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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH ·ITECTURE
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Digitally signed by Arch. Francis V. Fernandez DN: cn=Arch. Francis V. Fernandez, o=SpiralArchitect, ou=Architecture, email=archfrancisfernandez@y mail.com, c=PH Date: 2009.06.06 05:53:27 +08'00'

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC
NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO

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This book is printed on acid·free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

Printed in ~e United S~ of America.
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U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

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This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.

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VISION 264 WAll 266 WINDOW 271 WOOD 276 pu ook sb eed FIRE SAFETY 88 thi if y INDEX 285 ou n flOOR 92 rch ase MEASURE 166 MEMBRANE 168 METAL 16? MOISTURE CONTROL 176 ORDER 179 ORNAMENT 182 PAINT 187 PLASTER 188 .(ONTENTS PREFACE 7 ARCHITECTURE ARCH 12 BEAM 15 BRICI< 18 BUILDING 21 9 FORCE 96 FORTIFICATION 98 FOUNDATION 100 FRAME 104 GEOMETRY 108 GLASS 112 HARDWARE 114 HEAT 117 HISTORY 128 PLASTIC 192 PLATE 194 PLUMBING 196 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202 ROOF 208 ROOM 216 SHEll 219 . SITEWORK 221 SOIL 224 CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 CEILING 30 CERAMIC 32 CHURCH 35 COLOR 38 COLUMN 40 CONCRETE 42 CONSTRUCTION 48 ~ DOME 60 DOOR 62 DRAWING 66 ELECTRICITY 74 ELEVATOR 80 FASTENING 82 FIREPLACE 87 MATERIAL 161 the DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 - ori LOAD 151 gin LIGHT 142 al JOINERY 140 cop HOUSE 136 y SOLAR ENERGY 226 SOUND 228 STAIR 233 STONE 236 'STRUCTURE 238 SURVEY 246 TEMPLE 248 THEATER 256 TRUSS 259 VAULT 262.

.. brOn-5e the illustrations.he power of a solitary word or image. >+_... .: . If one does not Know the precise teim. ~ I J Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. look rt up in the index. complex. clarifies. dt al cop y 7 . Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents. One can then refer to the appropriate section. and technology. if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. the ori gin Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign. then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index..-4-... one C3'. ' "')I if you nee One picture is worth a thousand words his boo kp ur I· r~ i i ~ I Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words." :. . the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich. =1~ __.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning. The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. . history. Within each section. . cha se The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js. however. words are placed in a visual context which further explains. This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe. most of the entries naturally lend _themselves to graphic representation. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive. r .. RAther. Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. Since architectcre is a visual art. While browsing.. Regardless of t. r~'r ~ "'. a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images. l ~. ____ ttl . and multidimensional nature of architecture. and scan fer the terms. and completes their meaning.. each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon.PREFACE . . then one can 1001: it up in the index.

-Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen L 8 .Arch~re. the book of their words and the ~ook of ~Ir art. to Pc more Im~"t than boo kp ur enemies. touch. methods of construction.thmy.~.ed. But gr. the rookofthelrt!eeds. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone. -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng. Sym metry. the only varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements. ori ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being. and landscapes - are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. . from human and anImal poten tsally dangerous !York. In any sltuatlon. In the broadest sense.and sculpture are callecl the flnearts.' On the whole I think this Is true. Is through the me3sura~le. roles.in!z. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics. the four facades may seem weU. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light.archttecture. and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~. ana what Isexpec1'. -John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect. and beauty. that Its~k well. BUildings affect all of the human senses.ools Kahn • Built environments have the I\uantltles of ~rk. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. No single explanation wfllsufflu..l. and ~ehavlor. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng. for ordinary people. time. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. L L L the last. and please us by Its presence.l::. materials. Is the ordering or organizing of the environment.i Iphcnomen. smell. Propriety. and t. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \.indsoon. ~hnology. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. You must follow tr. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others.lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs. and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r. The esstntIal step. and Economy.even appart11tly humPle dwcUl"4S. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors. that It act well. But In the end. therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all. whatever It has to do or ~. . -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order.. and from supernatural powers..ls the J p"*. therefore.e laws of nature and use gin al cop y desires and feel1ngs. and vision.palntlng. Thought orders space. Tograsp space. to know how to see It. They arelnstlMlons.ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected.ed of them.e Is l. baslc cultlJ. and economy. ~use InJlldlngs . anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way. -Bruno levi. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture.sound. -l. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that chrnate.y ordinary people. and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure. - dt his if physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable.ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. convenience..palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste. Archftut. Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding l- people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve. actlvIty: status.gonlstof . to stress social identity and Indicate status.-Jng you nee l . -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. taste.lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society. and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. safe area In a profane and cha se It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities. a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time. convtn1enu.are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures. I l I j pe~uty. but of the three the only trust~or. that It look well. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry. Arran~ Eur:. to esta~nsh place: to create a hum. and engineering. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty. thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn. which can De grasped and felt only through direct expmence.:. ~urabll. when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use. Internal space.

and SCIENCE architecture of DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments. collectively. and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re r r if you nee dt his boo BUILDINGS kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y 9 .I r I I r I I r' ARCHITEC The ART architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs.

includlng their color schemes. excellence of craft.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. and proposals for legal. url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces. esthetics. with a the nature of art. urean planning. ana beauty The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. and .xture. harmonious. landscape architecture. e~lnurlng. originality. construction. sometimes architectural features. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building. view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art. or other. Also. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment. i J taste CriticalJudgment. or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with tJste. finishes. fittings. and city planning.Ilvldual u nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt. and creative lm. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting. trutirfulness. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements.ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. fumishi~s. discernment. Also called town planning. inUrior design The art.l7tJslness. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu. financial. design. layout. often unspeGlfIal7!e property. L L L if you L. beauty. L J I 10 . urban design. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr. 3 forecast of future requirements.

. and their Interrelation with life.. arranging. ana environmental and soclal relations of humankind.. . busIness. or assembling materials In construction. engineering The art ana science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design ana construction of structures. equipment. gin anthropology al cop y . '-"-?~-'- ~~.--.ape architecture The art.-. -a i 11 .R._ ... ."'. . the study of the o~ln. as salology ana anthropoiogy. .... or profession of designIng..ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalned!1y direct observation..~:::~~~.·~~~~~~~i~jl:'~tl~" . fu neticnlng.. L ~-!~~~'cfitl. 'r t'\ architectonics r firmness The state or quality of uelng solidly con 5 tructed... se boo kp ur cha nee dt his if you the l1ehavioral science Arry of the Sciences.~~/:~~:-:: t~~"'''.:).. experimental Investigation.:t:.. The science of human The science of human beings: speclf. \.. '.. technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials.. __ -.J)i1fr-. structure. the study of the origins. development.~ '~rf/ ~ . omamentlng. --~----------------~ ~~-0.. and methodical study.''-''-'-''"''''"U . . ~cio(ogy ori social Institutions and relationships: sped.-~'N~ :r~J:~~~.j< ' .-- landsc. The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work. physlc3l ana cultural development. ana systems. -: r:-'. that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of human behavior In society. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs.. and the environment.. society. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons.. tectonics The science or art of shaping. technics The SCience of an art or of the arts In general. )".-~~:. systematically arranged and showing the operation of generallal'ls..

' spandrel The point at which an arch..~. - . you nee I.------. capfbl.h I ~enur!ng A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself..the The first v'oussoir resting on ~- M='=a=na=rch==_==================~===±~ ______ ..e uppermost part of an 4IPutrnent..._s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_'~~~~========================== __ Impost r l .. often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch.~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ .. ~_e.. _J 11 • formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ .. archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd . "...tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening.f t M ! f ! . Also CJi!ed cop y The triangular-shaped. ~ An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs. . often In the form of a kp !7Iock...:'.~h...: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch. -The... sometin-.-. or dome rises from Its support.t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI....' one of the arch centers. N50nty M-ch ~ keystone The wedge-shaped. camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch. serving to lock the other voussolrs In place. VJu~. \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch. ~croWn .l>s in 3 centering..1 It.". i al vault.. r. "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t.r-->n\---:intrados-.rJ t. or ... • extrados The exterior curve.e pelcw. '.1l)1per 51ip.-.. Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~h Ill(... or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch . surface. the sprlMIMtI line to the .···r lJUVUrt. ~\----~-E:1 Tr.. Also~Sp2ndril. I ! I from the crown to the Impost.!-~ .h'e~htof~na_hfrom".-. .----------. when e3ch Dro1·~. VII I 5pring 1springl~. I: dt I· his j boo ur L . from which OIn arch springs.es ornamented area 17etween the ~. esp....ndos of two adjoining arches.~\'~~[~... Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault.. f ! L L l L L '>...g Acrosspleu connectlng the I"..or~_ gin cormx ccnst:ructlon. ~voU$$Oir H--~_ __________---... or molding. - -.:.. as anarcn. Also calle4C.:. II j ffilllI{ _ L L / _ 12 L . Also called folster. havl~ side cuts converging ... _____ .J"'pCjond the o:'.. j I .-U-l.ntraclos_ t J -----t5pn'." . des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression..highest J'"Ir1 or point of a ... Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_ l.I or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch. I. cha se the t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down ori LJ I u I if 1.:.

two-hing~ if you nee . Junic~lar .1rc_h I An . one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading.l ARCH I l r r .. ! --. or relrrforc.oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul.---------J-. I f" .ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern. and Inversely proportional tcthe rise .:liI~~·::it-"Jrlft" cop the The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another. A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir.~ abutments.. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.m::hed structure of timber.~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure. f f .--. r--~-------+. gin An tr.r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW. ~ tie rOd An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie. proportional to the total load cha i ur ana span.pe for a c.~. esp. or strut. .r 5hape for al Ithru5t.ul concrete.4dt his boo kp arch -------~ ~Mment ~ The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch.. I .rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading. funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes.~----.. As with any funlcu13r structure.L-.~ line of thrust. r r ....d C'ltritS horlzw.-.-. steel.af projection y se I . Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture 13 .In ori arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis.gan archeJ form.. thru-hinged arch A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form.-. i The thrust of an arched structure on Its ~~-#-r-------------t-I.. vault.--------------+-'arch action I The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh. The setof·resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one. fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form. tigid arch--·i An . a TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o.:.:.

rch having an Intracios that Mdens I ori aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to. An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r.A·· . esp.i An arch strock from one or more the gin I cha centers ~Igw the springing line. .. . i rampant. / _l . • ettuli~r3rarc&' equal to the span. • RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr. ~t corbel arch ~ French arch .~ . Alsocallefn~ de panic! \ if you nee dt his boo "---~_+ '---' I lJ polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown...' . {j !PeUarch with cUrYed taus... --~-------~ sti~darch ~ . . al cop '" 'to> fi) .Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests.c:. .. An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn.1rch Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes. . <::<:.ed. Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch. A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center.. fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the 1 ~\.:ldos. \ ~ ~ .. /. kp ·~·t··7-·._________ hor$eSMe arch An.1rch .'ed Intrados. -L .\"'.:Idn. G~thl~'~Rh..:Idiating from ~ center ~w.-_ _ _ _--' A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f. a semicircular one. '\i.cncave side uppermost I L 14 . The stepped reveals may be smoothed. . one havIng two centers and equal r.1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three round or pointed foils.i~uations of the arctr0lt. round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc.nch.. : . . ..:Idll la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span. se ur • skewPact -'.':.. -3.:IdJl tess than the spar!.~ ":-:.~. o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening..J I ~~~Iarc~··. fUt. esp.. l~ ! o¥earch A pointed arch.. basket-handle . ApoInted arch.! .J/ .~ tJ .:.jJ rounded crown....ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t . I l.. L i L I L i·t-~ : 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span .. \.'trefol1 arch An .-t-. but no arch action Is effe. Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r. e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c. I r.. . Also C31~1c ai-aI:'. often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng. ". drop al'C" A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r. I A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. other. 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels y ...

.alshearforu at il cross section of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~.e sectbn Deing conslderecL ~ft.---:\ vertical shearing stress.i~ If'...mpresslon ''-..em~ ~tes from .. and aecre3Slrlq ·.. -.~ualatanypoint ~ .L.. alonq which no ~endirtg stresses occur... "'-.!--------' ~~ulard1stance il spanr...__ .i-alaxis ... al boo I cop y . the ~~'.. a.lII~IiIi~Ii~~tirjainiSViel~e.. or ~.--'---------"vz:-~:. generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~. I : : ___ . ~nt Into al>tam.1te for an anticipated ~ ~--~-- r l i .-----.?'-"' An exta"Ttl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt ~14 his ~. ~ : : ~ .ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-. having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs.neut.: __ .. truss to if you ~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y r compellS. --..lncre3sing with Ioad.::::+~.----..J.--------.h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr. to designed W C3rry and transfer ~ ~1!1I~~!i~II~.:.ctty ofthe~L -===------------------~Iii =+ t f ±[f * -+ + [ distance l7etween the supports of il \ Ptnd~mcment -<. ori gin \ ...-__. ~ ~ \?ending' 5tre55 .~ ------.oadsacross space r+---1-J-h __ 1span L.. C An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or other rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng.--- ur r f dt nee cha se ...-. --...-----------~ Un5lon of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end.. --~ : to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:.~------. A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at.. ~ 15 ... .-.!. the strocture so supported. ----. Also.lM span.. ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ co ns k:lerJtIo n.."ents...-T'.- section.. -:-. rc\earspa~...~'.e to a ~~ roment.. gIrder.... ~~h~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---1 .:-"-------------4I -r....= i~=!r~~ler ! span.-=---=--=--=----. havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces.----L..::... i i r f under ?4nsverse loadlng...BEAM A rigid structural member 5UPPOrtl"l! ....J prevent slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' . The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of il span. .---.. - ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure...z<_~:.at that point AISO ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~1'in4 s~s.J~ kp L ...-- -----+--____-L____ 1'~ The snearlng stressdevetOped t.l. The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear. -----. 'U y .IIIii!lIlIii!!illIlIlIlI!liI.-.. " " " " . cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force... .1 true W1. fl1U31 to the a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on one side of the .ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or the modulus of ei3~.-~---....~\ ~ .... urJertransverseloadlrtg..... :::::::::::::::::::::::::... 1 ~~moment t------------------~-• An fnt:er. -: ~------ -An extern.....

tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam.mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe. secuon. At the txtreme surfaces of a bam. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the m3teri. I = extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng = bending n10mttTt = distJnc~ from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9 If Yc = ®~-------then fp =MIS 'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface. Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material. the prlnctp. The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea. his For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut.61n' "" S 54.!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4. you nee L . _1- cha se al boo L kp J if t dt At th~ nelltra/axls of the section...( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur.25 inz = Area of section 11. I 1i 33.a 16 . JouPling th~ depth reduces t.BEAM fp f.mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq.of the mem~er a~out.a transverselOad'.1l stres:.r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to Iongltudlnal axis.7in 3 = ori the ur gin principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam. prevent torsion or twlstlng.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion y cop 25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis 3861n 4 = iaboutx-xaxis 5 52. section modulu.J she3r 5tre55eS. only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp.s to the neutnl1Xl5. -. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ . M C =MC{J)~-----where mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation.ect to botb be:nJlng x. " = Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~ ry 3 tJacre{ z.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5. I I ~- tension L L r I L J - 5hear ceo'Ur s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?· T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f.

P......~* ~~~: . if '=~'t... and moments are dependent not only or..t .ff£ljs at Dot. nt.:lered.' y ori gin al his boo . :: : I : Concentr.res~l?nt.. " ~~§Jn ordu tc aevelOp gr~~r rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple ~ms having similar spans and loading. tJ.II.. ~:.otlwfly detennlnate structure. L. T -.'~.1gram _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~.. hearforcesthatacts "e:rtIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left pol rt of the structUrl: l>elrig'c·onsl.lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m.: A¥3EIC:~torrott~~n..l. I! .-t.LL.~~~ tr.. the values of an reactions.t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the 5f!41 As5l. The overall which vary hne. ccrttinuou5 pe4m ..l ' i l t +111. Both fIXed· end and contlnuous !:>eams are Indetamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. t r i .. J."r:esutta .t..-l A !:>ending rT1<lment ~ proaiJce$a concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure.L L.'.. nee dt 5u'pended-5pan A sImple ~m supporW by the cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans with plnneJ constructlonJoints at polnts of· zero moment..~J~.j.!:.'''~J'~..ifT1ir.t 3t midsp71 . span and loaJlng but also on cross· sectlonal sn3F~ 3'1d material.f~~jj.I.....~ mcments..f-l-l. positive shear .heard~g"m li'l:1 Illllllllll' III ! (III ).~.1i sim~~~u..~...~~ .BEAM l f r .:fitlons.-L ~====~J====~l.m. IJf the sp:m. of.~!"'''"'tant... 17 .'''''.:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr..rW l... and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its cress· sectlonal shape and ma~31..": X'pro~rij veat:ns.re approximately '/..-:-7"-"-._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~r----.. negativeshear .e projection for wltfch the morrr~ oy~ the 5I.. . . I Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW l03d.J.. shears. .'I! Concentrated loads produce e~mal she~ -' cantilever peam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce line3ri) :. of. ·~~~tf~~~'~=:~~~~~==~~~~~~~ cop ~-:-:"rr..!<L :.._.. I... '~. the projections for .. A graphic 5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0.!!e. shearforcesth3tacts r vertIca~ upW1ra~n the left part of the structure !:>efrig ccnsldere. . .ln: .f a flxed·end or continuous beJ~...L.d. whleh are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce. a~ on~one I momentdi. As with any st... ! !..-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3 simp!] s~pportea 'eam.E 1representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support con. 3 uniformly distri/7r..u pPPfted. you ~ be3m exterJing~~t~~ih".: : t' . 6' ~ J ..1 A~.-L-L... Also calW hu~-span...J.. Uniformly distribrMd loads produce parabciJc311y var:lr.. and ~uce Its maxlmum defIect1on...nsfer !:>ending 's~s.lted loads produce bending mom~ts Iouls and support condItions.L 1. I . I .L i.. r r i fF :-~:~~!-W. : . effective length The dist3~ce l>etween Inflection points In the sp3~.~c."'" overhanging l>eam Aslmple beam extending beyond one Its supports. J. . .s . The overhang rl:duces the positlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~atlve moment at the Inse of the cantllever over the support.rfy between loads.. dd1ected shape of a structure sul>ject to Pendlng can often ~ Inferred from the cantilever shape of its moment diagram.. ~i ur kp flIt... . ..... se the ' r ~ ..nlch the mommts om-the supports 3~ eqlJ3/ md oppo$'U to the momer. quiIl3ie.. ' :.LM I ' cha positive moment .l.~~L. shears... . ~.~ ends.r.

- .ang I1ricl:: sulta171e for use where a !I'1inlmum V3tiatlon In size.. Wct¢ry A material having the a17i1lty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures.cln~ kick sultJple for use where a wider color ~.es Ukely to ~e.. cha !cuU . The processprocess of forming prick l:>y molding ! scft-mud relatively wet clay havlng~re C$Ywt. aria otHer objects exposed to high tempentlJres. Brick is pJd for use In each /'e9lon accoralng to ~ strength. Also C311ea building br/clt _. U I 3 weight of water absorPea ~. The ~ofW3ter a~ Py..... color.cc..as when In contact with . --: j5._' partIally Immersed for croe minute.ls dIv1ka In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures.. ~. .. Briel: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 a smooth.. rex F. formed into • rectar..serer!. Indicating the ~ reslstJnce of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing. ··: AGT{£mUle of fire cl3y ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces.. -...nd greater variation In size art' ~rmitted than for type FBX..17a\:ir-3 .. y FDA F. l i~iil~II~~~~~.. ~!y_...S. "trrt-mud pro~ ! The process of fonnlng prick and structur..~glg~ ana 5\Jrfau text-ure.. one for firing pottery. j~~hin~'f f. u u I FB5 F. 18 .moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e !:>rid: untt wfIen exposed to weathering... A ImCk grade sutta~1e for exposure to-' ..i al ori gin the t MW~ ~thl~.ulred.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7le for use where p. A !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to the ground or uSMon surfar... producing dense surface.~ permeated with water In subfreezl~ temperatures. .III~1 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~.. .... :.. _ _---=------~:::: if you nee dt \severe weatheri~...andm3XlmumSJturatlon kp A dr!s~tUtIon Indlcatlng the aura!7i11ty of a . ..~ mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9. I"'.-_ _--.. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated U.. claL Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time. ana texture of the Individual units... maximum water lorici~' .il tile ~ extruding stiff l:>ut plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through a !~ ana cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing. fumau or oven for Pumll1g.. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weIght of ~".rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng frotn lIOIIurJformlty In size... mingl1rict' Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall.j~~SIIII~ . _... and negllgll7le ... often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~....clent.e:q..1ndstruck brick Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process wlt. - t. resulting in sbrpedged. AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of iI~ iTl3S011f'y unit when ~.l7ridcr· . A clay used In the making of ~rucl&t. expressed I~ grams or ounces p minute.. l.. I:1aklng. moderAte... Also calrea fa c't" In-Ick. .edryl/l1lt. .. coefl'... 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality. color. ~ .ortk)n albwed In a facing ~rick unit.T1echanlcal pafectlon are rea. ch Ippage• • "d dJst..Jt ~ .~_c~ ~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorPed ~5bhiy Dille hf!fflersta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight aDsor\:1ed when ~ In rolh~ water..~·dIng to annual winter rainfall ana the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days... or dryl~ tlml:>er.!U£Ki Am3SOf1f)' unit of clay....lJJ. or dryi~ . a~. smooth-surfacea pricks... 1drrprcss process i The process of fonnlng prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~..lSOlllj' unit when NW . ..: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr. of 51 W under high pressure.'" orin Itfterlor ma son r y .5.. and high degree of l.gwr prism while plastic and lurdened Py drying in the sun or firi~inaUn. 'ccmmott~~ Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re. producing a matte'textured surf~ 3 1 prick_type! r waterstruck hick A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rI3tlon In size. ~-----=::: se t1~­ ~-~~ Jfi!e. boo .. cop 1 b1n) l. ur his j5W ~ . narrow color rA ng~. m=ks.. . A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~'-~~ ~~as when used as a 113Gb. esp...

nlt /. ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons of 4x 4 x 5 in.119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In. (20.3 mm) moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h.. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .. rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~ :·'·'·' . (102 x68 x203 111m) ..'3 x12 in.~ Briel:: h3'..~J A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed .ikl vertically with the I1read faceex~. (102 x 102 x 203 mm).~~} r~k l. .BRICK rnoml. (406 mm) F==ib=~=:. .wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21...a.-. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .~~J A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed. SCRurick ...'3 x3 in. cop ori gin al the pu rch ase • r r jumbo urick ..' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her. -..3 courses = 8 in.:s 19 . (20."'J ncminJI dimensions of 4x2x 12 in. ~l .. engineered brick AInicl: h.--~------_e====~~~..3 mm) y Roman ~rick Brick h~''.wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21.(51I11m~ dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot.."'5ts = 16 In.. . thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint..5In.-~.. fc.cMr A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid eage~ A brd or tl. -. Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in. '.fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou. (I02x81x203mm).' dim ".e i-. r r Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the m3nubct~~e-.lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface. 5 COU. .Ion I to A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the ... (102 x81 x 305 mm).d. ou n ht-J A !mel:: cut t. -·r---· ·'h NormJn brick APricl: h.. AI$O. 4 coursts = 8 In.! '! 1 • See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr. ''~r.wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s. TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a certain s~ c-r sl1ape. sb ook eed f i r thi seal' I -'i " stret:. . if y r r ~:..3Ying normal face 2In. (102x51 x 305 mm). itorl . A 17rld: or other m3sonry u.

~. Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork. .. cfO$Ure. esp. soldlerccur5e. .f'rieffi. -.ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.. --.BRI(K fbrickwcrij erfck~Ion. ODDDDDDDDC ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[ Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO( . -.. !F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c. '~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~. A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of OY~ stretchers. Also....00.. ur forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng his boo kp cha ~ ~=~h::~.. ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f J J f Ii clesa' .. t= L L L f L J 20 . ~tack~ond ')... : : . Also called 's~ron(U ....flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as a heac... ki". with each heac.. ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor.t ~~C=::J( .....--··-·· .e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks.....successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily.iI regular..t~:-:~~..A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP..otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers stretchers. Also..- - se Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically ODDDDDDDDC . tM art of bondin9 Prld:s effealvely.t Also... offset to form a dta mona pattera. j ".. br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : ..ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses. A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co.cner of a wall..-Dutdt~1 ori Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the gin ~~~l ~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD .n~~/. lnaiCOlll'StS.... you nee headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~..... . reglbr !nicks.ourst:S n ~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded po ~~~~~i~~~~= ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls. Also called al cop y 6 Flemish CtO~5 Pond A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ ..I. ~acked I1ond. ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow dt A~ bon(i having alternatIng fJem~~~1 L ~da~ ---------.. recognluble.by half the length of a stretcher. having a seq~ence of a header and thru stretchers In each course. the conskuctlon. Also.C\uun closure. if -.. usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of .AlsocalW . closure. .1nl1~.iI~.! I i I j pa.

lt ~ ~.it:.Ro:7fs and waDs. or curved./ noble md delightful obJ~t. .25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:.· the Frle:zt and Cornice./ CiIp or./ ComJce. IfIt project6 nJCh. A ~s (J( which Is c. ~C:Z::. frieze. Wt Is ~ tMrJ.a . a~ns:r.1 sh~IUr.:rs.fIeJ .. the ori gin al cop y )1 . ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa..Jvcks.es.alled The Wa( the PIer.25 bng. the projection 15 called the &. cha se system A group of Interacting. If It Is 5qlI3~. and the Cdumn. WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh. roof qf the ~ stcry b./ Y. fIrltIr the roof tit. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r.3d rJfby a floor or reef. Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c.nd a Cdumn If It Is round. If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry. me&t. and l The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other. by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details.alled wpftals.1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~.tIIeJ .at~ In5tt. If the rr.:. or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole. kp ur thaT the Ole.lfthe fYX!f extenJs b.aIl:.iIboIrt.. f3e5kks ~ valu. The principal member (J( a ccmice.1b1e 35. or EpiStyk. If two rQ/Js m. ~ xt ~ for access. Orcul.in Roof5 T/U'j b.l1ld w. A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in.ve.31 rlJge. a building ff!3y be In It6df.:twetn. a Ccrrke.7t rests upon them.: f!. A low". If the ~ emtmy m. and wind. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t. the projection is calJtJ .. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed.:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It. The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c.d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley.?r1Unuou5 3rdI c. Interrelated.dumn MJJ a tIr..~~~ sloping../ Corona. :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who. to serve a common purpose.ln«pendentJy of ft5~. SUn. Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .. &ornJce~the~A~ 3f1~ ~ ~bya sa-trJf c. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (..Jose th~ 5pau WIthin.arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e. construction. a reentulng angl~. Atal pest Is caned a PIer. is c. Wans 3rC ger.ne ~ they meet In a hor/zorrt.3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9.. COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb. .l pier or c. the ItIcfJr.J/f~ the ~ ArchItr.. esp. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m.:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~.. the fL1t.al/ed -William Robert Ware (he American Vignol.~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15 the~. his boo .i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip.Jn5 and le..11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int. ! ~ uperstrLICture The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~.XIII form a G3t>1e at t.aI. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It.BUILDING Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use.er.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs. A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to. and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to ~ubstructure nee dt A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b.Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<). JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI.15 h35 been said.. ~ the chidptofthe load they urry. The ~ the keres. . Abc¥~ fC.3ch~. door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95.1t Is a/Joy~ them. the 5h3ft. if The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 you cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude.e4 Py .15 to get a better b.

I I II I ( '( V I H B I - low-rise DescrlUiog ... high-rise Descrll1lng a l1Uildlng having a LJ o I I1uildi~.L.p3r. or three stones. typlcal~ unpartltloned ana I I sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses.. cop I -' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz.---. OM of ~rge size. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~. or exh ii:>itlon ga l!eries.../'t I-f-- [] I ur ---~ .1.._ _ _--d:f:bFfb--___~ L . . u.BUILDING I edifi~ j .uarters.i . j A l1Uila~lt\3. esp. I _.. I A II g J. .a l1Uilding having one.r->..ow fre'. 1j I i L1 J r I. ori __ ..leen two 1acent levels.-J ".o~ arvision of a y \.uently converted to residential OCCt. artists' studios.L l.... I .cy.' al I l comparatively large numl1er of stories and eqUipped with elevators. originally renUa out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r. ') "1111 i 1111111 ii II ( cha '~ .•. as living a.nd usually 110 eleva te r. ·. .J 1 . I loft ~ilding A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space.~"4 a contlnuous or nearly: :l the ~ I 1rR? ! i /\ /. ma ssive structu reo or 1m posi~ appe:araru. I boo kp -~-' J J I H+l rF n~ his nr nr I I 4- i 1 n i f ~ - - jJ if you lk. l.1.:-.. two. \. : spa~ l>et. I nee dt ~ + III f.6L--_ _ _ _ _ _--i gin I se continuous floor ana comprising the .

.~l__________~____s_ta_I~ ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_ts_s_to __ __ a_ce_"a_r_... havIng a number of rooms and .... ur cha se boo kp ! . t.rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding..... In 8rltaln and elsewhere.. -. and light to a !7asement door or wIndow. one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with the story I1eneath It. -. --...•.... al ori gin the I ~ .. or the like. extenalng horizontally throughout a : bulkltng. esp.ms. such a space I1elow the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls.. tsp. mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a l1ulkllng.. a house.......BUILDING L .________________________~ [f l1ulkhe3d --. cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms..floor A contlnuous supportIng surface .. wholly or partly underground and usually l1e'neath a bulk/ing.. fuel. !rot accessll1le I1y crawhng. _ f L -crawl space .. the first floor IS tile floor ImmedIately above the ground floor.... Also called stann cell. esp.." An area In a Irolldlng hJvlng a clearance less than human height.. nee dt his -B-- r...-.-.. usually hav~ng dormer wIndows for lighting..---------~ .• -. you --... ".ground floor : The floor of a Irolldlng at or neartstto ground level r k I ·"f fr--4. -•.. A usal7le living space withIn a sloping roof. "..--.v - ...... -.-. areaway A sunken area affording access./ A horizontal or Inclined door over a / cop -$-l .'" pasement : Astory of a l1ulldlng that Is wholly or part~· A I1elow ground level...... L L cellar __ J A room or set of rooms.fi~tfloor ! : if I The gl"O'Jna floor of a bu!k:flng. constftutlng one level In the strocture. torna. subbasement Arry story or floor l1elow the maIn l1asement of a l1uifding .. for the storage of food... as cyclones..1r..... . air.. luff eltory -.. y :'.. or hurrIcanes..

BUILDING
l.;" .... ,~~
~

..

(.~

~~~~~~~~------.----.--- ---~~~
...

~~

" ",,_,
• -'-,

"',:r

The front ofa ~ulk:llng orany of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

fro nUspiece
A prtnc!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature a facade. often t~ as a separate elerT'l!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

eatment.

""
", """""

,Ii

OrT1a~ntation.

ase

:-- pavilion ~ Acerrtr31 or fIa r.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ subl~lvIslon~~ : of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d

the

ori

~"~~~==:S

gin

""""

al

cop

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y

1j

1

!

rch

distinction of ~~r,e.

IfII

pu

'=5e~~~~~f1~~~H I

sb

~~==~~~~~~

ook

~~~!:!..SI~Q.,.,&:!..Q,,~"l=f~A=1~n~1

.

!

nlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

d

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31
ofa n.ve..
dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

u

pay
Ar'rJ of. 1\~mber of prlr.clpal dlvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports.
bll~r"f

ou n

eed

thi

if y

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

I7lind
Descr\bi:'~;;

I
recess In awall havi~
~alccny

U

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (PII r.d wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of
Je~n.

An eb7ted p13tfonn
projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of' p3rapet.

l~
i

l=,I

==

fenestration
The design. proportioning. and alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings

II

t.w

I

:

ana

of a ~ulldlng.
I

L

nnnn
24

L

BUILDING

I l

r-

l
~~~
~

~
r = r-

~

~

. f==

I-

,~

~

I::::

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps
$Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.
ofahou~.

:p6~1?:1

at the

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a
~ulldlng.

\

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

ur

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

cha

se

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i
0

~n

roof;J ~~d

the

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure.

ori

~

r

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

IcnrWer/

gin

al
e
lf05te~tq

cop
.'.<
-/.~
:
I

y
-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.
' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

kp boo his

::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _ .......... 2"fO~hert: •

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dt

ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . .
1

fJ \L")
(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

nee

I i

: ;

I

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r
~ng. --.-------.--~

if

you

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25

BUILDING

rotunda
A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

,!' piloti _:._ ..i
1

I_L
arove

A wIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing
Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a TId sul10rdlnate to auntral or main part. '

---- Any of a serIes of
columns supportIng a an open pulldl~ ground level

I

~

.>.

A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ..., respect to its length hetqht. ~

3na

JI

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II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof
~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

cha

Ploc1:

se

the

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng.

atrium

Askiit. central court In a
buil.::li~~.

kp

h3v1~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of

ori

esp. a farge Interior one

gin

al

C
~"
, .

cop

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._entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~~~a open to the sky and mostly or

·-'V
./ '

y

I

I~

ur

courtyard

galb'es.

A court adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

~~

~ccurt.

you

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -.................... -........... J

nee

dt

A cOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an

his

-

................. .

L.fi "
atrium An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

boo

patio
A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls. .

if

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the
~floor.

D
i •

corU!e .. ---- .......... -- ..... --- ...... . A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

L y
patuza
A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

L
i

L
I

26

This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with ~ ..--.~ r it~ .I---------~'" ~.. .r j ~ CABLE STRUCTURE r- t ! sU5penslo~ structure r i A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads. thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter....-_.. ~ v n~ .ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles.. component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d . transferring the force to a ground foundation. ~~ . ' . ' .e. . cop r y douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different and often reverse curvatureS. ------~- ~..c. double-cable structure ... · ~..' single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes.. suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d. n ..ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter..' t I \. Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon. I C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern.~~!~a~~~~~~~~. bound2rycable Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' ..~ primary cable i r r I ' i f stayed structure. transve~guyca17les. thi L . - the ori secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter. Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles. _ . uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables... ~ ~ ~ r . .. i ( i: ~ I if y r I I ou n eed r f [ f sb '-I ook pu rch ase i-----------.JCture.I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends..-. pm.. cables In a suspenslon S"" I I..-=~~~ ~.. supportlng the sum of ~ vert. A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind.-. .. gin al Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cable- One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure... A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres....-.. I I 29 ...

1 '. A ceiling. often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above. or vault.. al his nee dt you if character. orv.ult aOorred Mt.1curur. (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of. soffit. ~. y jcoffer One of a number of recessed..i.. Aflat or vaulted ceiling of decorative l 30 . bcunar/ . ceiling. room. o cop gin boo kp ur cha se the ori !?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showing ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling.h . plafona .. USUoiily square or octagonal panels in . Also called c.alsscn. pattern of recessed p:onel$.

--......3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:. -.merge To comlnr. kp al Asquar~ or 'tU3arangular space or court cop pergola . Qesi9ned and situated to look out upon 3 pleasing scene. affordl~ shade and rest In a garden or pari::.. ~" ~ ..I useJfora stroH orwall:. the ori gin tapi3ry Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes.. -. .erci.":..esp. if you ari?or _ . Asmall. usually open on the sides. or com memoratea person or event.. d flowers.. ~ ~_ I ..lllches or of nee dt French tern for a broad walk planteJ ". se 941 lleria Aspaclo!J5 promenade. i 3 L ] bWcewor1: Irrtmwlnea with cl1mln~ v1n_~~ .. Also called quad. or to local conditions of sunlight. pavilion f L pL1Z3 A pul7llc 5qU..f shruPs and 17r. front To face In a specific direction or look out upon.. !knd...._ folly A whimSical or extravagant Structure built to serve as a conversation piece. '_ A shelta c. _.I l _ r- BUILDING orientation The position of a ~uik:ling on a site In relation to true north. court.--. or unite ~radually by stages so as to I1lur identity or distinctions.' P . (NU wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow.._"' .~n a pul7llc p!xe. .ll establishments.lS for pleasu~ or dlsp!ay.. wln~ and :_.... -...--. r f [ L I iL uellis 3S a screen A fume supportlng apen latticework.. his Jllee .3re or apen space In a city or town. gazebo i-_ Afreestanding roofed structure. as on college CJmpus. . to points on the compass. lend Interest to a view. or Indoor ::::::::=====rrrr=n:=T' r==rr:n==:rr===r ~Ivedere I[J[ If afd0Rf-H . ..--.-.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces.. A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peilms and cr05s1119 raftus or trelliswork. usuar1y having a vaulted roof and lined with comrr.. '. Al7ultdlng. or the work or art of such clipping. or architectural feature of a 1lullJlng..ith trees. surrounded .~ boo L An aro.----. to a sPeGlfiG place or feature..y 3 bui!d1119 Or llultdlngs.: cbim To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn. used or 3 support for growing vines or plants I..".often ornamental ~ulk:ling In a garden. r t . . L r 'luadrangfe --... pro~fUde J ur cha maR.e. --... y DO' 27 .. e.-.

.-•.~·i~~:ki. \"..--._-. _. --..m~'" his boo kp ~r...-.• ..1rola .... /<~. as wire rope or ~'chaln. ....-' .. "" ------...._ ....o ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of ~...' . the cUrr'e approaches r.•... . -...(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support..~~.-. -..' sag Theyert~31 distance from the supports to the lowest point of 3 cable structure...• '" orsnbrelements are rtflufreJ ~ contJfn and ".'..•...... !. -. gin C3P\e In direct to the magnitude ofresponse and location external forces... the Inte..... bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure..ed.. resulting In no net lattral forces at the supports. dt uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne....\~:--. se l\ \ ....•.' \\' ....•. i ! ~ f~-- .J ". I i Ii ~ ! ! funicularslupe .. ..~·I~~·· ····-···1<'"..• .. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S.....:iLl Ii 11- cha ~":~:::.' / \. / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng n-----------.•.-.---" . .' ._" ..... 8uttresses. ...-..-... If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges..i. ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" ~5tnJtS.~. ..... .. --. -.... cap~ A flexIple structural meml1er.-.•... --........ """ ~ ~mbl u m~re.. ..~-....•....... For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon. .... •••.. -+-.~t '" /' the .• -.~~~. -.. Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load.. having high tensile strength / Put offering no resl~ nee to com presslon Or~g. 28 I I L A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualancea by the Inward pulls of a caple.."...• --•••• -.. structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given loading Vi either axial tension or compression../ ~ of a p3r.1on.----. j The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng ori funicular polygon· . ~~"" ... ".. if you nee I LJ thrusts..---. For arry given loading condit.-. ur C3P\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload....•.••• al cop j i y ! funicuL1r structure u concentrated loads........here Is only ~ general funicular shape....maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXrt3se.•••..•• ---.

. y Ametal grid for supporting a suspended celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted r I ---... : .. cop '~'g. I j r r ~=========:::. :.unified whole. Also.:...l·-~ ~. _--_.1 J?~~' .. .9 •. .. louvered ceiling A suspended ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!dlng the nght sources mounted above ft.l ~ .:~:ti::O::::::i+±::::::::::::::~z~:LZ!ti~ii::::. - ~p!ine pu f 11I1i!!i...J! '10.. .. r r 1 i al gin ..~slucent PJr. or to ~tter the proportions of a room. narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system.. '.. ase the ... :<..~11<. Also called slot diffuser. :. one that serves as a recelvl"9 champerfor conditioned air to pe distributed to Inhapltecf spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central plant for processing._... usually a sheet· metal char..:.! i \ r r j accu5wltik Tl~ made In v.·.. £Qmponents..' ..: ': =.' .::::::::..a .o the eJges of an acoustlcal if y (j~r mebl uiling A suspended ce:1I"9 system of IIJrrow metal strips.. ~ 'S....' .nel or tee suspended by ha"9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure.ers. :' ... CEILING dropceili~ suspended ceiling A ceill~ suspended from an overhead floor or roof structu re to provide space for pipes. uS1J311y Incorpor...tl~ modular tlghtl/l4 and alr-nanJn"9 compone:nts.._ ... or ~bss f1l>~...2.. dropp~ uili"i.. A~ ~ ~ .'i(r '.::. ·-~..._ .) .±i~~b~ii:l:t::::::i::j~~!:::±~...\'.f alr-l13ndling ....:':. . ~ pconccal&:J grid ~ .ed above it..: ..g or auC1Jl!ori.) ~::!'::':. .....:Itertll.. m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 memDer of the grid supportlng a suspendea ceinng system. as corl mlnenf f1w.. hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles._.'e cut In c.:~. ~ :. '<: p~ A long.:==========:::::.- .. ""'!j.II ou n eed thi sb ook tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tlles of 3 suspended ceiling. kerf / ~rt1~qrid.rious sius anJ textiJres from a soft... !umlnaires mount..: '..& linear diffunr ~ ~~ ~ ~.. ductwork..1...~: ../ ~ " lumino us ceiling c' A sus~nded ceiling of t~. . ":. :.ea fau and contJlning a 5epante layer of sound· al1sortlng material r ori t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted tees supportin~ the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling .~n. usu.-& .1 ~~! ~:'....crosstee A second3 ry me:.. ~~ ~'..ally a sheet·lretal tee carried by t~ main runn.. ber of the grid su pportlng a suspended ceiling system.' ~ •..ile= to ma~ a l>uttJolrTt between them.•··...T"1 ~:. or other service eqUIpment.Jnto.\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor aluminum p3n having a perforn. sound-a!?sorVlng m..:.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr- rch A thin metalstr:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo s-ck:a I t..~: ~ A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln. acoustical ceiling A cellln!! of acoustical tile or other sou nQ' apsorblng material. .7... \ metal pan _.i 1 i ~'S...~/ plenum / The space petween a suspenaea celilng and the floor structure apove.:~':.. esp. ".:) .... lighting fixtures. Agroo. ..l~ . 31 .els for diffUSing the light frc-r..":'..::.~ ~ Integrated ceiling A suspended ceiling system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh...

..\~\. and quartz...~.... nonvitreous ceramic ware...i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature... andpc«cy. vitreous enamel.. ..:":. Also wiled china A translucent ceramic material. Also called W&allt. fired at a very high temperature. micware Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay earthenware low·flred. as !nick.. .. / ~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~. <- / boo D b lurd·hrnea _.. high temperature to near Yltrtflr.'".. / " ..~ it dt ~ / ·l1l~ue. I1lsque· fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred atalowertemperature. -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of shghtly under 61..i .. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal. ': .. ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w.. or pottery.atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength.. I or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln. _. ....lnittle... 5Oft·l7umed _. vftreo~ nee ~"... '-... \'" \. fek:lspar. I by fusing at a high temperature._. tile.e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels..: \\}~\. as In"!d:.' "'.. translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln...flred....body ) \ . vitrified cel'3mlc ware.... luster. ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'".~~A\~.re.. L' I I I 32 ... Ared ~. stoneware Hlgh... Also called china clay...../ -----'. cha o - se -------.\~:' -.<t: his . nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71.. glaze-fired Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength...... and rl4tul'3lstone..\ue Reseml1llng glass. \ l~ I' t .. ~.. b if you 6· Earthenware or porcelain that h. kaolin the ori gin al cop A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement. noncorrosive.. porcelain A hard... or having low or no porosity. ur .... J I y temperWJ reo kp flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W. I t li cu.. opaque.... . The structural portion of a ceramic ar--.•.\~...I... bi. glass....s p~ flred once put not glazed.. grassy coating ponded to ~~ .. U I porcelain enamel An opaque. as In tl'3nsparency... enamel A vitreous. usually opaque..~:~. . l1rlttleness. vitreous... . hardness. A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~. opaque.fired Fired to harden a clay Poay.. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf.(EMMIC Any of VArious hard. ...

portland cement mortar Afield mix of portland cement..r- sb t if y ou n pu r.r- paver tile Unglazed ceramic floor tlle sImIlar In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker an.-_.:! lar~er In surface area.t-- al Unglazed Ur"3mlc floor tile having a I13tural cop cl4y body..:~.~'Nk~.rl ... matte.~ .~ f--+I-r1. sand.t-r-r. ---------r .. ook - ~ eed thi . or an org3nlc adhesive.t-- ana r.. (19 to:3a mm) thld:.. (0.... used for levelIng or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· L t tile grout Acementltlous or resInous mIx for filling JoInts In ceramic tllewon:.or lr. ep<JY:i mortar. rch I . '132 to '/a In.~ U A thIn coat of mortJrfor rondlng ceramic tIle to a L>ading. ori gin the I. I.L. . which allows for murate slopes and planes In the finished won:. y ase I.L_LJ ! I I I i I j thlck-~et process A tllesettlng pr'OUSsln which ceramic tile thln-l7ed proce~ A tllesettlng process In which ceramic tlle Is bonded to a contInuous. water. glazed for surfacIng walls or unglaztd for use on roeh floors and walls.~. or ceystalltne glaze. floors.:~~ . Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar bea ¥It to 1Vzln. ~~.~!!1li . cauntertops. used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors .~>~ I! . . and usually face. set process. .• IEt. 1 r-r-: r-\-: r-rr-r-: r-r- : I I I I I : I I J J I· • o_ qU3rrytile / ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay DodJr. stable backIng with 3 thin coat of dlj'-set mortar..::.CERAMIC / ceramic tile Any of varlcus fired clay tHes used for surfacIng walls.lcl:-mcunted on sheets to fac~rtate handling and speed Installation..• . / glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving a rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rtght.8 to 32 mm) thld:. and sometimes hydrated lime... latexportland cement mortar.~!1!!~. ~ndcorl 33 . Alsa called promenade tile. t... ~.

ln areas subject to heavy wear.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn. ori gin ~s and ornaments. or other mJsonry. prick.adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw. and narrow color range are desired..ra.o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m.(ERAMIC . slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh . . potttry. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76.rp1Io.. ~- al A n.!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie. glneJ or unglazed terra ccu. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. . used for architectural cop u I y . and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction. ~ ~rJlterr~ n. l j I " LeX l. used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s.Mlctur.2 mm) or mo~ of stone. Also calleJ plse..t. cotta·.~ -. esp.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. .3 nd medlum color· frost u . hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection. used for facing walls ana partitions. sand or other aggr~ate. ~Iy ustd In countrieS with if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the little . terra cotta.n ana stain resistance are required. fired cby. plsay. plse de terre. and rammea~rth A stiff mixture of cf3y.(.. --..Infan. FTX I Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9.a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres.1~o. ~ terr. minimum variation In fau dimensions.a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon.rJ-~rned. structura Ifacing tile Structural clay tile having a glazed surface. tl~ units. L 1 1 i ~ I . moisture problems.. and strict sanitation requlremen ts.B l.

i-. Is ce!eUr./ ... as Christ or a saint or angel.. exhedra. eson...... ..-.ffrtiCOes:f church In which the princlp31 altarls placed.. rounded on the teachings A l?uiUling for public Christian worship. baldachino..j • 4 __ • i13.ally of 5WIe.. -.. Also.. Also.fifJ·-.. baldachin / .. J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf.----. An e~Chri5tlan church. Elther Of two raised mnas from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church..' -' • L.-. -----..---.----- Theta~leln aChristian church upon which the Eucharist.. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica. apSis..-. holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm...~ .itea.....'it . of stene or marbl.l¥... -.. Iconostas..... ... as an atrtlln... --..Jrfy Chrlstlan or E. / •.. of splritua I ~ner.. separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or y An omamet!1:41 caner.:a!1y on the north side of the bema.. A transverse open space separating. the -"1I7emJ' nave and U!e3pseofan e...... ~.... Asac:ti-¥r~1y place. . uSU311y vaulted and used esp. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf.arthex ...-.itlr....astern church. Also.... flanked or SumllJ nde& by...---.e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church.-. ori -I· __ l \1#~ ---~.lon on which Icons are 1 placed..... esp.. extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles..astem Church where the Eucharistic e~ts are prepared.. the sacrament celeUr.\ ~lU-~j ~~ij L L L !i~~-:.-......... /. . ch. cha I • se baptl5ttry A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered. and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.() the transept of later cruciform churches. I' ! of Jesa:sChrist.. gin piers.: iconostas(.nYC::of~tk • ....~ .. cop isfe=-4 tI'... L ! euara ...lncluding the Catholic.... u5l.1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church.. . Also..rJ:5m A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity..arackrtzea by a long. 5Uristy A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept.. . --.../ The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church... a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end.-----..t. --.. I I L -The bls~p's throne..~~{ A coverea walk or outer narthex ur An InMr narthex when two are present. _ .. -.. 35 .jnct@ L.-..---..... tMJ or four lower side aisles. ~aptistfy. Also cal~it'tal7~P5 The princlp31 or central part of a church. appropriated ta ~nftents... separating the bema from the nave of an E..-.. ~~. l-. bakla'luln.. A large apslaal extension of the Interior volume of a church. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res..--.~ b'~... Also C3 lied vestry.llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of W3ter. -·-. The partied \. I ~ ~. 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ • r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a P3SiJka ---:..--... - ~nu . -A scrun or partr. \' t.' t~ . develcpi"4ln1.' Achapel In an E. : i . ~ulkllng. I Tliefmurtof an early Christian church. ----.. Pro~t. at the sanctuary or east end of a church.. --.. Alsa........ \_.!! Chrl5t's Last Supper. am1?on. kp exonarthex /' C ~'..rlyChrlsti3n church... Also.I-CHURCH· Ch~nity The~. The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister.. Also called ciporium.aste:m church.. usu. I L I dbco nIcon A sacristy In an e. al longitudinal divisions of a church....j--. " the j ! : . trivUMY .a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred.. usuafrj on the solIth side of the !Jenu. symronc if you nee font A Pasin.-- t.-----.. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church.-.. H I dt his boo situated before an Inner narthex.. Iccn A represent3t1on of 3 sacred Christian Person...Jtlon. rectangular ptan. as that part of a .. ana I I L l prothesis .

usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure. esp. ana few windows.. composed of cofumns.. Also.. AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e. stupty pitched roof.. arcuauo.••...._ .. used esp. his II roofea promenade.. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc uulldlng..cJ st·l1.••••. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower.--.lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<. __ ..:.om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple. havl"i a tlmllerfrarne. dt wall of a Pulldlng.Iong the exterior 5~ve churchl L r I kp A anop\ed r~s for a ~ IIn3¥ or ICon.---~. arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S.. _ A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel. ~~tterY1 . esp. Also called InUrsecth!g arcade. 15plr~--·-···· A tall.....• __ ••.. a I1Iind one. . esp... Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or arcak ---. arcU. al cop p ~ I ori gin y f ur cha 6 t An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies. i A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or •. pf4lnk walls.... nee IIoft·t han.ln 1(~r. I ! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower. I. "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church.1 r~pond ___ .. I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration.~n?Upola ~y tower. a ~Iered. ..-----.elike roof te\1~ating onTondOlffil sharp point.::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI.1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i... if you Interlacing arcade An arcade.••. lJ A PuI17ous. 36 I f ! .. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside . at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~. se the boo :.-. cbrr.... crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir. __ •.

n9l1sh churches.----. usually located behirJ the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse. often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng or screen .~. a large one set .. usually part of the chanul lapyrinth ------ 1 ret roc hair A separate division behind the cholror high altar of a I3rge church. Including the apse and ambulatory. t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa human or animal esp. or the rnemrers of a religious house or order. . -. g3l1lee porch.. one beneath the main floor of.lted ~ trn.. An assembly of the mon(s In a monastery.------. rood --.Jow..51ype A covered passage. The pl3ce where the chapter of OJ cathedral or monastery meets. lady clupel .ffi~~~Jff... garth _ .i chancel The space al10ut the a!tar of a church for the clergy and choir...~ or~ired by h3v1ng p~..dow~ . i y -.:~ . -.------.. A chapel dedicated to the VIrgin Mary.s5'c.• cloi.\ cha high 2tbr The main altar of a church.--------.~. • '-"" ________ ··_4 chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral.~-.3S crucified. • ---------- am~ulatory An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church.fL_. ----------------. ~win.1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL 'I boo . : ._../ A m3zel~ pattern the pavtment of a mcll"C:V'''.----~~~..ter A covered walk having ..l~stmylnachurch.. lGt...--------·----:·------------1' j An.."--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church. separating the c ha ~al or choir from the nave of a meaie-.....-. cop gin the ori se al ..-chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of thefounders or of persons named by them .. Also called cloister garth.. 37 .ent5 blIW onto Its surface or by Iuvlr~ V. -..cor..~ ~. .31 church.ct'~.--..e center. .'. ~~~. rood ~un ~-- p""h chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne med1eval E.---"- ASCru::1. esp.. kp f I. ch4pter ". or small "... ".. + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of a rreJ~vJI church.. Also. the tarJ surrourJl~ or beside a ~ral I . ----. c~ the An enclosed place. onektween the transept and chapter house X a cathedral. often etlborately adorned and ~~rlJ' $Urn1ounted by a rood.... ~--"----T ..J±::i1t=:::ctt=:O alure A walk or passage. p~Pyury dt t if you I t r t f !tHe arches anJ ~ ana corresponding to the 5f3U Petween the V"3U ttir. ..-------. ~ .'. contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> : [ f L ~-. church.a the roof of an aisle.. allure.... Acourtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister.. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle. -... Also called deambul3tory... f '.. -----.. esp.n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard. #[. esp.. meditation.. and dae. I I ch4p'Ur hoU5t: lnJrl.-------7 i A crucrfb: symbolizlr14 the cross on which Christ . OM with lin open mouth that serves 35 A spout arJ projects from a gutter to throw rainwaterciear of a ~uilJif\!...ery sym met rica I ataoot t}.. -._. esp.. i chapel \ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for \ private prayer. Also.pr.religious services.! pbce.lHURCH ~ crlnear21 f The principal church of a d~. Also.-. cntJrGh. nee ~ . ur Acfrcub.-.-Wfr. usually a !?ufld1~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery. usu311y of stained 913ss .~ his t !:. :---. choir The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir....- The part of a church reserved for the offici3tl~ clergy. ~7r~. slip. .

COLOR .. ,
A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.
spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors
produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

pale
Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

~rllli.ant

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

~;:-~;\,"

'r.~;:~t,'

.~f':

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

II

11

I
~-

.... hue
One of the three dimensions of color. the
property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

.J

.:IeepJ
Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

j s.aturation
I

al

cop

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

I
f •

I

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

y gin ori
I
r~

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

,"---.
. :.

the

r~color

,LJ
~.

I

ligh~!S

~

ur

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

se

f' . "j
,:,~~ . . ~~::~

cha

l

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

'. 1

The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

J
I

kp

boo

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

if you

Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

nee

~eJ~rption -:.

dt

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

his

11-.
C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

~.t·t{'?1

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved
color.

U

brightness
The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

yellow

transmitted..
~uVtractlve color

U

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing
The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L
L
J

38

COLOR
color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.
, \ .. r:Jlow _ -__ • / yellow-green'

L
L
I

f

w.rm
D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

yeHow-O~3f1ge

,.~

--- / - - -----.- ---------

