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Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
Data flow diagram (DFD) is a picture of the movement of data between external entities and the processes and data stores within a system DFDs are an excellent illustration of modeling as the bridge between specification and implementation.
Order CUSTOMER Status Message Status Data 2.0 Shipping Confirmation
In-Stock Request WAREHOUSE 1.0 Shipping Order
Check Status Order Data D1 Pending Orders 3.0
Issue Status Messages
Order Data Payment Invoice Manage Accounts Receivable 5.0 Accounting Data Accounts Receivable Data 4.0 Order Data
Generate Shipping Order
Accounts Receivable Inventory Reports
Source/Sink (External Entity)
Produce Grade Report
Work or actions performed on data (inside the system) Labels should be verb phrases Receives input data and produces output
0 Hours Worked Pay Rate Calculated Gross Pay Gross Pay .0 Graded Work Submitted Work Grade Student Work Student Grade 3. Rule 1: Process Can have more than one outgoing data flow or more than one incoming data flow 1.
Rule 2: Process Can connect to any other symbol (including another process symbol) 1.0 Order Accepted Order Verify Order Assemble Order Inventory Change .0 2.
0 Services Perfomed Invoice Create Invoice Policy Number Apply Insurance Premium Payment Amount 2.Process: Correct/Incorrect? 5.1 Hours Worked Calculate Gross Pay Pay Rate .
1 Payment Detail Invoice Detail Post Payment D1 Accounts Receivable .Data Flow Deposit Is a path for data to move from one part of the IS to another Arrows depicting movement of data Can represent flow between process and data store by two separate arrows 2.
0 Prepare Deposit .Data Flow: Correct/Incorrect? 5.0 Post Payment Courses Customer Payment Class List D2 Daily Payments Daily Payment Students 6.
Data Store D1 Students Is used in a DFD to represent data that the system stores Labels should be noun phrases .
Rule: Data Store Must have at least one incoming and one outgoing data flow Customer Payment D1 Daily Payments Daily Payment .
0 Invoice Verify Order External entity that is origin or destination of data (outside the system) Is the singular form of a department. outside organization.Source/Sink (External Entity) Order CUSTOMER 1. other IS. or person Labels should be noun phrases Source – Entity that supplies data to the system Sink – Entity that receives data from the system .
Rule: Source/Sink Must be connected to a process by a data flow BANK Bank Deposit 2.0 Prepare Deposit .
0 EMPLOYEE Apply Payment Accounts Receivable .Source/Sink: Correct/Incorrect? CUSTOMER PAYROLL DEPARTMENT CUSTOMER Payment Paycheck Payment 3.
Rules for Using DFD Symbols Data Flow That Connects YES NO A process to another process A process to an external entity A process to a data store An external entity to another external entity An external entity to a data store A data store to another data store .
List the errors of this DFD DF2 E1 1.0 DF5 P2 DF1 DS1 DF3 DF6 DF4 DF2 E1 2.0 P1 .
Level Of Details Context Diagram Top-level view of IS Shows the system boundaries. external entities that interact with the system. and major information flows between entities and the system. Example: Order system that a company uses to enter orders and apply payments against a customer’s balance .
Context Diagram of Order System Order CUSTOMER WAREHOUSE Order Reject Notice Payment Invoice Picking List 0 Completed Order Order System Commission Bank Deposit Cash Receipts Entry SALES REP ACCOUNTING BANK .
Developing DFDs: An Example Hoosier Burger’s automated food ordering system Context Diagram (Figure 8-4) contains no data stores Next step is to expand the context diagram to show the breakdown of processes (Figure 8-5) .
Figure 8-4 Context diagram of Hoosier Burger’s food ordering system .
Level-0 DFD Shows the system’s major processes. data flows. all the connections that flow into and out of process 0 needs to be retained. . and data stores at a high level of abstraction When the Context Diagram is expanded into DFD level-0.
Figure 8-5 Level-0 DFD of Hoosier Burger’s food ordering system .
Context Diagram of Order System Order CUSTOMER WAREHOUSE Order Reject Notice Payment Invoice Picking List Order system that a company uses to enter orders and apply payments against a customer’s balance Commission 0 Completed Order Order System Bank Deposit Cash Receipts Entry SALES REP ACCOUNTING BANK .
0 Payment Invoice Accounts Receivable Create Invoice Completed Order D1 Payment Detail Invoice Detail 3.0 Apply Payment Commission Bank Deposit Cash Receipts Entry SALES REP BANK ACCOUNTING .Order Picking List WAREHOUSE 1.0 Level-0 DFD of Order System CUSTOMER Order Order Reject Notice Fill Order system that a company uses to enter orders and apply payments against a customer’ s balance Invoice 2.
Levelled Diagram .
Lower-Level Diagrams Functional Decomposition An iterative process of breaking a system description down into finer and finer detail Uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an IS Balancing The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow process when that process is decomposed to a lower level Ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD .
