 1:200 d) 1:500 5. 2.Heating and Ventilation. b) Experience employers. 4. b) Painting makes wood shrink. Why should painted ladders not be used? a) Because it can hide defects.7 kg 2. The device used to step the voltage up to grid values is a: a) transformer b) turbine c) alternator d) generator. The drawing used to show the relationship of a proposed building site to existing roads. A burr inside a pipe should be removed by: a) a half round file b) a flat file c) a hacksaw blade d) a cold chisel 5. The tool used to mark the position of a hole in metal prior to drilling is called a: a) centre punch b) nail punch c) hole punch d) profile punch. 6. A specification for a project contains information on the: a) materials and workmanship b) terms of the contract c) labour cost of site employees d) stages of the work completed. 3. What is the colour of an acetylene cylinder used for oxyacetylene welding? a) Orange b) Black c) Green d) Maroon 3. 150 .

To prevent the plaster cracking. C 2. 3. b) Remove the material. B 5. C 2. B Chapter 5 1.Multiple choice questions 3. remove the material and dispose of it safely. C 2. A 4. B 4. d) Barrier cream. B Chapter 6 1. when a copper pipe passes through a wall it should have a: a) flexible joint b) metal sleeve c) plaster filled joint d) cement mortar joint. d) Damp the material down with water and remove it before carrying out the work. Where a water service pipe enters the building it should be: a) taken up above the damp proof course before entering the building b) fixed in the cavity wall c) sleeved through the outside wall and brought up on an inside wall d) taken below the foundations e) taken through the wall and brought up on the inside face of an external wall. C 3. When working with fibre glass roof insulation. face mask and eye protection. what will be the minimum length of strap required to go round the cylinder? a) 1.57m c) 1500mm d) 1600mm 4. c) Ear defenders. A 3. C 2. C Chapter 6 Understanding building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector 1. When working on a central heating system. you come across some pipe work insulated with a hard white powdery material that could be asbestos. A 3. A 6. What should you do? a) While wearing a face mask. B 5. c) Stop work immediately and tell your supervisor about the material. A 3. D 3. A 4. If a cylinder has a diameter of 500mm. D Chapter 4 1. which of the following items of personal protective (PPE) should you wear? a) Gloves. eye protection and ear defenders. A 3. How many litres of water can be stored in a tank measuring 3m × 2m × 1m high? a) 5000 litres b) 6000 litres c) 1600 litres d) 1200 litres 4. D Chapter 3 1. B 4. C 2. B 2. b) Boots. Answers Chapter 1 1. C 5. eye protection and face mask. 2. C 4. putting it back on the pipe work after finishing the job. 151 . face mask and boots.67m b) 1. D Chapter 2 1.

3 Page 79 Unit 101.4 Page 115 Unit 101. specifications. data and describe the use of IT in the sector Tools and the work processes used in the MES sector Calculate & quantify from drawings and mark and set out Understand building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector .5 Page 133 Unit 101. Student book chapters The MES sector.6 The following table details how the Hvacr training materials resource (joint initiative by Harcourt & SummitSkills) matches to the units requirements of the core units of the H&V and RAC Technical Certificate. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 152 Technical Certificate Core Units Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Page 1 Unit 101.2 Page 65 Unit 101.Heating and Ventilation.1 Page 35 Unit 101. the main bodies & organisations within the sector & the basic safety & communication issues that apply Identify the physical forces that have an impact on the MES sector Interpret drawings.

108. data and describe the use of IT in the sector Pages 74-78 Page 76 Tools and the work processes used in the MES sector Pages 90-92. 9-11. 14. 59-60 Interpret drawings. 68-78 Pages 51. 144 Pages 120-121 Page 126 Understand building construction methods and the materials used in the MES sector Pages 143. 34 Pages 2-10. 59. 20‑29. 43-45 Pages 66. 68-78 Pages 8-11. 18.2 Unit 3 Contribute to the improvement of business products & services for Hvacr activities Element 3. 60 Pages 58-61 Pages 46. 105-106. 101 Pages 80. 26-34 Pages 10. 59. 40‑41. 120‑122 Pages 91-92 Pages 88-92 Calculate & quantify from drawings and mark and set out N/A Page 115-116 Pages 116. 90-92. 112-114 N/A Pages 115-116 Pages 116. 147 Pages 141. specifications. 28-34 Pages 1-5.1 Element 3.The following table details how the Hvacr training materials resource (joint initiative by Harcourt & SummitSkills) matches to the common core units requirements of the Heating & Ventilating and Refrigeration & Air Conditioning S/NVQ Level 2. 86. 27-34 Pages 43. the main bodies & organisations within the sector & the basic safety & communication issues that apply Pages 11-18. 120‑122 Pages 143. 144 Pages 133-148 Mapping documents 153 . 16-19 Identify the physical forces that have an impact on the MES sector Page 71 Pages 68. 18. 12-34 Pages 4-5.3 Unit 1 Maintain the safe working environment for Hvacr work activities Element 1. 60 N/A Pages 36-37. 71-73 Pages 66. 16. 12. 18.2 Element 1. 88. 82. Heating & Ventilating and Refrigeration & Air Conditioning S/NVQ Common Core Units/elements Unit 2 Maintain effective working relationships Element 2. 101. 147‑148 Pages 144.1 Student book chapters The MES sector. 13-16. 147‑148 Pages 141.1 Element 3.