~~~m~;~~co!ors. as red. yellow. and
plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color ---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••
_'1

A color. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

cool •. _._j

f

_

Des~natlng 3 GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or Violet.

L

advancing color • __ . ____ . __ .. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an Illusion of space. rece.dingcplor •. _.. __ ._ ... __ •. _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.
/~-----

comptementarycolor
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

al se the ori gin ur cha kp his boo dt nee if you
---~

cop
------~

y
/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .. _._. ___ .-'- ___ .___ .______ ._______ 1on a color whee!.
coler scheme
An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole. , - - - - - - -.... triad A combination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

r 'plit compleme~ry
: J. combination of onecolor and the pair of colors adJolnlng Its complementary calor on i \ ... __ • ______ • __________ • ____________ • _....l acolor wheel.

Lr

l

doul7lecompiementary
A comPlnatloo of two 3nalogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color

wheel.

~-Ir

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moncchroma~

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,

tint •.... _ •••. - - .•.. ". "'" ... - ... --~ A relatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

: Having only one coler or exhlPltlng varying ___ ._._ .. _ ..... __ .. _____ .. __ .__ .___.. _____ J Intensities and values of a single hue.

i polychromrt.lc
r

Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle
A triangular dl~l4Im developed by Faber 6 n-en to describe the relationship between 3 pure h~. white. 3nd PUck, which comblM to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prlrrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutlc pair of white and blacK. shade A rela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to It.

tone
An Intermediate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

L

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic
Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. plac!:. or gray.

39

COLUMN
A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural

memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends. pillar
An upright, relatively slender sh3ft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a buildIng support Or standing alone as a monument. post - ..... - .... ----- ............ . A stlff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlmberframlng.
I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslonallnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnw induced;y the action of acompressive 1ouJ. Bucknng can occur well before the yield stress of U1e material Is reached. l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes unst4ble.

cop gin
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y al the ori

Under; buct/ing Io~d. " cdumn C31lIICt gent:riiU the Int:enul forces ~ to
resto~ Its orlgln3llJr-.ar conJitIon. My

a-ushlng5tres5:f~=P/A

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kp

ur

cha

_____________ L__

I,. /

J, ifu rc.rt.Io n The critical point at which a column, carrying Its critical ~cl:llng load, may elther!?uckle or remaIn undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rium.

;ddltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In k.ntifll Most columns In p7ctJa art: ~ to both com~ and be:nJirI§ due to rnt;tIon in T1I3terlaI propcrtIe5.lnitJiII Cl'OIXtdr.zs In f3brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJon. ThIs benJln§ qfterr C3~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln the critlC3/ budJlng to.1.

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se
.

r·:······ .............. critic.al !nJckllng load

r"-· critical Duckling stress
"-.l"

.

dt

........;-.'":':.~

nee

his

,,:

The critical budllng load for a column divIded by the area of Its cross section.
..... '~:.:.::::...- f3ct()rofsafay

@IA

"-

..........

.... -.
"""-"""--

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~----------+----+-- ~Iende~~ ratSo The ratio of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. . •.••.••....• A thlcl: column su~ to failure Py crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The higher the sJenJemess mto. the Iowa-Is : F;illuN: occurs when the direct stress the crltJcilf5tres5 th;t 1+111 C3use INckllng. A • from <lit axial load exceeds the prlT1mj' objective In'the design of; cdumn 15 to compressive strength of the material redua Its slenJerne5s mto by minimizing Its ml!;it,.!e In the cross section. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the r;dlus of eccentnc load, however, can produce gyr7t1on of Its cross 5tCtIOfl. kndl~ and result In an uneven stress dlstrlMlon In the section.

i j

if

L. ... almbie buctfing stres::s:~?/7,~??JJ;~~~;~-~-;;-~-::L.
L 1f7\---.......... ~
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The maxImum axlalloul th"t cart theorttlcalfy~app~toa column without causing It to buckle. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerseiy proportional t<> the 5qU3 re of Its effective length, ana directly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I and to the rncment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon . Also C3lled Euler ~ &cW.

boo

b

• {f;; r =y 1/A

radiu5cfgyrmon The radial dls14nce from any axis to a point <It which the mass oh ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of lnertla of the body abcM th<lt axis. For a structural section, the raaJus of gyratlon Is equal to the 5qU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment of Inertia and the are4.

!-.............. --....................... ..
intermedlau cclumn
A column havIng a mode of failure between that of a short co/umn and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushing and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

long column f. slender column subject to failure by
buckHng rather than Py crushing.

-.~

The higher the I1tilus of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jetennlnlng the cro5s-sectlon41sil;pe M" column, the objective 15 to provide the ~ry rUlus ~

gyr;tIon about tM dfffermt iIXes. For ;n _.. . ...... 35}mmetrlC31 cross sa;t.Jon, buclJlng w:11 Cend

to occur ;bout the ~ ;l1s or In the
dlrutlon ~ the 1e35t dimension.

40

J

!

i 1 k=I...cides...---. \ 9---+ \I ~.I. i' / . t...-T.1e section. II II I I /1 11 11 rot.~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ ....- .emPer dtfl.~. ... "~ The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of ..~---.... 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column al 1• i effectlye ~gth r--@-.g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1. enas I I I I I I I I I I laurall7racing _ _. the~~coIumnfJl1s. __ . 1/ cop ..d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4.. Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h.~ rr. gin ---.. column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14. A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer..~ ..---.:f J..: C boo kp c -l C\i II ur \ \ \ \ \ \ \ cha se the ~. Also called kern area.5 p~)( . ___ I'· The uraclng of a column or other compression rr.. _ ~ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~. - i .• _. ori Irtflectlon points In. equal to the product of the load and tr. ~nston\l. ____ . ~ coml1i~c:l5tresses ~ -I I p·delta effect __ .: of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section... 1·_·1 ~.ectlon at any point.( : ' : / / ../ kern point of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area.. ~ k = 0.0 4- l=2. t Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis .es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load. unl1racea length The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length 41 .. _ . ! 1 } L i .. !. If) / his -l nee III 1-' I 1 I c:i dt " -oJ .:'''tr......7 . __ ... i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ . . : t I ··"'·ir= .I ri COLUMN [~ eccentricity axis- = = ~ .. ___ . / .... A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section.. '.0 P&14 /1 I' effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr.! . y ...... acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum. : I ...l ~I: '--t- ! .The dlstance dlamaet' / 4 re-t~n ~ .J 1 \ I ·1 f fixed fixed if you ~ I I J pinned fixtJ l I I i k=O...octlo./ : .ll'''' '"Y ho"..The effective kmgth of a column detennir.13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane.......mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e) ~ : : • [~- I .emPer to reduce Its effective Iength.

ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef.lW mixture jlnto cemerrt dlnket-....~I~T!ral. ' mortar mix ~ an.CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which. sb ~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement. ~~.co... 1 r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r. or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time ase J"glcwnuOic& •.::." . .--.a-----. sHlca R. 5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement II13'trIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli..il1 constructlon where reslstanr.. causing It to cure mter and gain strength from low t. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate.lumffUt. ~ eo..0Q._ ..... h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt... 't~~~. IlLm \II G it..rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr. rea.ma t. mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS. . England.--. ~ . ¥JJlronore...rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt.uired for protection al Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f... ..eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide..llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat..a . and tile grout. as fly ash. pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material. It A.~.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of thi TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced content of trlcalclum alumInate. S3IIJ. C/lnkerlsgroundlnto ..."..vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~..1 .. named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll..\:..~ ook tricJlcium .• • .a.. The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly forco~ M i i portland cement ------~ TyPe I: narm. . ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift one: quarter of ~ volume of ~ nd cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging . .. & . ---? .9 Q It 0 . t.. ou n eed ~. clinker Qlcine Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal...d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar... ..e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate.•. clay.._.. 5hz/e.o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction.. (0. .. or oil silicate.. j . .. . TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having. produces a hydraulic cement. ..tM\ g3ln in s~th of the U'II1erIt.he construction of massive ~ structures... 1 . e .._ .-.3 sollcHuel furnace. _ .nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate. -« . when calclnea and ftnely pulverized.... pcnuol3 na.... Le. that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement... oyster-sheDs.lcium sirute ---.. Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to air-entraining pcrtl. . ...\.0 mrrT) In ~metcr... Also.he h..les of the other types.e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging. ..l rch ?:~~::' ~. . e...nln:g ag.. as In y the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i T~1I1: or long.. stur.e.AiL . . A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of ... •... . .... catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-. if y I?>wmzUrl.1 Aportland cemelTt used for general construction. • • J..1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme..'/.. lessening the need for gypsum.ed Py the entrained air Microscopic.f-: ./ ~ ~ne. as Type IA. Ahydraulic cement /I13de f.. fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of..1 to 1..~-" -....... as gl?ilty dams.-. named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland.or Type lilA. Ii · t.~ ..ly a reac'tlon with water._. II 0 A. an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius.. .-. ." blended. . A very-flnely ground portland cement n. a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred. . To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r.empmtiJres... the l hlghe../s""IfWI'JtopowJer m' ~... Type IIA."" port/3nd cement. " :. A calcJne. Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es. gin ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr. where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging. pozzoIona.. r I~ 4l r ..x>rtland pu -.e~t~ : ~..at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In..4 to 0...:' suffix A. L<_ .-. ! ! i .• ___ . Intentionally ~ In a concrete or . -. -----1 hydraulic cement j i f ~ . earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd... makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer....04 In. siliceous Containing sillc. the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo.i' white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw . cop tnc....atiystrength ori I retaining walls.e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for. ! TyPe II: moQerrt. tYF11y 0..

. ~ mixing W4ter The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix.( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. (9. pearlite.. '~. vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light. spherical particles. Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tna 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals. tc produu lightweight Insulatln9 gin al cop uniform grading .400 Ko/ m3). as perlite. . or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings. the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. weight.-rx. exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y. minerai materials.. admixture Any suvstance other than cement.4 mm): speclf. o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount I insu13tin9 concrete lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductlvtty. fix. thereby facllitatil1~ the wettl"9 and penetratlng actlc" of the wate..5 mm) sieve.(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n.3 r mix. Also called surfactant.~"!~I . The maximum size of coarse aggrC9ate In reinforced concrete Is IImtted by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars . added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. and salts. Also ca lied perlite A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight.ose of the hardened product. Also.. or plaste:' r.':~_.(JlfJllf1I~d. (6.. of mixing water requlred for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~.• ..• . particle-size distribution In which aggregate partlcles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes. mortar. 'r'r"3ter. added to a concre'". o~ se acceleratcr An admixture that h3stens the sectlng and strength development of • concrete. usee! as non structural lightweight aggregate and 3S loose·ftll thermal Insulation. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. Inert. mortar. W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e. particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material. and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar agg~ate graded aggregate . Agg~te shoukI ~ hard.c_JL&~. or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure. expressed etther as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. ur cha kp o retarder An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete. lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength. concrete. cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting. Also ea ileJ addrtlve. 43 .1 . .8 mm) sieve.. 4 (4.. 200 (74~ sieve. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In. (6. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. and fru of clay. .. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated. or plaster ~i. - dt his boo I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete structur41lllghtweigltt concrete expankd shale A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or shale. as expanded sn31e or slate. I r r if which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2.4 mm): sptclf. -- AggrC9ate having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading.: .e 0. o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control tts color. superpla stlclur.'t}§O •• ~'* A_. y o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workabiltty. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation.4 (4. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In...Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl ConcrC"'"~ Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggr"e43te. and be predominantly retained on a No. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other aaattivesin eM mix.8 mm) sieve. • « •. wormlike threads. conc~ you m. concrete. o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water to ~ concrete mix.-·. as sand and gravel.. gravel.ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr. its properties are Important to the strength.. . having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1.362 to 1. srlt. almost entirely through a No. Also called expanded clay. or aggrC9ate.840 k~1 m3) and compressive nee strength comparable to that of normal expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate. . and fire· reslsta nce of the hardened cone rete.: the ori Any of various hard. made with lightweight aggregate.mortar mix to alter tts properties or tr. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids ana surround the particles. dimensionally stable. and In larger amcu~~5..

...ln Inches. :. preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix. ~ : water air The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix. to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test. concrete or mortar mix.:.. . (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In. e •• " fine aggregate • 25% -..:.. tamped In a prescrll7ed manner.........•. duralnllty. curing.... 112 117.. 87...... :... expressed 35 the vertical setthng.: . yIeld1~ a product that Is low In strength. Also C4!1ed stHf mix. v nee dt if you dry mix A concrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and h3v1ng little or no slump.hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~ mea$lJ~ tke slump of a test speclmell... and 50 kg In COIl ntrles using the metric system. In the .... . cast from a representative batch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cona. dura l7illty..... and W'~htness.~ . water. cop The relative a!7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow.1tlons.. 1 .with sr.". An open·~nJncated cone of mm}hlgh...O'~·'... and ~te to p~concrete or mortar r-.5117. _... Iso cal~J \139. .. preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as adecimal fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117..- se slump concrete or mortar can Pc: handle4..-...:.. 16% ..y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In Chlca~..water content The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix.. ..~". JIj:!. usually measu red Uy the2!l!!TI p~~ for cone re:U and ITy the~ ...._--..t:~~l!X48ritaln. : : : J .30% concrete.. .. _---. :. .[ water-ce~entratio 7% -15%·· .tCONCRETi! mix~lgn The n10St economlcalselecUon and proportIOning of cement....cement ccfTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf cement NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty. Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that...~metal.. preferably 1% -.. placed In fOr1T1W9rk... using a hyd.fpr i. with given concrete /n4teri3ts..1 workability the sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117..: .. A compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure. and watertightness.:.te:st ... usually ~ means of acore drill_ 1F~~-+------~~~~7-ccrete't j .. his /plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is readily mokled. The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed I I lJ ur cha A mc-... wet mix 51umpcone -_ ..... comp~ and finished... (~mm) high. A cynnder of concrete 6 In.. Wori::al7ihty depends partly on the water· 6 kp cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix.10 Canada. W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (. _ .. and testlng conditions...<: ~:'. -A.::.....y 4 g3/1on5 of W3ter per 53ck of cement ori gin o -------~-~--~I IJ 5 6 7 i ~Iump~~ .ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~.rqu... strength. Ij 51%-5/% I Jj consis~rn..21%··-.. sack of cement.3% expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix.. used a top diameter 4 In..lgg~ate In a mix..:. durability... of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone. u5tcyUnder -.... The watercement railieantrots the strength... and watertightness of hardened ... ." .. _...• : :.....' : ..•...::( .. ~.. a Va5"tiameter Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content 3nd runny consisten0'........ boo A measure of the conslstency and wori::al7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete..~r m~E.. and the cone Is lifted. ".. ~ mpre"lon test A test for ~lnlng the compressive s~ of aco~ "atch.:. Conslsttncy depends Ia rgely on the 11 I al y proportion of~nt pasteto. __ .. --....t2J=:( In 203 mm) and mm}...

: . pi3st1c... . meta I......1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the .. Any of.. \ s~r-resistlng conc~ key for newly placed yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete.:... clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee.. The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form .. .t one tlme. lift ~.. and hardware. bolsur .~~~~" ..-- -..spreader .~ :'--": -. -..! : :.. Also called metT1rer ~ has~...... '~' .1I forms.. sped.l::nent.ePott strip gin : i ' .ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the ur "~ ~~=~1~. fa. A brau.lr.. ~ snaptie i A form tie having notches or crimps which i: II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the y I' concrete surface after stripping of the forms...•.3. Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members... A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place timper. ---"'Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form.... cop : i II ~I ru~tian 1====r=t1.. ..IrIous lI1.. Also called spacer.preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce. usually of wooJ.. Sonawbe . resln'lmpregna~d paper. used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings.. varety of slotted d.: TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form • _______ • _____ •• __ .... 'K...trongmk Avertlc31 support for aligning and relnfon:. -... ' the A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member.. \7raclng... Ii .rs in a concrete beam or slab... COI'.---. -. ~ II "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which Ji i I plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w... A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r. concrete sur-fJu. .-'.. '-" -'-. as In formwori: or she--<>t piling.-----.. -..-.--L __ .... for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart./A • se r:::~~~~~~-I~'~. -.. proMlng a stlffitack. Arty of Y... form work The kmpor. i Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --...uo.lng wales.-' !.. .... ~ ~.11 ~roove or chan nel fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather '. I "'.1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which altow it to also serve as a I:. -.. .. or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng. ori Aform tie ha. -. ~ .. slipform •.' . /" concrete rt a constructloo Joint.:::~~!1· ... A \o11g ltucin... if you conc~beamorsb!7. ... as ollar sillcoot.. -..ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete.serted through the form and threaded ontotheenasofan inner rod.: form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly pi3ced concrete...-. steel. re~$eagent form .--. 'I .. -...-. the water rods are remcved while th~ Inner rod remains In the concrek. .. ran9er. II spreader..' • "..... __ are ir.d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng.. Also called In-east Boarding or sheeting of wood.. nee high ciuir > .-'" -."?.CONCRETE form Uner --._ • _____ ... '.....A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a his flying form Alar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne... or .eyw"3'f ------..ing various vertical members. waler. _.. leaving a neatly finished depr"essloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed. Also called partlni awnpound. "'_" boo f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_ kp ITt3M ofccm~.-..~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood. _ .. A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng.. -. -..: ~ . -'. .-. .... or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr... ..terlJls.. -.. ! i to al - cha form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift.. 45 .. -.~..wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:.-. • cfuir dt ~I A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete. After stripping.. bulkhead ------.

Also called ~st-fn-sltu I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr. ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water.. An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed ~ L L I concrete. concr'eU. -... <l :.: .~ •• 1'1 -. -.-. often motor-drIven.. '0 -. •.-~ .ed.~ ::'''''.... Also calleJ waUr' g. often motor-driven.~ Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod..:: •• 0.. ~ a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site... shrink-mixed concrete ...j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator...Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site.~.·:/1"..1 'V'"Q • • 0 ... ~ 0t1 • ilL 1:1 b.. 4' 'padi~ ~ .... L I laitance A milky depOSit containing cement .. pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached.ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top.....: 4::·~· 4 -i..-" .. I .°.o. •~"t. 415 freshly mixed concrete. or crane l1ucl:et. .~..-'!r'" "--:J '-II .. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement. '..4 ~ • ~ 0 -4'.... sa nd or crushed slag. buggy A cart. free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute.. oVenYon:lng of the mix. for mixIng cement. Concrete partially mfxea at a lr. "4 Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I . : I ~'-:':: 0 ~~ : . • 5tr.. for snort distances at a construction site.... ..$ piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden... truck mixer. ... etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying. 9 .. or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site.lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete..~ tn. 4 0" qf·:0 .~ ::... or Improper flnishln1. -.. ~ ~. ~... ---. .A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon. •• "'l. .. J Ccncrete &eposItcd. . concrete. Also called shotcrete.. 46 .. • transportlng heavy materials.... ~. . -. ook chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y pu rch nose t1 ase . and water. .d air within newfy placed concrete and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~. ! " . '.l~·t·~ :. cop .. . concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass. --. fonr... ---.. .~ • eed thi sb ~ravity..ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site.. ~'._ . . drop chuu: . 4. .. . for y pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete. . 'l . :.. .._~'.::'i~3detIke tool.~ if y ou n t ~ ~:.:r 1" •• \:~--!. vibration ----.C:ONCRETE ~st-jn-pbce concrete . •••0 .: '~ : "'S./ time of haul The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a.• 0. ~uggy.~'. ill I! f':~ .."'* transit-mixed concrete Concrete dry !latched at ..'. . :/1. cured. or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed. vi~rator Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete.--. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '..:...1>':110.. agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site. consolwt1on The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne. .. stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te . and water to produce gin al direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer.Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and i I ..lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~.... resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix. A· • .------. :: ~_~.-----....1ln. ~..: ~ !.\.. aggregate. slurry... . I .4. I ori II ! the GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement.. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure..