Strategies for Developing DFDs Top-down strategy Create the high-level diagrams (Context Diagram). then low-level diagrams (Level-0 diagram). and so on the low-level diagrams. then higherlevel diagrams Bottom-up strategy Create .
1 Add New Customer 2 Add New Customer .Data Flow Diagram Errors The following conditions are errors that occur when drawing a data flow diagram: A process with only input data flow or only output data flow from it.
in any combination.Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) Data stores or external entities are connected directly to each other. Customer D1 Customer Vendor D2 Vendor Master .
Processes labeled with a noun. Nine is the suggested maximum. Too many processes on a data flow diagram.Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) Incorrectly labeling data flow or objects Examples are: Labels omitted from data flow or objects. . Data flow labeled with a verb.
.Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) Omitting data flow from the diagram Unbalanced decomposition between a parent process and a child diagram The data flow in and out of a parent process must be present on the child diagram.
It will have all sorts of un-logical things to show and will reflect how things are done currently. . warts and all. the ways things are presently (often known as the "As-is"). On these you'll be recording. Data stores (such as stick pins or copy orders file etc.) will exists because of how things are presently done. There will likely be processes that exist purely because things are done manually.Current Physical There are two types of DFDs Physical and Logical DFDs In the early stages you'll build a current physical DFD.
Dataflow names will likely correspond to document names There are sure to be process to process flows Data flows between external entities will possibly feature .Current Physical shown as External Entities. but still are done because no one told the staff they were no longer needed!). Clerical and temporary data stores will likely feature heavily What you document on the DFD won't seem to be very logical (I've even found processes that aren't actually needed.
. you start with the current physical and remove all aspects that are to do with "how" things are done presently you need to be showing only the "what" aspects. They have processes that would exist regardless of the type of system implemented.Logical Data Flow Diagrams Logical data flow diagrams show how the business operates. In the current logical DFD variant.
Next add all the data and processes not in the current system that must be present in the new system.Data Flow Diagram Progression The progression of creating data flow diagrams is: Create current physical DFD Create a logical DFD of the current system. . Finally derive the physical data flow diagram for the new system.
Data Flow Diagram Progression .
Logical Data Flow Diagrams Advantages Advantages of logical DFDs are: Better communication with users. Increased understanding of the business by analysts. . Elimination of redundancy. The system will have increased flexibility and be easier to maintain. More stable systems. since the design is based on a business framework.
Physical data flow diagrams include: Clarifying which processes are manual and which are automated. .Physical Data Flow Diagrams Physical data flow diagrams show how the system operates or how the new system will be implemented. Sequencing processes in the order they must be executed. Describing processes in greater detail.
Controls to ensure accuracy and completeness.Physical Data Flow Diagrams Physical data flow diagrams include (continued): Temporary data stores and transaction files. . Specifying actual document and file names.
Physical Data Flow Diagrams Advantages Clarifying which processes are manual and which are automated Describing processes in more detail than logical DFDs Sequencing processes that have to be done in a particular order Identifying temporary data stores .
Required Logical DFD HOW it should do it .Physical and Logical Data Flow Diagrams WHAT the system does .Current Physical DFD HOW it does it .Required Physical DFD .Current Logical DFD WHAT it should do .
Consistency The extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested DFDs is also included on other levels .Guidelines for Drawing DFDs Completeness DFD must include all components necessary for system Each component must be fully described in the project dictionary or CASE repository.
Exercise: Precision Tools sells a line of high-quality woodworking tools. issues a status message to the customer. and generates a shipping order to the warehouse. When customers place orders on the company’s Web site. When the order is shipped. the customer is billed. The system also produces various reports. the system checks to see if the items are in stock. Draw a context diagram for the order system Draw DFD diagram 0 for the order system . which fills the order.
Order CUSTOMER Payment In-Stock Request WAREHOUSE Status Message 0 Shipping Order Invoice Order System Shipping Confirmation Inventory Reports Context Diagram of Order System ACCOUNTING .
0 Manage Accounts Receivable 5.Identify Entities.0 Order Data Status Data 2.Data Stores & Data Entities Data Flows Customer Warehouse Accounting 1.0 Status Message Shipping Order 3.0 Order Data Invoice Shipping Confirmation 4.0 Order Data Inventory Reports .0 Payment Accounting Data Accounts Receivable Data 5.0 Issue Status Messages 3.0 Check Status 2.0 Generate Shipping Order 4.0 Produce Reports D1 Pending Orders D2 Accounts Receivable Processes Data Stores Order In-Stock Request 1.Process.
0 Accounting Data Accounts Receivable Data 4.0 Order Data Generate Shipping Order D2 Accounts Receivable Inventory Reports Produce Reports Level-0 of Order System ACCOUNTING .0 Shipping Confirmation In-Stock Request WAREHOUSE 1.0 Shipping Order Check Status Order Data D1 Pending Orders 3.Order CUSTOMER Status Message Status Data 2.0 Issue Status Messages Order Data Payment Invoice Manage Accounts Receivable 5.
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