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Table of Contents Page Contents i Chapter One 1 1. Clothing and Design
1 1.1. Psychological and Social influences of Clothing 1.1.1. Psychological Influences of clothing 1.1.2. Social Influences of Clothing 1.2. Clothing as a communicator of Culture 1.3. Design 1.3.1. Structural Design 1.3.2. Decorative Design 1.4. Elements of Design 1 1 1 4 5 7 7 8
Chapter Two 10
2. Fabric Selection
10 2.1. General Considerations of Fabrics for Apparel Manufacturing 2.1.1. Physical Properties of Fabrics 2.1.2. Physical Characteristics of Fabrics 126.96.36.199. Style Characteristics 188.8.131.52. Utility Characteristics 184.108.40.206. Durability Characteristics 220.127.116.11. Product Production Working Characteristics 2.2. Fabric Identification for Garment 2.2.1. Overview 2.2.2. Fabric Samples 2.2.3. Fabric Specifications 2.2.4. Fabric Certification 2.2.5. Lead times and Minimums 2.2.6. Fabric Put-up 2.3. Apparel Fabrics for Women and Children 2.3.1. Overview 2.3.2. Women’s Skirts 2.3.3. Women’s Sweaters 2.3.4. Blouses 2.3.5. Coats and Suits 2.3.6. Selection of Under Garments 2.3.7. Sleep Wear 2.3.8. Hosiery 2.4. Apparel Fabrics for Men’s and Boy’s Wear 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18
The Block Pattern 23 24 24 4 .4. Pattern Making 3. Calico 18.104.22.168.4.4. Sateen/Satin 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 Chapter Three 23 3.4.5. Denium 2. Hosiery 22.214.171.124.1.2. Drill 2. Tweed 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52. Gabardine 2.3. Garment Manufacturing 23 3.1. Sleepwear 2.1.5. Shirts 2.6.1. Underwear 2. Poplin 2.2.11. Cotton Lawn 2.4. Cotton Muslin 184.108.40.206.5.5.5. Introduction 3.2. Sweaters 2.4. Sheeting/percale 2.10.5. Taffeta 2. Common Fabrics used in Garment Manufacturing 2.
1.2. Fusing Equipments 4.3.3. Making the Marker 2. Fusing and Sewing Technology 32 4. Properties of Fused Laminates 4.4.2. Sewing Technology 4. Cutting 24 24 25 25 26 Chapter Four 32 4. Pattern Grading 220.127.116.11. Computerized Pattern Making 3. Fusing Technology 4. Sewing Machines and Equipments 32 32 32 34 34 36 37 37 44 Chapter Five 46 5. The Garment Pattern 18.104.22.168. Pressing and Finishing 46 5 . The Requirements of Fusing 4. Fusing Process 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.2.4. Methods of Fusing 4.2. Stitches and Seams 4.
Final Inspection 6.3. Types of Garment Defects 6. Types of Garment Defects 6. Types of Garment Defects 188.8.131.52.1. Methods of Controlling Garment Defects 55 55 55 55 58 58 59 59 61 64 66 6 .2.5. Types of Machineries and Equipments 5.1. Linings 184.108.40.206.2. The Principles of Pressing 5. Source and types of Fabric Defects 6. Garment Inspection and Types of Defects 6.2. Finishing 220.127.116.11.1.2.1. Secondary Trimmings 46 46 47 48 50 50 50 52 Chapter Six 55 6.4.1. Raw material Inspection 6. In-Process Inspection 6. Components of Pressing 5. Garment Trimmings 5. Garment Inspection 6.1.2. Classification of Pressing 18.104.22.168. What is Garment Inspection? 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.3.1.
Fabric Care 7.2. Refreshing 188.8.131.52.1. Packing of Garments 70 70 71 73 80 CHAPTER ONE 7 .Chapter Seven 70 7. General Information 7. The Five Basic Symbols 7. Care and Care labeling of Apparel 70 7.
which add bulk to the body such as brushed cotton. Determines the age of a person. 1.1. so it can be used for women who wants to look delicate. They tend the person who wishes to look bulky.e. values. 8 . Chiffon is fine transparent silk or nylon fabric. chiffon and crape fabrics drapes well and falls in to gentle folds to give a feminine look. By this we can easily study his or hers personal characteristics. velvet and other heavy fabrics. Is the symbol of the person's attitudes. so that selection of fabric is made to suit the person (i. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFULUENCES OF CLOTHING It is easily to choose the type of fabric needed and judge its quality by looking at the label details. economical and technological progress of each period in the history of mankind.1. CLOTHING AND DESIGN 1. Examples: Silk. his sex. Clothing generally. nationality. his dressing styles and the occasion). The evolution of clothing has been closely interlinked with factors such as social. There are fabrics. Some of the psychological influences of clothing that should be considered during selection are listed below. They also fulfil important psychological needs of conformity and self-confidence. interest and taste. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL INFULUENCES OF CLOTHING The wish to decorate or beautify the human body has been existed from the Stone Age when the early man painted his face and his body.1. occupation and his socio-economical conditions. But one should know the psychological influences of clothing. the desire remains constant. Even though the beauty standards have changed. Selection should be made in such a way that it matches his figure.1.
People who are thin should wear fabrics. It is also important to know to select fabric for the Selection should be made so that it meets the occasion. particular styled outfit. Examples: Basically the dresses that are worn at evening or night should be made in dark colours and shiny fabrics. Dull textures do absorb light but do not enlarge the size of the body. There are different types of style in silhouette and the designer should know to select the proper type of fabric that will suit the 9 . If the family woven fabric gives a crisp and sliff effect. Knitted and light fabrics are ideal for sports and casual wear. Dull and light colour will go well for day-to-day wearing. design. Examples: One should select fabrics which are stiff for the outfits which stands well and which needs stiffness and less fall and drape where as the same which is selected to make a line skirt in stiff fabric can not be used for stitching a circular skirt because it needs more falling material such as chiffon and crape. Knitted fabric give more ease and comfortable but cling to the body shape and do not drape like other fabric such as chiffon and silk. The knitted fabric needs careful handling because the stretch easily so the design of the garment should be simple and should have minimum scams and should be cut with enough ease (allowance) added to avoid the cling. One should choose to make garments from the fabrics that are comfortable to wear for longer period of time and fashionable garment should be selected to wear for any short occasion. which are more shiny and lustrous because they reflect light and emphasis the body contours.
but one step behind the decision to buy is the behaviour of people towards clothing. The proportion of fashion innovators in the population will probably always be small. the old and the poor. the groups they belong to. They need to know the roll of each person. People will be rustic in handlooms. their status within those groups and even their status within the society as a whole The behaviour of the society towards clothing is influenced by: Income Hence the large factors which determiners the behaviour of people to wards clothing is the amount of their income available to buy clothing. People will be dignified in silk. Examples People will be crisp (firm. People will be very delicate and feminine in chiffons. Clothing also has psychological effects on the wearer. and particularly the social world in which we live. they have to be able to recognize each others social identity. For an early age children want to conform to the latest fashion. SOCIAL INFLUENCES OF CLOTHING The design of clothing primarily influences the decision to buy. The stiff fabric that looks crisp will not cling to the Designer should see to that they select a plain body so it can cover the irregularity of the figure. Clothing signs express an individual social identity. The uniforms a sports team wear gives the members a feeling of unity or togetherness 1. the proportion of active followers of fashion large and the proportion of ignorers of fashion a smaller group draw from the traditionalists. Our bodies and clothes constitute our physical presence in the world. clean and fresh) in cotton clothes. They are the means by which our place and participation in that social world are signified. weaved fabric outfit to be stitched with extra trimmings where as if the fabric has some different weave the importance should be given to emphasis the weaves and reduce the use of trimmings as the weave it self can enhance the beauty of the outfit.1.2. It is one of the basic conditions of social life that individuals know within whom they are dealing. It may be over simplifying to state that the 10 .
Simple clothing Another component of lifestyle is the demand for simpler clothing which reflects both active working lives and emancipation. partly because of the social desire for slimmer and hence more standardized body shapes. and home dress making service to individual from their homes. to the relatively few with disproportionate figures. and to those whose job requires they wear clothes with a perfect fit. Even the most well known example of fashion emanating from ‘the streets’ based on the large fee incomes of young men in continuous employment living at home. The most obvious evidence of this is the wearing of fewer items in an outfit. the more expensive it is likely to be. but it must be remembered that fashion often express not only innovation but status. Lifestyle Assuming sufficient income exercise choice. if worn instead of frock coats. fewer hats and the demise of the liberty bodice. corset markers offering a home service to individual customers. Long ago obesity was much more common among both men and women and was socially acceptable. fewer vests. military officers and airline pilots. Life style has many meanings. Now a day the made to measure market in all its aspects has declined continuously. more exiguous swimwear. but also because made-to-measure garments are inherently more expensive to produce and because pattern cutting and sizing based on statistically sound sizing surveys and more effective. In that climate there was a proliferation of chains of men’s wear retailers shape by offering made to measure suits. people require that clothing be simple to doff and don with zips and 11 . Further more. perhaps including commissionaires. some of which are very general while others differentiate groups. fewer petticoats. Slimmer shape One important component of lifestyle over the last generation has been the movement to standardize human body to a slimmer shape by dieting and exercise. jackets. Madeto-measure market is limited to very highly priced garments. fewer waist coats. shorter shorts. people wear clothing to suit their life style. and brief instead of directoire knickers.newer and higher the fashion. In addition the size and coverage of individual item has reduced.
press studs instead of buttons and button holes, more frequent use of elastication, slip-on shoes, and coat skirts with attached collars, more self supporting trousers and belts with fewer brakes, tights avoiding the needs for suspended belts. Finally, people demand clothing that is simpler to maintain, preferably by washing or otherwise by standard dry cleaning techniques. One exception which customers tolerate is an animal skin coat. This attracts the higher maintenance costs of specialized dry cleaning which people are prepared to meet only because an animal skin coat is considered to be long term investment. In relation to washing, the design of the clothing forms part of an after-care system which include the design of washing cycles in machines, the chemistry of detergents, method of drying and the attempt to eliminate or reduce the time consuming activity of ironing. A striking exception to this general demand for simpler clothing is the wedding dress, which requires more undergarments, is full in length, is relatively difficult to put on and is not normally washed or dry cleaned. The minority who hire a wedding dress benefit from paying about half the price for an equivalent garment and the dress is usually hired many times before it is scrapped. Graduation gowns on the other hand are manufactured from disposable fabrics which gives good performance for one day at an acceptably low price. Translating this concept to wedding dresses will be very much more difficult in spite of the potential economic advantages, because the achievement of the right wedding dress images from disposable fabrics is much more unlikely. In any case the traditional demands of a wedding are reflected in a type of clothing whose costs people are willing to bear.
It is a complex of activities and attitudes called fashion which influences the behaviour of different group in relation to clothing. Those in society who wear traditional, classic, relatively unchanging styles use clothing as symbols of continuity or changelessness, while those who wear the latest fashions use clothing as symbols of change and progress. But almost everyone buy clothing based on fashion. Even if you did not want to be fashionable, you would still have to buy what was available and stores stock clothing based on fashion trends. Fashion can be fun. New styles or “looks” make us feel attractive and on top of things. They make us feel good about our selves. Unfortunately, few people can afford do buy a completely
new wardrobe every season. When you shop, remember that fashions, like advertisement are created not just for our pleasure but to sell cloths.
1.2. CLOTHING AS A COMMUNICATOR OF CULTURE
By looking at their clothing, you can learn something about the way people of that time thought and felt. Clothing differs from country to country. Every culture has had its unique clothing style. The styles reveal much about the people’s customers and beliefs. We refer to the customs, beliefs, values and skills of a group of people as their culture. The spread of one country’s culture on its temporal side was entirely due to the country’s traders and exporters who were their cultural ambassadors abroad, through the export of its famous textiles. Foreign visitors, on their departure, always carry away with them, priceless treasure and cultural clothing. As features of a culture change, so do the clothing styles. By studying the clothing of different periods in history you can understand the customs, beliefs, values, economics and technology of that time.
Customs refer to a long accepted practice or tradition. The customs of a nation influences people’s clothing choices. For example, the long, white wedding dress is accustom of western countries. In the east, other colours are worn. Many customs in clothing are disappearing from our society. One it was the custom for only males to wear pants. Now it is accepted for both males and females to wear pants. It is used to be the custom for people to wear hats when ever they went out. Today hats are seldom worn. Designers often turn to the past (recent or distant) or folk customs for ideas and themes. Customs falls in to two categories, historical and folk or ethnic custom. Historical custom is the fashion a certain historical period and folk or ethnic custom is traditional national or regional dress.
Clothing can reflect beliefs of individuals and groups. Religious groups often adopt a certain style of clothing. Beliefs about magic and luck have been held by people of any cultures. Their clothing reflects these beliefs. For example, some people wear a “lucky hat” to go finishing. That person believes wearing the hat will improve the chances of clothing fish.
Clothing can reflect the values of individuals and groups. Values are the things which people believe are right and good. They are the things which are considered important. The basic beliefs which you rate highly are your values. Modesty is the value of many people. During the past years women would wear low-cut dresses but would not expose their ankles, it was thought immodest for the women to show her legs. The American colonists valued hard work and practicality by wearing clothing that was plain and sturdy. There are people today who value practicality. The seek clothing that is comfortable, easy to, care for, and long lasting. Others value appearance. They wear clothing that is of the latest fashion. They may sacrifice comfort and practicality in order to be in style.
The term economics relates the way people produce, distribute and use goods and services. People were once limited to the clothes the family or individual could produce, if there was a good wearer in the family had good clothes. Then people began to barter (trade) goods and skills one else’s goods and skills. Some one who was good at farming might trade some wheat for cloth made by a skilled wearer. Thus a change in economics led to a change in clothing choice. The economy of a culture also affects clothing style.
The way a society uses its resources to produce things is referred to as technology. The industrial revolution brought many changes in technology. With the industrial revolution came as a new
Many designers use fabrics as a source of design inspiration. In apparel industry product development evolves in two phases.3. They wanted to appear dependable and serious minded. Designs that are accepted in to a product line are known as a style. 1. Design specifications consists of materials to be used in the design. draping or computer-aided design. As more women entered the work force they looked for clothing that was comfortable and practical. DESIGN Product development is a design and engineering of products to be serviceable. or trim. A good designer often develops a feel for fashion and the demands of the market place. design features. Design is organisation. cost estimation and any special treatment that may be needed. creativity and formation of product groups with commonalities such as piece goods. They rejected the frills of upper class clothing and chose what the standard business suit became. Design Specifications Design specifications are developed during the pre adoption phase initially provide guide lines for the first pattern maker and sample sewer to produce design samples. When any thing is designed. many of which are intangible. Original designs are inspired by many different sources and influences. information for assembly. stable and profitable. 15 . The first element in the pre adoption product development is design development. A design is a specific or unique version of a style that has not been accepted in to a product line. Design development may involve sketching. placement of design details. Everything that is not entirely accidental is to some extent. designed.middle class people who had made their fortunes in the business world. producible. Namely: Pre adoption Adoption Post adoption The pre adoption phase of product development focuses on analysis. it is “put together with same intent or goal in mind”.
fabric and line. On the highestlevel design is the careful and knowledgeable manipulation of art elements to produce an expressive personal idea. textile design. colour. design is arrangement or putting out creative ideas on paper or any of the three-dimensional form. it calls up on enterprise enthusiasm. Designing means moving from the state of randomness to the higher state of organisation. skills and other resources are employed to satisfy them fully. texture and pattern are the key elements. it takes a long time for the general public to retain its eye and develop an appreciation for a new look. As more people wear the item interpret it in many different ways. to crate a design or impression or to communicate an important/ innovative idea. Crating or styling the appearance of a person with reference to clothing. energy. form. as beautiful. scientific discovery and technical knowledge. Textile design Is the design of fabrics for a Varity of purposes from clothes to carpets. knowledge of fibres and different fabrics. shape. etc. a silhouette is changed in width or a skirt is lengthened. Designing requires patience and planning. For example. Fashion designing involves knowledge of basic elements of designing. There are different types of designs such as industrial design. understanding colour cycle. fashion design. accessories beauty in corresponding with the personality of any individual is fashion designing. related and in some cases stimulated.Design is any arrangement of part. for example. Fashion can be defined as a design that is accepted by a given segment of population. power of visualisation together with knowledge of human capabilities and aesthetic sensibility. graphic design. In this professions the colour. Often a new fashion begins when the proportion of a garment is altered. Usually when a truly innovative fashion begins. Fashion design It is concerned with how needs are identified. brief study of history of clothing. to create a version or a style. 16 . This definition is applicable for apparel or clothing. the mass of people find it easier to accept the fashion. inventiveness and ingenuity. It affects the ways in which our materials. Fashion is constantly changing and as a new design becomes popular a new standard of beauty becomes desirable. In general.