-. mortar. concrete...--------------. when the concrete surface refleGts the texture.'~&±... "..'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: ".. ''-I. drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete..a slllc.. ' :':T::I.i.:~... float finish . compact. ~etting hydration The process In whk. ----.. jl.:' architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials.... l~~'-':{'.."'3".-. 5GreeJ .-. j 1 II'" "I : :11·illlll:I·!!..lmmedlately after screealng.j'I. exposed agg~ finish y if you nee dt ~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. or toothed face..-..----. and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce.!!i l::: 'i .. p13s:er... ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~.. . .g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated.. . A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete.... ana fasteners of a !?oard form.:'.. screed ----------------------------..atlon of de'.. compacting. . castlng. won:lng.lITPf.. and cop trowel -----.. L_.arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \.1I':'I':I. and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.ll:" t i l "':.. Spreadl"9. ' ...-.3l/ng. al appJ:t!ng.. honeycom17 The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge. 1 1.on-carbiJe or diamond !n.' :11... . stucco.1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD.~--- dar+J A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing .cI"9 salts. or stucco surfau with a wood fl..:l:dl'"I .. c III:i:j! . "-' . .atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon. mortar. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/. joints... serrated. his &et ~.----------------. peten brut Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed. ori powertrowd ~ ..CONCRETE finl.--. overlappi~ matlon. -----------. . or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate..-.-A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level..e surface.___ ~:%O'o"/..---. I £JDDDDCJO- ! i Vvlas on a formed concrete surface. A deccr3tlve flnlsh produced ry sand!:T!astlng...._. shrink3ge A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set.. as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water. smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel.--. dry-shake finish A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement.·iil'i'i' "I'. _ cha se kp the radlalarm5 that rot..-. flc. ---. forming.---. and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float. The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk. bu~hhammered gin ...:. mortar. _____ ----\ .. hut of hydr..:}:. Arry of v. or plaster caused by a loss of moisture.'1 .---. or smoothing plaStlc material. as during the setting and curing of a concrete ml)(.. ~pa!ling » lI To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement.~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set. proom finish --. . l:[. finish Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface with a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated.aw A whe. ------------ ---------------------.>.--Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir.'kl\ii) ill..at ~-----. .. -.' il·ill:I!::::!..~~>~.. Of' caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy insufficient consolidation.. :.. placing.-. esp.. p\asw. 47 . --------. etching with an acid.. -.-.-.aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on vert1c41 shaft to smooth... and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir.. --- trowdfinlsh· --------Adense.W.hlng The process of leveling.: A port.j"\"'I. rotary power saw eqUipped with. I.. l7ullflo..at A float havll1{1 a large. as concrete. pl3ster. caused by hydration of the cement paste. and ~ boo p7f'ement . --. --.a fresh concrete surface . smoothing.1te about a • .--. flat blade attached to a long handle...c:::~. ----------.h a substance combines chemlGally with water. sand..q 3 fresh CO!1crete.el-mounted.:':.i. . or glue due to a cure ---------.---.. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening.-0 .-. Also called 5(. .---------------- A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab.Pf.-~'~1 - - crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage..:t. or plaster surface. ur .

usually trained and experienced in the desIgn and construction of vulldlngs..J ______________________ I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to I . ! H Aperson traIned. for a y ! construction manager A person ororganlut\ol1 that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect.. : I : contracts wfth a general contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon project. -.. from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng. _________________ .Il5~thearchlt.. science. . Also. I) ~Ion project. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons set forth In a contract are fulfllled. JI L I speculnwe ~ui1kr I turn-leey Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy.. -. gin al cop ~-tefm fI~I~. I I . . Iendil19 institution T~ institution.------ Iicen5ea L~allycerUflecl bya governmental or other constItuted authority to engage In a !rosIness or professIon.CONSTRUCTION ofbu~ai~.--.-. Architect ana Subcontractor Subcontractor Subcontractor I ~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : I ____________________ for suPsequent S31e or lease.----. professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of various ~ranches of engineering.----. I ~~ projectsfaroWMership.-~---.-. as structural mechanIcal. :. as acoustics or IIghtlng. I L.. 48 .--.. '---t lib co ntracto r A person ororganlutlon that ! Insurance The Insurl~ of property. or l1usiness - ~---------.J 10 or res. I . -. life. .. Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors.. award.. or e!e. I j: 1 Inves~ In and develops the I I contractor Aperson or arga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials H and perform the wort for a construction project at a speclfled time and rate. -1 ownu A person orarg:anlutlon twlr.----. providing the I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~ t pot. r--------:.g the ~al right or title to a piece of ~ ~.!I general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage ana supervIse a construction project.-.--------------------1 I : . .. skilled.t architect Aperson who engages In the profession of architecture.. or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved.. usually a ccmll"erclal !1.J1e.J.ni:.--.---..ma~ent.ctrlcal engineerIng.. registered. Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design constnJGt a ~lldIng or project. --..-.. the ori II I ur cha n I se 1 kp \ boo dt \ \ )' \~~U~ --~-- I \ U his / you ~ t I nee b if design-l1uiIJ I I I I I r I _________ IL _________ . Iii T I : I I r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM I I I r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : p~Ject.--~ . The art.enttalltles of real esta~ esp. --. or e~ineer ~ ..xt's f'/--c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent. l . and construction phases of the project.

. usually In written form........ulldl~ official certffylng that all or a designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding co~.........CONSTRUCTION The process of pUilding....lwlngs and speciflcatlons...._----. Occupancy· ..-... dt L~I nee award A fOnTl3l auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS. assembly... from site preparation through erection..-.... ~ .... government agency havlngJurisdlGtion after p!../ ~I CPM Critical Path Method....... and permltUng occupancy for Its designated ~... Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities.... a method for punnIng.. .. gin I I al conalJCf'.. ""-" .. ......) Of or pertaining to project scheduling In if l7uilding permit A written author!zatlan to p... . a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall ..ea to determine theflnanclal.......••....•.._. I I Construction phase 1 0 I'--________.... :.... ~ falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is not yet capable of supporting ttseff...-oceeJ wtth construction of a building project In accordance with approved clr.....l To construct boy the raising...... top out To Install the highest structural member In ...~...lssued Uy the local...... between ~ or more parties to do or not to do something specified.. ... Also called staging.----_... ....1 contract for a specH'ied sum.. and finishing operations.. you buildi"9 offICial A person designated Uy a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster ancl enforce the provisions of a building code...... and managing a project. ofa~ltdlngprojectoverlaptocompre5s the total time required for completion. Design ~ Q ~ ~ ~ fast-track .. j ........ scheduling.. and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________..... j .• -~ .... +.. positioning..... which the design and construction phases : : : : J I I Ar-------::---""'T I _ _ _ _ _ _ _---' ' : COnstructlonphase4U .....:ns have been flied and reviewed... se the ori technical or other advIsaDllity of a proposed construction project..... and fastening of materials or parts.... --. functional and I1ehavlonl aspects of a completed l7ultdlng In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for tuwre programming and design activities.1swility study ur cha ... fittlng together.. p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical..................i> ..e compt:Utlve process of offering boo tv ccntnct A ~ally enforuable agtUment. scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building...•...•••.•.....J 49 ... A detailed InvestIgAtion and analysis I~I erect cop y i1iddin9 l"l. kp notice to procee.. combining all relevant Information Into a flow chart..... .... certificate ofoccupanq A c:Iocument Issued Uy a j...... I I I L. A written communication Issued Uy an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establ1shlng the date of commencement of the work.......ll his perform the wan: described In . fe.......•...J I: Construction phase 2 6c=---------. the relative significance of each event......

.. contract documents The Ieq. orvarie module --..1s Wooa' & P135tJcs ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:..ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection. assemlkd. and const<uction cost acccuntlng. .(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered.. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect. and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included. . are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks.I documents comprising a construction contr.t ground b-ef and. used as $\. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding..atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products. trade. ana ana L . --. A pref.. 5y-s-U~ nee . modifications.r~n Doors & Windows Finishes kp Otl'f51on9 Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes ".-Arty In a ~ of standard1zea..r:. .-. Also called Masterionnat.. . I: j I ana we.. " .oor. U D/rI5lon 11 Oil'f5ion 12 D/risJon 13 EqUipment Furnishings dt his 5ped31 ConstroctJon Ccrweyfn.\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material.lct. The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls. conditions of the contr3ct.entrne. reference ~pecification A specification that refers to a st<lndard spectfic..5ed-5kin pand -----~~:::::. then tilting them up Into their flnal position.. i cop ccnc.. or processes without prOVision for substitution.. Cornbtl~ the dimensions of a structure and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents..e:n~ untts of.am~ construction. esp.._. 'peciflCaticn. boo f'lwr. . if you {)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf Otrislon 16 Bec-tnc41 perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results... systems. L f I ... cein"40 or roof.Llb co~ion A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In .. wnen cured. Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ uniform ~y~um Afo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. ur modul.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute memw I. or function. Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref./ Req. .tff~ size. / Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent. ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness-toweight ratio.mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St .IbJect to ~.=:-. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl. standards. ~Y... Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc. quality of execution of the . wall. ---.. L • I.beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses..d loads.il~ components used In ass.mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent.ysttm. panel Ii ! I .ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor... . ----. ....-. roof. 3S fr. The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of 1. Also called Industrialized Puitding.uirement5 ~ 1j i gin al ~ ~ry ori 1i the Met.. ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module. Oivision 1 Otl'f51on2 OIrlslon 3 OIrlsJon4 OirlsJotl5 Oirlslon G Olvlslon 7 OIrislOf'l~ lj I y facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers.. {)(YisJon 14 modularcooraiutiYn _.. c:f~rjptlve 'pe-cification ~ I A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct qU3ntltles quahtles of rroterlals to be how they are to De asseml>led fumlshed In a construction. ! l~ 50 . Including all addenda. frequently \nt.l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng. 3M united into J whole. lift-. -. Gene. or WAil Dendlng. orfunalon. work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract. . --- .. r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand.erchange. construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth In detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project.lncludlng the ownercontractor agreement.n. flllng of technical data and product literature.n cha b I se ~U:Se. prefal1ricm fabricate r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and usually standardized parts.:iwich p~ . -.. t proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products... tilt-up construction A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete --wall panels on site In a horizontal position. ..

constructlon. Also called mill construction. and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act boo f l-I -r the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs.lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls. floors and cellin~s. his AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In cha se ~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-. protected noncombustIble CONSTRUCT. Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of prlmrt.. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US. l?ul. construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities. the ori unpl'Otected ordinary construction gin al cop y I ~. or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s. protected ordinary construction -'" .thorlt~S. noncmrfONR~ I light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon.. .s.'ltel1ent.. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts.:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers.. . r \ 51 . 2S to restrict the height.. .'. kp A lrull.... protected light wood frame \ construction . comuustible construction Any construction th3t aoes not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan.. 00.In t&ecentr.lnc. and tr. as pari._ .alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~.1 AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction.rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped . r.lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons. esp.nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31./ ~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design.by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance. and walls. V41rUllCe unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts. ..--~ Ordln2rj' construction h. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. 1992. ~ and enforced by a local go. estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and reqt. ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~.nd decking of specified minimum sizes.. Interior Pearlng walls.~. ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame.. they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction.U.closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts.: .. : ' nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states.emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety..~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au.1 ! An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt.. ener~code 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use.wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities. r~ecoven.. . r ) no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'. ~ BOCA N. specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. ~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI). Also called construction cl3ss.ab!ed. roofs.ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities. and the prorisIcn of.l . as an agreement. -.rl and western us..nt A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It. . type of co nstrllCt 100. and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M).. and used primarily In the ~heastern u.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities.wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er.:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and ur An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones. unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and ) . .nd welfare.. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials.~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan. J:Id use of Dulkllng s.d Ordlnarj' construction h. type and Intended occupancy. professlona I socletSes. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). : .-~ t.. - Of or pertaln~ to a material.. Also called zonln§ co.. hea~ . if you zoning ordinance nee dt .

. I' ~~~~ I Something th3t st.... Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having nee their Intrinsic lines.' . 52 .. one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of 7...er of jointing that mJtes the united parts cIQr.. distinct. ~ cha AIso. y -----/-+ [!] ~[RJ syntPo.. and Pul... .'GJ">... ..g a meaning and used In puce of a word or .--:.pparent texture of. 5ulrtractive ~ . accumulation. and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other... ':1~0::j~{... --. .J Characterized or produced by addtUOn. i tactile texture .... resemPbnce. cc-. artJcubtio n shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes.a nds for or represents sornethlr. flgu:-t h3v!r. ..:' / f~~~~~~:~ "'---....h appear to gin :... .. The edge or wntdllr of a shape.shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure.> ~! the ori Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic. ~se of the whole.....ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion. ... Characterized or produced by remmi cf..~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects. . While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole.~-'t-_ _ _ _ ----JI I..~~naI. apart from Its color or form.. ·_ . boo kp Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which i~j~ ur ~ . .. ."~\~'\I '~.... -.... " ~....h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass. resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry.DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art . derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs.I fOriit-i The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or materl3l .' ...... ··... surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values... The visual and esp. '''~\~:%~~~:\l'... apart from its.~rg. !textiirt " .. .. ~ solely on dt an Intellectual and affective content --+X • • his if ~----. -.... '7 visual ttXture .. dcnsfty... cofors... '?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·'''''''·''''''''''''' ~--------------------~ se !~.-....... often resuftinq in a new Identity. @ \ . resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals.. or ~n. ~~~ al cop The.g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon.. t addi1::i~e I A metf1CJOflhanr.. The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of a surface... color or form.... . \ . part or portion without destroying .. and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume....#Iine /' \ L_'~_-->. . . tactile '\uallty of a surface... ... '-'.··:.-" .. esp. shape suggests an outnne w. ·· . or uniting. ~nvenUof13! \ ~~f!1f::d you A unified compostlon of two-dimensional w~ht. and relatlonshlp to one another..

. eXf-'ins. minute. COrn' . cha s!up~. represented b] a dlagram. that outlines. if you pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design. of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr.o VI proper proportion or relation 50 as t. A drawl~. f4l>Mc . nee dt his diagr. nat neceS5..ent.'lrlly represent3tlol13l...iffikJn of e~ments or p3-. orga~~tiorJ 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~ ~i An InaiV1dual. and prcportlons se The c~ractaistlc structure given to . esp. structure < 01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design.wm : .J form a unified whole. 'L_____ _ ___________ _ 53 .:.II al cop ~I y . boo kp ur .a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze.fr~t e Jlrrang n~ parts Or eIe me'lts fr.~rBrl.S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole.~DESIGN form: The manner of arm-.I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit.3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a compcsition 50 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e. or cl3rtftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole. or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole. I( III l1li •• II • gin " ".11 • Th~a-. I I -\ a' the parts. the ----------------------~ j tature ori i . . cne h<lYing .:g3. ~rranqement.

.= ..~":'=d his nee .".... Inconsistent.. hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS. . ai~~ U Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged. I I ! I . The state or poSm..ity....: : : := _-=... r~ L I I· ~ I ~ A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon... or coonterpolnt.-. .-=·-=. 'j 1I~_. acwrdin~ U i if l~~:~i opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and proGuce a more dynamic expres5iveness. U I kmrchy l to importance or s~nlf\canu.... or arrangement. ~======~ r rl~lR ··m II kp r-------.U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms.. Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM. 1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye....= .e'mof eiements r. or Interconnected prts. types. A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept.--' '<t " >'. essential pa rt. ~ ..... cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed.. or lc. .lntricate.. or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an arUstle wno Ie. The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi. ~e. L of effect. .. often causing anxiety or excttement.. order.... turmony The orderly. -. concept. I! -/.0 L.: . .. unity' The state or quanty of Peing combined into one.. .~-/~ ~. homogeneeu ' ~~~::l ~~~~~====~I I \ : I I tJ I cop y canUnuity .. : . brder ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious.astheorJerl~ofelements In an Ii I[ 'caherent lc. elasslf.alient Prominent or conspicuous.. you ~ ~~~ I~= : =. ' ' ..n of Delng placed close ~r()('s~byskk. ju$~ ~>/ I I.:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or lnU.. ~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5.-=-::. or eha rae terlsties. inoNIy' 0 §DDODD ODD DOD ~ 1 0 ~ I!14Jor idea. or relatIOn proximity '.grated to afford comprehension cr arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness I recognition...stopermtt ·.e. t comparlsonorcontnst.. ~====~==~~====~==~~I========~ .so. L.~. __ -------."... . ori ~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety. corresponJlng posltlons from an \ntervenlngspaceor<*ject. or regular. [>f _ .. Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi...~ DOD DDD DDD The stateOrquanty of being Identical.d.. P ~ P J ! I A~Ion from the normal or expected form.!. pleasing.. ~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n..~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.!S.:. and organfud one 3DOYt: another. or dlrectlon. . cha se campJexity . as a nne..' I u I Ne3rT1es~ln place. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its purpose... • I 54 ! r .. ""' . wo. 11[. anomaly..... dt Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast.. II.lnKea.:Jically Inwngruous. al gin ~- ur The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted. A syst... :. -.. caJlage the boo The stJte or 'l. or satlent feature ofa narrative or 'nt DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD ~QnUrpolnt .: 1---~. order.... ..~ to a stialqht nne..

An e<lUJI distribution of weig.ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe It ts di recu. '-I y 55 .-.. are referred for pu rch I ase the U L+J-.s cr opposing forces." al ¥~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual successive stJges.::S:~~! ori .-.. cop concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events. I -I 11 A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance ~~ri4m Itc=:. or o li o ..:.-.tC:::5E=n:~lliJlllllU~-liabnce '1 Pa. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn or composItIon_ fcxus. rdJUonshlp.d.lstlng ~~. i. gin '~ilf The au ·_-----_·_--t ~~!/j The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_ ~k:>r-3 which rr. '--I tI "-.I )PESIGN-' .. ~cc~~-$ ACO..:. A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a ~ure.... radiatIng parts a~ut a center point or central axis.~~ .:.y..--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar. body. equipoise . ~ contr.Jn~lanclng weIght -I orfw~ "'-I I L.r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~. -----. or composltlon Is elements In <I compositlon symmetrical. j if y :-/ ou n eed i thi sb ook i .i50h~metryi. measurement or symmetry.

... rel.. 2. The COlny. LJ 1J I A B degree... ~.. PE$I~N : .---------.. or ase the ori gin al B cop y _ . II certain prof'OftIonate size... eurythml Ha rmony of proportlOif fro~.~... proper.... or an article of flnlture..-. ..c:ntor space. 21.. divideJ Py tile fOIl rth.....---~--------- '" if y ou n The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r. . AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne.I The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third Fibonacci se~ ...... In which the ratio of the smaller to the I." 3/ 5.......ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human . quantity.. or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole ". two l. extent.. or mOvement.lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0... . .0 mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement._e... -. Also called ~cd ~uance.618 to 1.\---?'<::- eed thi 1tutIu" ~ale sb ook St3ndard or point of reference.. '1. 1.. -_\'t_-.. 5.lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ ' .. : %=9 \ ~ 1...1Ut respea to In'gnltuae. ~ harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of ". uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ~. 2.. 3... oraegree..mm~lately preceding.. I 1 .... golden~llj I I ! j A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression. 1.... "....hich form an arithmetic progression.. V2......----~. The unending sequence of numbers where the first two terms are 1and 1.. 13.L .3... -. 8. .... VI.. 5/ 8.- ... and each succeeding term Is the sum of the. - 56 I r- .' ..000..proportlca.. I harmonCC~' ~.. j I . .. . visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze. 8113 .......--..r\ ..--=-':Io... pu rch ~Ie '. Also c..

. ~ : a. · .·-.'. Also called ~uman engCnurin4. alld how the n3ture and kgru of this sp3ttal arrangement relJtes toenvlronrnental and cultural factors. sha pe. petween the sensory experk:nce of podily al ori the se cha ur '~."etrent k.! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 I and In~al sltuat. k1na~$lai i presence. mlt The correspondence II""··.Also.. Also called~! distance.. It Ra~ropoll10.< presence and movement ana the size.. nee his boo P~r...i.-..-... · · . i' \: ..J ~.a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL kp ~. or clea ranu. f: !I:'J .-' .. ~~ia.:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely.".. Ptllk:Il~s.i~~i?'~ i: " '~ f j /~V . /~~ r I ]r.-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement..1ved chiefly from stlmu/.... _ ! cop " y t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position. stride.J.. and facntt:es fully accessiple and usap!e by all ~1e."''' . 35 reach. : r..' tendons.'~'" f .. > ------" pe~11315pace ~ The vatia!7le and su~lectlve dlstance at which OM person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her. ~)13ptJc i .-. 11 ..ns... ana Jolnts. ffunctioM&imell5ion ".. or use.fDESJGN I l ~gonomiG5 r ~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO..·.rp~~ .----.) ~".f To 3sc'rlbil humin furm orcharacterlstics to nonhuman things or I1elngs..· ! j f' ······1· a~r~~I11~ I l . or mo. .. i territoriality The pat tern of ~havior associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or domain r ." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom.r..~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re.~esi5.- 57 .. ----..!J~.." .1nclud1~ the physically dt "{~. f gin !.softhe tiuman body a nd It 5 p-art5. .. .~ if you h:mdlc3ppd fl . or permission to approach. enter..atlon of nerve endl~s in muscles.. jVa~ Of or ~ini~ to spaces. The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody.. ·····.. --.. t olfutory' ReI.. . Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch.. -. and proportion of a space.. I I I Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the cha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an...

I CO"""~ . socia/' economic.. to show the appearance ~~n' . given. . . II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le.. often dlve~ pa rts • or elements so as to form a single or t whole. or ~ lli:e by writing. a future preferrea state. ~ judgment ~ : .-----~. ~ model : .. ~! fo chooSe from a numl?er of a~matlves ~ fitness or preference. . as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations. expand.. .~~ ./ al .h~ls J Comulnirig of separate. A'iT.. To expre5S..J conditions.oi T'lie mental lIPility to perceive distinctions.. Jesfgn f~'·..: To wolt but.':".nJ Its..Ie. or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end.._ ..--. and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project.ina i . kp n o ur g cha ~ . An . or pleasure.: I. analysis of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements. ".'Ilng a prol7lem. J dmltll... requirements.. or ~~yn..rnfitu~ represent3tlon.. L L L L L @@ L L L L dt se gin fo asceruln or assess the slgnlflcance. •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or }~~"lfor so.. ~ meons of which a changeofrelatJor... or Interchange Ideas. ~purpo~ ...1.angle. usuarly by careful appraisal and study.:i traMformatlcn-' The process Oftha~glng In form or nee if you ~l&iitJon Slmulztlng. f"OPO''' The off~ of II pia n for consideration.'e.Creases comfort.i .---.. r •. ..U5t Arty feature that provides or l!).-J3-'-tlO-'n--":::"~:l:. or construction of something..sI1lp to some context or condItion Is lodlcate. growth. testing. ~P~~I\ ! feeduack his . or teaching. fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth ln~ antlclpa~ for testln~ and evaluatbn.. econorny ..lltyof. EVaIu3tlve Information auout an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for a~ratlon or correction.) ~in~ € The pattern of change.:.. speaking. A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into applications of existing Ideas or prinCiples.ss~~.:. . and physical ~xt. /~~. . used. worth. or action.~~. testing. th~ cycncal. Infonnatloll.tharttte. . / .. acceptance.' jmoclc~up: AfuH-s!ziJ model of a Uulkllng or structure.i$e.:::~:::~::M~OO' des~n project wtthln a specified tlme.. made...Also. or used. I l. t~rifty. L develop.tnodifyl the ~icwttd 3n impIem~ solution In use ~ tk-specifieJ gozls and ori ~! fochange the form. .1 DESIGN . lr--n....~ inflectio n ' boo To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means of a definite pbn or procedure....{y(ng structure through a series of alscw~ permutatlons and manlpulatlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity Of' ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria.--:_ _ _ _ _--.~. function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is designed. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols. f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more flne or precise.. ···········-···········t~#············~:··~'···-·-··-... .. and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources. or realIZe the : capaPtlJttes or posslp!litles of so 3S to ~rlng 1 gradually to a fuller or more adva ncea or effective state.. in problem . ~igll" /. 58 L .. or exists.. coof. esp. ~[gJ elnt~: concept.rio. J refine. or otherwise determlnea bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions made.... fJ~tifying ..ading or directed to a partlcu~rc:ti PfO~S . as a statement~ forth the context. or prinCIple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ue ~ased.. or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other constru~ contrivefoform In an artistic or Ingenious manner.. or qu._ ~refut.orslmilarchange:n the shape of" configuration. usua ny ~ullt to scale. . convenience. f 0 conulve. comprehend relationships.-. y Astandard.. ~ . CI'iterU.-.rasu!1jtct a system or process to such condItions or operations as will lead to a critical evaluatlon of a!71 lit!e 5 or p~rform3nce subsequent acceptance or rejection.. character. buJlt accurately to scale for study.· ~ deve~ . or distinguish alternatlves. cop ~ ~ / _'\ . esp..--"._. J~meniFY. IteraUv~ process comprising the following phases.f • The reason for which something exists or Is done.. ~. 5~parattng iph.canvey. ' -? I '.. A~nd.esp. . Ina way that Is clearly ana readily understood. ~nd mod..