95 anaerobic adhesive 92 AMICUS 4 beam folder 100 bending 98-106. 19 building management systems 76 calculations area 118 quantity 118-119 volume 118 die 86 drawings 66 exploded views 68 ceiling construction 136 154 . 116 excavations 23 files 107-109 fire safety 16-19 causes of fire 16 fire extinguishers 18. 56 symbols 54 interpreting 115-117 MES 69 scaled views 67 sectional view 67 symbols and abbreviations 70 three dimensional view 67-68 title block 66 core drill 97 shanks 96-97 twist drill 96 chisel 113 chop saw 113-114 clamp folder see beam folder communication 30-33 face-to-face 30 letters/memos 33 phone 30 text message 31 time sheets 33 written 31 drilling 96-97 ductwork 83 electrical cabling identification 73 circuits 63-64 current 63 electricity 62-64 blades 109-110 bolts 81-82 boom lift see working at height buildings construction 134-135. 127 hand bending 103 hot bending 101-102 pipe bending 127 safety 101 sheet materials 97 spring back 99 chemistry 53 combustion 59 corrosion 60-61 metals 57-59 reactions 54. 140 types 134 Construction Design and Management Regulations (CDM) 13 construction materials 139 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 8. 11 copper tube 144.Index Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry 5 engineers 80 alloys 89. 145-146 bending 103-105 marking out 130-131 elements 55 energy 38 engineers role 80.

24 marking out 119-131 accuracy 120 and building structure holes 126 and drilling 125 and pipework 126 bends 127-128 errors 121-122 pipe offset 128-129 progressive errors 120-121 techniques 122-124 tools 119 Heating and Ventilating Contractor Association (HVCA) 4 heating and ventilation (H&V) 2 engineers 80 hot work permits 90-91 hydraulic press bender 105106 marking out 129-130 flange joint 81 floor construction 136-137 folding 97.Index fire plans 12 fire prevention 17-18 fire triangle 17 first aid 12. 98 folding bar 99 force 38. 28 first aid for electric shock 28 fixing devices 92-96 heavy 94 light 93-94 screw 94-95 heat values 49 in building 143 jointing 88-91 properties 48 scales 48-49 transfer 51-52 manual handling 24-25 guide weights 26 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 8. 50-51 mechanical advantage 39 MES sector and building 141-142 drawings 69 joining 2-3 materials 144-148 principle organisations 45 qualified engineers see engineers service coding 71-72 trades 2 gas cylinders identification 72 hacksaw 110 hand bender 104 hand shears 111 Health and safety 8-12 electrical safety 26-28 heating 90 legal requirements 8 legislation 8 prevention of accidents 11 safety rules 10 soldering 89 tool care 88 health and safety plan 13 isolation 11 jointing 80-91 adhesive 91-92 crimps 87 electrofusion 90 heat 88-91 mechanical methods 8188 mobile scaffold tower see working at height moment theory 40-41 National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) 2-3 oils 55 personal presentation 29 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 10. 16 Ladders see working at height legislation access online 75 and specifications 71 health and safety 8 Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) 9 heat 48-53. 88-91 capacity 49 density 50 expansion and contraction 52-53 levers 43-44 Lifting and carrying 13 155 . 40. 44 action and reaction 41 centre of gravity 42 equilibrium 42-43 fusion welding 90 information technology (IT) 74-77 building management system 76 disadvantages 77-78 office based 74 on site 75 mass 38.

146-147 plugs 93 power (measurement) 39 powered jigsaw 111 pressure 45-48 atmospheric pressure 47 gas pressure 47. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration safety boots 16 safety gloves 16 safety goggles 15 safety helmets 14. 16 scale 67. 53 steel pipe 144-145 steel pipe bending 105 hot bending 106 marking out 129-130 project management 5 pulley system 44-45 radiation 51-52 Refridgeration and air conditioning (RAC) 2 engineers 80 repairs 92 reports 31 service/maintenance 31. 50 hydrostatic pressure 46 measurement 47-48 project roles 6-7 solvent weld 91-92 spanners 81. 82 specifications 71 stand bender 104 states of matter 50.Heating and Ventilation. 20-22 boom lift 22 ladders 20-21 residual current device (RCD) 27 riveted joints 83 roll bender 100 roofing 137-139 safety signs 14 sawing sheet 109 156 . 91 silver soldering 89 soft soldering 88-89 pipe offset 128-129 pipelines identification 72 plastics 55-56. 117 scissor lift see working at height screws 93 fixings 94-95 types 95 mobile scaffold tower 2122 scissor lift 22 offset hex 87 pipe 84 socket 81 spud 87 stillson 84 torque 81 wrenches pipe cutting 112-113 pipe joints 83-92 compression 86-87 threaded 84-86 seaming 83 service engineers 80 SI units 36-37 soldering 88 brazing 89 safety 90. 32 technical 31 stock 86 SummitSkills 5 toggles expansion 93 gravity 93 spring 93 velocity 40 wall construction 135-136 water 54-55 weight (measurement) 38 work (measurement) 38 working at height 12.