In apparel. It may add a decorative quality if emphasized by colour contrast or row of topstitching to outline the basic garment parts. In this category the designs are drawn on the specification chart where many trimmings are not used. Structural design created through fabrication depends on the use of colour and texture in the yarns forming loops or interlacing patterns in the fabric. embroidery. The knitting machines or looms must also have the technology for varying fabric structure. its sweep line (Hemline) its neckline and any other type of cuts used. prints. which is drawn by the beginner (learners) as well as the boutique designers. pleats. 1. They are created through manipulation of fabrications. It will be speeded so that the pattern master can create a proper sample according to the specifications mentions such as its measurements. Structural design includes the all over design of a garment.3. 1. To draw a structural design a form or human croquet is not necessary. etc are the part of structural design. Decorative designing 1.There are two basic divisions of designing in the filed of garment technology. The customer will select the garment that is designed. colour. in these designs the fabric. It will not be draped on the form. It is not produced in bulk so it will have more trimmings. 17 . The designers in the buying house do these designs. The form and shape plus all the details involved in assembling the sections of the garment such as darts. thread and trimmings to be used. tucks.3. These drawn will be draped over it. STRUCTURAL DESIGN Structural designs are intrinsic parts of materials.1. Structural design is formed as the material is made. DECORATIVE DESIGN Here it refers to the design. or texture. colour. Structural designing 2.2. structural design is more important because it is the fundamental component of design. This design will be simple and well defined about their construction. buttons (that do not fasten) and tacked on bows. then it will be very costly.
structural designs are more permanent better quality. Roller and screen printing are probably the most commonly used forms of decorative design. 1. jewel colours for the holidays. Others are individual creations that are highly labour intensive. In general. Structural designs are more expensive to produce than decorative designs due to slower production and longer set up time. Therefore. A design can be defined as an arrangement of lines. In this design category specification charts are not prepared. It is the design and outfit is made for an individual costumer. and refreshing white for the summer. or other forms of fabric decoration. quilting. The elements are therefore the raw materials that must be combined successfully.4. The element and principles of design are flexible and should be interpreted within the context of current fashion. People connect certain colours with holidays and seasons. They expect to see earth tones in fall clothing. 18 . Decorative design is created by printing. colours and texture that create a visual image. ELEMENTS OF DESIGN In creating a design one of the components that interact is the element of design. COLOUR Colour is the first element to which consumers respond. All manufacturers include some of these colours in their lines. often selecting or rejecting a garment because of its colour appeal. not it is stitched for standard measurement.style and colour combinations are described so that one can select the design. The principles of design are the rates that govern how elements are combined. designers must consider their customers and provide colours that are both appealing and flattering. shape. Problems that are some times associated with printed designs are fuzzy patterns. appliqué. embroidery. Some decorative designs are mass produced and very economical. and more durable than decorative designs. 1. the pastels of flowers in the early spring.
performance. 3. LINE After selecting the fabric. is chosen to go with the base fabric.2. openings. first getting an idea. this ability comes through observation and experience. In jeans wear. space is enclosed and forms and shapes are defined. choosing the fabric suitable for a particular style is one of the most important aspects of designing. the selection of the right fabric for the design. The designer chooses fabrics on the basis of fashion trends. gathers. However the designer works. solid and patterns. the designer must consider the other elements of good design. Fabrics are the designer’s artistic medium. tucks. or vice versa. as well as a balance of fashion and classic fabrics. Fabric selection Is the selection or creation of an appropriate style for a fabric. textures. FABRIC Colour is interpreted in the medium of the fabric. he or she must ultimately decide which fabric will work best with a design. Lines offered a path of vision for 19 . a base fabric is selected fore jacket and lowers. the term line refers to the direction of visual interest in a garment created by construction details such as seams. When lines combine. Next to understanding the needs of the customer and interpreting trends for them. and patterns in a line. price and suitability. Fabrics themselves inspire garment design. An assortment of fabrics. Designers must develop the ability to picture a design already made up in the fabric. and then finding the appropriate fabric for it. In sports wear. in that fashion design is essentially sculpture in fabric in relation to the body. quality. The designer or merchandiser must be sure to include a Varity of weight. pleats. the softness and drivability of jersey might inspire gather in a dress. for example the base fabric is always denim. In this section. Other designers work the other way around. Many firms build a line or even an entire reputation on one fabric such as denim or stonewashed silk. For example. topstitching. or the reverse. perhaps developing it in a sketch. and trims.
circular or straight. Every fashion period. it is either flare or tight. a line or raglan. curved lines are the line of nature. It has been observed that an easy fitting shape of the garment is easily accepted and largely vitiated as well as has a longevity of style. every period has a specific shape of garment which once determined can be modified and re-styled for variation in design with out changing the basic shape of the garment. The shape of clothing on a human body. they are graceful give a feminine effect. The arrangement of lines in clothing design can cause to appear heavier or thinner than what actually i Lines within a garment are created by darts seams and decorative details. where as a tight fitting garment is generally short lived since it is suitable to only perfected figure types. communicates silently. Shape also encloses space and imparts a certain character to the object viewed. but some times even distorted. they can be used to one’s requirement to tone down or exaggerate a particular figure type 4. the shape of the human body is often revealed in a natural way. Since line creates illusion of height and width. Lines are the greatest devices of fashion designers. whatever it is. It is therefore advisable that the designer chooses an easy silhouette to keep on creating for a longer duration. the messages about the wearer. a shape emerges slowly or evolved suddenly. Straight lines and shapes denote force and strength and have a masculine quality. Each kind of line produces its own special effect. Through clothing design. SHAPES It describes the outer dimensions or contour of an object.the eyes when is wearing an object/outfit. 20 .
CHAPTER TWO 2. a fabric property is of no interest to the apparel manufacture unless it controls a fabric characteristic or cost factor vital to him. 2. Characteristics are physical or chemical forces. Fabrics used in garment manufacturing can be categorised into two groups: properties and characteristics. GENERAL CONSIDERATION OF FABRICS FOR APPAREL MANUFACTURING Selecting the appropriate fabric is only the first step in providing serviceable fabrics for apparel manufacturing. whereas. The consumer’s viewpoint The fabric producer’s viewpoint The garment producer’s viewpoint changes in the fabric resulting from the application of outside 21 . Although fabric characteristics are related to fabric properties.1. or unless the property itself such as thickness or weight. There are three viewpoints to stipulating fabric selection: 1. characteristic is the reaction of the fabrics when a force is imposed up on it. A property is a static physical dimension such as yards per pound. FABRIC SELECTION 2. The apparel producer is interested primarily in the characteristics of a fabric. Elongation. shrinkage and seam strength are examples of characteristics. has definite utility or style value. 3. These are measure of reactions to dynamic conditions. elasticity.
length Yarn: diameter. Fabric width: The length of the filling or course. fiber content for mixed yarns. waxes and mechanical effects such as Calendaring and napping applied to the woven fabric to yield or enhance style. ply. the cost of producing a given garment with the fabric. wale and course count per inch Finishes: chemicals such as resins. he will be interested. he dose not have to consider whether the working characteristics are good enough to produce the garment with industrial equipment and methods. The garment producer is interested in the garment production working characteristics of the fabric. If the garment producer is a contractor his interest lies only in the field of the production cost aspect of the working characteristics. also.1. If the garment producer is a jobber or manufacturer who sells the garment directly or indirectly to consumers. count. utility and style values. the durability. Fabric structure Woven fabrics: weave type.1. Weight: ounces per squared or yards per pound.The consumer’s interests lies solely in the appearance and wear ability characteristics of the fabric. warp and filling yarn count per linear inch Knitted fabric: knit type. he must consider garment production work characteristics. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FABRICS Physical properties are the static physical dimensions of fabric. weight or size. The same applies to the fabric producer. durability. 22 . twist. if the fabric producer makes cloth for over the counter retail sales. and utility values. Thickness: vertical depth. However. starches. 2. size. in all the consumer values. If he fabricates cloth for garment manufactures. The following physical properties are used to define the static physical dimensions of strand fabrics: Fibre or filament: type.
etc. This is exemplified when a consumer handles a fabric and refers to the fabric with adjectives such as stiff. or supporting forces on the fabric.1. Style characteristics Utility characteristics Durability characteristics Product production characteristics. The hand 23 . 2. 4. They are: 1. Hand 2.2. There are four major categories of fabric characteristics that interest the apparel manufacturer. They are physical changes in the fabric that result from applying outside forces on the fabric. There are often correlations among the four types of characteristics. Most of the durability and utility values of fabric are characteristics and not properties. the fabric imports to the consumer. soft. A utility characteristic such as fabric elongation will be correlated to a working characteristic such as sewing without stretching.1. The three basic categories for style characteristics are: 1. Colour: Hue. hand. 3. molding. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICS Physical characteristics are the dynamic physical parameters of fabric.1. STYLE CHARACTERISTICS Style characteristics are those changes which affect the emotional appeal. Visual Hand characteristic are the changes of the fabric plane with hand manipulations. Surface contour: the geometric dimension of the surface plane.2. Tactile and 3. 2. which exert tensile compression. 2. value and intensity (degree of brilliance) Fabric density: weight per unit of volume.
Pile. End – to – end shading refers to changes in shade throughout the length. napped. coarse.2. Designers specify tactile characteristics with terms such as soft. the shade of one end of the bolt differs from the shade of other end. the shade of the fabric along one selvage differs from the shade of the fabric along the other selvage.to – side shading and mark – off are three colour quality problems in addition to metamoric fabrics. side . End – to – end shading.2. rough. flexibility. and any fabric whose surface contour can be varied by tactile pressure. such as elongation.1. Tactile characteristics refer to the changes in surface contour that result from a mechanical force exerted on or against the surface structure. These changes apply to the surface contour aspects of the fabric surface and not the fabric plane. hard. comfort. smooth sticky. Side – to – side shading refers to changes in shade from selvage to selvage. Metamoric fabrics exhibit colour difference with change in the spectral distribution (characteristics) of the illuminant. Visual characteristics are the changes in the colour values when either the fabric or light is moved. or chemical force during the utilization of the garment.characteristics include some of the utility characteristics. and wearing functions of the garment when the fabric engages a mechanical thermal. Mark – off in fabric is the phenomena of changing the shade and/of intensity of the fabric surface by rubbing it. 24 . UTILITY CHARACTERISTICS Utility characteristics are changes in the fit. have obvious tactile characteristics. elasticity. electrical. etc. The surface contour changes dimension under tactile pressure (no matter how small the pressure) this is a tactile characteristic. oily and greasy. 2.
Transformation characteristics charge a physical property of the fabric.2.1. Transmission characteristics include: Air permeability ( includes all gases and vapour) Heat transmission ( thermal conductivity) Light permeability Moisture transmission Radioactivity transmission (the degree with which radioactive energy such as x – ray and gamma rays can penetrate fabrics). The durability characteristics are: Abrasive strength (measure of rubbing action) Bursting strength ( measure of vertical pressure) 25 . It is the measure of stress which destroys the fabric or the fabrics ability to repeat a desired style or utility characteristic. Transformation characteristics include: Colour fastness Crease resistance Crock resistance Dimensional stability Pilling Shrinkage Static electricity etc. A transmission characteristic transmits mass or energy through the fabric.3.The two major types of utility characteristics are transmission and transformation. 2. DURABILTY CHARACTERISTICS Durability characteristics are the capacities of fabric to maintain the style and utility characteristics during wear. The property dimension(s) is altered without destroying the fabric. Changes which disintegrate the fabric are durability characteristics.
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS PRODUCTION WORKING Product production working characteristics are those characteristics which affect the quality of production with respect to quality values and the cost of production method. acid or alkaline) Dry cleaning durability ( the measure of dry cleaning performance) 2. sewing.4. Fire resistance Corrosive strength ( the measure of chemical action. cemented.2.1. pressing and packing) Sewed seam strength Sewed seam slippage (yarn slippage) Sewing distortions Yarn severage Bond ability strength (fused. Launder ability ( measure of washing) Tearing strength Moth resistance Tensile strength Radiation absorption strength (the rate at which radiation energy either disintegrate a fabric or destroys utility characteristics). Pressing moldeability (to what degree a flat piece of fabric may be skewed during pressing with hand and /press buck). Die moldeability – how well a flat seamless piece of fabric may be molded with dies into a given from such as a bra cup or a hat.2. 2. FABRIC IDENTIFICATION FOR GARMENT 26 . The working characteristics of a fabric include: Coefficient of friction ( cutting. and heat – sealed seams).
examine few products. delivery dates. check trends. FABRIC SAMPLES Sample lengths of 5 yards are frequently provided to apparel manufacturers. samples are essential. finishes.2. and seek sample yardage. specifications. Certification is intended to provide 27 .3. fibre content. Minimums.2. and certification. put – up. Acquisition of piece goods is accomplished after fabric samples and product specifications have been examined and lead times. OVERVIEW Designers and merchandisers may go to major fabric markets to collect ideas.2. Fabric certification is a statement of compliance to product specifications. performance evaluation.2. FABRIC SPECIFICATIONS The amount of information included in fabric specifications varies from basic fibre content to complete descriptions of the material. which includes analysis based on standard performance tests. Fabrics may be designed and developed by apparel designers or merchandisers and ordered from mills or converters according to the apparel manufacture’s specification.4. Specifications may include product name. and quality standards. Identification of appropriate fabrics is based on product information and testing provided by fabric vendors and/or testing and product development conducted by apparel manufacturers.1. 2. sometimes without charge. and price have been negotiated.2 . FABRIC CERTIFICATION Some vendors also provide certifications of product quality.2. dyes. aesthetics and suitability to end use. Fabric samples are frequently accompanied by specifications and other product information as identification of product quality. 2. 2. methods of manufacturing. style number. When styling and innovation are high priority criteria. so designers and merchandisers can test and work with the material. Sources of information include fabric samples.
longer lead times. Imported fabrics may require longer lead time but often have lower minimums. Open. Flat knit fabrics are usually rolled.2.5. Identification of the laboratory or facility. Fabric characteristics and put – up determine the 28 .2. Certification data include: Reports of evaluation of compliance to specifications including types of tests performed. 2. lots. operators and dates when the evaluations and testes were performed. and are usually lower priced than goods made to the apparel firm’s specifications. and the result. methods used. certification of the quality of piece fabrics can cut days or weeks from the apparel manufacturer’s production process by eliminating the need for fabric inspection and reducing production delays because of inconsistent materials.assurance to the buyer of the quality of fabrics shipped and eliminated the need for receiving inspection. An apparel firm usually buys woven fabric that is rolled full width on a cardboard tube. and Documentation of tradability of purchase order numbers. Factors that affect lead times and minimums are place of origin. more exclusivity. LEAD TIMES AND MININUMS Lead times required for delivery from a supplier can vary from as little as 2 weeks to as much as 9 months. Special – order piece fabrics usually have large minimums. High – pile fabrics such as velvets may be wound and hung from a creel that keeps pressure off the surface of the fabric. production capabilities of the supplier. than domestically produced materials. distance of shipping. 2. markings on the materials. and are often higher priced.6. FABRIC PUT – UP Fabric put – up is the manner in which the fabric is folded and/or rolled by the vendor. Minimum yardage requirements.stock materials have shorter lead times. and whether the piece fabrics is selected from open stick or dyed or printed to order. smaller minimums. or minimums may range from a few hundred to thousands of yards. Tubular knits may be put up in rolls or flat folded. In these days of quick response and just – in – time production.