.. ~ e LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng ~renJiFity ~klent.A.wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p. A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr. you -~I char. ! fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns are summoned.. esp. or predicting phenorr~. playful..-••• - \ I . as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals." cop ori the se M object. . des~n conceyt r 1 ~ ~a.. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or nee Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr.---~Efl------.::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern or structure for a des41n.n \ --... 0 ) o-----~) ~ ..~ IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031 .irtlcuur Instance. vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something.. ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea. them..~.. The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char. . .. esp. plans.:t yro~. The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring. ~pnctU ...:' r . or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness ~rWeen y ~~ I .V.r.. . To rorintmental plctvre of a.. .. 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or cha .acUvtty. • '-.8 h~~ some fmn of o~tlve ~Irty outside of the ~~Inthesolutlonofa' \. forms. future possibility. . Aconcept for tl1eform. >>A rr. : .1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts.. his T =~ c ~ /lY'~ ._ . -. arc~-·····--·-·-···· . A fortUitous circumstance.. r r t f' if fI I • A nu. -. a-nltogy ( . Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance.. ~~pt ~~~} ~~~ 10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a ~rtk:ular fom..origiral~i The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner. ~ph!J. ..-.'- . esp. or characteristic anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ.. 4-. ~tf. An un.lCterls1lc.:. _ ~ . or other drawings..1cter. -. resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-. asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded. to pe developed In detail In later studies.. 1'e<11 .eatlve processes. -e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \ I crutivity . f5~~. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr. I boo I ! : ~hl~.. --.~ ! explaining. '.\ / / / .>stance. represented graphically Py diagrams. j he~: al gin --'~(_-l.~. proia.. . mentallnventC1s that are whimsical. .... tnJth. o }... or thinking In orderiy.er construction. i . ". qU3!ity. _.. To a'ir~theefforts or attention of.. or amngement.n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased.s...a. I tBDJ]w w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference.e .en61 representation of / sorr.~: The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality..rtfuple....' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai.: irrt3~in3ticn : The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell' --.dd~.. \.. an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances. ! I 59 . '. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a% or principles used in analyzing.. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5 Hlusory._ ... dt Rri~neJP~ A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar. _ . The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas.. and Independent ros~.'l . . Jlld. :./ irrt..ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5.. ~ ~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group ~ t model ' An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr. patterns.. or Interpretations.c-tu3r~nu or application of principles...iDESIGN .. ~. A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be.~r)'......••• -~Q/.. sul. of 2Ctlon.. ' procedure.. or ~~ The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be. ""'_' _______ \ \ IJ ~~ •. or distinction...l4~" . ·-····-·-····· .e creation of something.l'ltlonJl way. or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas._. asd1stll19ulshed from theory.. An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident.. ve.' '" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S mind... am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation. ana characteristically removed from re4nty. I Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. ap~~ ur ~vfn9 ot>~e. " To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu.~i . structure. understanding. kp . qUJl1ty.~_ .

---.IT" ! conb!n the outward components of cha .----.ema Iloaa. .(").g the acme surface Into. A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae.. In 3 concrete dome. radl.e ... 5chwedler dome A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude. 3rt compressive In the upper / zone ana ~sife In the lower zone.... Hoop forces. rr..... .ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop . so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns..."" ..-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a hemlsp~re. gin ~ucerdcme al cop 11 11 11 great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere.lI'ftlIItS../ roo .. whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome. compressive underfull vertical loadIng.Ir+- if you nee dt his boo ! ...Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon .eridIonai forces.~ ..-' forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load conditJons..---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome structure.. hoop nne I . .l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles. ! ...._~ .. - meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface... and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation.. and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles.. spnere.. ~ttiudome .... .aldome A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn¥d In 3 raalalll".. t.. -.DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of.... hoop forc.---""'..er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~.... -....e~~io~~~ng the rr... 60 ori y . -.. thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell se the Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~..---.: ur i the l7ase of il acme tc .. A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface.cent. meridianal force ~ .. A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure.... always kp ---4-J::':"'---. perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces. .... geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr./ . I rings at various heights.

as around the springing of a aome.-.. '. Asuperstructure crownIng a roof or dome havln~ open or windowed walls to let In light semiaome. O'IU an apse or A semldome or'quarter.. cul-de-four .. ./ ...-----------------------... A spherical dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentIves anel sits on " square pLon.1 J.. band.. \ pe~tttive dome ~ . paintIng. . or sculpture. ~ oculu't a dome..:..lunette i . A strap.. \ I if y 'l ou n eed l thi sb ook ~l i .~cl andalr. An arch or cOrl:>eltng pullt across the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octa~onal structure. Whispering gallei'y\ rch ~) the ori ase .. It.age . esp... . -_ . 3S nlc he... as (Ner a semicIrcular apse.. one at the crown of -I : : r·-tb. A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure.. y cop ~ pendentive ~ '\ }-1~3rne 1 " A dormer window In a roof or spire..{ A dlrc~iaropenlng... containIn~ a wIndow.DOME :. .. cupou A light structure on a dome or roof..... ring.lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola... ~ gin .. space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or vault In which low sounds produced at any of certain poInts are clearly audIble at certaIn other dIstant pu \L... serving 35 a l:>elfry. ---------- . ··~·--llrrterdome ...1antern. al ~'L ~Ulrn. Or belvedere. orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together.rt~) ... H3ff a dome formed by a vertical sectIon. .sphere vault... An area In the pLone of a wall framed by an arch or vault. /..._ . 61 ....:--. The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome.. --: --_.

.. . usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to... j_ . .. ..J i kp A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding b3ck In the manner of an accordion. ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe. hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter.' :'.I.... or smoke.IJ../ / ..g:~~~i~. wall.. asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.: :. ~ ~. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertical pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:.JJJj..DOOR A hinged....- / . allU)m. tnGt. sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••..... / .'''- ~ . ~ i overhead door A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves.. -~ .oted ~t the jamb.pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal. . ._ .~i:.. ... ...{l exclude drafts. - c1051 rtg. .. ...... or folding Darner of wooa. providing a'legal passageway on roth sides of... / Y the foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when ~ se .. ~ ucordlon door ori -r+--"'i'~'-'-"" - l:rifolddoor gin al cop y .1binet. r . J : . sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door...s from the Interior of a i7ullding.." \....-.' ~' ...rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ . ur 1. I.....oft.. . / .. sw~ing door A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled..erir. sliding.I.-_-U.-. Inactive leaf The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f.. II ( I i . . 62 ... ":'-""-Ieaf 1! I A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter. astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light.revolving door An entr3nce aoar for excluding dr. or other device.. active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached..' "' ' . .. cha ./ \ ..... electric eye.. . double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position..Ilancea for easier opening and \ ./ .. . r-----Y---~.. Also called standing leaf./ !i ...lr of double doors..jjii.. A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe.. usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door.. jill ir j A folding door that divides Into two parts. DDD . A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile..J. DOD DDD DOD Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold Pack In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied. room.. _ _ _ ./ / / :.. ! . -~ wIng One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.Ine door pivot. door opener A mech3nism that automatically opens a door . . -. air curtain A stream ofcompresseJ air dlrec~ downward across" doorway so as ~ form a shield t.. mullion A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p. l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT". pivoteQ door AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot... nolse. it-'-"Tl I : : I I dt I I I ('f"'-"'" : 'I I if you I 1: I : ~ nee I 1 I I I I __ .nd closing an tntranu to a building.. Also called openIng leaf.. or c..~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~ ---~... ~l or glass for opening . -:.. the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer I~af pl..~::s I I I that permit It to I swing In one direction only. double doors I. opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng.' his i I I boo r I 51iJin9 door A door ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on.LiI.

..~ .--. ~: the fau of the loci: stile.cased opening ':J. cop al gin ori cha y '-~- j r ~~~?i. --· Maml .--. covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr. Also.::1 The uppermost mem~erof a doorframe or wi ndow frame. -- ~kleli9ht A window at the side of a door or another Window.----------- r .---..oorH'3y. Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay.. '~------------~. as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\.. .-. subca.':1 pmb Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway. consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted. esconson.-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway.. Also calW transom.\.~~~..--.. ua"~m ----------. r 1 711 do<xway. se r r I ! --'------------ur kp dt the doorcle4r311U ------...-. . The finished. -."~-4 I :':: '.c~--:-7::::7:~ DOOR doorframe Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y. ~~\.' . __ . I· t· I ----.----. The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II --. allowing the door to swing free of the door frame. ' ..:1..g weather protection at an exterior door..-..i ">.-.. --- The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame.___ L __ <.-c-~-7:'... -··· ..... '....1 ' -=U'=== Veneti3n door A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window.J I r uan~cmwindow -----.~.~-----W~------------------ . (32 mm) for each 2 In. ~ --------_ .u. pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me.1 .I i I • •1 63 . the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s. usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In.head :0. ·."---. sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening... nor prepared to receive hardware.K. ':1 doorstop.. you nee sectlan of woodwori: directly above a his boo .. ·. often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng. tr~n50m Il~ht. ~e:=~~·I·~I~~~.. scunch~n I~ . or window opening. ~---+-+-..ed. • ~ \ A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another.fanlight Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window..s opening finished with trlmworl:.---. Also called door \1ud.". - th~hold The sill of a o.. --. 1 r:·~·:~~~~~y ...-.. doorles. ' . I " ./ . doorway. ·· .---.·~··· . splay 5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall. Either of the two sidepieces of a . AlSo callej '::1 stop :. __ . -.. rauueteJ stop I. .. (51rnm) of door thickness.. Also calle.~..i/19 A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'! opening..: <j "l- doorframe.~-' doorjamb . esp..saddle . . rough opening ---------.. -. Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window.::=. if I A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it.::! wfnglight reYe411 ------------------. .. buc~ blankpmb Adoorjamb having no stops. casing ________ . _--- \~_t~~ ::' .. The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes. '.-----. rough puck.-..~-.. to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding when oper. i i I A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame.~j r-"--"".::.' \. -. __ .

----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow sa$lt.that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~ i1ottom rail -------------.h Inlla' 1113 teriJt . hi"¥stile The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl". used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_ Dutchaoor A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately. or a ches~ vf drawers. driving /din.itter.l~'-3 i u vision light Asmallli. a pane!ed door. gl1:7 door...1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or . --.-=-==d locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar....lfts. louvre.e of the opening.11 outer or supplemeir'.-.ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr.-----. Ii j.' . fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy. Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_ louver --------~ An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisce...DOOR paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes.. storm door . Alsccalltd hangIng stile.~g. and often hung In pairs. filled with panels of a .lils that hold a wire or pI3S'. as in a system of panenng. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude in~s. Jip door A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat.lnce :XNr from dr.tun door A door const~.s and diagonal Dracing. L i L 64 .=..l:: :nesh to .ming panels.-' IU L below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame.. window The uppermost r3il connectJng the stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It. ico.. or I Li al cop y severe we3tr. Or~ of the a!nJtt. a paneb:l door. L D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass.-niL>te when cbsed.elll~... Also. french door A door having rectangular gl3ss pares extenang throughout its length. L . recessed r3a ::~~c~~~~~~~:_~ Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels. pair of dou Die doors.. or door.""'~=". Iuminum sU!es ana r. _ _ _ _ _ // .stile Ar. f. I. ook l. ~ --.3'j door.t ~~ or dlvlskln of a wall c.. pu rch o thi sb ou n eed if y the screen door A. door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~.------The ..er.. Also. ana ~ lI1untlns. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits.onn sash for winter... --D i Also callea shlltting stile. window sash. of a doo.aht In the upper portlon cf.y of various:: ?right memDers fr. louvered door A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air. for protecting an erTtr. muting stile ~_J stiles In.• p3nel A distinc. IocIcrail ---------------------------...'lnting.1. ase ori L gin ccmpi~n door An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea. usua!1y glazed.5 In a system of paneling. rails.

we!de.:. reinforced wtth channels. acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening if you . partlck: Doard.. hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips. crossl1and. ~:m:t:HS1~. sanitary drywall frame A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall partition Is finished. y flu5hfraIM r----L.. ~r.oor. A protect!ve lining.-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line a 45° or 90° angle. usually of stainless scul. groute..anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om. !lpat ~ . stop..a'l~ pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !. throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe. at the !1a~ of a doorfrarT1(:.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure. as In a daor.::! sides.1 c:Ioorfr. cha se the ori cop ur hollowmetalfr. hardboard. -- flush door A door havl~ smooth-surfaced faces. cutQff :. \""" A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance. Alsacalled hospital stop.dfnme A met31 doorfralT1e th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory. cor-e.-' gin t.lang ~ boo Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with ~ ~ . or medium density overlay. cro5s(. i I aM casl~ ~m. Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core. s :netal devices for orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher.es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware .y of var'. aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses.. prehung docr Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr.. The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface.t' an... . p13stlc 13mll13te. _.' nee ~ dt his kp k3~mein door hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame. 65 'i . core Awooden construction.J. ~sketed ~ . Also. sclkJ-ccre door Awood flush door having a solid core of staved lum!1er.. docrskin Asurface veneer of plywood.:f frame i anchor Ar...... bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door.DOOR 1 I l i _.____ _ A ma. forming a lIacklng for face veneers.... : ! t i. al backbend/.ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal. or a minerai composition.krIockdownfume A met3! doorirame composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe .rase of a doorframe to the f. galvanized sheet metal.llne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan. double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS.

"g~ ?t~=F==i~a:5. ••~ sculpture.1ow. centour The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng ~es of II three-dlmenslonal form. In contrast to contour drawing. or solidity on a two· dlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading. '. . as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls.=. profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side. small spots. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface. rn.oss.. had. gesture drawing The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume. or dr3wing. image freehana drawing The art.-"". process. 66 . . esp. A1r'CI'e:m. without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.. ~~~ng Shadlng by means of a netwon: of random. Pe:'!.~ of the b na. key The dominant tonal value of a drawing or palntlng. cop ori ook thi sb pu rch trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Il'asurerr. ph~raph.st. or movement ase The effect or Illusion of moUon conveyed by the rel3tlonshlp of structural elements in a (I. or " c:motlon. f..:..n In close proxlmlty. depth..Ice. A representation of the form or : appearance of something. f\j ure 01' object.~~~:. or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface. \- outline A line describing the outer bounaary of'a.. gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the pa rts. F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG "'f'o. L . modeling The technique of rendering the illUSion of volume. ~5h. Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs am.DRAWING The art. . low-key H3Vlng en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast.(' line A thin. continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~ surface with a pencil.-. or technique of drawing ~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices. scene.ttching ShadIng composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes.express a~. ~k visible In '. process. technique A method or procedure for accompllshlng a deslrea aim or tas~.gnrrent. or brush. mu/tJdlrectlonallines. or proportlon. movement. represent light arJ s-ha. high-key Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr. stippling .:'.. opinion. 01' give the effect of color.3 tic painting in shades of gray to produce 3 three·dlmenslonal effect. I I I Il ~ DRAWING _. body th3t expresses an Idea.'?s distinguished from sha ai~ or eolor:\ ~-------lZ-' \ ~ - I . centour drawing The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject. y gin al reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or.ttching eed if y h.~~-deslgn or composition. or short strol: es. grisaille MonoehrolT'. for the representatlon of perceptions or the vlsualiz3tlon of Ideas.{' \.J~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality. the ou n sluding The r:ndering of light and dark V4lluesln ~ dr. Sh3dlng by means of dots.'::.ent.::::. or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject. SC3le. arm.::::::::.

of a building cha se A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n.. ort3~try.DRAWING design drawing .\:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan.. M~ ?fE. ~~~~~~~ '\\ ~ ~~~. the cartoon ori gin al mass A unlf'. Of made to record ol7servatlons. a pers~ive. draft A prelimlna!). productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:. section./Ah_ vignette A drawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper 50 as to leave no definite line at the border. epure AflJrt-SQIe. with respect to Its qualities of executlcn. cop .x a fresco. s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n. or color that deflnes shape or form In general outhne rather than In detail. one subject to revision. or detail of a work.~ /' /~ 1.ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils. • J . es-quis5e A s. Any of the drawings made to aid In the visualization. surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of Important details and some1:imes a pia nor section of the facade. analyti~ue ". ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr. from which are ~ the pattans forvarlous Dulldlng elar.. lI1OS.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'. r:sp. ~ drawing done Of1a wall. .orother~sumce. t I ' ~'. shade.'.( y $I:} r..toInsferred In preparation f.ed area of l'9ht. ~U3S\ort I rI r L if you nee dt his boo kp I • intu\ol" space. conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist. fbao.oI ~rl3Is. exploration. to ~ :. esp. tfom~roeil A drawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile a-j spatial qU3rtt ies An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade.1wing. shades 3nJ shJdows: usua Ify done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and Of'" ur r I renderi~ Adnwing. .Oic. 67 . often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study.-.ents. esp. +. and evaluation of a concept In the design process.6 ~~ -'1 )?)~ 'I /? :P / V' passage An area. sway r A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise.

or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the state: wMre the work Is to ~ perfonTltJ. Indicating the extent or mag nltude of a part or the whole. L.. sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. to which a dlmenslon hne Is drawn. ~I An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a licensed architect. kp ( you nee dt his boo /~~ ~-'.the apex of which Is a reference point. ana o grid A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating and re1uiJtlng the elements of a o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject.iwi"4 s . esp. 17re3kline A I1roi:en line conSisting of relatIVely long segmentsJoined by short zigzag strokes. crowfoot A V-shaped mark.. dlmenslon5. leader A short line leading the r. used to cut off a portion of a drawing.. to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view. Also called muhanlcaf drawing. triangles. tUshed line AIn-oken nne conslstl~ of short. engineer. - . or area.ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point. unUrline 'l I gin the ur cha se al cop dr. y co". and along which measurements are $Galea and Indicated. snort sl3shes. for the compasses. dime~lon line j A flne terminated l1y arrows. used esp.truction drawings The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn. '. scales. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition. sometimes used In place of a dashed line. wori:fng I ori A Im*en nne conslstlng of relatIVely long segments separated by SIn!J1e dashes or dots.nct drawings. nne. 68 .lccatlon. Also C311ed COfTt. plan. ---------1==3====i=r--t---t-:tt=IT--If¥=--ir--t"ff9· dotUd line ----------1H+-tr1+==---~l---{ Hf--~ A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of 11i:z'i\::nmb1~mt~~mt0~~c:.. . or dots. ! if exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI"!J from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~. closely spaced strokes. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt.J~ closefy spaced Oots.DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares.

: An orthographic projection of the top or section of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane. Also called orthogonal proJection.ch contour /1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or ~p.ontcurline --------~---: An 1~lnary h~. and conu. e!MtIon represented by l e.!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1d1cul.. or Its rep~rrt. suite. plJn -. and other soflds of a l:tulldl~ that are cut !n a floor pl3n or section drawlng. The tl1rory of Mlng project1ons of threedlmtrl. contours.. I __I area plJn A plan showing the principal elements of a design project In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~ent. DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry projection The process or technique of representlng a thru-dlmenslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh"t nnes.J USl!311y In ulack or by hatching.. n of a room as seen from aw. lnd1caw.and orientation of a l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on a site. c. .ontc~I~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~ rocfpL1n A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng. columns. map..ll frame for a fu. -" gin ori if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the " al poche The walls. typlc.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left. ~a!e y A plan showing the form.re hit hZffng its celhllf Sijrf3ces and elements proj«ted dowr. c.bce. _ _ ~'~.·.. topographic pun or The d!ffmnu I.Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys. A proportlol1 determining the relationship of 3 represen"tatlCn to that ~lch It represents. 1 69 .lon remOr'ea.. graphicecale --------~ 1 ! Agraduated hnear Uar Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a represetlt3tlon and that which It represents . I I I I floor ptan A plan of 3 rOOm.. to a picture plane. _ _'l. usually drawn to scale. esp. Also calleJ plan view.:il1y shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls. windows.ct1ons of die: structur. '~'_ _ '..ztlon 011. mmi~pUn A pUn showing the pattern. and doors. gradi~ p~n A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ finish con tours and emtlon s cf the groo nd surface of a conWuctlon sI~ cop ~iU pL1n ~I ~dplaa ----~ -.. I r 1 ~ '"' I !"I 11===fF -< - ~j~1 ". or entlre floor of a uuilding as sun from above after a horlzootal section ls Clft and the upper port.locatlon .. 1- ApI.. !andSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot... _ . usl~ a system of symrols and drafting nnewon.3ne.3r to a plctu re pl. narth arrow A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the direction of north. Also C31bI ~ cef1l~ plln. elements. either parallel or converging. " ..~- " Xi ----'-~1in9 '-. AI50 called plot plan.lr or roof of ~ bulldlng. orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a threedimet1slonal '*..Jolnlng points of equal eM tIon 00 a s. the form of Its roof. uSU311y 111Gludlng tl1e dImensions.

at right angles to the ~ axis of an object.hogr#phlc projection Of an object or dt SC3~ his struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of Its sides.... cros. The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~U~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light 5O\IrGe.. would a~r In white tlght... esp..... Also " III section line) Acerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow. to conv~ li9ht. lu Ii i . gin al r-·IcC.. 5Q~ It Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of. if you shadow AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from a theoretical light source. _. The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject ...lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration... esp.Ind shadows...erse section. An ort... boo e:b7tWn .. used to IndIcate where . S<':ction An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely.... In orthogr3phlc views.I DRAWING &tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure .I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon Is to be viewea...l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject. surface.... _. I It usually drawn to L.11 cclor cop nee \. and depth. ~ opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object. shades ana shaaows kp \g)~ ur cha \00 relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast..... crt3tlng Illusion of three dimensions.s it \. y U Lj 70 ! I: ... cai1ea mns. usually drawn to The casting and rendering of shades ... form.e se the ori shade _ .. t~.

~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_ opli'tue projection A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion . h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n cavalier drawing A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection.1r.ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings . used to represent a property IIne.311 converging ~ In linear r1 il DRAWING .ls. sb A dr. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.l~ or . and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j.. phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr..e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le..tlon.r p.lMne draw'. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane..l. 3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection. oPliqLle A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc..!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes .r.en ase the trimetric projection ori An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two. having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale.hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made y dimetric projection isametric is-ometrk: projection An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI."ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to ook c~~ pu rch f- An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'. exploded new A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ.in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. view.":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa. 71 . • ~ntPJrt. Also calW ~naed if y ou n eed thi dispby tM ~ior.e scale. h1vi~4 . r r r J perspective.1xonometrlc projecticn The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal axes are foreshortened.~ cf an Isometric prdp:. haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted. 1 r tn!1S~renttv permlt gin al reprtSelTt~ of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew.atlonships to each other and to the whole. c3Pinet drawing A paranne dra .1line drawi~ Arry ofv. cop ph. :~:f an oblique proJection. A par.1.

. denneatea by a thlder fine or by a sharp COf1trast In value or texture.•.... coexlsttnt wft:h the drawing surface.ar perspective.h the lm3ge of a three-dimensional o!7je.. supporting the object deplcU:d or on which the viewer stands.. _.al~tIc~ .. .•. 1ac3 teJ at the point where 3 slghtllne parallel tcthe set of fines Intersects the picture plane.n. boo A flxt. ~I perspective vertlc~llocn:lon A~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance by muting the hue.d point III spuc representlng a sing ~ eye of the viewer In nnea r horizon line A nne representlng the intersection of the picture p13ne and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective. ~'btion gin ori r .... on whk.. Also called atmospheric A ~hnlque for representlng depth or dlstance !rt placing dist.lr perspective wfthout the appearance of dIstortion.. X ----->-- continuity of outline A f.picture pl4ne j I I ur cha se ! An Imaginary transparent p13ne..ground pl~ne Ahorizontal pl3ne of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve... deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the untral axis of vlslon... ... . Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by gradU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore plane......a1 of space.. unterofvision ~ . ~ I al i P kp point . usually the ~ane ..d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture pl3nt: by straight lines converging at an ~rlly flxed point represerTtl ng the eye of the viewer. as aer!at perspective.. perptlndlcular to the picture 72 ..ct Is projected. .DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2.. ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as recedJng from the plcture·pl3ne.....1xf~ of vf~ion The si9htl1ne lnalcatlM4 the dIrection In which the viewer Is Iookl~ In linear pl3~e. size perspective .vanishing point A p?lnt toward which nudlng parallel lines appear tcconve:rge In llnedr perspectlve.. ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which 3 three· cop y the dlrnenslonalobject Is rep~nte. linear perspective A mathematical system for representlng three·dlmenslonal oDjects and spatial relationships on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau loy means of perspective projectlon. ~hnlque for representlng depth or dist..Xhnlque for representln~ depth or dlstance by emphastzlng the contlnulty of tne contour of a shape perceived as l:Ieln~ In front and conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It.' _____ '- - 1-..ance by reducing the size of objects perulved as receding from the picture pl3ne. i. ' . contlnuity of pictorialspau ~ rn... sprtUl edge An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r. . Also called "'&alinl!! . The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means. arty fine or plane colnck:ltnt with the picture p13nec3n ~ drawn to exact scale. perspectlve... dt his perspectlve. central. tone.rious ~hnlques for representlng t.. The cone of vision serves as a guide In tktermlnlng ~t ~n ~ drawn In hne..... _ o". ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve.. - . _...as being closer... A point rtpresentlngthe Inte~ of the centl'2l axis of vision and the plcture pbne In hne. nee you I if ~ ground line Ahorizontallfne represent1~ the I~fon of tne ground pbne and the pIcture pl3ne In linear perspect~tl...... In Nnear perspective... -----+ .ru-Jlmenslonal objects and ~tl31 rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau as they might appear to the eye.--! n-r~~·~ -: I I It perspective. .nt objects higher In the picture pl3ne than otjects ~ed ...

lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line..• foreshortening wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane. dt me3. esp. ~-------1 Pmllel lines p. conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space.urlng line . so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir..-. used .~... as the ground line..~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne.. propor.. that which depfcts In a clear and effective 1T13nnu.. to canverge at the center of vision.-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective.uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive... isocephalic cop ori gin al se the a n. usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth. horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal. peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene.--. . A straight line connectlng two .-horizon line one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect . distance pOint.--. . and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r . IlOrI3dpcen't angl. ---. ." ....-.· "I ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines reude.o.' Par.~rs~~. parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points.lonate parts or multiplying" '.l . r diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point. V3n~hlng trace . DRAWING towara "cammon v..1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision.~ points.... 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into .ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr.. his boo kp horizon line ur cha graphiC Of or relating to pictorial representation.. "'If Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also. diJg<'naf •..c.- I j .. -. ..u-allel t<J the picturt pl.~~ horizon /in~. -... y lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique . 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right. Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not mea. View 3t" shallow angle from this point 73 ...1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge.~! if you nee fd.es of a rectangle.0 the picture pl3M. 50 th3t vertical nn~ ~phalor f I l...--...3 morpho. measurements In "nea..'W mirror. '----'\ pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t. ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space.. so that vertlc3lllnes parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l. ... -.. --....- --~-..... characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!.d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine.----. / or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane.nlshlng polrtt 3S they P"rallellines perpenJicul. I 1 1 . three-point ptr5pectlve A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M. ' which can Pc used to take .'1 I t.

. voltaic cell. or other form of energy llIto electrical energy.ermll14lofaprimaryCeHor n storage Pattery.11 + -. esp.rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy.. t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across 3 woauctor loy a current of one ampere In one second... power 15 eqUJI to t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage..::::~'~""' ::::~:ves a nun metallic medium. kilowatt A tIf1itofpower.. ~~~:Ive terminal of a primary celf or L ..1nce ~ ..ow: curnnt parallel •. ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a boo ---r- kp ur cha resist... Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges repel each oU1er. Symbol: 0 if am~e from neg3tiY~ r. se the j ori f. _ ..It ~s 3S5UI1JeJ th3ta JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI oil positive point ~ a nee dt circuit per unit time...... y .. you In an atternatln§ current circuit. the effectlve Cll!'Tent... ~:~~atlvet. . ana the cosine of the p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage. equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance.. '. Ii I I I two or more cells connected together to produce electric current..an~. or vIce versa.r·· ./ f'otenU31 difference or electromotive force expressed In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow. cop resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stance with aunit cross·sectlon.. t:quivalent to a flow of one coulom~ per second or to the steady currelTt produced \:1y one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm.. circuit energy.rrangementofcomponents 1n..al area.l The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"eI1t Itt J direct·current circuit.. I =VIR amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow.:R ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance.. current •... measured In amperes. An . ApPr.. . including the source of electric series •. Also called spec. equal to 1.... An amount of power... '.... positive. " . galvanic cen.... causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into heat and usually measure4ln ohms.. / ... ~j I t_ _ _ i--_ _ _o-__ --<)O--'~-~-_f 1111... . Abk.. In a conversion device as a ba ttery. APlir..... ~··-··---······l \ 1-'" ..-.000 watts..i& reslst.. wrtt The 51 unit 0{ po-""er. leW I P lei !ow.. ·.ance to conduct electric current.... occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative algebraic ~ns and rr. J :":::~:::":::...: C potential / (. usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes In an electrolyte.::~~~~n~eaaa:~~:~e point. The basic 51 unit of electric current. electric wrge The IntrinsW... eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ Vy a CutT'e11t of 0IIe ampere flowing across a potential ctfferenu of one volt. generator. when the power dissipated Petween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt. gin I al !. / w= VxA his power .. y ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the aulfltyof a sul>st... ADPr......: Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current Is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current.. More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w..ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existena and interaction of electric charges.. property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1.. the power required to o~ an electrical device or appliance.. . j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current..: kWh 74 . mechanical....: A Ohm's law ... AI:1!?r... expressed In watts.. electromotive force The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical.. ~agt!iof cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy....... or motor.:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng.. A~.: emf •.. defined as the dlfferenu of M.l5 fuDy ~... Also called electric cell..... AI:1Vr. potential difference The voltage difference l:1etween two poInts that represents the wort Involvea In the transfer of a unit charge from one pollTt to theo'ther.. ThIs convention Is 5tlf1 used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn..... I ' I electrolyte A nonmetallic conducting medium In which coulomp The 51 unit of electric charge.. t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patenU31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere.. The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance. voltage .. Abk V The complete path of an electric U I current....... storage Pattery...__ .... Also called specific conductance. phenomena. .. the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component...: W ~e neg3tlve one. volt The $I unIt of potential difference and e1ecWmotlve force.easured in couloml:1s...............tric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constai1t curren't of one ampere.... equal to the energy transferred or expenkd \:1y one kilowatt In one hour: acommon unit of electric power GOnSIJmptlon. An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/1 negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor.

a stq1-down transformer..~ The portlon of 3 servu conducr... A mass of Iron or other ferrous materIal In an electromagnet. and circuit breakers. ____ ~.==--. --.transformer I I Aunit of electric measurement.. .. metering.......i core ----. or transformer..1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne. ~ ~ ~.lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne. The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a r--------------------l : .. I The supplyi~ of uUlitles.~' I vott-ampere I r------------------. gas.rteral The un.epped up or down. uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply.. metering Instruments.or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a boo kp entranuconductor _. Also c:J11ed emergency generator.--------------------l rI5wft(... time only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly._ ._..... . having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner. measured at the point of use. ~rviu l.... Induction co!1. and ~~Ity. ___ 1_ .l.. 5e"". voltaqe to low voltage. " I arl113ture ----_.. _ .InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng. ~ulred or demanded by the pu~\c. or / transmitting high voltage..: AC 3 I I ----. _ . __ :=:-=-=::..----.... __ . or where voltage Is s"'..:-_------:!.. _. Al:rbr.. dt his buikflng.hg~r room ! tr..------.. ~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection .:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--..-::. The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a . ______ . _ ur cha -I r. equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere. usually cause. 5el"lice drop bulkllng..ELECTRICITY ¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J.... -::...: DC electric motor _ _ _ _ _ _---'j~ A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches.1--' I I I I I I I I I I I The equipment r.. (/~1 / al ~rviu electrical current Is converted.. and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng... A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng. __ . L _ L _J whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core. _-. I l I I ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or gen era t.._. se line volt.. alttrtutor A generator for producing alternating current. -t-. equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems. I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. __ .. f~der ~l"Ilce equipment i standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage. l k.J }--.. step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary. coil _________ ... wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit. switch!?-oard One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches.... and SWitchgear for a num!lu of electric circuits.... as water.-. as from DC to AC.l ..____ ... __ -::.:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line.. A meter for rne. - I : . I I L ______________________ ~ 75 .. Also called swiUhgear. _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to Introduce Inductance Into a circuit. serving to transform high line drop The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine. fuses. I I I I I lI=*====::c unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch... : I -1 L ___________________ : I ---------------~- if you i rr-=-=::::----=--- nee r 'tIf<iItt-hour meter -.. _ ... 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current In a surrounding coil.. A ~ or carron conductor serving l1r~h I L~ ___ ~~... cop voltage..?r. -. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a numl7er of electric circuits. Abbr.-=. ""1..de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to. •.=:::~7nhd~~d. alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~ at regularly recurring Intervals.. 5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary. usually located on '-rl'J. Abbr.. . . ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 : dlrectly to the outside air. bulkllng. step-up transformer ill y high-voltage Operated on.. powered by..~·~~-----------J . ovucurrent devices.: VA l I ·······r L---------_________J r- I : An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more J .ecessary for controlling. senlng to transform low voltage to high gin ori the --.-1 __1 . 5ervice CO nd uctor Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building.

as a metal ground rod.i nced..-... melts under the heat gin the i!.._ . AI"... li. .-_____ .. usually In the form of a soIkI copper p.... l I L .. resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit.-Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system Intentionally connected to a ground connection...-. --. ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle thro~h which tlme has adv.··'-·fr-· i Aheao....=--=-... flrmly em~dded In the earth to est3l7l1sh a ground ccnnectlon. Aconductor connect. result1ng In a flow of excess current.lea metallrase. ~ single-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized • Ir! I~"" ~ ."y conductor.")'sluvlngarr~ .. 3S when starting a motor.1IeJ I>u.. 120V 120Y p. ground-fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M SC1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults And Instantaneously shuts off ~r ~ damage or InJury c. 76 . --:.ry.:' :1 ~. ".. and circuit F= -. -..I..7.ed wfth a thre3. time-deL1y~ ur u ~a=rd on which are mounted the swftches. "7 120V 208V 208 V 120 V 120V fault A 001 failure In the Insulatlon or continuity of a conductor.:rt velow :3000 F (:'7C). three-phase _._~:!______________ Ii d ..-':r.. damagIng apparaws In the circuit or for collecting.cTUptlng the circuit. .... p. -...r.n occur.ected to .. us1J311y acclkntal.. Also.._. 11 '. grounded conductor -..__ ...-='====-·=:":"·... kp : ___ knife-!1lak fuse .Alscc3rlid ~f"oundlng ground wire ~. : r ... carrying. measured from a speclflea reference point and often expressed as an angle. ---\ A conducting connectlon ~tween an etectrlc circuit or device and the earth i 1C.! .~oJ electric ! : L____ J e r3 conductor../S to luve A potential different from thJt of ~rth. or electrlc~11y chJrged SO.i short· term ovedcaa to pass.Alsccaned ori metal Afuse hooJsI~ • fuSl'c!e link In 3 porcelain cupfltt..----+:j ~ causIng ~ fire..device contJinlng a strip C'" shock The muscular spasms caused I7:t an electric current passing through the body.-. hot. ~ -~ u .ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch tlut automatlcally Internl~ an :1 ~_-_-1_ .lnstalled In a protectlng a numver of similar l!: : dt P-rea~ersforcontroUingAnd Ii his I: ~~ 'I i A fuse that klays opening to allow.f~:. A circuit In-eaker I13Y Pc rec'~ And reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components. _ .-_ . or ccld·water pl~. n ". _.. or In the functlonlng of An . Aisocalled caPlnetand ACCesslP!e from the "us . . __ L_.[. I'Iire of fusible metal al c....'::: :-.. .. :-~ 1 live Electrically connected to a scuru of voltage. nee ~nclt clrcults....~ CIl""Cuitm. cop _ I r Auud I7:t exuss y plug~ .--. -=========1==~ll I..:I:-------------. .t:~J of va rious . ---.-j in various safety ~4'~.b"... Also called short. Also called ~Ur. ground plate. _. ground fault Amoment.. rnwlem~1 ..... us~11y accidental condition of ~w by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differIng ~ 180°. _--.---------r----------r---------- h :1 L~:==~:::~=~:~:~~=::~-:..j--·-r----------· ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor.... J 1. used as solder . tI: ~"----.~~~ lr..._J Of or pertaining to acoml-rinatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I7:t one third of a cycleorl20~ short circuit An abnormal. Not electrically char~ed. and d\stc1ht1ng large eltctric '""""..Al7!:>r..-. { ~ '~n electrical system.. se tuPe. ! 2::'..-T' ~r] ~ . u ~" ~ cartrWge fu5e " "'.. -_ .. fuses./ AC3~ fuse having ....: §til .ed m an Insulating fiber cha f~si~e alloy..~ --~. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or voltages differing In phase ~ OM r'-:' quarter of a cycle or 9O~ f.. -.:)V dead Not electrically conr..J source of voltage.~ 1-.. =. A fuse havlng a ont-Ume or renewable fuslvle I1nl: encJos. equlpmerlt or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~.....l nJet3ll7lade at each end for IT14klng contact with the i fusll7le fInk within. used I~ I! you Ii pandl7~rd. .neutrAl or other point of zero potentlal one Ie .rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current I /l if fr.'l boo front only.. .--. groundlng of a conductlng wire. i ~ \ ~?~ 1 1 ground --..

..ol overcu rrent device The I'3tlo of the average load on an electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period. \.o'. .i struct.. nee dt his boo kp [9]1 ur cha se l the cop I Li Dr3nch circuit The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn. Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at the top of ..---. used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr. protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device. I ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod .i discharge of electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ c:femana fKtor The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system..--.uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment.. dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure.. '-I distriMlon panel A pa nd for als. if I you I ______ .al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and appll3nces.ac:fflctor L ori gin 1 ! al g!ner..re.ilr Unnin3 L ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously. I y appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces.---.. Low·vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect. Tl .... and rerr.--------" \. . t law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage.inJ grounded to \ load .~. Io. Intercoms.. .e lighting fixtures. -----. Indlvk:hul cirr..rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads.-I t1. \ The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer.-----...ectrodes.. 5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval of time. used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls. voltage. ~..II L-. using span: gaps to carry the current to the ¥Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device. heating and cooling systems.-.Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load may be applled at any time.ve raceway. dCrosS whlch. Also called . ~-I c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole. maximum demand lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh- -/ voltage currents.

. flameretardant she3th.ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s. dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !. to provide an opening Into the Interior... EMf his boo compression or setscrew coo p/lngs.. or device th3t ev"nduct5 heat. ".. .... _. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr. lJ u 11 coawlcaple A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency telephone. _. often Insulated with a dlelectrlc materlaland used as a conductor of electricity. l . cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors. y I . Also called Romex c.. or duct for enclosln~ and protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one P"""' "CO". noncorrosN~ locations._____--_--J~ ur He3'fj'-wafled. 78 . .... . wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands..s per unit of thlcl:ness.. L underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor. 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic.>red!." . 1>0<. u conduit A ~Pe. orcal7les.. pipe. or television signals. tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C.I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole.{e. . ori se the cha f ( l!{() grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in . rmored caple Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible... sou nd.. hammerir~.. often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power..e undesired flow of current.lnsulatlng refractory mineral voltage The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator UreaKS down and permits current to pass. down. I..~ conduct...-. conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core. racewJy Achannel expressly designed to hold and .. . -. / . ~reakdown l~ mineral-insulated caple Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed. or electric Ity./ &urface raceway .:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1u.--.. ri9id metal conduit ~- . An enclosed runway for housing conductors you Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure. usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-...tteeway designed to house the elect.. signal. Also called 6X caiJle.>.. Al7k: kp =~. dielectric A nonconducting substance. helically wound metal wrapping... Also called Pu5way..... as by punching./ protect ~ wires and cal7les.... ex cutting. nonmebllk.Knockout . A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity... junction box An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits. Pu~duct . _...../ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry. nonhazardous. moisture-resistant." .a£." Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed./ multi-outlet assemply _. Asu rface· mounted r.:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ conduit. nee used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment...1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another. and telephone ou~!ets. !:>ody.. insulator .. Also called Grunfleld dt ~!~~!I~.. digital.rlcal wires for a circuit and a J if series of receptacles..1 electric or magnetic ftelds. Cj')"". shielded caple gin al cop An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern.?r A substance.

lln knobs ana tubes. if y ou n eed leu! A flexl~ In~ted conductor for ekctr.u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts. float switch fuatl~ A switch controlled by a conductor In a liquid mercury switch opens . -. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port. : ! rch y pu receptacle to a wiring system..ctin. "" swiU:h A device for making.---...)+--Fe--l d -" ___ .. i U I I ""&-+------------H: r . Also called dimmer switch. nonmetallic..#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle.----. A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\. another or to:.. '..~i~~i~::~./ / : four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from three locations.-. Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way.. ---... .. knife switch .c connec" 'Vcontainln~ 3 .. II form of air swftch In which a hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed betwxh two co~tact cnps.c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to grounding outlet A snna~l.q for 5C~""ing onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t . Drcaklng. or dlrectlng an electric current.:'-~-'- three-way switch A Single-pole. flexl!ne.ed on porcd. plug A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a receptacle. ~i: ~! ! r electric Ilght without appreciably affe. \ I!Jl -~ polarized A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground J._. the 5ln.. . threaud metal ftWr. ._ _ _ _+-!.--I .:i. ".g~.. ori cop ----. ~~ taggle switch A switch In which a lever or knob.sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS. moving through a snnallarc.ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'. /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:.. facIlitate connectlng an electric device or I rheostat Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances. convenience outlet _~ sb An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances. .". ':--' bceplate \.------------.. urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr. key... ____ . Also called socket.~-..outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U.I statlor.. outlet or light swi"~h. grounding plug connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors '. r= 79 .ctlon. fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring. connection. . ook thi "''--' __ ' --.ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air. doulne-throw switch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations..1nd-tu~ wiring gin J al outlet A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus. spatl31 dlstributlon.wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by --... wire n\It Aplas>J.Iass t.:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice @ .--+.--_. An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne. receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug. An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of ase r f Iccm A flexible. ~. ----:~1+-1:. . ...Oor more CCflductors. p~n A short.. .ma clcses anelectric An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that circuit by shifting a sealed !:..l.i:. :!: .~..l circuit. ~-~J--------------r!8:>~ ~ :.-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~. I : ~ ! 'I I I kncl7-.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon. causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit.

-.-_'_:_I~ Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ by. elevator pit ---. speed governor. ~ . or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of .----.-------. has passed a given point. as an elevator car.n.---------------A door ~ween ~ holstway . Qr ~.l'~r elct'rlor penthou~ pulkhe3d Aroxllke structure on a roof providing access to .r3ctJon elevrtcr.------- h~kest larJings oft'" holstway. ..~ operator .-. ----.--..----."'. nee dt IlA counterweight A weight halancl"9 . If used. cha se the I' I~ hoi$tW3)' door ----------.-------. 011 whleh t. stalrwen or an elevator shaft_ A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .. e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls.---.-----. duml>w. An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S... pan~ . .tw. idle 5heave A vertlcal enclosed space for the travel of hol. rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator.. drive shaft.evator c..e3Y)'cargo. hoisting machinery The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car. huttons.--_.. 80 . top car cle. ur t. consisting of a motorgenerator set. traction machine. IL. no 1"11141 fly closed except when an elM tor car Is stoppea. al . A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system.n • limit 5witch A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It._-----------------. Also called elevatcr shaft... Uul1dln~ controlled cne or more elevators. travel..ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c.--------. i. and Mven byeb.heave A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extendIng from the fevel of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~ buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of l>ottom carck. used as a pulley for hoisting.1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers.-. i The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n eIemor holstway.r to the nearest overhead obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing. \ hoi5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car. il One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht. An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r.------------t-~I--. hulk/lng. hrake.ay ----.mother weight. fre~ht elct'ator ~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel A panel contain 1"4 SWitches. ~~!--_".-----.--.and discharge of passengers or freight. .rryir.----.1 driving . p.g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu..at the landing. AI~ his boo Q/bltnvd- kp The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by ..::hlnery..1rance The vertical distance from the top of an el.----------.------.. Also called deflector she3ve_ lu I~ machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator.--. usea for the receJvlng ! y cop guider..traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to 3 flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway.em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton.a UullJlng. and other equipment for regulating electrical devices.an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the ~r ~rsafety .arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading the freight are permftttJ to ride.. Also called t..-----.r-r-~-\o~' " ana gears.----.a common operating S'jSt.. driving sheave.after A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food.and an elevator landing. ori gin ..--------------------------A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and stopping an elevator ~r In the event of actuated by a ousslve ~ or free governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action.-. as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtteri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an if you elevator WI r..I4Inding .--.tric hoisting m-. dishes. supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les.

~ ~~:':sually .~'~·~~'.rt. continuously moving surf3C'e.c-r." CO m17plate The toothed portion of the th res hold plate at roth eMS of an escJlator or mGVIng wall::.i el~. eleVl/torcar safety. ook eed thi r o •• J1 . hoisting ca~les. M~ht • cnetal enclosure. and door or 93 teo ! ---. ~at.• elevator. used for raising or lowering.carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor.• .. _ . and contrcl eqUipment. moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor. gulde shoes. piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure. that signals the apprcJcn of:. k\'\.:. door cont.! .1.~ people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~. door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an elevator C3r unle:s$ the hcistway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ position. u$tJ for movl"9 passengers up and dcr'ln Petween fars. consisting of a car frame.3 stairway. I .'1e i i. Alsocal!ed stair A power-driYen.311 17uttcn ~ al pu rch hydraulic elevator A push l7uttan for requesting a. 1'4 f'~ [Thehor!zontalsectionofrai!ingJtt~e . usd . ising ana Ioweri"'3 an ~C3r.upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte-r. -'.ltlon of an elevate-r car unless its a. designed to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway.tor A power-driven stairway conSisting of steps attached to a continuously Circulating Pelt.. sb An elevator system COI1s!stlrtg of a car supported by .:·:--~-r '. .. cop gin the ori ase c of floor landings..r carrying pedestrians horizontally c-r akJq low Inclines.x1" or gate Is fully cl~. over the entranu to an elevator on each floor of a multistory ~ullding..e oper. annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 y machine room Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'." newel ~ . platform. slmllJr to a conveyor belt..~. _. mOYirl. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congested urban 3reas J lift... Also cal!ed gJ~ contact.\. c. control equlpmcmt.. L .. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles. '. and $haves for . -'-.1ct Asaf~ device for prevenU"9 t~..J if y : ou n / . . Also caned moving staircase.ELEVATOR r L elevater car The !oacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y. person or goods along a stairway.. --4-. -.

pin. ... .. i currug. six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long.W roofing nan ~~--====== P ~~ii~. Also called driftpin... J .. 5tr.. 1 ..... ~~ ~~ end-nait To fasten I7y ru\ll~ Into the end of a board..' kp fictshing nan A l13. used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res.... face-nail To fas-:.~:!lok' 511. ~!i:ure a nail or screw In position bY hammerln~ down the protrudlnq point." L I ••• u ••• u ...-:-~ ~-... driven Into a surface Ul secure sheet material or to hold a hasp. with .. or Dy 4J 6J 8d 10J 12d 16d 20J ...... between the head 3nd the pOint. I • sharpeneJ..tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener.... s.. f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like.. '~'.: . as of steel or concrete. (102 to 356 mm) long a~.. or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d... r. ~hankrun ~u A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power....=~~··. doub(c-~ded na iI A113... U 1 '. . I L L 82 I f I . nail set._ •• _ ••• ~=. : ~ . cc~lUii you ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng... Alwnate nails mil)' if A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank ana a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry. ........ from twopenny to slxtypenny. ' eightpenny nail A nail21f2 Inches (64 mm) long.• penny IV2' 2' 2Vz' 3' 4' The deslqnateJ length of a nail. dt 'I II '~1~'~~'f«! _ . c·_- . used In finish won: In whlGh the head mzy remain vlslb1e...ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver. welding or 5OIderi~.1i1 ..e Si1I1e le:n§th..toen.' . face of the wo~. _..:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of Q-. for unltlng two pieces of wood. I7y nalll~ In such a way that To nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::.d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail ! l•.....)1 . _. ... driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:. and a !Iluntdbmond point. End-na lling flooring na n A oUorfllstenlng floor roards.. b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener. ~uiI ~th4n a common 0 il -U~~________________~~ Artad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more nail of the same til"" ~~lUa gin .'1..1<Jso QlbInu SON')' IU iI.tn I7y nailing perpendicular Ul thP.1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends..3 diamond point An acute. 0' A~ having a 1rari1ed. ... havl~ a s... ry ronding with an adhesive. al ~ the A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an...-. thre3ded. n.~""''''''''' "'wlthaca.. parallel to the grain of the wood.. his boo Pnd c RUllI!!! ~. slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other 3{Jmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm shank The straight. ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk cha 0"'1111 ~ ··' · arm cop y ....H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members.bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall.... I ...h'~l<lowth"""..d.. a flat hea.. conical point on a nail or Spi(e b I se ~ ~. . driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together.rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe 3S In . AM4I fast. . a mechanically defOl111ed shant. Also carted wiggle nail l...naI con~1 ~a. so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.::..-p round point An acute. mae ~ P!1I1!1 A heavy nail for fastening together he3vy tlm!ler5. cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel 0 n spike wire un A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire... be driven at opposite anqles to prcl't'lde IncreaseJ holdIng power. I ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank. anJ a ~monJ point. as by d. chi~lpoint A ~flnlshlng rui!. A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two rut lnclin--"A slaes meetln£! at a sharp angk:.. L I ~.... narrow part of a nail or bolt. ur .. Also called form nee roo . "lIh"d ~ ~ -. -.. suffold nan.1I1. ..'. Symbol: d l.. ~Iso called saewnai1.4to Min. drW$Crt. To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~einqJoIned.. as scaffolding and formworc..Jn . pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e. st.Ii!ht..xure • ... ori C '. or bolt. a miterJoint.. namng strip A strip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface..