3. rich and luxurious fabrics look best in the evening. soft and clinging fabrics are appropriate when slinky. velvet. in winter. and remnants are lengths of piece goods less than forty yard in length. The firm may also specify the maximum number of pieces. For outer apparel look – rightness is probably the first consideration. in garden. and for sports. eyelet.3. In the purchase of underclothing and children’s wear. 2. corduroy. ends of rolls. such as voile. too. and fur like fabric.3.type markers that are used and how the piece goods is spread and cut. Shorts and tailings may result from experimental fabric runs. Shorts. A full roll is usually 60 – 100 yards in length. serviceability is commonly the first consideration. 2. creeps and chiffons. washable fabrics appear to advantage when worn in the house. tailings.1. WOMEN'S SKIRTS 29 . for heavier materials such as wood tweeds. batiste. Some stiff fabrics look better when a crisp appearance is required. and overruns. amount of waste. Remnants are less than 10 yards in length and may be sold by the pound. APPAREL FABRICS FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN 2. Serviceability is a combination of suitability of fabric and the quality of garments construction. This minimizes the number of fabric splices.2 . OVERVIEW In the purchase of their apparel most women seek primarily for “look rightness and serviceability”. removal defects. although look – rightness is nearly always a factor. sheer. perhaps no more than three that can make up total yardage in the roll. and amount of handling in the spreading process. In summer thin fabrics. draped effect is desired. Differences in weight automatically limit some fabrics to particular seasons and uses. homes puns. Some firms may specify that fabric be put up on large rolls up to 300 or more yards in total length.
the bias.cellulosic man . and are better than wool in resistance to abrasion. There are two main or classic types: the pullover or slip on and the cardigan. and dried most carefully. pleats and shirring are important because they allow for chest expansion. has smooth texture and a slightly shiny surface. The reason for the great popularity of the synthetic is that they can be cleaned in the home laundry machine at the setting for fine fabrics. and they need no reshaping. which is crimped also but is less bulky. The degree of softness of sweaters made from man-made fibres depends on the fibre denier (weight and fineness) the finer the denier the softer the fabric. reshaped. But today the acrylics.Women's skirts are cut on straight. has a round neck without a collar. Thus they provide more warmth than nylon. need a roomy garment with large armholes and curved underarms. A skirt should not wrinkle below the waistband and should be even at hem. Contemporary styles are usually bulky and may have cable stitch and cowl necks. especially up to 10 years. nylon is 30 . Also man . Until the development of the non . or circularly from the same fabrics that are used for dresses and suits." have to be hand washed. wool was the major fibre used for sweaters. Acrylic fibre pills more than nylon in laundering and more particularly in rubbing against other garments or furniture. to permit raising the hands above the head without pulling out the seams or distorting the fabric. or either type may be in a classic or contemporary style. particularly orlon and Acrilan.made fibres.right for occasion. Either type may have long or short sleaves. The fit or. with cotton an important fibre for children’s wear. has long been a staple for both casual and dressy wear. more particularly the hang of skirt is important. not usually bulky. a knitted of garment for the upper part of the body. On other hand. 2.3. Coats and dresses must be style . with blends second and wool third. The acrylics provide a wool – like bulkiness by crimping short filaments so that they resemble wool fibres. WOMEN’S SWEATERS The sweater. The principles for selection of appropriate outer garments for adults are essentially the same for girls. Wool sweaters. It is more readily distinguishable from wool than is acrylic fibre. unless labelled “machine washable. Tucks. Nylon.made fibres are usually less expensive than comparable wool products. The classic sweater. are in the first place.3. All girls.
wear blouses are important in any women's wardrobe. Sweaters are also made of 100% polyester. covert (wool/nylon bonded to acetate tricot).3. 50% or more polyester with acrylic. 2. 100% rayon or acetate. fabric.3. worsted sharkskin. faille. wool broadcloth are used in winter season. or 55% or more acrylic with wool are likely to give good wash . Spring coats are lighter in weight than fall coats.and .3. to another. And to still another. whipcord. Coats of cashmere or cashmere and wool and wool blends. covert. tweed faille. wool tweed (single and bonded). of course are of the heaviest fabrics. The weight of outer garments is governed by the season. flannel. single and bonded cloths. To one woman. Melton. poplin. 2.wear performance. cashmere ottoman (wool/nylon bonded to cotton and other blends). polyester and rayon (55% or more polyester with rayon). colour. Suits and pantsuits of gabardine. comfort and price are paramount. polyesters. fit. wool Shetland (single or bonded) are used in spring and fall. and 100% silk are also appropriate fabrics for blouses. comfort and price. serge. knitted fabrics are also used in spring and fall seasons.more easily snagged by sharp objects and fingernails. and winter coats. fabric. camel's hair. 80% or more acrylic with cotton. cashmere. 100% Arnel triacetate.5. tweed boucle. SELECTION OF UNDER GARMENTS 31 . blends of polyester and cotton (65/35 %). COATS AND SUITS When women buy coats they look for style. Fabrics that resist wrinkling are those made of the acrylic. 2. Coats made of fur like fabrics. corduroy. colour.6. colour and style may be most important. Suits and pantsuits of knitted fabric (wool and blends). BLOUSES Wash .4.and . and fit may be the major considerations. and cross linked or specially resin treated cottons.
nylon. silk pongee.care articles that are not bulky and that conform to the lines of the outer garment.3.8. and nylon and rayon tricot.fashion knit and circular knit. lightweight attractive.3. The materials for babies are. nor creep up or twist.pyjama sets can be tailored or lace trimmed. HOSIERY While cotton hosiery (especially lisle) and wool hosiery are important for sports. cotton. Orlon acrylic and stretch nylon. because no back seam is present. Full . and 2. Full fashioned are knitted flat stitches are taken off (two stitches are knit as one to decrease the number) so that the fabric is narrowed at the ankle. a 32 . acetate. the great majority of women today wear nylon most of the time. crepe and satin. Cotton. Undergarments should not stick or cling to the outer garments.gown or coat .7. 2. Fabrics commonly used for underwear generally fall into two main classifications: 1.and . 2. Circular . and for boy's and men's socks as well. cotton knits. some chiffons and georgettes. children’s'. minimum . generally speaking standard.Women's undergarments consist of soft. Rayon. other synthetics elastic fibres (rubber and spandex) in mixtures or blends. pyjamas. A garment should easy to slip on. Common fabrics used for nylon lingerie include nylon tricot (sometimes called jersey) mesh. should not restrain any movements. There are two types of hosiery: full . and coat . batiste.fashioned hosiery. because it washes readily and does not irritate the skin. Any kind of lightweight cotton or blend in plain weaves or knitted. acetate.and .knit hosiery is commonly called seamless. cotton and spandex and 100% stretch nylon are used for women's and girl's socks. should fit smoothly and should not be irritating. and men's wear. cotton is used more than that any other material. should stay in place. pllisse. SLEEPWEAR Gowns. Some common fabrics used for gowns and pyjamas are rayon. silk or nylon crepe.
hand kerchiefs.4. street. hosiery. jackets and slacks. SHIRTS Shirt may be classified according to the occasion for which they are worn: 1. there are more divisions of men's and boy's section in department and specialty stores. classification. A similar division may be made for boy's wear.better fitting fabric than circular knit. With the emergence of fashion as selling force. Men's clothing includes garments such as suits. Men's clothing and Men's furnishings. tie clips and stickpins. because there is no seam over the ball of the foot to irritate tender skin areas. Men's and boy's furnishings are composed of similar articles. They are generally made of a sweater like knit of 100% stretch nylon for women and children ( cotton may be used for girls). Women's seamless stocking have gained in popularity because they eliminate the problem of crooked seams and because they fit smoothly on the foot. Dress ( tailored garments worn with a necktie for business. Boy's clothing includes suits. the circular . APPAREL FABRICS FOR MEN'S AND BOY'S WEAR Men's wear may be classified as: 1. are also commonly included in the classification. sweaters and bathing suits. belts. Tights are also fashionable and practical. retains its shape better during wear and after washing. and semiformal wear) Work 33 . topcoats. and raincoats. Work clothing is often treated as separate 2. the chief of which are shirts. 2. 2.1 . muffles and scarf.4. For men in particular. sleepwear. studs. overcoats. 2. robes. cover coats. jackets. underwear. suspenders.textile) such as cuff links. garters.knit hosiery is preferable. topcoats. ties. Men's jewellery (non .
5. all cotton chino 65% Dacron polyester and 35% combed cotton gabardine. yarns. sport shirt fabrics are classified as knitted or woven.20. and all . mercerised. The durability of a shirt is determined by the grade of fabric (judged according to the quality of the fibres. Men's dress shirts sizes run 14 to 17 (neckband measurements). In general. solid coloured. a comfortable easy . such as mercerized cotton twill. a blend of 65% Dacron polyester and 35% cotton poplin. For work shirts khaki. polished cotton. Shirts for formal wear are usually pleated or plain.16. Dress shirts are usually all white. Ease in laundering is also a factor in durability. and sizes are based on the neckband. a count as low as 100 x 56. Single cuffed shirts are easier to iron than those with double cuffed. and blends.3. but the latter are usually more durable. plaids.to . 4. a common feature is that they are made to be worn without a tie. Best quality fabric for shirt is produced from 2 x 2 combed cotton of count of 144 x 76. They may or may not have a collar and may have either short or long sleeves. Sports and Formal. with a starched or soft bosom depending on the current mode.cotton denim. Fabrics include pique.18. Since sport shirts are intended for active sports and for casual wear. stripes or checks. all . and 8. Sleeve lengths are usually identified as long or short. solid coloured or stripped.cotton drill.14.care . Although sport shirts vary in style. broad cloth. and finishing processes). and shrinkage controlled. Poorer grades may have the following weakness: 2 x 1 (two ply warp and single filling) or single carded yarns in both warp and filling.10. The emphasis in selecting work shirts should be suitability rather than style. Sleeve lengths come in sizes 32 to 36. All cotton or polyester and cotton blends are commonly used for shirting. silk or synthetic fibered crepe.12. Sports shirts may be white. Men who cannot wear standard sizes should buy custom made shirts. little or no mercerization.4. weaves. Work shirts for utility wear are made of sturdy fabrics.6. Boy's sizes run 3.for fabric is suitable. dark blue or blacked are common colours. For comfort shirts usually have long tails that stay trucked in sleeves may be long or short. 34 . blends of 17% nylon and 83% cotton twill.
shaggy hairy. boat turtle or crew. For the women. Both woollen and worsted yarns can be used in knit underwear. 100% 01 Orlon Acrilan acrylic texture nylon. SWEATERS Many customers are interested in style when they buy a sweater. Sweaters are made of all wool or all cashmere. Although union suits. under shirts. smooth knitted structure. and nubbed textures. and drawers are staple items in the underwear department.2. 4. Worsted yarn is smooth and lustrous and makes a fine. although the latter is often preferred under jackets or coats. Wool knitted underwear is very warm 35 . they are usually purchased by the older man who lives in a climate of cold winters. whereas the latter are particularly suited to sportswear.shirts and shorts or briefs. Since cotton absorbs perspiration better than silk. 2. which pulls over the head generally has no buttons but may have a short zippers.piece garments with sleeves and legs in varied lengths). shorts.3. which fastens down the front. The pullover with sleeves is more popular than the sleeveless variety.shirt. generally which buttons or a zipper.4. UNDERWEAR Garments sold in men's and boy's under wear departments include T . Necklines of the pullover may be v-shaped. Sweaters are made in smooth and in bulky. The most popular style in underwear for man and boys are undershirts or T . The former are more comfortable under a jacket. It is especially suitable for athletics. all cotton. The two classic styles for men as well as women are the pullover. and union suits (knitted one . even. and blends of 75% wool and 25% mohair. For underwear the factor of comfort is very important. round. rayon or nylon. briefs. The woollen fabric is soft and pliable and makes a good napped or fleecy surface. shirts.Price is often a major consideration in selecting a shirt. many men prefer cotton for underwear in all climates. The cardian may be made with or without a shawl collar and two lower pockets. Men's consider the factors of colour and collar style first. collar style and price were first consideration in buying a man's shirt. Sizes are 36 to 46. drawers. Probably the most comfortable underwear is made of a knitted fabric because it gives knit underwear with movements of the body. however. and the cardian.
with the familiar Jacquard plaid pattern. The sock for street wear. may be used alone in lightweight underwear. Sports socks may be described as: 1. 3. ankle. The synthetics have the added advantages of drying quickly. Dress for street wear and Socks for sport.ventilates the skin. washes and wears well. Both wash-and wear cotton and the non cellulose synthetics are easy to care for and require little or no pressing. Rayon and nylon yarns. does not slip or roll down. Crew (bulky rib-knit white fabric with elastic top. and is smooth on the sole of the foot. are most attractive in white and pastel shades. A blend of heavily weight cotton 90% and 10% nylon. with varied designs and colours. It keeps the body warmth in winter and cools in summer. for winter made of stretch nylon outside (lined with 50% Herculon Olefin/ 50% cotton). 2. which are often used in combination with another textile to give it lustre. 4. These yarns. although it is very strong and quick drying. 2. Each style comes in lengths that vary from just below the knee to just above the ankle. usually comes in solid colours in stockinet or rib knit. 100% nylon knitted underwear. A comfortable sock is soft. 70% nylon 30% cotton inside for comfort or 100% stretch nylon wear well. fits smoothly over the instep. Novelty. Bulky Orlon acrylic blends that feel woolly 36 . fits the body smoothly without binding and is easily washed and needs no ironing. which is more conservative than the sports type. Laundry is an important factor in underwear. incidentally. or 80% worsted wool/20% stretch nylon. but some men say that their fibres feel clammy because they do not have the absorptive quality of cotton. Rayon underwear is inexpensive. Thermal. does not pinch the toes. or white socks with or without blazer stripes at the top). does not absorb perspiration. is very cool in summer and in good grades. There are two main styles in men's socks: 1. Argyle. and 4.4 HOSIERY Men want socks to fit well and above all to wear well. and heel.
Made of cotton and blends usually polyester. Used for blouses. 2. whereas the pullover needs no front closing. If a garment feels smooth and soft. The separate coat is buttoned down the front. sometimes with feet attached. decoration. Small children often wear the same style as grown . it will generally prove comfortable. Tops of socks are frequently made of spandex yarn in rib knit. It is soft and top weight fabric. In such cases. curtains small scale prints etc. trimming. dresses.resistant are suitable for sport wear. COTTON LAWN Cotton lawn is made of combed or mercerised cotton. Also. shirts. Durable press is a valued selling point. sleepwear and 37 . Pyjamas generally include a coat . Probably the next most important consideration in sleepwear is durability which includes launder ability.1. 2. a 50% lamb's wool and 50% nylon blend and 80% wool and 20% stretch nylon are appropriate. It is used for shirts. It is top weight fabric. It is highly flammable. it is easy to put on and take off. low resiliency and drape.5. CALICO Calico is balanced plain weave.5COMMON FABRICS USED IN GARMENT MANFUCTURING.4. absorbency. and if it has a full cut and smooth seems.and are shrink . Calico fabric has good strength. dresses. Shrinkage of less than 5% considered satisfactory.style or pullover (middy) top and trousers. It is balanced plain weave.ups or they may wear one piece. For some men the appearance of the garment is more important than comfort or durability.5. or quality of workmanship is noticed. 2.2. underwear.5 SLEEP WEAR Just as men seek comfort in underwear they also want comfort in sleeping garment. 2.
sleepwear. umbrellas. SHEETING/ PERCALE Sheeting or percale fabric is made of cotton and blends of carded yarn. 38 . resiliency and good drape. It close plain weave with cross ribs fine but easily visible when weft is thick. used for dressed. ribbon. Stiff finish may be applied on cotton lawn fabric. Its weave is close. and wrap and weft are almost same size. lampshades. COTTON MUSLIN It is top weight fabric. It is used for work wear.5. 2. dressed. and etc. and 140 (sturdy fabric). TAFFETA Taffeta is produced only from filament yarn.5.handkerchiefs. It is balanced plain weave and used for house hold sheeting. Poplin may be top or bottom weight or sturdy fabric. Its total thread per inch are 118 (fairly sleazy and open). 2. pyjamas. It's resiliency is low and it is highly flammable. It has more warp than weft and weft is generally coarser. POPLIN Poplin is made of cotton or blend with polyester. shirt.5. It is usually piece dyed. There are more warp than weft. Poplin is used for shirts. It has good strength.6. 2. rain coats. absorbency and drape. sport wears. 128 (medium). It has low strength. 5.4. curtain. It is fine smooth fabric with a very fine crosswise rib. with open or loose weave.5. sheet.7. dresses. 2. It is produced from carded yarn with 3/1 warp face twill.3. sportswear bags etc. Taffeta is top weight fabric. It is tough fabric and bottom weight to heavy. luggage lining. trim lining. DRILL Drill is made of cotton or blend with polyester.5. It is characterised by high absorption and flammability. etc.