A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder.-.: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench.:'~?l.-----. driven by an Allen wrench.-. nut. .e the bdl of a bugle.--------.---------i I A screw head ha"llng 3 shallow. thum\:1screw Ascrew having a flattened.~" ~ ~ -.J FASTENING. ------------- security head A screW head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver. ------.------------A screw head having a flat upper surface movement.-.. Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw. r I pan head . cop ori cha y cap screw Ametal fastener for machine pa~. helically threaded shank and a slotted had. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver.--. knur. pitch . nllisterhead ----.--------. haVing a straight. having a straight.--. threaded shank held by threads tapped In the hote Into wh1ch It is screwed. screw A metal fastener having a tapered. thread ----. o 1 ' r I slotted he3d A screw head having a single slat. . 83 . Also called coach screw. threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative -. "'-------.~ pitothole ~--------------------­ lag screw A heavy. -----.---.A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface. --. or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. Phillips head Ascrew head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. as with a screwdriver. or ~t_ wood screw A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver.. and a conical bearing surface_ e OV31 head . nut.-----------------------~~ .The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw. threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with a screwdriver. Also called tapping screw. p~lehead Allen head Ascrew head having an axial hexagonal recess. sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material. setscrew Ascrew. often without a head.--. or bolt_ ---1 ~<C. ~ I futl~ad ~ KIIII e se the gin ur kp his boo dt you nee al if "'. A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii". designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning. screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger.---.----~a _ i self-tapping screw Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven.-. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver. --.The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw. strip To tear or darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru.---.-. . lag "oIt. ~~ ~~ ~'\. machine screw A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole. countersink .-. -. spherical shape with a conlcall1earing surface. used In areas Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally lang bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully. tap To cut screw threads Into an opening.

. __ h2v1~ ... hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete.__ • ~__ .-----..ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt... prevent IeJI:"':le.. -'--' ---.. II -$. when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'" . I ~ i I two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger.a Pr.. nee I + . hollow wan. ~ I __ exp. used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng....e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te. _. -····.oll!li~~~~'~" . >_.:h a threadd r. -. __ . usually h3vlng . 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened. or rerle1e friction.. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut..: ~ ~ ..t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥. An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c.lnd of expansion bolt spilt...I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall.eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc. Dott.~ &W A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd . neck Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head.an.lslori ill the lockwashu the r I gin I . cop al ori @~ A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose...s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-.erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he.~_----"=. sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so th. -.. edge d15tan.. ~ hex head A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench... :t<~:::WU'M. Also called thumlmut...en tr....:.. and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation.. . ! I l l.e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole.-"'-'-. ···· -~ An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through.~. Also called ac.om nut... _ •• _ .1 head at one end.. a flat beJring surface..-. or piJstlc.'--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It." ". "'" """ ""'" ~ .\.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~ rraaeman: for.iIW~'m.dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr. ____________ . :. "fi) m? ~ 0---.11 FASTENING" ~It square head A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench...: Asqum~orr...ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je Ii carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head.. end distanu + r if you his boo . esp.. : i ~~ locl:nut ~...0 hoW It.-JC. fox~lt sleeve. used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure.. _~ The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe... ~-. -'.l: pm'or. Ats-J IL.jJ ~:~t~:. the.. cha se ! ccun+..lon 170 It An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of.I n ...d of 3 screw. Melly . kp ur r row spacing dt The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts. © ~ . Also cal~d expansion Iewi5 ~It An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured '. A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1. y ~.. '" . . togglel1olt·· . " db \l:J/ :~:stle nut.id or nut cf a Dolt or screw.l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of .~re<o. exp. ~~ Fi--I _ O ~Uli-. machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh.an.. c . nut ."d.. ··-····· __ ··-···.lted wr.~~~ted dis( of metal rubt>er.lon 'hiekf -. A thre3ded metal pin or rod...ap !?etwe.

or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess. . uid ~ lateral Ioods. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring. rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon. ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt.Jolst. or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II... rch A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1..prUlg or to them. The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces.---. cop if y ~~ havytwt~.. --.. used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther. .--.floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall.pct.-.~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for FASTENING .. held III piau Py a :. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth. ---.'li pbte punched to produce . ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~ . flush with the face of a tlm!1er.. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed.:!-. or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for / / joining light wood framing members. purlin. plate.----.-' . t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture sb ook ~pbte pu dcwdpirt.jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces.--------------_.-----.---------._----------- tim\7er connector A metal ring.. 1 5~r p~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove. . ".l>ut load transfer t. and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt.:. or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for eed ~piU grlJ thi A $-~-rret. consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon..---------------..--..''"''!l~ Pdt.r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam.:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger. : _ . hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces. ase ~j . Soi..----. y ou n A fIr.r I tull¥' A. using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal.:.frtwood~ al Ir.. haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces.--. Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections.e s~ member Is through shear b '. the ori gin C"p. Also called a. Also called hurricane tle .

~.. c!rcuit or between two electrodes. . filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consumable dectrode or by a separate weldl~ rod. root The point at which the I7acl: or rottom of a weld !nUts cop y Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl.ea~..~J The princIpal met31 to lie welded.:. " i the .arc weldi"9 A method of arc welding In wh~n the weklarea Is shle!de. slt13li pool of molten rretal. f ---'''.-=-/- throat A sulistance.--------.. USU311y a~In-~ . tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or polts. ~:I::hatofth' mota I. Dr3Zed.-:.1 nee welding Any of..!loy. remove oxldes from ... shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of arc welding using a consurnaDIe metal electrode that " relases an Inert gas to form.filleJ shank th.. or cut. haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or l ':--~~!ot-""'~''<'r''---<. g3S solders.h P-. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the el~ does not rJmish the filler metal . rivet~ A tool fOf' shaping the second head of • rivet. explosive rivet Arivet for ajoint 3CCe5slble from or-e side only. -----------------1-'-\1 cha I lj1 h~_o:. I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1Per Is ~ from one side. . or soldering process..flLlX'cc~ arc weldi"9 Amethod of arc welding usi"4 a tutrular stu! electrode conta Inlng • core of vaporlzlng flux that forms a ga~s shlelJ around the weld area I Y submergea arc welding A method of arc welding In which the se weld area Is shie!de. .?..l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced D:i the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas.. havlng 3n explosive. used for uniting two or more plates IIy passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head. Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u...11ong the seams of two overlapplng plet:es of metal tM Ir.----<...=. "'~ " <D3.:f IIytM corrtlnuOlls flow of an Inert gas from an external source. boo A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being . Also called drlftp!n. ur l-.lt Is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr. double·l1evel we14 if you nee l5ingle-vu weld A groove weldin which the edge of each abutting mem~ Is !?eve1ed from the same side. ... equal to the thickness of th~ slt13ller of the two mempers Delng joined..rr.:..~~~""'_. usually a copper-zInc alloy. JI flux 1-.l'Id prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'.. -"-."~~_.et ..::. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't).FASTENING $O'kr To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous braze To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders. '-. drift A rouM..-_ _ _ _ _ _----"'~~-=-=-c»--->"""".ise metal.t.o\i:t:::::::::... dolly Atool for receiving and holding the head of 3 rivet while the other end 15 I7elng headed. .----<~"...e edge Is of each ab-vttlng !leveled from both s!des.inert-gas shielded ... memw rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end. Also called electric arc. solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton./-' The distance from the root of a weiGl to the f3ce of the I7ase metal ori _ _ _.! re-si. !lrazlng.. as distinguished from filler metal.<.. as acety\el1e.:f by a ~n~et of granular metal that n-.. soldered. arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii.toe o A wire or rod of filler Iretal used in gas-welding and mzing processes. sometimes y.----- -----.1 surfaces to I7e joIned ~ wek:I1ng. as rosin. 86 . Imzing.e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole. \1ase metal .jJ group of welding processes utlr!zlT'g the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe passage of a e!ectnc current. pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with 3 """t set to form the second head of a rivet.th pressure .o.~{1.~ fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle.elts to form. wetaing Any of.". aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt. fusi~.. shield around the arc. -groove weld A weld made In 3 preformed IndentaUon Petween two alMtl"4 pleces of IT'<:t./ .---'-'- kp full'penetratio nweld A ~tt I~d having a depth puddle weld A weld made I1y truml~ a hole In a piece of sheet metal and filling with. . . PJrtial'pen~atlon weld ~.~e met3ls to few together.et31.it A groove weldin which the edge of one abutting memller 15 !?eveled from path sides. weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t. Also called weld ~d.nd the addition of an Interme-diate or flib. _ al lap weld --./ // gin A wek:I ~.<:-:-i arc welding Any of a9roup of welJ1ng processes utinzlng the heat of an arc Detwee-n 3 n electrode 3nd ~he base metal. applied to. or soldering.'. "'\1ead A continuous deposit of fused metal. dt I '~" his ----. doul1le-vu weld Agroove weld In whk. the filler metal Deing $lJpprled by a consult13lne metal electrode or Dy a sep-a ra te weIJ1 ng rod. This shield protects the weld are<! from oxygen aM nitrogen In the iilr that would C3use ra pld oxid3tlon of the flquld metal L1 welding rod '.JoIned.. at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't).

. h3vln!l a ~uare.. l The part of the hearth 15 --. AcurretTt of air In any enclosed space. esp. ori A~stnJCtlon fr.r.. A cylindrical pipe of earthenware or . --.········~velitliJtor. nee throzt The narrow openl"9 ~ a flreplace and Its flue smoke chamPer. 87 .. / A raised cover for a chimney. if you or hearth The floor of a fireplace./t metal. drili A devrce for regulating the current of alrln a stov~ or fireplace.------------------------A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe.. . pack hearth ! _ trimmer arch An arch. or stove... or a chimney m~st al cop A screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room. dt i " his chimney cheek The sides of a fireplace opening supportlng the mantel. rectanguur... ur sm(ike cha mper An enlarged area Petween the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney. hood ---.e1 m. Also called Inner hearth.. open flr~pIJce.. so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimney. or to. !~~. contained within the flreplace Itself. damper A movable piJte for reguiJtlng the draft In a fireplace.e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening.c.~~s.mteltree Astor. !1etween 3 chimney and 3 header In a floor structure to support a hearth.lncomUustlb!e structure contaIning aflue through which the smoke and gases of a fire or fumace are carried off to the outside and by means of which a draft Is created. " .. .----draft. chimney Avertl<:al. usually of brlcl: anQln theform of haff of a segmental arch.Imin4 the Apart of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall. b front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room. parget. I I I 'I' .. used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flrepiJce or chimney.--------"\'. or J cowL hood. or oval sectlon... or stone. ~ /1 \\ ~\ i I . .lst. usually of brick. -===============:!==++================."- fPiiiiiiiii~~ . i / I /7--". flreplace. Or furnace. or wInd cap to Increase Aframed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire. gin 1Tt4nt. --- smokesta<:k A pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion.:-"'~"'-_-~"". A steel lintel for carrying the rna sonry above tM flrepl3Cc opening. usually Inside a Uulkllng.1nUIplece. Ame~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equIpment.h a damper. usually In the form of asia b or cornIce.. often extending a short distance Into a room.. smoke aome ---------------------The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal flrepiJce unt!o downdraft A downward current of air In a chimney or flue. the masonry arch used In place of such a lintel. used for lining the flue of a chimney. ashpit A receptacle in the bottom of J fireplace or flreDax for the collection and rem(N31 of ashes. firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a fireplace. i I prefa~ricrted flue . fitted on top of a chImney to . caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure./"'-(--_________ chl. d. ashpit aoor i~lenook A comer or nooI: nar aurge. Aisc.mney pot --- .FIREPLACE Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce.. fire screen flue pargeting f opening of.-. or ventiLJtcr. chimney..l chimney fer removing SCOG. tumlng par. . Also called camper par.___ ---. . se chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening. Also called outuhearth.. r. ___ / j Increase draft and disperse smoke. tile. -.--~flue lining A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit flre cuy or nghtwelght concrete. as In a room./ . assemUlea from factory- r ITt3de parts. stove.lchimney par I I I I boo /r.~.3 flrepbce and usu.Ctfoc. often closed wtr. Also called m... cha supporting the bre. the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_ / ~chimneycap ~~~ii.::S:~·~-~~~~i~~'-"-'-~' or ~ lixe.. chimney. kp smoke shelf Aledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer. 1J5u311y provlded .311y coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner. lth se3ting 1\lso called chimney corner A ca5t·I/"()(l door pr(Nlding access to an ashpit for removing ashes..mOkA''''· An IncombustIble passage or y A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pia s ter for a chimney flue. often carrying smoke with It.-----------.-.-( I I ~ ! .

...:-:":. including limiting fire loads and hazards. the water aPsorVs heat. _. __ ...... fud-GcntriPutlan rating A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c.-=-. '. -"-- al ori the ~ i cop d ! ~ 600 (!)!+---....~... fire hazard Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire. '..:.. 2 time.. } time ~nition point flash point The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame. combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng.. ....- .... . l~ukJ-filled column I ~ I A hollow structural·steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance.-.. ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures. ----~-~-~~--.. : I ~" - .. fire-nslstlve. I U I boo dt ...sn 200~.. used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire. ... confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon. ur o o --L-.~ .- ~ I .. I on the slde aw. of a flammable material.---~--. metal lath and plaster ~ ..... : . developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot ~ases... i I t... 01' minerai flber. :...nt r " nee ~ J 'f "':~.:~ . his f:?·~+~:· .. fumeret3rdant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0. . ~ -.': .. the establishment of adequate firefighting services.. ~ ~ []I " . L• ..: . 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature ~ 8oo~1~~----~--~--~--~---+--~~~ ~e. ..... 1000 controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen.. _.. J .._-_ .. ... ..... .... :~ .. gypsum.... The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrul! hea t.. ".--~--~~--~--r--7--~~ contrl!nIte to a fire... r '. I 'pray-on fireproofing A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder. -_. >:~ . swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread and comvustlon. 01' construction having a flreAlso..- : .: .. _..aterial can produce when It 1nJrns..----+----=----i----.' :'. the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire.r FIRE SAFElY The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire.. "'-".-."'"-..... I r L 88 I ~ ... determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve...- : ' .'-----i y ~ . thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre.. reslstanu rating required by Its tunnelu5t 1200 j ~!--i--~~-7---7--..•. applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre. intumescent paint A coating that. [ZID ..ayfrom the fire... rises by convection to remove the heat. fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material. ~....::.. measured In pounds per square foot of floor area.' : . :.. IJ ~ fireproofing Any of various materials.. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems.. : " . I fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng.hou" 6 8 I~_ii/l u I _ if you -...' ~ L I .. se kp /'.. : . -~ . Q..7": ••. ..."=. Materials having a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~ aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside InJlldlngs..]c. If exposeJ Ul flame.. and 15 replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main.or finish IT'.~~-~-~--~--~--+--+-~ gin r------: 1.i:• •• : .:. [LJ '. smoke-developed rati~ A rating of the amount of sm'*e 3n InW. -...... assemL>!y.. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire.. ' ..- cha - ~ I •.. :~. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment.... ::.. _....----T---7--: Atest measuring the time It takes for" use.. when exposed to the heat of a fire.:. Also called 5Ulner tunnel test.. flame-spread rating Arating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 while a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O. '.:.. and t.. flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing...• : ....f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire. as concrete.

p~ device to Insure closll19 .. -. havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and tJ5<l........ A ftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "'. An open sp. or the exterior wall of an adjacent i1IIlldlng.ed shaft. or roof-ceiling construction having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire.... l.. component. all measured at right angles to the exterior wall... occupancy separation _. A laDe! affixed to lIi111lidlng material...... When exposed ~ the heat of a fire.• .. " II . distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a uulidlng and a property nne. _. electrlcal hazard.. or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor .. cr the Ii~e to close.'~ a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equipped with ~ <In a. or other tests for safety.k rr3~ of iI fusible metal. ~ fire assembly irl· ~ dt his UL laPel _. I '. Inc.. -1 firewall A wallll3vfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of ftre from one part of a D<Jltaing to <lnather..~d:~~~"..anchorag~ frarntS labeled Of or pertaining to a l1ulidlng materlal or assemu\y having aflre·reslstance rating certtfled by Underwriters' La roratorles."J "Its location and use. -.....catfng that the product (a) has a ratlng vased on performance tests of such product.•. flre·r3t. ex a n area of a city to another..s.I I 89 . fire~reak fire separation Arry floor. .' _ / fu5ilk finK A hr..•.•... or roofor fire damper. anchorage. r ! I! tfit\ ___.arJ latchl~ a&r havfng Peen opened for use. . frames.. Exh portlon of a building separated Dy one or mere fire walls rruy ~ COIlsklered a separ3te uulldl~ when calculating the floor area and height allowed Dy a i1IIlla'lr~ code'l L drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction.... flr/! d3rnpe~..3. cha ~ ~ ~ se the ori gin al fire door A door ~l>ly. (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y exJmlnatlon to ~ from Nterials and by ~ses essentf3rly taerrtlc31 to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre... . and (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination service of UL if you nee cop y maae ~_~ :}~... Ind'. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~."" cau~s a fire door.. required whae a duct penetrates a fire wan. [.._ . .' FIRE SAFETY firezofl('! A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone.. or other fire sep3r3~n. "firetUmpu W AM~~b~. the center hne of an adjacent street or public space... . ========= ...... or devlce wlth the authorlz.. ur A fire <lsseml7lythat may remain In an ~ posltlon and wiU clese ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by ... -~""'.arove. An opening In a wall. Inc._ III >" fire wi I'Idcw ~:::. with a fire assemlily having the ~1f-c1o...sem'-lu __ . reqUired flre·reslstance r3tlng for ''".... ~ ... ~E~~~=~~~:· Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct autcrnat!cJlly In the event of fire to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e.. ". fire window.lI ._•.3tlc·closlng fire assemDIy.... boo l l .~I~I~'" required hardware•.. the nn~ mel:s .uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng.rtk-c105i~ fi~ a5~mbly . ...~~r ~ ~....11W fire .... anch0r3g~ frames and sills.• protected opening _ . floor..I '...I".... and Sills..J having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of fire from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng... extending from the foundaticx1 to a parapet above the roof and having 3n openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected by a self·closlng or autcrr.. The assemDly of 3 fire door.IncIud1ng all requ~ hardw3re. __ . or other recognized testing la~aratory.lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardwart.-.1L[t()m..atlon of Underwriters' LaPora-torles. fire area An area of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire. -~--- kp 4Smo(e~. wall.-------~.=========~ A vertical or horizontal construction \l. '···0'" .

whlch. 35 gasoline. preactlon system A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads.--.. conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs.ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow. connected to a suitable water supply..---.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ " ~I cop al boo A pump th3t provides the rea. __ . automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire. usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr. smoke-. cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment. A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_ I y cha I I i I I A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate. 5tandpi~ A w. tkttctlon system... building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly maintained sprinkler system. fire-~n symm Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm.. . . I the I ori se /-'fire pump used v.. as wood.etals. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing. --- truct:.-. classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish.J if you kp . 011 and grease. ur cbs. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance. -----.. orflame-senslng devlce.elts at a predetermined temperature.llrt or pu mper " ''1I I I . cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr. pa ~ :md cloth. which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times..-------.lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor.ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building..t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr. Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials. which rt<tulres a nonreactive. sprinklered Of or pertaining to.. L f L I I 90 .--. L fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. 3 preselectM I'3lue. as magneSium or sodium. 5moke deUctor An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke. and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature. heat·al:>sortnng extinguishing medium.6fire waUrmafrl j A fire Involving flammap\e liquids. I . providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system. dry5tlndpfpe --------------.. wets~ndpipe wet·plpesystem "'1 r I ----. I I I r gin nee dt his siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building.must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors. I 'i I r I I . through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-.-. stlrinkler head A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. . -.FIRE SAFElY flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a firesprinkler . dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire. allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle.---. c\a..

(I) occupant leola The wr. by a smo~proof enclosure.FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In a bUIL::I1ng to the outside at ground level. -. having no openings other than required e:dts . protectea by an ~~ . i t L r occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. nee dt o exit passageway A means of egress cor. s wing 1"9 In the direction of exit travel and usually e<:tulppea with a panic cha ur Par.. and venul3ted by natural or mechanical means to nmrt the penetration of smoke and he3t. al gin ori se the exit ~rrUlor .1 ntumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a y enclosed by walls of fire-resistive coostroctlon. enclosed by fire-reslstlve construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the direction of exit cop exit light . if you /:Xft Of' exit court with a public way. An exit stairway down an outsfa/: wall of a !7ulla'lng.ilrJ enclosed by flre-resls'tJve constnlctlon as reqUired for the walls.om3tic-closing fire door. or pupllc way. extending vertically th the floors of a ~uilding.airway A stairway leading to an exit passageway. ~ __ . '-. boo kp • -< exterior exft An exit cIoor opening directly to an exIt court or public way. or an vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. and ceiling of the building served. exit door A door providing access to a means of egress. travel exterior exit balcony Alanding or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJl1dlng and sm-Ing as..1.ir. he riUlITtJ I exit A passage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation. stairs. leading from an exit access to an exit discharge. BUilding codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 b<J'Id!ng. -': exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire.cy lighting A hghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for 5Jfe /:91"es5 from a !lulldlng In the event of a pcwer failure. Bulkling codes usually reqUire on/: or more of the exit stairways for a high-rise !7ulldlng ~ protected elevator.neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ his 91 .-' A j13ssageway serving as... smo keproof enclosure The enclosing of anexit sta Irway by wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction. and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approximately the same level In aapGerrt bUltdIng. fuors.a! number of persons that may .. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use by the square feet per occupant permitted In that use. 'constructed to the same sta:ubras as an interior exit stairway. emerger. accessl~ by ii well A shaft for .. fjre~pe required exit. an /:Xft court.I required &. ngh t. exit 5t. 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors. BUlkling codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required.l re<:tulred means of egress. exitacce55 That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit.

... A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls.'._.. . ~Jnc:I fWor. roaras cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists.of constructing the structural frame eX . floor. ~ilpiece ------- .' '--~---".. ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors. studs.~~~~~.FLOOR The level.. or manna.-------. ...=~'.~"--'-"-[~===jlliililii!~ -. . fWshtd &01". or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe.. or 17fters._ .. ori '>----:::--1~._ . (.. -.illled he3aer..: totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts. so as ...~-fu..HIy bid (Net .~~~~U. i i l f~r:. y al perimeter of a wood-framed fuor. USU. I l F~. jo~t the header . floor.. or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other... Also called ~U~~~"'.. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng . -----Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement..':. or flat roofs.:/.----..e of . ---The wearing SUmc..Afram~member~andsupportlng ! ~ ~-:o. plywood.--. trimmer ~----.. Also called stringer. or rafters.joI5t. or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme..: y flni5h floor .. floor framil\9 The act. cetnngs.col : ! : ! iI ! ~ I 1 l.../'OUfh flM-./ ..rimJolst AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the .- A rela-tl\le!y short ~am. .. Also. / // studs.:::~~::::~·:~'::-·. Atrj of ...d to the floor joists.="~=~~:·~-_~~.:::=~l-::-':':=T~-:::·: c.. esp. Also c. _.. sulrlloor. gin ~3rds. -_ .::>.--:.. :7 I. A~m. ... solid I1rtaglng fixed Bridging consisting of short vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.•.-:: I if you __ nee dt his boo kp ur cha --.. se cop y LA I the eMs ofjoists..-:":'_~~~~"':==~"'..-.. proc:ess... when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6.....joIst.

electrical wires and c. or concrete capable of spanning beams.he topftange of a steel ream or girder .. ~ ________ _ _.metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW·rolilng a series of rips or flutes Into It. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling.. .and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit.. forming a series of raceways fo!.• Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut.:>r. and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance./ ur --------------.awtenJolsts or Peams In or on top of a m3S011ry wall. I . 93 . The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations.l:>e3m filling. decking Self-supporting units of wood.. --/ ... Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng. Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:.----. JOists.:-_____7-'-'-_::>"7 cop .. allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th. beam pccket---·------------. rafters. kp form duking composiU decking .1cou~tk duking cellular decking .FlOOR i1e31T1 fig deck The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied. Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete.. • .. steel pin welded to t.. -'" gin al shear stud I._____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam.a reinforced concrete sla b Metal deckl~ servlng...-----. stiffening the memrers. for flIllng the sp~ t.bles..as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern. ------- An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam wall..~:O.. or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing. metal. if you nee dt his boo fonnworl: for.-r. whe~ It enters a masonry r------------. y -------- floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath. ori -'. se cha I the ~I dectlng servl~ as permanent und ~ stlb C3n support Itself../ . ---. AIso.