2.9. Tweed undergoes fulling in finishing to close up the yarns and make fabric warmer. Gabardine is warp face twill weave usually 2/1 and steep. GABARDINE Gabardine is usually wool or blend with man . 2.5. Weighs bottom to heavy. combed. fairly coarse or cotton. Satin made of silk and man .made fibre and blends fabric. DENIM Denim is produced from cotton or blend with polyester. 39 .5. 2. Carded yarns only or rotor yarn is used for denim manufacturing.5.10 TWEED Tweed may be wool. It is top weight smoothest. It is Bottom weight fabric. and worsted.8. It is usually fine.11.made fibres is warp faced fabric. used for slacks. It is warp face twill weave. rain wear. blouses. acid. Skirts.5. fullest and mostly lustrous and very flexible fabric. 2. even shot (to leave bullet holes).made fibres. this includes stone. Used for lining. SATEEN/SATIN Sateen is weft float fabric. bridal suits dresses and etc. suits. man . In denim warp yarns dyed (Indigo blue) and weft yarns undyed. Finished to give 'worn' look. coats. Fibres usually stock dyed. mud washed. mostly produced from cotton. lingerie.
Garment companies vary from the small number who employee several hundred or even several thousands of workers to the typical traditional company and prefer women workers. shirts. it is an industry which translates the fashion in to action. hats. 40 . and this excludes the extremities. Because of the variety of product categories. and work cloths. shoes. Garment may be grouped as active wear. socks. pajama. gloves. Garment industry is one of the developing industry which gives employment to the population. for example.CHAPTER THREE 3. and the difficulty in handling of soft goods manual operations are usually needed. INTRODUCTION Compared to many other product lines. dress shirts. Garment is what we wear and fashion is how. Garment. intended to cover portions of human body.A shaped article of textile fabrics or other flexible sheet material. It includes a diversity of company types and sizes of product types and volumes of production and manufacturing environments that is difficult to find in any other industry. underwear. the endless change in materials and styling. The scope clothing industry has been defined as the manufacture of garments worn on the body. Garment industry is no more a tailoring unit with a haberdashers. uniform. outer wear. hosiery.1. apparel manufacturing remains labor intensive. children wear. GARMENT MANUFACTURING 3. sleep wear.
Garments with up-to-date fashion appeal 2. Quick response and short delivery times But to produce goods efficiently and profitably. Time to develop garment and method engineering for `price sensitive` and other critical types of merchandise. THE BLOCK PATTERN 41 . Adequate time for planning. 1. 4. As a result the clothing producer has to reconcile the conflicting requirements of the market and of these manufacturing facilities in order to stay in business. 3. Parallel to this.2. Acceptable quality standards 5.The internal chain usually starts with the marketing department doing some formal or informal research to evaluate what the market sector served by the company could be looking for and at what prices.1. Reasonable level of work in progress. Large orders. Competitive prices 4. The basic needs of the market are: 1. PATTERN MAKING It is a highly skilled technique which calls for technical ability. 5. Industrial pattern making has two basic types 3. 3. 3. GARMENT MANUFACTURING 3.1.1. A Minimum of style and cloth variety 2. well in advance of delivery dates. Low forward commitments in order to leave open options to exploit sudden demands during the season. the designer has probably visited overseas couture houses to obtain indications of the possible trends for the next season.1. the producer requires. sensitivity for design interpretation and a practical understanding of the process technology used by the factory.
performs the necessary manipula5tion and then adds the requisite sewing and other allowances to each component. 3. motile is removed from the stand and each component is copied on to pattern paper and the necessary making up allowances added.1.This is a basic pattern with out any style features and incorporates the measurements. on a workroom stand of the appropriate size. Block pattern can be developed by either of the following methods. COMPUTERIZED PATTERN MAKING At most large manufacturers. 3. proportions and posture of the body for which garments. the pattern maker manipulating small graphic patterns on the computer screen with a hand-held control device. It cad be produced by a computer. when the fit balance are satisfactory. Geometry drives can make an infinite 42 . MODELING It entails the fitting of the block garment usually in toile. are constructed by a draft (technical drawing) which incorporates the measurements and proportions of the particular system used by the pattern maker. When using the flat method. Notches are made in related components in the seam lines as guides for alignment and matching during sewing and make-up. THE GARMENT PATTERN The styled patterns used for cutting the original sample garments can be developed by a variety of means. FLAT METHOD The components of the pattern.2. the pattern maker introduces style lines of the garment on to a copy of the block pattern. developed from this pattern.3. usually the body and sleeve. modelling or a combination of both. patterns are made on a computer with computer aided design (CAD) systems. including the flat method. are intended.
This process can be performed manually or automatically by a computerized system. a missy manufacturer’s grade rules might call for increments of one and a half inches in width and a quarter inch in length for each size. another system has been developed allowing the pattern maker to work life size on a sensitized table with traditional tools and stylis that is attached to the table and the computer. To allow pattern makers to make patterns manually on a computer. Grading is the method used to increase or decrease the sample size production pattern to make up a complete size range. The pattern generation programmer automatically generates the pattern for auxiliary components such as linings and foibles. At each of the key points. Each point is cross referenced 43 . the sample size 10 patterns must be made larger to accommodate sizes 12.number of changes to the shapes and sizes the pattern including creating new design lines or adding pleats. patterns are immediately available for other operations such as grading and marker making. The stylis picks up the lines drawn on the table and shows them on the screen.when the pattern components for the top cloth have been developed on the computer via pattern design system. Pattern design system. The pattern maker guides a cursor around the edges of the sample pattern on a digitized table. Each company sets predetermined grade specifications. fullness. Changes can also be made directly on the screen. Pattern generation system. or rules. For example. 14 and 16 and smaller for sizes 8 and 6.the pattern maker inputs to the system all the block patterns in current use and with the aid of the computer can construct garment patterns from them. The essential features of this technology are pattern design and pattern generation systems. In both cases. he or she pushes a button to record a grade point. For example. Patterns are graded according to size charts which present the sizes and the average measurements of the population group for which the garments are intended. and seam allowances.3. Today most manufacturers grade pattern on CAD systems. PATTERN GRADING It is the process where by patterns of different sizes are produced from the original master pattern. 3.
Once the marker is completed. a full-scale marker is printed by the plotter on a long sheet of paper. The operator can electronically position the pattern pieces in to the most efficient arrangement. Then the computer can print out the pattern in each new size. 3. strips. which enlarges or reduces the pattern automatically according to the predetermined direction. a master marker is made. The purpose of the marker is three fold: To make a lay out for the cutter to allow To place pattern pieces close together to avoid fabric waste To accommodate the cutting order (ensuring that the correct quantities of each size are cut) The desire economical use of space is called a tight marker. plaids. Grain direction. In some cases markers are made on continuous rolls of paper for efficiency. Lay out made on a sheet or light weight paper the same width as the fabric.by a grade-rule table stored in the computer. oneway prints. and make the marker. The marker is the cutting guide or pattern. grade patterns. This may be done on the card board or paper. Miniatures of the graded pattern pieces are displayed graphically on the computer screen. data are already in the computer and can be enlarged or reduced automatically. MAKING THE MARKER Marker making is the creation of cutting temples for the various parts of a garment. the former being more durable. Manufacturers often use an out side service to make patterns. which utilizes the highest percentage of fabric possible to avoid waste. 44 . Pre-programmed grade rules for increase or decrease are automatically applied to the pieces of each grading location. Computerized marker making Most manufacturers now make their marker on a CAD system or have it made by an out side service. Patterns are laid out so that each size and colour is cut as needed (popular sizes are repeated on the marker). Form all the pattern pieces of varying size. and naps are considered in making the marker.4. If the pattern was originally made by computer.
twill etc. CUTTING The first stage in the manufacturing of garments is the cutting and for that pattern making is the base. 45 . all cutting rooms use the same basic system to produce cut work. production orders and graded patterns and finishes when bundles of cut work are issued for sewing.3. Cutting production starts with the receipt of inspected raw materials. severing) a spread in to garment parts that are the precise size and shape of the pattern pieces on a marker. Machines and tables used. Design characteristics of finished garment. chopping or sectioning a spread in to blocks of pieces goods many precede precision cutting of individual patter shapes. This is done to allow for accurate matching of fabric design or easier manufacturing of a cutting knife. curving. The cutting process may also involve transferring marks and notches from the garment parts to assist operators in sewing. FACTORS INVOLVED IN CUTTING Nature of fabric (grain line shade. Production process in the cutting room Irrespective of size. Cutting is separating of the garment in to its components and in a general form it is the production process of separating (sectioning. with the row material going through the same operations in the same sequence.) Thickness of fabric.5.
The total process has four stages Spreading Planning Marks Production Manual Spreading Machine Machine Cutting Die press Computer Shade marking 46 .
The spreading table may be covered with a layer of paper before fabric is spread.Preparation for sewing Tickets Bundles 1. which is fixed to the spread with pin or staples. This protects the fabric from any rough spots on the table surface. Markers can be produced on paper. cutting method. SPREADING Overview of the spreading process A spread on lay up is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker. The marker planner uses full size pattern and arrange them in the most economical fashion on marker paper. flat folds. b. or 47 . the marker is held in position by the vacuum used to impress the spread and keep it stable. Computerized systems are used to plan the markers. a. This is a specially printed paper having symbols on it which enable the marker planner to visually control the positioning of components according to their specified grain lines. Piece goods may come from rolls. Full size pattern are reduced generally to 1:5 scale and also the width of cloth represented at the same scale. 2. which can then be used for manual or computer control cutting. and prevents the base plate on the cutting knife from distorting lower piles of fabric. For computerized cutting. pre sectioned pieces. Planning Lying out of the pattern so as to ensure the most economical use of materials can be performed by one of the three methods. and size of the order to be cut. c. fabric characteristics. The highest of the lay up or spread is limited by the vertical capacity of the spreader. enables the lay up to be moved if needed. A spread may consist of a single ply or multiple plies.
while other firms find the automated. Fabric pieces may be cut to predetermine lengths for matching patterns or for additional processing such as screen printing. A stepped spreads are used to adjust the quantity of piece goods to the number of garments to be cut from each section of the marker. Cut precludes the use of a flat spread. A stepped spread for a sectional marker may consist of piles of varies length spread of different height. spreads of plaid fabric may be pre sectioned in to blocks so the design of the fabric can be perfectly matched before cutting to the shape of the pattern piece. The length of the spread is determined by marker length. the colors and ply lengths for a stepped spread if it is needed. The composition of each spread. The cut order plan details. spreading machine. fabric control devices. and fabric cutting devices. the number of piles of each color is obtained from the cut order plan. i. Rolled piece goods are mounted on spreading machines and unrolled and piles are aligned as the spreader travels up and down the table. This is a preparatory operation for cutting and consists of laying piles of cloth one on top of the other in a predetermined direction and relation ship between the right and wrong side of the cloth. Many firms operate productively with manually operated equipment. 48 . Stepped spreads are susceptible to excessive end loss as each ply is cut. high-tech equipment to be cost-effective for their operations. Spreading equipment Basic spreading equipment consists of spreading surfaces.irregular segments such as hides. Spreading it self can be a completely manual operation or can be performed by powered machines of various levels of technology.e.
FLAT SPREAD 2. cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process.2. Fig3. STEPPED SPREAD A stepped spread is generally used when for some reason the imbalance between the quantities to be so spreading is the process of super imposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table. Stepped spreads: these as the name suggests. with all the plys in one step having the same length. Flat spread: all the plys are of the same length Fig3.The spread can be of two basic types: 1. is built up in steps.1. 49 .
This is the major operation of the cutting room. a coarse blade edge is used for tightly woven fabrics and a smooth edge for softer fabrics. smooth. 3. With automatic spreading. of all of the operations in the cutting room this is the most decisive. and rate of travel. Two aspects of spreading that affect spreading efficiency are the setup and actual lay out of fabric through the spreader and positioning the machine and related to equipment. a cutting machine with a rotating circular knife may be used. the equipment controls the tension. very little can be done to rectify serious mistakes. The cutter must select the correct speed and blade for each type of fabric . using a strait –knife machine with a long. because once the fabric has been cut. CUTTING Using the markers made from graded patterns and in accordance with the issue plan. and the tension free. The cutting tools (cutters) can be classified in to: 1.For example. equipment and size of the spread. fabric placement. a skilled cutter follows the pattern outlined on the marker. For only a few layers.Spreading may be done manually or by computer-controlled machines. fabrics are cut to prepare garment assembly. The actual process of spreading involves laying out fabric in the desired number of layers. A vertical knife can cut to a depth of 9 inches. A spread may be laid up by one person or two. portable cutters 50 . Cutting techniques The marker is put on the layers of fabric with the conventional method. thin blade that vibrates vertically as it is pushed through many layers of fabric. depending on the width and type of fabric. One person may work each side of the table in order to keep the fabric flat.
Press cutting is also often used for cutting many of the components for leather and suede garments.Electronic microchips control the cutting device . travel pattern. if correctly used. streamers or directly from the marker planning system itself. Numerically Controlled cutting systems The four types of automated cutting systems are blade cutting .this process involves the use of a hydraulic press shapes to be cut very accurately.2. Computer-generated markers are stored and used to guide the operation of the cutting head. Portable cutters Powered scissors. and speed. 2. Straight knife-the work house of most cutting rooms.water jet cutting. excellent for cutting straight lines or gradual curves. Computerized cutting is six to eight times faster than any manual method and products cut components with a consistent level of accuracy although a computerized 51 . Automated. The marker date is transferred to the cutting unit by means of tapes. Blade sizes range from 4cm to 20cm in diameter and the effective cutting height is about 40 percent of the blade diameter. is versatile and accurate enough for most purposes. and plasma jet cutting . the straight knifes. The input for this operation comes from the markers generated on computerized marker planning systems. floppy disks.this is very fast machine. Round knife. which forces a shaped metal cutting die through a pile of material and is mostly used when large quantities of small components have to be cut very accurately.these are used for cutting one or two piles and are often used in the sample room. Stationary cutters Band knife – the narrow blade of this machine allows the finest of Press cutting. stationary cutters 1.
000 psi). A die. but with some heat emission. The sharp edges of the die are pressed against the layers of fabric to cut them. especially in the shoe industry. Die cutting may be used for garments or parts of garments that do not change from season to season. Water jet cutting is another computer -operated.beam cutting is sometimes used for men's suits. Automatic blade cutting is the most highly developed and widely used computerized cutting system. Water jet cutting is performed by propelling a tiny jet of water (0.cutting system requires a substantial initial investment. Laser cutting focuses a powerful beam of light projected on to a minute area to cut fabric by vaporization. it is considered to be the most effective investment for large scale cutting production.001-0. is made for each piece to be cut. a device that operates much like a cookie cutter. Water -jet cutting is being used for some fabrics and leathers. accuracy and multidirectional ability. Offloading 52 . The laser. a concentrated light beam is also directed by a computer. Lasers cut with incredible speed (twice that of automatic knives cutting). Paper markers are not needed for numerically controlled cutters. such as a jeans pocket and leather belts. Lesser. Operators communicate directly with the main control unit through a command console micro processing unit with a keyboard.0015 inch) through the fabric at very high pressure (70. Numerically controlled knives cut multiple plies with great accuracy and speed. 4. multi directional method that has limited usage at this time. which are cut a single layer at a time. A gang die can be made by connected several dies together.
ticketing and grouping them. counting. Offloading is the process of removing cut parts from the cutting table. and any additional operations that may be completed in the cutting room 53 .After cutting. The method and sequence this follows depends on the production system. how the materials are to be transported to the sewing facility. garment parts must be prepared for the sewing operation.
Minimum of modification to the “handle “of the top cloth. generally called fusibles.CHAPTER 4 4. The term fusible interlining is used to describe a base fabric coated on one side with a thermoplastic adhesive resin which can be bonded to another fabric by the controlled application of heat and pressure. the attachment of interlinings by sewing is expensive and requires a skill if a high standards is to be achieved. Reinforcement of specific design features. When interlinings are sewn in.There is a reduction in the skill required in many operators involving fusing compared with the sewing in of interlinings and this leads to a reduction in training time. Preservation of a crisp and fresh look. where by the interlining is bonded to the outer fabric by means of a thermoplastic resin. ♦ Advantages of using fusible interlinings : 1. On large parts such as jacket fronts. provide the designer with a number of properties which can enhance the appearance of finished garments by the followings: Control and stabilization of critical areas. FUSING AND SEWING TECHNOLOGY FUSING TECHNOLOGY The most important area of garment construction where an alternative process has significantly taken over from sewing is in the attachment of interlinings. 2.In most cases the use of fusible interlinings shortens manufacturing time with a consequent reduction in direct labour cost. it can be difficult on parts such as collars to avoid a wrinkling of the interlining inside the collar and pucker around the edge. The alternative process which has been developed is that of fusing. 54 . These materials.
7.Fusing must takes place without either strike-through or strike back occurring. it is important that it does not go right through to the face side of that fabric.2 FUSING PROCESS 55 .1 THE REQUIREMENTS OF FUSING 1. 6. 4. there is a risk that pile fabrics may be subject to crushing during fusing. 2.It is easier to achieve consistent quality in the lamination process than it is with many of operations of sewing in of interlinings.Where shower proof fabrics are fused. 4.The strength of bond of the laminate must be sufficient to withstand handling during subsequent operations in the garment manufacturing process as well as the flexing which takes place in wear. Water resistant interlinings have been developed for these situations. 4.A further possible effect of the heat of the fusing process is that of dye sublimation.3.1.Fusible interlinings provide opportunities for alternative methods of garment construction. Fusing commonly takes place at around 150 oc and at this temperature many fabrics may subject to thermal shrinkage. 1. 3. there is a possibility that the presence of a fused interlining in the garment may wick water through the fabric in the fused areas while the unfused areas remain satisfactorily shower proofed. 5.The fusing process must not cause thermal shrinkage in the outer fabric. and that it does not go back to the outside of the interlining base cloth. When the softened adhesive resin is pressed into the garment fabric.Since the fusing process involves pressure.The laminate produced by fusing should show the aesthetic qualities required by the designer in the finished garment. Fabrics may change colour to a level which is unacceptable and in a way which causes a miss-match between the fused and unfused parts of the garment.
pressure is applied to the top cloth and fusible assembly to ensure that : Full contact is made between the top cloth and fusible Heat transfer is at the optimum level. dense or open.This time cycle for a particular fusible is determined by : Whether the fusible has a high –or low melt resin If a high or heavy substrate is being used. 56 . There is an even penetration of the viscous resin into the fibres of the top cloth. thick or thin. Cooling: Enforced cooling is used so that the fused assemblies can be handled immediately after fusing. The nature of the top cloth being used. which could result in the resin being forced through to the right side of the cloth Time : the only time element of any value during the fusing process is when the top cloth and fusible are under pressure in the heating zone of the machine . Including water-cooled plates.Regardless of which fusible and machine are used. Cooling can be induced by various systems. Pressure : when the resin is viscous . Too high a temperature causes the resin to become too viscous. compressed air circulation and vacuum. fusing is controlled by four processing components: Temperature Time Pressure and Cooling There is a limited range of temperatures that are effective for each type of resin.
The resin is then softened in an oven. 2.1.Methods of applying resins to base cloths : There is further scope for varying the properties of an interlining and its effect on the outer fabric of a garment by varying the applications of the resin to the base cloth . The warp knits are either a locknit or weft insert construction. The base cloth passes over a heated roller and then against the engraved roller. The following are resins : Polyethylene Polypropylene Polyamide Polyesters Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 3. Patterns of dots can vary from 3 to 12 dots per cm according to the garment manufacturer’s requirements. three factors determine the properties of the fused laminate: 1.3 PROPERTIES OF FUSED LAMINATE In addition to the outer fabric of the garment. and the precise behaviour of the resins in response to heat. The powdered resin adheres to the cloth in the form of dots. The temperature and pressure on the two rollers is varied for different resin types.The most popular methods used are : a) Scatter coating: specially designed scattering heads are used to provide an even scatter under automatic control.The type of fusible resin: the choice of resin is restricted by limits imposed by the outer fabric. the fusing equipment to be fused. 57 .The base fabric of the interlining: Base fabrics are available in the woven fabric and non-woven constructions described for sew-in interlinings and also as warp knits. The resins used are mostly chemicals whose names will be familiar from other uses. Oven heating follows the printing operation to ensure permanent adhesion. pressed onto the base cloth and cooled. b) Dry dot printing: The powdered resin fills engraved holes on a roller. the end use requirements.
In the simplest mode of operation. Heat removes the water and the dots coalesce into solid resin.c) Paste coating: Fine resin powders are blended with water and other agents to form a smooth paste and are printed onto the base cloth. Fusing presses vary in the way they operate and these differences affect both the quality of the fusing and productivity of the operation. the interlining resin side down on the top of it in the correct position.1. 58 .4 FUSING EQUIPMENT The equipment used for fusing can be divided into: a) Specialized fusing presses: A number of different types of fusing press have been developed over the years. i) Flat bed fusing press: A diagram below shows the principle of operation of this type of fusing press. In many companies. . such fusing presses are sited in the cutting room and the fusing operation takes place before transferring the garments to the sewing room. It consists of two horizontal metal platens between which the fabric and interlining laminate are sandwiched. providing control of the heat and pressure applied to the garment part and providing for fusing to takes place on flat sections of garments that have not yet been sewn. and closes the press. the operator places the garment part face down on the lower platen places. This type of coating gives precisely shaped dots and is used to produce the finer dots used in shirt collar fusibles.
If multiple layers of fabric and interlining could be stacked 59 . the components are carried through a preheating zone. with its interlining placed on it.With low temperature.With direct heating. either a drum or curved plates. the conveyor belt carries the components to be fused into direct contact with a heated surface. Heat is provided in one of three ways: 1. either simultaneously or subsequently.ii) Continuous fusing systems: these systems operate by passing the garment part. This limits the number of thickness of fabric which can be fused at once because of the time taken for the heat to transfer through the fabric to the resin. past a heat source and. With this approach the temperature reached at the glue line is only just above that required to make the resin a viscous fluid and in some cases fusing takes place satisfactorily with a glue line temperature of only 120 oc . iii) High frequency fusing: In the fusing press described so far. heat has been provided by electric heating elements. the components are carried through a heated chamber. Heating is either direct or indirect.With indirect heating. 2.This reduces the possibility of heat shrinkage in the outer fabric and is a feature of some of the most recent fusing presses. applying pressure. gradient heating. 3.
Temperature at the glue line is achieved by steam from the head of the press . laid resin side down . 4. Vacuum in the lower part of the press. Some of the variations will now be described and illustrating them will demonstrate some of the method of garment construction that involves fusible interlinings.5 METHODS OF FUSING All the descriptions of the fusing processes that have been included so far . The operator estimates the time subsequently . The operator cannot know the temperature at the glue line and cannot apply pressure uniformly.have represented it as a single piece of interlining. Over a number of years.Only small parts can be fused with any degree of success . low pressures and in relatively short times are at all suitable for fusing by hand iron.laid right side down. the efficiency of the press and its cladding.The temperature reached depends on the steam pressure at the press head. b) Hand iron: Only those interlinings which can be fused at relatively low temperatures. productivity might be increased. or buck.covering the area step by step and using steam to help the heat transfer. There are a number of difficulties.on a single piece of garment fabric .up and fused simultaneously.and then only by pressing the iron for a fixed time onto the fusible . Pressure is provided mechanically or pneumatically by closing the press head on the buck. attempts have been made to do this by generating heat by means of high frequency energy. c) Steam press: In this case fusing takes place on presses of the type used for intermediate and final pressing of made up garments. The main variations are: a) Reserve fusing b) Sandwich fusing c) Double fusing 60 . in the same way as in a microwave cooker. This is referred to as single fusing and it is the safest in the sense that it is easiest to set the press conditions to achieve the correct temperature at the glue line.1. assists rapid cooling.
Reserve fusing: In this method the outer fabric lies on top of the fusible. are fused together. each of which has the capability for specific operations on a particular category of garments and /or fabric. It is sometimes used in fusing shirt and blouse collars.2 SEWING TECHNOLOGY The dominant process in garment assembly is sewing. and national and international standard have been developed for accurately classifying them as follows. Sandwich fusing: This is effectively carried out only on a horizontal continuous press where heat is applied both from above and below. Two pairs of components. forming two laminates. 4. III. STITCHES: There is a need for stitches which join and stitches which neaten. 4. with the two outer fabrics on the outside of the sandwich (of four layers) and the two interlinings on the inside.1 STITCHES AND SEAMS Stitches and seams are the basic elements of sewing. still the best way of achieving both strength and flexibility in the seam itself as well as of manufacturing method.I. for machines with more than one needle and for stitches which form a covering layer over the fabric. Double Fusing: This is the fusing of two sorts of interlining to the outer fabric in one operation. It is most commonly used in shirt collars and men’s jacket fronts. With correct temperature settings. The basic classes of stitch in British 3870 are : 61 . needles.2. II. This wide choice of sewing machinery is also matched by those for sewing threads. On flat bed presses with elements only in the top platen. the glue line temperature may be achieved in both laminates but the potential for strike-back occurring and causing all the layers to adhere together is considerable. In every sector of the clothing industry. sewing operations are performed by a great variety of machines. and other auxiliary components. it is necessary to adjust temperature settings.
Class 100 (Chain stitches): These are chain stitches formed a needle thread only and they are typically used for basting. Class 200 (Stitches originating from hand stitching): Originally hand stitches. The most widely used stitch formation in this class is number (no) 301 figure below.Various classes of this stitches are used for saddle stitching and the prick stitching of edges. felling and blind stitching. these are mostly formed by single threads passed from one side of the material to the other with each successive penetration of the needle . 2. 62 . 3. which is produced by a regular sewing machine. Class 300: These are also referred to as lock stitches because the top and under groups of threads are interlaced to form the stitch.1.
Class 500 (Over edge chain stitch): These are known as over edge stitches because at least one group of threads covers the edge of the material. In this 63 . stitch no 401 figure below is a chain stitch formed from two threads and is widely used for knitted materials because the stitch formation makes for good extensibility and lateral strength.the loops of which are interlaced and interloped .4. Class 400 (multi thread chain stitch): formed by two or more groups of threads . 5.
convenience in assembly in relation to the machinery available. i. and cost. 7. 64 . Typical examples are given here with diagrams.Superimposed: This seam is constructed with a minimum of two components and is the most widely used seam construction in this class. and maintenance of any specialized fabric properties such as water proofing or flame proofing. Seams must be as strong as the fabric. durability.stitch no 504 is a three. British standard 3870: 1991 classifies seam constructions under eight headings. comfort in wear. safety stitched and French seams are covered by this class. elasticity.class . strength. Class 1. Seam types: The choice of seam type is determined by aesthetic standards. which has very limited applications because of its inherent weakness. durability. SEAMS: It is necessary to define the term seam at early stage in any discussion because its applications are broader than is generally realized. 6.thread over locking stitch used for assembling light weight knits and also for cleaning and finishing the seam and hem edges of garments. Class 700: This is a single thread lock stitch similar to the 300 classes. They must also stretch and recover with the fabric. A seam is a joint between two pieces of fabric. in directions both parallel to and at right angles to the seam. Among others. security and comfort. Class 600 (Covering chain stitch): There are many complex stitch formations in this class because the stitches can be formed from three to nine threads and the use of up to four needles. Performance of seams means the achievement of strength.
Lapped seam: The simplest seam type in this class is formed by lapping two pieces of materials as shown in figure below. 65 .ii.Bound seam: In this class. Class 2. the seam consists of an edge of material which is bound by another. The best example of this class is the lapped seam construction used for many denim articles and for certain types of blouses and shirts. It is used for constructing a decorative edge binding from self or other material such as tape. iii. Class 3. with the possibility of other components inserted into the binding.
These several layers can be folds of the same fabric.Flat seams : In this class.Class 4. The channel seam shown in figure is representative of this class. Knitted fabrics are most commonly used because the advantage of this seam is that it provides a join that is free from bulk in garments worn close to the skin such as knitted under wear.Decorative: The main use of this seam is for decorative sewing on garments where single or multiple rows of stitches are sewn through one or more layers of fabric. seams are referred to as flat seams because the fabric edges do not over lap . This construction consists of a row or rows of stitches sewn through one or more plies of fabric. without a gap and joined across by a stitch which has two needles sewing into each fabric and covering threads passing back and forth between these needles on both sides of the fabric. 66 .butt are butted together. v. Class 5.iv.
Seam types in this class include those where fabric edges are neatened by means of stitches as well as folded hems and edges.They are similar to the applied seam except that the added component has a definite edge on both sides. elastic braid on the edge of a bra and inserted elastic on the leg of a swim suit. Class 7: Seams in this class relate to the addition of separate items to the edge of a garment part . Examples would be a band of lace attached to the lower edge of a slip. vii.Class 6-Edge neatening: This is the other seam class that was called a stitching.vi. This could refer to the over locked edge of a single ply or to the single turned over locked hem of a blouse. 67 .
etc.The commonest seam type in this class is the belt loop as used on jeans. There are five basic components of sewing: Needle Throat plate Presser foot Fed dogs Sewing threads I – Needles: Needles have been used for hand sewing since about 18000 BC and were originally made from ivory.2 COMPONENTS OF SEWING Irrespective of type of sewing machine. During 15th century iron needles were introduced for hand sewing. Class 8: The final seam class is another where only one piece of material need be involved in constructing the seam . 68 . The large scale production of sewing machines started about 1840 and this was paralleled by numerous developments in the manufacture and quality of machine needles. all sewing machines function in a similar way and the best example for illustrating these elements is the regular sewing machine. and in 1800 Balthasar Krems of Germany was the first to use a needle with the eye near the point for a chain-stitch machine he had developed. bone. wood and horn. raincoats. 4.VIII.2.
The functions of sewing machine needle are to form a passage in the material through which the needle thread can wholly or partially pass and form a loop which can be picked up by the looper or hook mechanisms. There is a short groove on the opposite side which extends a short distance above and below the 69 . the shank can be cylindrical in shape or flat on one side . The following are the parts of needle. SHANK: usually larger in diameter than the rest of the needle.depending on the method used to secure the needle in or on the needle bar. Needles are formed in straight or curved forms. BUTT: the truncated conical shape at the top of the needle which facilitates its insertion into the needle bar or clamp. BLADE: the longest section of the needle. this runs from the shoulder to the eye. GROOVES: on one side of the needle there is a long groove which protects the needle thread as it enters and is with drawn from the fabric. SHOULDER: the section joining the shank to the blade.
eye and its purpose is to aid the passage of thread into the material and loop formation. EYE: an elliptical hole between the two grooves, the shape and finish of the inside top of the eye are important factors in the prevention of thread damage during sewing. POINT: this is shaped to provide the best to provide the best penetration of the material being sewn. TIP: the tip, when combined with the point determines the ease and extent of penetration into the fabric.
II – THROAT PLATE:
The throat plate is a static component which has slots for the fed dogs ,and one or more holes for needles or a slot for sewing –needle machines such as a zigzag .The upper surface of the throat plate is highly polished so as to enable the material to slide over this area as smoothly as possible.
III- PRESSER FOOT:
The presser foot is attached to the pressure bar of the machine and its two prime purposes are to: a) Hold material security against the throat plate and prevent it shifting during the movement of the needle. b) Maintain a slight pressure contact between the material and the fed dogs to ensure that material moves at the same rate and direction as the feed dogs themselves.
IV- FEED DOGS
The basic function of the feed dogs is to move the fabric forwarded by a distance equal to the stitch length, between successive penetrations of the needle. The feed dog itself can have one or more raised rows of serrated teeth which rise through the slots in the throat plate and slightly enmesh with the underside of the fabric.
V- SEWING THREADS
Almost all garments produced have one component in common: The sewing thread. Whilst sewing threads are usually a relatively small percentage of the cost of garment, they have an extremely significant influence on the appearance and durability of the finished product. The production of sewing threads is an extensive and complex subject, and the reader is well referred to the technology of the read and seams.
SEWING MACHINES AND EQUIPMENTS
Since the mid 1980 s many technological advances have been made to the sewing machinery which is used for the production of clothing. New construction materials and improved electronic systems have played an important role in these advances. Sewing machine manufacturers are now seriously taking into account the operators who will use their machines and are incorporating many of the following items into their designs.
A comprehensive review of all the different machines on the market is beyond the scope of this topic, but the following are some of the machines most widely used for the production of clothing. 1- Regular Sewing Machine: This machine is the basic workhorse of the clothing industry and has numerous applications due to great variety of work aids and feed systems available for it. Some of the main features of this class of machine are : They are generally available in three versions for sewing light, medium/or heavy weight materials. With the additions of a programmable microprocessor control system, the machine can be programmed for repetitive operations such as sewing around labels or stitching simple decorative elements. Many versions of this machine have bobbins which hold 50 % more thread than the conventional bobbin. 71
Electronically controlled thread cutting, tacking, needle positioning and foot lifting systems have become standard equipment on these and many other machines. 2- Lock stitch bar tacker: This class of machine has a wide range of applications a part from regular bar tacking operations. It can easily be converted to sew an endless variety of stitch patterns in an area 6 cm X 6 Cm where the pattern contains up to 72 stitches. Sewing speed is adjustable according to the thickness of the part being sewn, and the free cylinder arm maker handling easier where bar tacking on cylindrical sections of garments such as belt loop, pocket corners and trouser flies. 3- Lock stitch button hole machine: The machine illustrated is for sewing button holes in light weigh materials, such as those used for blouses, dresses and shirts .In one continuous operation the machine sews a rectangular shaped buttonhole by means of purl -stitch, and both ends are secured by a bartack. The machine is operated by one pedal only and the head can be mounted in the length or across the width of the work top, depending on whether vertical or horizontal buttonholes are being sewn. 4- Three-thread over lock with a microprocessor: Based on a regular over lock machine ,this version is used for the assembly seaming of garments made up in light weight knitted materials .The microprocessor enables the accurate calibrations of stitch tension without manually adjusting the spring tensioners, and permits automatic. 5- Blind stitch machine: These machines are available in different versions for blind stitching the hems and facing of garments made in materials ranging from sheer to heavy weight. The machine forms a single –thread stitch and can sew up to 3000 stitches per minute. Stitch penetration control is digitally displayed and most machines are fitted with thread trimmers and a stitch condensing device which prevents the end of the sewing from unravelling. 6- Button sew machine: The variables in button sew machines are the size and shape of the button which determines the design of the button clamp, the number and
due e to the materials and construction. every type of product manufactured by the clothing industry is pressed either during or at the end of its assembly or at the end only. Buttons may be flat with two or four holes or they may have a shank on the back. The exceptions are items of corsetry and under wear which.disposition of the holes.Label sewers: A variety of label sewers is available from those sewing simple zigzag stitches to a predetermined length on one or two edges of a label to those which are programmable profile stitches able to be set to sew round a wide range of shapes and sizes of label. a thread shank may be required so that there is space behind the button for the thickness of the garment when fastened. CHAPTER FIVE 5. With very few exceptions. the stitch type (Lock stitch or single thread chain stitch) and the number of stitches. 7. THE PRINCIPLES OF PRESSING Pressing can be defined as a process which changes the geometric fibre structure of the area being pressed by the controlled application of heat. enabling jackets to be labelled with a retailer’s label after manufacture. pressing is a crucial process which 73 . removing a crease from a garment involves the same change of fibre lay as that required to open a seam or to press a hem. PRESSING AND FINISHING 5. In this sense. Where they are flat. the form of stitching where there are four holes and whether the button has a sewn shank or neck. steam and pressure. Regardless of the extent of pressing which garment undergo.1. A specially shaped cylinder bed machine is available over which the inside pocket of a jacket can be passed. do not require any form of pressing.
in some cases. A garment always has a greater hanger or package appeal if it is fresh looking and crisply pressed. The extent of the operation is determined by the construction of the garment. the fabric and.1. There is no doubt that top pressing is the major process for finishing a garment and giving it its final appearance. For example. Top pressing Some times referred to as off-pressing. 5. but it will never make a good garment out of what is basically a bad garment. Top pressing a faultily produced garment might help to ameliorate some of the faults. Seam opening. but also enhances garment quality. when broken down in to a sequence of operations. This example demonstrates good working principles for under pressing: when possible. CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSING The total process of pressing can be divided in to two groups of operations: under pressing and top pressing. it is far easier for an operator to press a panelled back well if the component is on its own rather than closed to the shoulders and side seams of the fronts. the component should not be positioned naturally during pressing and should not be constricted by other parts. Under pressing This term covers all of the operations performed on garments during their assembly. dart pressing and the pressing of flaps and patches are typical operations with in this group. this group includes all the operations used to finish garments when they have been completely assembled.imparts the final finish to a garment. 74 . The operations involved can range from a simple smoothing out with a hand iron to about fifteen machine and hand operations which are required to press lined coats. Under pressing.1. not only makes successive operations a little easier. how well the garment has been under pressed during its production. but top pressing can only achieve the best results when performed on well madeup garments.
invisible gas consisting of vaporized water. It can be easily distribute and controlled. and its white cloudy appearance is caused by minute water droplets interspersed in the vapour. 75 . type of garment or the machinery and equipment employed. Steam is a flexible. Steam itself is an odourless. gas or oil.1. steam can be distributed from central boiler room by small boiler located close to the work station. adaptable and efficient component of pressing. In factories steam is generated by boilers fired by electricity or fossil fuels such as coal. Components of pressing Steam The purpose of using pressurised steam is to relax the fibre structure of the fabric and make it pliable enough to be moulded by manipulation and pressure. Some of its outstanding features are: It has very high heat content.2. Fig 5. THE COMPONENTS OF PRESSING Regardless of fabric. Its heat is generated at a constant temperature. Depending on the number of pressing work station in the factory. There are also independent pressing units which have a built in boiler for generating their own steam.5. the majority of pressing operations have the same components.1.
This structural change is typical of the majority of pressing operations. The vacuum action removes the residual moisture from the material while it is lying on the pressing area. A simple example of this change is the pressing open of a regular seam. experience is a good teacher. Drying Following the application of steam and pressure. TYPES OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 76 . garment construction and the physical properties of the fabric being pressed. The drying process is usually performed by a central vacuum pump which is connected to pressing units. 5. the area which has undergone these processes has to be dried and cooled in order that the fabric can revert to its natural moisture content and stable condition. pressure and drying is a combined function of steam temperature. Whilst there are no fixed rules for the duration of these components. Time The length of time to which a component or garment ifs subjected to steaming.3. Steam has been used through out the centuries for pressing and it is still the best medium for this purpose. Water is relatively cheap and plentiful. manual or mechanical pressure is used to change the geometric fibre lay of the area being pressed. Accurate control of the four components of pressing is essential to the maintenance of uniform quality. Pressure After steaming. This is one of the main reasons why modern pressing machines can be programmed for the duration.1. operating conditions and sequence of all of the elements with in a specific pressing operation. or by pumps built in to ma machine it self.
One example of these is electric high-pressure steam iron. on versatile unit equipped with a hand iron. The following are some examples of the sole plate shapes available. There are hundreds of different types of pressing machines on the market because of the variety of garment types produced. Hand irons are produced in a variety of shapes and weights to suit specific types of operations. blouses and night dresses. The usual procedure is for the sample room to do what can be done correctly and then use the factory’s machines for everything else. such as dresses. Fig . Hand irons Hand irons are used for numerous operations in the production of clothing.17 Sole plate shapes 77 . there are still several operations which require the specialized machines in the factory. if the samples are of constructed garments. However.It is possible to press samples of light clothing. each with its own specific pressing requirements. Here are the respective of there types. while most of the simple under pressing operations can be performed with a hand iron. This is especially relevant to top pressing whereto most of the operations are performed on special purpose machines.
sleeve head and sleeve cuff in one set-up. High tech pressing machine High tech pressing machine for men’s and women’s clothing is a digital programmer and presses the shoulder. The small cabinet press Is designed to press the heat shirts before they are buttoned. thus preventing button marks on the finished article. temperatures and the sequence or combination of team. A micro processor monitors and regulators the programmed times. To sum up it is no exaggeration to say that a part from cutting. Up to 24 individual pressing programs can be stored in the microprocessor. because of its decisive contribution to garment quality and appeal. the two corner stones of garment quality are fusing and pressing. A tunnel finisher Is used for knitwear which can carry up to 30 articles at time through the finishing process. Garment forms can be adjusted for different styling and sizes and the microprocessor controls the processing time. steaming time and the quantity and steam and air temperature. which ensure an even pressing surface when the shirt is between the two shaped pressing plates. During the pressing process the back and front are tensioned by air-filled bags. This particular machine can be efficiently operated by one person only when there is a reasonable balance between the handling and pressing cycle times. cold air and vacuum. During the pressing operations the body and sleeves are precisely tensioned by pneumatically operated clamps or pressure pads which can be set for individual forms.The form finishing machine Is one of the types used for finishing men’s and women’s jackets. hot air. The pressing processes give the final finish and appearance. The importance of pressing should never be under estimated. blousons and skirts. The tunnel has two sections. 78 . one for gentle seaming and the other for quick drying of the garment.
Viscose Like most other synthetic fibres. A draw back with polyamide linings is that some solvents used for dry cleaning can have a detrimental effect on the fabric. and the following describes the main properties of those which have the most wide spread use in the clothing industry. starting with the material itself.1. 5. it goes through a number of chemical and mechanical processes until the filaments are ready for spinning in to yarn. Rayon Rayon linings have similar properties to those of viscose linings but are some what weaker. Fibre types and properties Today natural fibres are rarely used to construct linings due to the high cost and some difficulties with impairing a suitable finish to the fabrics synthetic fibres are now the most widely accepted for garment linings.2. lustre. The professional approach is: sufficient for the intended purpose no more.5. GARMENT TRIMMINGS In total all the trimmings used for the garment cab be substantial cost item and so their selection and use require careful considerations. 79 . There is no point in improving materials utilisation if the savings made are thrown away by using expensive tapes as stay tapes. Linings made from viscose fibres have strength.2.1. LININGS Garment linings have functional and customer appeal objectives and this selection will examine the principles involved. softness and an affinity for dyes. Polyamide Polyamide produces linings with excellent tensile strength and a relatively high degree of elasticity and it takes dye-stuffs very well. FINISHING 5.1.2.
Although some warp knitted linings are available. For example. Customer appeal 80 . other than some polyamide linings. Linings are often used to assist in the formation of design features on garment. A layer of lining between the body of the wearer and the top cloth will usually eliminate this problem. These other functions include: As linings have a sheer surface. Linings help to preserve the shape of skirts and trousers made from loosely constructed or stretchy materials. the difference in lengths between the body shell and the body lining creates the blouson effect. Garments such as dresses. sometimes need ‘cover up’ areas. Lining does this job well. skirts and trousers. none of the linings made from these synthetic fibres are armed by dry cleaning and they can be safely pressed up to a temperature of 170.Polyester Polyester fibres are closely related to polyamides and linings made from polyester fibres have many similar properties. weaving is the predominant method of construction. Function and customer appeal Function Garment linings have a number of functional purposes besides their main one which is to cover all or part of the interior surface of a garment. Generally. The same principle is also used to create an ‘over hang’ look on puffed sleeves. Some types of outerwear materials have a tendency to cling to the body of the wearer and this can spoil the silhouette of the garment Some type of outerwear materials have a tendency to cling to the body of the wearer and this can spoil the silhouette of the garment. made from diaphanous materials. putting on or taking off the garment is a smooth and simple action.
Although thread consumption is greater than on a regular machine. the shrinkage factors of the cloth and lining should be checked tom verify that the two materials have compatible shrinkage in the width and the length. it would be worth substituting a different lining because working with linings which have excessive shrinkage could lead to complications during production and finishing. Some large companies incorporate their logo in the weave pattern of their linings. The surface and lustre properties of the lining have a considerable influence on this. the seam produced is superior.An important factor of customer is to present a garment whose inside has an attractive appearance. A part from making the presser’s work a little easier when finishing the garment. or even worse. If the discrepancy is substantial. Satin (sateen) This lining is characterized by a smooth and highly has a smooth and highly lustrous surface and a dull back. Colour also plays an important role and linings with a woven. Irrespective of whether linings are pressed or not before setting. all vertical seams in lays should be pressed to one side. and those properties for lining most widely used are: Taffeta A crisp fabric woven with a faint warp pattern which produces a shiny surface. if the seam is pressed open. printed or embossed pattern can give an extra fillip to a garment. the finished surface of this lining has a minute and uniform crinkled appearance. Where the body linings are pressed as one unit with the cloth. mostly viscose acetate. Making-up and testing linings Lining materials fray easily and should be assembled on a special stitch machine (four thread safety stitch machine). Satin is the name for a weave pattern. Crepe Made from specially processes yarns. this helps to prevent ‘seam grain’ which could happen if the seam has left to find its own lay direction. These linings are generally piece dyed which helps to soften them and make them able to withstand normal washing and dry-cleaning processes. 81 .
They can be produced from plastic materials such as polyester acrylic and polyvinyl resins. Garment buttons can serve two purposes: 1. Attaching buttons Attaching buttons have two stages. Decorative These are buttons which have a purely decorative function and one of the most common forms is on double-breasted garments. Most of the buttons sewn on to the sleeve vents of tailored garments are of decorative value only. They should match the grain lines of the relative cloth components. 5. Buttons Buttons are the most widely used closure system for clothing of all types. Utilitarian This refers to buttons which are used to open and close garments and other design features where the wearer requires access combined with an element of security. marking and sewing. although at one time they had a functional purpose. the hip pockets on trousers or the patch pocket on a safari-styled garment. For example.2. 2. SECONDARY TRIMMING Closures Most garments require some form of working parts to open and close them and those parts which are not attached to the garment during its production have to be added in the finishing process. which are some times cut across the piece instead of in the length.Grain line makings are as necessary for linings as they are for top cloth and fusible.2. and they can be designed according to a specific requirement.1. 82 . Typical closure systems are discussed here. although this can be ignored for components such as sleeve linings and linings for skirts and trousers.
83 . With striped or checked materials. pattern symmetry and alignment are essential. Buttons should not be sewn on to garments which will be subjected to pressure during their top pressing. Hooks and eyes can be sewn on by a simple button sewing machine fitted with special clamps for the two working parts. Darts should start and finish at the same levels. The buttoning of garments when they have been completed is usually performed in the sample room as this is more convenient than using the button sewing machines in the factory. there is also every possibility that the button could be broken by the pressure of the pressing machine bucks. Pockets have to be at the same height. For symmetrical garments the button positions have to ensure the over all symmetry of the garment. The button spacing has to be exact in order to ensure flat laying fronts. Knitted and other garments which are steam finished only can be safely buttoned before top pressing. Some of the important points to observe are: Collar ends and lapel steps on both fronts must be the same distance down from the neck line. The specified warp allowance must be observed. Hooks and eyes This is a relatively simple closure system which is widely used for zip openings on dresses and blouses made from light-weight materials. These machines can be set for specific spacing and the buttons are automatically fed to the button clamp. 3.Marking The hand marking of button positions requires accuracy in four respects: 1. Sewing The buttons of classic shirt and blouse samples are generally sewn on during production by automatic button sewers. As factories producing these types of garments mostly work to standard spacing. sewing the buttons on to the occasional sample does not interfere too much with production. Lateral seams need to be matched across the fronts. 4. Apart from leaving an impression of the button on the cloth. 2.
Press studs These can be made from plastic or metal and consists of two working parts. plastic press studs can be colour matched to materials and often the visible face of metal or plastic studs carries the logo or decal of the producer. Some of the more commonly used zips are given here. Like buttons. Zip types There are several types of zips available. the setting stitching shows on the out side of the garment. To set this type of zip. It is advisable to set press studs through two piles of materials and with knitted fabrics a reinforcement strip between the two the two plies will prevent distortion. Rivets require an appropriate device to set them on garments. Zips Zips are one of the most extensively used closure methods utilised by the clothing industry. zips are also used for decorative effects or as a design features. Invisible zip 84 . they are widely used for decorative and reinforcement purposes on denium garments. Rivets Whilst these are not closure parts. This zip is usually inserted in to a seam and whilst the zip is concealed. Apart from the functional purposes. a half presser foot is used which enables the operator to sew close to the chain. Regular type Regular zips are used in different lengths for skirts. which are locked together when subjected to a slight pressure. dresses and other articles of clothing. the and the female. Zips are a continuous form of closure as against buttons which are intermittent. which enables the designer to select a zip that is the most suitable for a particular garment or end use.
Continuous zip Used for men’s trousers and all categories of jeans. This permits each side of the zip to be set on to the respective panels before the crotch seam is closed. parka jackets and zip-out linings. The slide and bottom stop are fitted by means of small mechanical devices located in suitable positions along the production line. Continuous metal zips are cheaper in use than those made to specific lengths as they can be cut to the exact lengths required and there is no need to maintain regular stocks of different lengths or the odds and ends which are bound to accumulate. Cleaning The last stage of the finishing process is to thoroughly clean the garment of all thread ends and stains. The insertion of this zip requires a special type of presser foot and the setting operation itself is shorter and easier than for a regular zip. This means that the sample has to be gone over very carefully because nothing gives a worse impression to a buyer than trailing threads or unremoved stains on the inside or outside of the garment. 85 .So called because the zip and its setting stitching can not be seen on the right side of the opening. continuous zips with an average length of 50m are wound on to reels with the metal chain closed or separated in to left and right sides. Some typical applications of separated zips are for blousons. Separated zips This type of zip is utilised when the garment can be worn either closed or fully opened.
specifications .1.1 WHAT IS GARMENT INSPECTION? Inspection in reference to quality control in the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric .as well as measuring the garments to check if they meet the required measurements.1 GARMENT INSPECTION 6.or requirements . trims .buttons. and determination of the cause. feed back of this information to appropriate people. The main objective of inspection is the detection of defects and non conformances as early as possible in the manufacturing process so that time and 86 . The principle involved in inspection is the early detection of defects.etc ).CHAPTER 6 GARMENT INSPECTION AND TYPES OF DEFECTS 6. zippers .sewing threads. ultimating resulting in the correction of the problem.partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards.
etc ) 2. Defects in a fabric can be seen readily with these machines . 1.buttons .as the inspector has a very good view of the fabric and the fabric does not need to be reversed to detect defects . Such machines are also equipped to accurately measure the length of each roll of fabric as well as monitor the width of the fabric.Final inspection .1. such machines are designed so that rolls of fabric can be mounted behind the inspection table under adequate light and rolled as they leave the table. sewing threads .These inspection machines are either power-driven or the inspector pulls the fabric over the inspection form. zippers .Raw material ( fabric . Fabric inspection is usually done on fabric inspection machines. The inspection shall be focus on three sections for the time being.2 RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION FABRIC INSPECTION: After fabric is received. Some garment manufacturers rely on their fabric suppliers to perform fabric inspection and mark fabric defects. to say nothing of customer returns and dissatisfaction due to poor quality. extra cost in garment manufacturing may be incurred due to either the loss of the material or time. 87 . it should be inspected to determine its acceptability from a quality view point. otherwise.In –process inspection 3.money are not wasted later on either correcting the defect or writing off defective garments.
4-POINT SYSTEM: The 4 –point system. either length or width Up to 3 inch 1 2 3 4 Over 3 inches and up to 6 inch Over 6 inches and up to 9 inch Over 9 inches Holes and openings (Largest dimensions) 1 inch or less 2 88 . But we shall see only the first method. is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics.There are various fabric inspection systems such as 4-point system . also called American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) point grading system for determining fabric quality. 10-point system and Graniteville “78 “ system. Fabric flaws or defects are assigned point values based on the following: Points allotted Length of defect in fabric.
Over 1 inch
Total defect points per 100 yd2 are calculated, and normally those fabric rolls containing more than 40 points /100 yd2 are considered “seconds “However a garment manufacturer, based on the price line and type of garments produced, may use more or less than 40 points /100 yd2 as an acceptance criteria. For example, a fabric roll 120 yd long and 48 inch wide contains the following defects: 2 defects up to 3 inch 5 defects over 3 inch but less than 6 inch 1 defect over 6 inch but less than 9 inch 1 defect over 9 inch Total defect points Therefore, Total points scored in the roll x 3600 Points /100 yd2 = = Fabric width in inches x total yards inspected 19 x 3600 48 x 120 = 11.9 defect points /100 yd2 So if the acceptance criteria are 40 points /100 yd2, then this roll is acceptable. The maximum number of defects to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points. Overall, fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 yd2 of fabric. 2x1 = 2 points 5x2 = 10 points 1x3 = 3 points 1x4 = 4 p0ints = 19 points
SEWING THREADS: During the sewing process in a high speed lock
stitch machine, the thread is subjected to complex kinematics and dynamic conditions. The speed at which it passes through the needle eye can reach 140 – 165 km/hr and at the moment at which the thread is caught by the sewing hook , the speed reaches 2000 m/sec ,while moving at such speeds ,the thread is subjected to friction from a number of guides ,from the needle eye ,from the fabric being sewn , from bobbin case assembly ,and from the bottom thread. At the same time, the thread is subjected to many stresses, all of which take place very quickly and at high speed. Therefore ,sewing threads should be checked for the following characteristics :
Construction of yarn ( count ,number of twist, strength ) Sewability (ability to sew). Imperfections (should be free from slubs, knots, etc). Finish ( yarn should be smooth ,lubricate ,etc ) Colour (should match with the standard). Package density. Winding (winding should be uniform).
: it should check for the following :
Dimensions ( check for the correct width of tape ) Top and bottom stops should be fastened securely. Zipper tape should be uniform in colour if that is important. Pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body. Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain. Check also to be sure the slider locks securely.
BUTTONS, BUCKLES, SNAP FASTENERS,AND SO ON:
Buttons: should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut
the thread. Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button. Buttons should be of uniform thickness.
Buckles: should be checked for any visual defects such as sharp, burred edges. If a
buckle is cloth –or vinyl covered, there should not be an appreciable difference in the buckle and garment materials.
Snap fasteners: The attaching machinery should locate the snap fasteners
accurately and at proper pressure .Component parts should be checked to close tolerances and free from dirt and other foreign substances so that they will feed rapidly through the hopper and permit uniform and trouble free assembly.
IN –PROCESS INSPECTION
In – process inspection means the inspection of parts before the are assembled into a complete product. In apparel manufacturing, this means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading fabric to pressing /finishing. In –process inspection can be either quality control inspector or individual operators themselves after they perform their respective operation (s).
Various factors that can affect spreading should be checked, such as ply alignment, ply tension of slackness, bowing, splicing, and so on. A tight spread will contract after cutting, resulting in smaller components than what should be. A slack spread possesses excess length within the stipulated end of the spread .Cut components from slack spread will tend to be oversized. Bowing is the distortion of filling yarns from a straight line across the width of a fabric. This would cause unbalanced stresses in the fabric, resulting in slackness and tightness in the ply that will lead to undersized components.
No puckering or fullness. then proper size and style markings on the package can also be checked . plaids. skip or broken stitch. Skipped or broken stitches.In any case. Stripes. Stripes.Cutting quality is a prerequisite for quality in a finished product. No cut stitches. No broken stitches. there should be a list of points to be checked in a garment. should lay flat. Top of the pocket horizontal. Clean of all loose thread. uniformly stitched. Properly spaced. Uniformly stitched. No oil /dirt stains. No broken buttons. Free of any 92 . cut work quality affects the ease and cost with which construction is accomplished. corners securely tacked. No puckering. No puckering. checks or patterns should match. .size measurement .and live modelling if necessary ( again to see if the garments properly fit the labelled sizes ). Uniformly stitched. The quality of work leaving the cutting room is determined by how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern. Serial No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Location Collars Buttons and Button holes Pocket Hems Yoke or shoulder Side seams Cuff Finished appearance Inspection For Both points same length. Final inspection may occur before or after garments are packed in poly bags and boxes. In addition.4 FINAL INSPECTION Final inspection consists of inspecting finished garments from the customers’ point of view . how smooth or rough the cut surface is material or fabric defects in the cut fabric parts. uniformly stitched. Let us see for instance final quality inspection of men’s shirt.1. should lay flat. Pleats properly placed. shade differences between cut fabric pieces within a bundle. It is done after garments are packed.form fitting ( putting garments on the proper size mannikins to see if they properly fit the labelled sizes ). including a table of finished measurements. plaids. checks or patterns should match the sleeve.
Knotting or felting: process of forming an open fabric by tying yarns. Braided fabric: is formed when yarns are interlaced diagonally.There are so many kinds of fabric around the world. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Crocheted fabric: construction of fabric by one hook or needle. and pressure is required.2 TYPES OF GARMENT DEFECTS 6. Clothing is prepared from different kinds of fabrics. face or back. 3) Nonwoven fabric: fabrics made from fibres or yarns by binding . with each making a specialized contribution to the production of clothing. (For instance tricot and polyurethane are used to make this fabric). 6. For instance. and interlocking processes.fabric defect. Natural fabrics: animal skin can be processed to form natural fabric. Leatherette fabric: fabrics with a visibility coated surface. 93 . steam.1 TYPES OF FABRICS AND THEIR DEFECTS Garment technology is a broad based subject because it combines a number of individual technologies.fusing. Felting fabric: fabric made by felting of wool or hair fibres .Agitation with heat. Fabric is a manufactured assembly of fibres and /or yarns that has a substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful mechanical strength . we can see some kinds of fabric depending on the methods of production like: 1) Woven Fabric: This is produced by interlacing two systems of yarns in perpendicular directions.2. 2) Knitted fabric: formed by interloping of knitting yarns.
Style number. and cut to form shells of garments.and quality of piece goods. weight . Criteria for determining acceptable quality of piece goods is based on aesthetic and performance needs of particular styles. The fabric selection process is carried out in a number of ways. For fashion goods. Fibre content . Specifications may include: Product name. check trends. 94 . Fabric finishes. Fabric specifications: The amount of information included in fabric specifications varies from basic fibre content to complete descriptions of the material. It is often difficult to judge relative quality of a material. examine new products and sample yardage. the primary concern may be aesthetic factors such as colour and hand. performance .colour application . Performance evaluation.finishes and care all contribute to aesthetics . Skills for judging fabric quality develop with experience. while performance characteristics such as count and fabrication may be secondary considerations. structural or applied design . Designers and merchandisers may go to major fabric markets to collect ideas. Fibre content. purchased. Fabric dyes. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF PIECE GOODS Piece goods are selected.yarn type and sizes . Method of manufacturing and Quality standards.hand and drapability. which includes analysis based on standard performance tests.We shall also know the appropriate fabric for the selected type of clothing.fabrication count or gauge.
and consistency. type of yarn. and therefore latent defects are not the responsibilities of the manufacturer. While hand and drapability are related.Yarn quality is a primary determinant of fabric quality. or dry cleaning by the consumer may also reveal latent defects. smoothness. mercerized . Some take the position that it is impossible to tell what a consumer might do with a fabric. Yarn production or finishing processes such as combed . Latent defects in materials. laundering. may appear during the apparel production process.durable fabrics possible. while drapability relates to how fabric falls when it hangs. hand refers more to tactile qualities. They appear after the fabric has been further subjected to processes such as steaming. Patent defects can be readily seen or detected. fabric structure. lustrous . Some firms take more responsibility for latent defects than others. amount of twist. Almost every fabric has patent defects that occur as the fabric is made. and method of processing.or worsted are indicators of quality .fine. yarn type. Hand and drapability of a particular fabric are the results of the combination of fibre content. Latent defects can not be detected by simply viewing the fabric. based on skills of the observer. wet processing and /or pressing. smooth. and finishes. its ability to form graceful configurations. Contributors to yarn quality include fibre quality.High quality yarns make high count . It is related to yarn type and based on fineness. Wearing. such as colour loss or shrinkage. 95 . The hand and drapability of piece goods and other materials are important contributors to satisfaction with fabric aesthetics and performance. we shall see the defects of fabric because the quality of yarn and fabric affects the quality of clothing or garment. FABRIC DEFECTS: There are two general types of fabric defects: Patent defects and Latent defects Most spreading operators are concerned with defects that are visible such as holes streaks. Analysis of acceptable hand and drapability is usually subjective. stains and slubs. Before we discuss about the defects of garments.
Differences in the yarn count.They are generally referred to as yarn differences and are noticeable as streaks or bars parallel to the threads in woven fabrics and knit wear . The degree of fabric defects especially for woven fabrics depends on the defects of warp and weft yarns.Improper maintenance of the equipment.Poor quality of warp weft yarns 2.2 SOURCE AND TYPES OF FABRIC DEFECTS The source of fabric defects can categorized as follows : 1. The following types of faults or defects are common on the yarn. Slubs Neps Hairiness Especially irregularity of a yarn can determine the irregularity of fabric surface (thickness) and irregularity of a yarn is the result of fibre diameter irregularity and irregularity in the fibre arrangement. 9. yarn twist and poly twist create different yarn volumes .6. Thick place.Carelessness of the operators.2. which differs in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric. 5.During examination 96 . A) Defects due to irregularity of yarn : Streaks and bars: Is a band with clearly defined edges.Unsatisfactory preparation of yarns before weaving 3. Woven fabrics tend to show bars across the width of the cloth due to yarn irregularity. Thin place. 4.Loom disarrangement.
Defects due to mechanical problems of loom : A) Flash marks: Sometimes on the surface of fabric thin places in length wise direction can be observed which is caused by the breakage of one or more warp threads as the result of which the weighing design is affected and the appearance of fabric and its strength are impaired. The possible causes is by one or more coils of weft yarn slipping from a loosely wound pirn and have not been cleared during winding. Entanglement is usually provoked by the breakage of healds. In a yarn a thickened place having tapering ends and a diameter several times of the adjacent normal yarn . C) Mispicks : 97 . B) Slub: It is one of the faults of yarn.by the presence in the yarn of fragments of undrafted roving or stubbing that have not been cleared during winding. C) Slough-off weft : Several thickness of weft yarn appearing in the position intended for one weft yarn for a limited width. warp threads or shuttle splitting.in reflected light they are caused by the fact that adjacent. B) Entanglements: The ends of secular broken warp threads interweave with adjacent tensioned threads thus impairing the weaving design.The causes of these defects or fault is . more voluminous yarns reflect light to a great extent.
due to which loops of different knots are formed. G) Bad selvedges: 98 . E) Thin places : It is a defect of fabric . Improper loom stoppage. Improper assembly and adjustment of the warp brake and feeding mechanism. Thick places may be caused by: Disarrangement of the take up motion. F) Floating warp threads : This defect is observed as lengthwise bars in the fabric. Improper function of mispick control (mispick pawl).But our interest was to produce of fabric with almost constant weft density through out the length of fabric as much as possible. D) Thick places : Thick places are bars across the fabric with greater weft density than on the rest of the fabric.The weft density through out the full length and at separate places of the fabric is lower than the adopted or required . Mispicks can be caused by different reasons-some of them are listed below. Improper function of warp let off motion. Floating of warp means. when a portion of the warp over a certain length of the fabric is not interlacing with the weft. Abnormal function of loom brake and weft fork motion.Mispicks are bars across the fabric with low weft density due to the absence of one or more weft threads. Improper function of take motion.
The cause of this defect is by a reed misdraw or by a damaged or defective reed.3 TYPES OF GARMENT DEFECTS Various defects can be observed on the garment during different process of garment manufacturing. due to which weave design is broken. 6. I) Snarling and slough-off : Curls or snarls as well as unstraightened coils of weft thread protruding on the fabric most frequently close to selvedges. H) Double shots : These are crosswise bars due to which the weaving design is badly broken. tight imperfect. dented. Slack. the defects can be occurring on selvedges due to some malfunctions of loom parts or due to some other reasons. wavy. Therefore. weft threads are disposed above the warp threads without interlacing. J) Reed mark : A warp ways crack or disturbance of the fabric structure which is not associated with missing yarns and where the weft dominates. We can see some defects as follows. we should take care so that it is possible to avoid the defects of garment. 1. irregular ragged.2.Pattern parts missing: correct number of parts for all sizes not included by the marker maker. defects: during preparing the patterns of a garment. 10. rolling are considered as bad selvedges. Pattern defects. The following are the pattern 99 .There are so many types of selvedges in different fabrics and in different looms.
or the use of the wrong stitch type. arising from incorrect type of teeth. tight thread tensions. 3.Pleated seams. or machine feeding difficulty. 6. a body formed joint in the seam where the second line of stitch runs over the first and cracks it .Mixed parts: parts not correctly labelled in marker.Line definitions poor (eg chalk. Sewing defects: defects of garment occur due to some problems of sewing . misaligned notches.Wrong stitch density: too many give rise to jamming and rupture of fabric threads.Seam grin arising from too loose a tension or too large a stitch. because of incorrect handling by the operator.Broken stitches . particularly on thicker or sheer fabrics. needle heat. 11. 2.2. ruptured threads.Thread breaks. picked threads. too thin a thread.It is possible to list some defects of sewing as follows.Mismatched checks and stripes.sharp feeds . weak seams. or misplaced. 1.etc.arising from the wrong stitch type . too thick. 100 . 8.Patterns not all facing in the same direction (either way).Not enough knife clearance of freedom. 9. 6.Skipped stitches. 5. 5. where operator failed to ease in fullness evenly. arising from too thick a thread for the needle.Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. or when machining over traverse seams.Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics.too tight tensions. 7. needle heat. 4. etc. 3. 4. from the hook irregularity failing to pick up the loop of thread from a needle’s eye owing to a number of causes.Notches and drill marks omitted. 9.Needle damage as evidenced by holes.Feed damage. 8. caused by wrong size or type of needle. blunt needle. 7. too tight tension. etc) leading to inaccurate cutting. or other damage to the fabric. etc. therefore a marriage of wrong – sized parts. indistinct.Seam pucker.too great a pressure . excessive pressure by foot.
Incorrect or uneven width of inlay. caused by bad tension. 10. 12. 4. In extreme cases.Mismatched checks or stripes. 1. slippage of weave threads occurs. Usually cased by errors arising from the interaction of the operator and machine in the handling of the garment.Wrong shade of thread used.Insecure back stitching. arising from incorrect patterns. not following a mark.Extraneous part caught in seam. Seaming Defects: It is the other type of defect of garment.The following are an examples of such defects. arising from bad handling by operator. perhaps when the part cut for one side of garment is sewn in the other. because subsequent rows do not cover the first row of stitching. 8. incorrectly adjusted timing. 1. 5. or a combination of these). arising from lack of or badly set guide. 101 . where traverse seams do not match (eg inside leg seams at the fork of trousers). the seams burst open raw edges show. 7.Twisted seam leading to irregular puckering or the garment parts not hanging correctly when worn. incorrectly adjusted folder.Improperly formed stitches. Some of the seaming defects are listed below. 13.Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line (sometimes called run-offs) in top stitching.Uneven stitch density: due to carelessness of the operator. shrinking or stretching fabric incorrect seam widths.Oil spots or stains.10. inaccurate marking or cutting.Mismatched seam. incorrectly set guide. 12.Wrong seam or stitch type used. 11. an unrelated piece showing through the seam. cased by improper alignment of fabric parts. or notches are exposed. 6.as well as sewing operations in the sewing room. or when the whole garment is assembled inside out. 2. 3.Finished garment not to size. 9. Assembly defects : ( perhaps caused by errors arising in marking and cutting .Reversed garment part where part is sewn with face side opposite from specification.
bar tracks. too tight. 4.Garments parts cockling . caused by bad work flow.pleated. components closures or features omitted. zips).4 METHODS OF CONTROLLING OF GARMENT DEFECTS Since manufacturers vary in organizational structure. perform 100 % final inspection of all styles for at least two or three weeks to collect information. 102 .pockets . 7.Garment parts shaded owing to being mixed after cutting.for example.sleeve in relation to the arm hole . twisted. Then analyze this information. technological levels.Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned arising from incorrect marking . too full. products manufactured. pads in relation to the shoulder. usually only small parts. 3. parts omitted in cutting.there can not be a standard text book answer on how to start a quality control program. top stitching buttonholes . 9. incorrectly pleated. and so on . showing bubbles and fullness . such as pockets. 6.Parts in one way fabrics in wrong direction.2. However. twisted. 5. and wrongly printed work tickets.Parts. collar in relation to the under collar or the neck . showing below the bottom of the garment.buttons. too tight cockling. twisted. The following are various defects to look for during quality control. hooks and bars .hooks and eyes.Interlining incorrectly positioned.Finished components not correct to size or shape or not symmetrical. To obtain an overall picture of where you stand in terms of quality. etc. 8.Lining too full. 10. the following are some general guide lines that are used to plan and start a quality control program for the manufacturers. Broken button.or sewing not following the mark ( eg Pockets . 6.Mismatched trimming.tapes zips.2.
Fabric defects. Exposed notches. Broken stitching. Different shades within the same garment. Needle cuts /chews. Open seams. Pulled /loose yarn. Unfinished button holes. Holes Inoperative zipper. Dropped stitches. Zipper too short. Missing buttons. Defective snaps. Broken snaps. Exposed raw edges. Stains. 103 . Loose/hanging sewing threads Misaligned buttons and buttonholes.
2 ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξ 45 21. Defective snaps. TABLE 1 n o 1 2 3 4 5 Defects Broken button Broken snap Broken stitching.3 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 Dropped stitches. Missing buttons. Different within the same garment. Needle cuts /chews.Analyze the data collected from 100% inspection as shown below. ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ 40 104 19.8 5. Fabric defects. Open seams. shade 1st week ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξξ 2nd week ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ 3rd week ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ Total 30 12 11 % of total 14. Exposed notches. Exposed raw edges. Loose/hanging sewing threads Misaligned buttons ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ 25 12 and buttonholes. Holes Inoperative zipper.6 .4 5.2 ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ 15 7.
Broken and missing buttons combined make up 26.4 80 Total defects 500 No of sample 16.0 Percent defective (%) 64 64 208 100 500 500 1500 inspected 13. Some one should therefore look into this matter and try to find the causes of broken and missing buttons.9 So from the above table 1 . ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ ξξ ξ ξ ξ 30 14. 105 .clearly indicate that the biggest problem is related to buttons.8 15.4 % of the total defects found in three weeks of inspection. Zipper too short.6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 Unfinished holes.8 13. button Stains. Pulled /loose yarn.
4 % 106 . If fabric quality be can be improved.3 1.4 % Proportion of workmanship defects = 38/133 = 28. significant improvements will result in the overall quality of garments.3 5.4 21 17.TABLE 2 N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Types of defects Dropped stitches Open seams Broken yarn Miss knits Stains Discoloured Yarn Holes Unfinished buttonhole Unrelated operation Total defects No defects 63 28 23 7 7 2 1 1 1 133 of % 47.3 5.6 % Proportion of material defects = 95 /133 = 71.7 100 Wa Mb 63 28 23 7 7 2 1 1 1 38 95 The above table 2 clearly indicates that fabric quality needs urgent attention. Total number of samples inspected = 915 Percent (%) defective 133 /915 = 14.7 0.5 % Percent (%) defective due to workmanship = 38/915 = 4.1 % Percent (%) defective due to material defects = 95/915 = 10.5 0.7 0.
personal experience based on trial and error. no longer meets the needs of consumers. The rapid expansion of self. CARE AND CARE LABELING OF APPAREL 7. As a result. much less the entire range of product. so they can make informed purchase decisions concerning the care characteristics of competing products and the products damage caused by the use of improper cleaning proceeding can be avoided by consumers and cleaners a like.service outlets and corresponding decline in the need for highly trained sales personnel have further diminished the availability of this traditional source of care information.1. Such actions may be corrective in nature to prevent defective garments. or such action may reflect a decision to reduce inspection frequently because of the consistently good quality of production. each with different care performance characteristics. Therefore. it is very important that customers be given accelerate information on how to take care of their garments. it is very important to remember that the inspection program’s primary objective is to obtain information on which necessary actions can be taken. 107 . has made it almost impossible for consumers to be informed about any one product.In any inspection program. Technological advances incompetents and manufacturing processes are being made at a rapid rate and variations of familiar textile products of more recent developments are also rapid. 7. GENERAL INFORMATION The technological advances which have occurred in textile apparel and cleaning industries have had a significant effect on the care process of apparel. or such action may represent a decision to start or improve a training program for sewing machine operators. the traditional source of care information. The large number of products on the market.
hang a perforated holder with moth crystals. FABRIC CARE Fabric care includes the following Storage refreshing cleaning care labelling 1. at the top of the container.Care instructions provided to consumers carry an implied guarantied that in all respects a garment will stand up under the conditions of laundering or dry cleaning that are specified. oxidation (light and weather) Basic home storage procedure Choose as dry and cool a location as possible Clean.2. or work relationship that is.or the garments loses its share and soon. 7. natural fibres and leather are acted up on by many forces of dissolution: micro organisms. dimensional stability. appearance. This implied guarantee covers all component materials their color fastness. the seams will not pucker and/or up. Storage of textile articles: in most storage conditions. opaque container: keep tight away or stire in a dark place Protective fumes: Inside. Major hazards to textile 108 . Seal: Seal the storage container to hold the fumes in the keep out dust and dirt. insects. never store any article that is soiled wash or have it dry cleaned.
any dirt coming to the fabric mixes with the oil and a grassy stain is the result. REFRESHING Wool fibers garment require frequent refreshing in order to maintain freshness and appearance . Light: can oxide some materials. Cleaning: it includes overall cleaning and spot removal. In case of corduroy. wrinkles are best removed hanging the garments over a bathtub filled with steaming hot water. 109 . card board and unsealed woods are all acidic. bed spreads and woolen clothing. especially warm and damp conditions. Repeated sharp folds in the same place can lead to splitting in table cloths and napkins or slacks. Pressing between usages is a common practice. first changes form slightly acid to slightly alkaline and will then concentrate so that it can attack some materials. Ordinary paper. Overall cleaning methods are washing and dry cleaning. notably silk. Mildew: or other fungus growth thrives in damp. velvets and other pile fabrics. Perspiration: it allowed to age.3. Since wool absorbs oil from the skin. Acid: attacks cellulose fibres especially over time.brush wool fabric at frequent interval especially before wearing them. Sharp folds: can cause a stiff fibres like flax to crack. Fabrics wrinkle easily often need refreshing long before cleaning is necessary. Heat: will harshen and stiffen materials by drying them out especially protein fibres and leather. They live surprisingly long time. Two of strongest fibres silk and nylon are tendered by prolonged exposure to light. Clothes moth: Eat protein Silverfish and fibre brats: are primitive insects that feed on cellulose or starch. An occasional airing should also refresh blankets. 7.
washing and drying So care labels are instructions given to the consumer how to look after the garment International care labeling system rests on the following principles: 1. Care labeling The purpose of care labeling is to protect consumer and help them make value lodgments when buying. In order to look after or care of textile products we have to give information regarding: Temperature. 110 . General instructions for home washer.ironing and drying Mechanical action – agitation of the machine Washing medium – detergent in dissolving water Time – of soaking . The garments with wool contents. Use cool water for less chance of wrinkling Use wash and wear setting Use regular laundry detergent Use several small loads Tumble dry and remove from the dryer soon after it stops Hang on non resting hanger immediately after drying Dry cleaning: it involves the application of solvents that evaporate quickly.of washing . The symbols must denote the maximum permissible treatment.durable press garments are primarily intended for home laundering but good results can be obtained from the commercial laundering and from dry cleaner. creeps. Care labeling must easy to understand and apply. independent of language. Must be used in the prescribed order 3.Washing: it may be either hand or machine washing . and pile fabrics in silk or synthetic should be dry cleaned. stains. 2.
THE FIVE BASIC SYMBOLS 1.Cleaning 111 . Drying 2.4.4. The care labeling symbols must not allow any error in interpretation by the consumer 5. Washing machine should be able to provide the optimum recommended care treatment. 7. Dry. Ironing 3.
Chlorine Bleaching Fig7. Wash Hand wash in cool water water Machine washes in cool 112 .4. The five basic symbols 5.1.
Fig7. Instructions for Washing 113 .2.
Instructions for Drying 115 .3.Fig7.
4 Instructions for Ironing 116 .Fig 7.
For the right side. use a pressing cloth.5 Instructions of Solvent types Acrylic Acrylic garments may be washed or dry cleaned Machine dry at low temperature Some knits are washable by hand in warm water Don’t twist or wring out the garment Sweaters and circular knits should be dried flat Press while damp on the reverse side with a cool iron. Color – safe bleach is required for dyed cottons For stain removal . 117 .Also no stain removal with solvents Fig7. a cotton garment can be washed at high temperature Wrinkle resistant cotton needs special care to maintain the finish. Cotton Any good detergent can be used to wash cottons Chlorine bleach can be used safely on cotton whites.
Rayon 118 . Cottons requires higher heat settings in the machine dryer. Polyester Most items made from polyester can be machine washed and dried. The fabric may need frequent washing. can be dry. and can be ironed at high temperatures. Cotton does not scorch. Remove articles as soon as the tumbling cycle is complete. Use warm water and add a fabric softer to final risen cycle for a better feel to the clothes.cleaned Remove nylon articles from the dryer as soon as the tumbling cycle is completed Strictly follow the instructions for washing fabrics consisting of these fibers.nylon and polyester micro fibers They are machine washable and machine dryable Certain blends .if specified. unless treated for crease resistance Microfibres This includes acrylic . use a moderately warm iron. If ironing is needed. Linen Most linens are dry clean only Washable linen apparel becomes softer with use White linens should be dried in the sun to keep them white Linen fabrics may need frequent pressing .
Always steam when pressing wool. Between wearing . such as: Flammability of materials used for children’s night wear.Most Rayon garments should be dry-clean. If iron is required on the right side. Some labels are attached during the production of the sample. a press clothe should be used. dry the garment at room temperature away from heat. rayon articles may be pressed with cool Wool Empty pockets. For washable items use the following as guide. Most companies have a standard specification for the types and positions of labels on either garment. but some types fabric construction is such that it can be hand or machine washed. using the setting. at moderate setting. Types of labels Labels are of great benefit for the wearer. and especially before storing. There are legal requirements for some types of garment labels. If the garment gets wet. Dry –clean once a season (or if stained). Gently squeeze. do not wring or twist. remove belts and hang with closures zipped and buttoned. and an important aspect of finishing sample garments is to ensure that the correct labels are in the right positions. whilst others are sewn on when the garment is being finished. moisture from the will remove wrinkles. Fold knits Brush wool to remove surface dust. Refresh wool garments quickly after wearing or unpacking by hanging in steamy bath room. Lay flat to dry. Most rayon garments should be cleaned. Iron on then reverse. while fabric is dump. 119 .
Hangers may be designed so as not to cover the neckline labels of garments. Packages and hanging devices provided by manufacturers often become part of retail displays. Care labels –these provide very specific information regarding washing and ironing temperatures. shipment or display. This is usually inserted on the brand label. Multiple supports are often used to maintain the perfectly formed appearance of collars. clips. Are display devises appropriate to the garment? Do display devises interfere with being able to see the garment? 120 . Garments are folded and packed or placed on hangers and covered with plastid bags. Men’s dress shirts may be boarded and pinned. Functional packaging protects garments during storage.These have to be suitable to the country or countries where the garment is to be sold. Display devices such as collar supports. folding.the size labels should be positioned so as to be immediately visible and necessitate a search on the part of the prospective purchaser 7. sometimes interfere with customers’ access to label information. Display devises. Size labels. Garments produced for export have to carry a “country of origin” label. Packaging may provide functional protection and/or aesthetic appeal.5. draping. Fibre content. padding. skirt or sack hangers. Fashion apparel may be placed on specially designed hangers to emphasize the silhouette or keep the garment from falling off the hanger. pinning. PACKING OF GARMENTS Most apparel is shipped ready for retailers’ racks or shelves. Dress for babies may be placed on frame-type hangers and padded with multiple layers of tissue paper. and bubble packs add to the appeal of the garment at point of sale. and the suitable types of dry-cleaning solvents. It is pointless to export garments carrying British or EEC sizing system labels to a country using a totally different sizing nomenclature. and boxing. Whenever possible . such as hangers. for example 35% cotton 65%polyester. whether or not bleaching agents can be used . Aesthetic packaging includes the visual presentation of a garment including hanging.
materials selection and the development of garment structure. 121 . assembly.all the efforts toward product positioning. and finishing may be in vain if garments are inappropriately presented.Effective presentation may determine the financial success of the product .
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