~ . or concrete sulrl'loor..!i.1n. as ~ rdwood.. ~~ndwhendty... bf'.. i l ~ sleeper . consisting of a terr.--.~ ~~. . -.c -.• 4 Veneti. bondingagent ~------------. . r·"I:\. Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical !.1n temzzo .. '" ..------.iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips..::or or cor.__ . ': underbed ----. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips.. separated from the subfloor \.ise on which a •••.'~:il' D .:. temz:zo...l. -.. polyester.dl=tly umentltlous or resinous matrix over a sound wood.. ~.~~ .~~I~~. terrazzo topping Is applied. flooring composed of~.~cl-~r~·~~.·'~I::=="PPI'..tntltlous or resinous matrix and otr. woodfloori~ Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips.-.crete sb P. Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~.lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is ..~.. . sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials.~ ~ substrate to create a Pond nee stone chips. ~~~5..!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive.. een.eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab..-..·-·····"·"'·~.. if .. !B'lI .. -_ .. ~een It and a succeeding layer. resInous matrix " '._ . .' A latex...~ :... I'<-hich are not ground.!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '.!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise.'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface. -..ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected.' ~ . '..~. The mortar Ir.. '... ~~~ consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting. memDrane and a thin layer of sand...~ ~:.:-:·.:~ .. -..~~~~~~~~~.~'. mrul. ~~~. IIIIJ unit bfc.-.. •• 1" his boo kp ur P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'.-..-. with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t . • rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert.' 6 ". ipal"l\uet Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m. usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting....p.4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t...------------ --- Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring.. cha cop you monollthicternz:zo- ~ WJ y Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD. :Ii...:'. or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.... or floor We.. ~~~~11.' .-.../.. and a subfloor.1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \. al se Aflooring plod m~e \...' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps.----. ••••••/:•.4-' .. or ~s. . ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally.. solid plock flooring ------. thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~J·m3tched.ck laminated plock the ori gin slatl7lock Aflooring U10ck made \.rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~'.. ptlnks.... A flooring ~Iod made \. ='" .311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $..: .:. .. narrow wood s~'ips. .... strip floorin9 .. -.!/f) .'~~h.. o Achemical sul1stance appnea to a ~~ st.---..FLOOR fin~h floori~ M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr. . wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween.u--_ _ _ ~. usu~lti side· and end· matched. par'luetly Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting.t. -.: • " <..er :t ~~':'~4f!l~ dt ='''''"p".awrd terrazzo -_ .. L I L 94 J ( .. set In a :narble or cen-. rustic terrazzo A ur.-.•• ~ !.. Palladi. ..:-.!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern.!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units. .. hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface.~. :. .

.s. and pile yarns with three sets of needles.BHill~ ~~._____ . __ . cop carpet Aheavy WCNen. st3ted In oonus per 5qU3t"e yard. 95 .. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile.. and a fiber..~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric.-. Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant...:=--. CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience. carpet. -. I ~. vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp..IO Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade. as plywood or hardboard. §it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the cut pile r 1 if I width of. loops.----. available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment.. stitching. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= .. -. uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness.. ru1?1?erti1e I l!~~r!~!!t!~~!!~~!!~!!~~~!!!!!!!~!J~~~~!!!!~~!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!! pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet. the gauge . fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-.. -.l!lll!!.----.. boo kp p~~ity tufUa carpet •. A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam. .. _______ .. ana floor covering Material. you ~ ~ nee I dt r r ill The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet. p~ment.A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-. Improve dltr3blltty. f1uW carpet --····-. esp. or felted fabric forccverlng a floor.lUL_. Also called carpet cushion. vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In I . \ . linoltum resilie nt flooring Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed.. .---. anJ dimensional stability.-~ . -=..iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers.gDB~ . ur yarnsonaloont _----.-. A carpet texture created by weaving.. tufting. '. linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade.. -. corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers. even base for resilient flooring. -. producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short. needle-tufted.f. expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch.. Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat. stated In ounces per cubic yard..__ --~ carpetpad I..ru!llI.--------. -. . ~rpet made by looping the backing.. ori ! I gin In a Interweaving the backing 1. ---. iiiit-·- tile carpet A flooring tile made of carpeting material. fett. t ~ al cha se ana pile ~ . ~nlttec. dense velvets. Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing. or other nonstructural flooring.10op pi'1e y his knit~C3rpet ·········-. .. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth.::-------= ~ A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair.. -------IrmiWl·· . orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ". underl3yment A material. tufted or knitted ~rpet. adhesive..---. finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride. or foam !:rackIng.-. strength. '._____ .FLOOR A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated rosln. --. r combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and p4Jments. or protective coating. used to cover a fleer. neealepunched carpet . --~ -~ .. lInseeJ oil powdered con:. A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers. -. ana reduce Impact sound transmission. and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns. Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng.-.

Also caf1ed resultant..1nar forus Forces . vector ..... 96 .e to produce rotation of a body a~.. 1--_ _ _ _ _ .1I polnts In the Agure Is zero.q the same Nne of actlon... para lief forces : ~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to produce rota1lon Put not translation.. with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon. -.... -.• tri. ~.1f SlJ~ ai. ~Is point... .. " actbn.•. For conven fenu In structural anafysls..h~ last yector.-. ~. tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law..and acting In a clockwIse or counterclockwise alrectlol!...... or.... Aforce whose nne of action p..•.. component6ofJforce •. Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of " line of actio1I .. ' ... ...~ ~ '-. .....--. j parallelforc~s '-: ••• - Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 that the II"IOmtnt a Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such rout any line through the Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action..of....".... nonca ncurrent force.. center of rtU" --~-..... the l>ody remains In rot. aDout which the sum of the displacements of..21 of 'twO equal.. -. The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c. L L .~. couple -.. --.. -. these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU...-.. Oi. vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon......av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt. {11111l ~J __ m " " .. .".•. or two-dlmenslonal flgure.a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium..Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force.:.-...--.ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e descri1>ed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent slJes which represent th~ two force L vectors ~I~ addea.--- y A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors.. ~ctlng ak:lr.. ---.. cop moment ---. -. ---..?r that represents the result3 nt force.. Aiso calleJ force arm. Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without .... .....-..:==:b======~ Two or II'IOre COII(... the ori The tendency of a furc.FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape ormovem~.-.... _. untrold The cem:a... ... '~ .. ---....a poIrrt or nne.1"9 Ie method A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p.p.~.mmal effectofthefo~.. ...a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs.. . boo moment'Mft ~... u I 1 u .1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point.. altering ther. •. 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ ....er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field... and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector gin if you nee : al dt his r' that ~nt5 the result3nt force. .. ~ -...a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect. the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces. Forces "3"...twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment. -----.• •···• .-.....m""" f. and whose orientation In space represents the direction..hat o~ In a Single plane.ltlonJl equJllDrlum. wncurrent forces Forces h. _ _ _ _ _ _--1 point Is zero.. ---~ M.. . the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt.:J~ wnuntratea so forctS.. A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent... extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of ... mornentcenter -. . Aforce SYSt... ~ ~ an arrow whose length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •.. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann .. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus....-. "'.malle!.um ~.....-----.. ")I wpl. kp ur cha se The poInt . '--. ... .

For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium. TheforcerequlreatobrI~asetof. -. l:Fz = o.lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I) I I mechanics The !:>r.~ if I· you nee m. the yector sum of all forces acting on It must ~ual zero.(7:t3) + (Ix 0) .AlsocalleJlawoflnerUa. statically equivalent HayIng the same translational and rotatIonal effect on a body.• ! f f . Also caneJ the law of . 97 ..l:F). the afgel7ralc sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must equal zero. .:·1 ori The mlo of output force to the Input force app/1e.':1/ his boo kp ~wton's'~orullawatmotion The physical law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody Is equal to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acceleration produced Py the force.iInch of physics that 0&1 Is WIth ~ effects of forces on podles or rrt4terbl systems.letlan and r!actlon._. fIj ~ lever •. comprised of st. ensuring rotatlonal equlfllnium: :EM =o. .iJ element that pivots about a fulcn.~ concurrent forces Into ~ulflllrIUri1.-----.-----. = cop m LM.1tlc 5 and dyn3 mIcs_ ~wton'. "" ··tsl--.-------------. ensuring translational equlltlnium: l:Fx = a. Q I .~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn...-. ~mics The h~-ch of mech.! ~ .~ '''")1 . I ..d to a ~hanlsm... gin ur llllllllll+ \ ~lunic31 ad~ntage al cha se 1 F r> fulcrum . with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces...m to e:xert... ~ujlil1rant roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody about an axis.... : inertia The tendency of a \7ody at rest to rert13ln at rest or of a body In motion to retain Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon Dy an external force.. ~uilil1rium a ~ht at a seconJ polnt by a force appr~ at a third.! . " .F) ! r r-···- FORCE 1 Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remaIns at rest or In motion wIth a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY.-..lwtc =px Q...= 0..qulllDrlum of bod:es or m3~rl.~1 systems.-------The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a b'ert<Jrns. equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action...l pressure Of sustain Lh....(Ix 0) 0 A state of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces..1lsysums under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus. --.-A ri.. First. y 3 : r . reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody 011 another.... 1 .lppljed force An external force actlng directly on a Pody. two conditions are necessaij.' .-.uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motion and e.--. third law of motion The pnyslcal law that for every force actlng on a Poay. • tn n5Lrt. wttnaut rot:3tlon or angular dlsplaument. stlUc5 The ~n. the I70dy exerts a force having equal magnitude ana the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force..g ~ulljbrium among bodies or m. -. Second. -. i : ~ .h of mechanics that deals with '.. -. it i the .ic n ~ tmiforin motion of a I10dy In a strai9ht line. dt force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( l@et"3tion{l) r ~ I .

..lr.. -. covering the ori l'2Velin Either of ~ two outer s!des that form tM sal1ent angle of a pastlol'l ___ . f.--.palfsade Afence of pales set fll"l!1ly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense. l1alley The outer ~II of a castle or the courtyard enclosed by It.• gorge The rear ~ss. motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'Ituries.sally port .----------.--.../ A ~ateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 t.ectlng so!d1ers from enemy flre. Also C4i1ed scarp. /-------.t. his A slope ex-'".. '.en.1~ _ _ ...-._ _ --. circumvallate Surrounded Py or as If Py a rampart.Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of.au gin al cop Thean~1e ~een the f3ccand t:hefunl: of I worts ~ two Ir.p::::.ch surroundlng a rampart. rr~ exterior slope or wall of the d"r-.:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldiers Into the most line of fire . _./ Asteep mound of earth surrounded Py aditch and sunnounted by a t:lm~r stocbJe and tower..\. slmllarotItwon_ " .• ~:J:~~ln.-::: i boo kp ~bc~ I r r "rect cardon AproJecUng course of stones belcw the parapetofa rampart..*ment of ~rth ra!sea as a fortlflcatlon around a place and usaa/ly surmounted Dy a pal"3pet_ . i13vlng embrasures for artllkry.J ~ moat of a forth'\c.ea ~nd a In3ln fort~ ~ ur SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart. motU .-. . shculder .:!:.: /.. -. curtain L ./----. . ----. .-. nee / if you 1 :r:= L--_____ -.• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted..1 5 \ j bastion -------·----·-----·--·---________ LI.--------...Istlon.. typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir..-.•---\.Jtlol'l ~ r dt J ./ .'~. • 98 .rge number of tmJps w move npla'1y from the pesleged position 3na attacl:: the Deslegers. parapet . outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position esbDl1sr.• -.'--------.. y ---. emate A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart.. AprojectJlI4 part of a rampart or other fort!&atlon. pale A pointed stlck or s't3l:~. --"-'--'-'--'-'~:" ~unterscarp cha T'~ Inner slope or wall of the dltch se eSClrp the A V-5ha~ outwork outside the main dltch of a fortress. -. C.lstlons.::.FORTIFICATION A defensive military work coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position.1geway Into a Dastlon or wort. consIsting of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey_ ------ _.lse to the main ------. The part of a Dastlon that extends from the curtain to thefau.:.Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevaUon of ea rtn or stone prot..... An enclosing wall connutlng two Dastions or towers.

necessarium .ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---: al se cha '~.en undergrour. ~. omet. ~um An open space within or between the walls of a castle.." 99 .Tted .a prison or cell. One of the solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlemerrt.or door or glte to a fart arcast~. -- -----. erected at the top of a lfJlI during:. ::.I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of nee mlsslles.. moat ' A Droad.barbican An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te'. ' przttU _. enceinte A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town. used as a place of residence. frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground.. or castle as protection against assault... Also.. a watchtower at the gate A slTl3I1 re..---.cl'eMI Any of the open spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement. kp I . In times of siege.-----A ~~ . crenel. used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege..lpet at the top of a CJstle wall.b~... ~ ._~!'_. HavIng battlements_ embr~~ure :."11 if medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie. aye/te. !n theuiOng.. _____ .'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower.rYI'"!'--t:". deep ditch. Also called / -.qy. ______ . Also CJf1eJ tourdk.-------. usually filled with water. loophole .. A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'. you eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa .I dt A snt311 or lI3rrow openl~ In . Also. -----. ineJIev-31 castle.Ln¥OO having an opallr":J CJr1". .. his i IT + l An opening. '~drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to Jfe{mlt passage Dene3th it. or drawbridge. originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif. --.__ 1.--._.. ·~ donjen. or the place so gardero::'e. fortress. esp. ward Power A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle./ :' . 3S. siege.. .. citadel A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city... esp. \ \ portculli~ dungeon A d. molten Ie3d..l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I.FORTI FICATI ON keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval cast~. oubliette -----.. gin ori the ~.( c he min-de. y . 35 In. '-----.----. dr~~ridge A lnidge that can ~ raised. The privy of. chapel Asubordinate or private place of worship or prayer within a larger A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times.. ---.. Also called castle turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e..=2:::::::':'::'::':":'::===< --. merlen ~ ..!. ---. through .. cop ~-...c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. rt.. complex. I machicolatWn ur supported by corVeled arches and having openings In the floor through which stones.. through whlGh missiles may De dlscharged.. surrounding the rampart of a fortified town. Also called eml1attlement.------.. boo A pro~ng gallery or par.htch priSCf'trS were drOFPed A strong gr. ---. l1arilacan.. or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy ~neath. letdown. . l7artrun A sm." battlement A parapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels.all o.. enclosed..ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (NU the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage.. -: '.l loophole or crenel.

._.Y the freezing of Internal moisture..a sus~lned load.."f"""'y"IJI"'J of. __ ..ent d the Internal structure of the soil In3SS after ~t of the load has Peen trlInsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlson&s.. less ylekilng or restrained parts of the mass.I3l Su~lJ1ng of a structure as the soli ~ Its fOUrWtlon consolldates urJerWdin~ ccnso IWtion The graau:.. .1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure ~ The gr.. frost heave An upltft In scl C3used tr.abk ~ pressure.Jly on a supporting soil mass.nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by Utml forces shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of a su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ soillly v~1 pressure... due chiefly to. "'''''T''' 1-. nee dt his pf'im3 ry c.1llowal7le l1ealing kp ur ana cap._ .. A reduction In volume of 1I soli mass under the action of.<oJ. Also 5eCCrWry~n you c.._-... AISiJ C3lbi ..a squeal~ out of water from the voids I't"ftIIln the IlUSS. equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<... / 100 ..... ... P'" 10~..... partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground. I ! i i I I i I ::::::::..od-. 02'1 / .u re...and 41 tr3nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli solids. DDDDD __ . __ . cop 4IlIowa~1e be. i soU pressure The actual pressure tleveloped between a footlng and the supporting soli mass._.~t'i~~~ i r" frost....1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vert~lstnJCt.FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on.... due chiefly to lIt!ustr. .1lsat!ement The relitlve movement of different parts of a structure caused IIy uneven settlement or failure of Its fou.a ~lned load..l reductlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the application of a ~~!ned Io4d ~nd an Increase In ~5ttes5.-t the -----_.5'1 ''\ ) softenlng of soil resulting from the thawl" of f".. r _ ~.. cha se J. nsf"ofst._..ndsot1 gin al that a soil ~S5 exerts on a vertical retal n1 ng stroct.l nsmftted and the area ori y permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter.. allc . .Jre through the solL '" 5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings . passive e. Aliowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 soil classiflc3'tlons are conservative values permitted ~ lIulld1ng codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon testing of the sot!..line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost penetntes the ground. ioo 9-.i... designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth.-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is utive e.1cfty. fro$t ~on 2rching Tho t .wt01.~Jj\ I~ 0. Areductlon In vvlurne of a soli mass under the action ~.ol15OlldrtIon boo A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~ ~1~(q}=P/A if diffuent.a soil mass to adjoining.~ ...~~ f·-·····--·-······~l~' i .1Ied ~ry compression...

_: 5 Ub-str3tucn ~-'-:----M ..~{p...... Over prol1lem soils.. ~ It. ______ ._. 101 .- r I' r I I superstro<:1:lrre.t .. A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y a gfJ of . A rr.!':... A refnforUa COncrete footing connected AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o.. ~ -. as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~.'e or below the sial:>.' nee !:>y a tie beam to .:t..'..c.... L . A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns. having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th.btlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the al1ow3tr1e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not exceeded..~-.v' cop al gin ori r- ..... np17ta mat r" <.-... -. iI:SlJ311y reinforced with welded wirefJ!1rIc en grid of relnforclng lrars to sp~d footing Aconcrete footing extended I. ____ .=<::.... des~ to support and anchor the I· "". Also C3ltld~~~o... sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce. ·r·····...t ~U"" grak.r"~' . Also called grid. ~ "./ ..3t providing a footing on yielding soil usually for an entire ~ulkllng.1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil. .alled su!lstrate. foundation wall Th. placeJ so that the we~htofthe displaced soli exceeds the weight of the construction.@ ~~ .:~. designed as a nut or raft foonaatloo.~~parate or Integral f~s art required for heavy or . ~~~~~s~pre3d footing of a ~ifo()tig: Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon.~~ .. --] ! A layer of caarse granular ~rlals placed and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ c. ArelrrforcelconGrete ream SUP~1I9 a superstructure at or neargrouna level arid tnnsfem~ the 9~~1rel' the pic:rs.M the wdght of the construction s-upported <:t:""~r..~. __ ''' __ .d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or an entire !:>u11d1~. FOUNDATION ~. ik.../r~..Unded to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J.~~...·. __ ..~ as a mat foundation.pillary rise of moisture toa concrete ground sial:>.wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n boo P""f'CrlJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn if you raft m. ___ .' .. dt his ~~~w~. .1t A th~. To ..1 F.. ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lraSlment wails SlT">'.. "" ..mother footln~ In order to balance an asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load.. I I control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~..... ur cha se kp . tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun.~ff~=------ ground sl# A concrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground... ...- _. _tonti~uotijf~.. N:so called slab on grade.. or piles. ~ .i grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas..~.·tii..:.. Also called strap foothtg. ribs abc>. ' . -~.. . .I ! r.. Also c.inchlng she3r ~ ' " ___ ' .' :r~' Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s....J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r rI rl r ! concentrated leads. l:r41~COUrse ~ .. · · · . flcatlng founJ... the sla I:> must t....~...-_ . critJc....••... .. ~ .'co~f~ng~~:: .../ y .../ r .:.. _ .

The gin ~ l1eml>a.~. having a round.. A steel H-sectlon driven as a pile.eJ on a pile. '::::':.echnlcal Investigation of .a static load test.~~~· .'" the e!'\ se V H ori point-!>~ pile. drivpl Into the earth by a pile driver until it meets the requlrea resistance.' . I 102 L . i <~ ~\ '."en••mltea by the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOlI 111355.. Also called plfe ring.1U pj~ A pile constructed of two materia Is. '.:' j: : :~ I~ ~·-·' · · ·/· ~ "Kf. often fltted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering.t cOncrete pile \. when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c.on~ Is not suitable for the direct Pe3~of~s. i.11 specified period of tlme. 1- his pile to lmrIce fr. ~frictSon An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln.. ~"I ~~:~=:.~ !~.ciV3"tlon I:>efore i7elng fliled with COllGrete. and tie l7eams fer transferrfftg !. polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli.t. cushion A cap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 "' driving operation. driven or h3mmered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of a foundation system.. rounaea tt::~J ~~~i:.e p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile from the v~ for which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred.1 ~~~~~~«. The hard.tem t:hJt extends do.:..--- H-pile.1 pile from Its pIa n wUoo the vertQl.a~ ~ st.:.. as c:feterml~ by a ~all1lc plefonnub.'x~:. ":~' : . pipe plfe . you nee A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete.I:::~aa:~~~ : . .A zone In a loaded soli mass by an ! arbitrarily selected Isobar of stress. An openeMed pipe pile ~ulres Inspection and ex.'.--... Alsocalltd drive &hoe. anvil The component of a pile hammer..//·~t·¥~tE?~~. \ yield point The point at wn!ch 3n 11lGre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement.:' ". ~!low3LoIe pt'1e Ioa~ the fourW1lon soil . end-~e.:-'-~:. I. . that transfers the driving force to the pile head. I f J ~ring stntum ____ J pile driver l1atterpile A pile driven at a specified angle to the vertical In order to provlJe resistance agaInst lateral forces. 3 drM~ hammer. ~ . a point of reslstanu.::/ . y cop f.. ~<:. H-sectlons can I:>e wekb:/ ~ether In the driving process to form 3fT'j length of pile..~. y .:-.• " A precast.FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn Afou~sy. J pile A~ slena:r column of wood..l. _ .: .. or . pile C3pS. ~wn~ ---------~~ A pile dep<:Ung prillGlpally 011 the fric1Jon31 resl:stance of surroundlng ~ rth for SIip'f'<rt .obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure. .. " . located just I:>elow the ra m.:(.. often prestressed concrete cclumn..~ . phed i.!.. steel..Julkllng loads dewn to a sult.' «/~~f~j~~~:i ~f. resultlng In 3 reductkrl of Its allowable load.w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer !.r a . used esp.'.t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of a pie and the soH Into which the pile Is . as from a single or numUeroff~tlon plies.lift frictiHI The frY.1 load requlr~ to reach a ylelJ point. f I. :. A machine for driving piles. pi1efourWtion A system ofpks. or reinforuJ QlftCrete. which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soli. I L I if dt . or polygonal section and sometimes an open core. ccmpo.: ~t:~. '---.a"-9 pile -------~~ Ap~ ~g principally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath Its b:it for support. ---:--------. shoe /- ~~.. The ~tIoI of.:".' '" . Also calleJ al SUITlXl~ soil mass ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long timber pile A log driven usually 3S a friction pite.. cushion head. . and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer.-'. j ":.Jullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate Uearing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure.~ r ' . " .~~:~ "" continuously for .... drM~.Jm. Also called cushion 17loGk. point of refusal .----..m.. sometimes ellGasea In concrete to a point I:>elow the water table to prevent corrosion. preca... boo arm kp ur cha The NXlnII'I axb! 3nd bteralloads pennfU.- pile ~ity -. A~mofsonorrockon whleh a footll14 ~ or to wIlleh a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson.. s-tuare. as 3 tlmver pile having a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile al70ve the water tavle from deterloratl~. drive l1and A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of a tlml:>er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven. usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for lifting 3 pile In position !7efo". :.

Jalnl~ A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to. .. and then r. esp. un-tll It meets the required resistance gin the i cas..d ~ driving 3 c.....•.I cclumn or grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr. i I f J pier .-. ..• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar. --: . .~Cai5~n his . bdl17ucket ~I An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft..1 A pler.. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile... A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete.. .J-nd along wit.. cop al cha se I ..... (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom.-.... -. -. ' .!... Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground --.pile cap -------.. if you r nee dt ~(. c ... --.o -~ In o ° t::3 0 tiep~m oli}O Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont..... -' ..... and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing.. -.:hwn........cme pl~ Ir..e piles.--..... o 0 c~5t·ln·place co~rete pile A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground... -----_ . _.ina then ftlnng It with concrete. formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil ..t... --. ....... y ori . --..... ' The \. ~II .:r.... ..x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon c-=~ ".-. $eI')'(: f: A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process.-.- //' ur 103 ...o the gro'.. A s.. .... boo pile rocl:~i5~n kp A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled. . -...o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-. ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS ..g cancw~ L.Ithln 3 c.3~ Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'.~I"9 -....... when the roring Is 2 ft... A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section.....FOUNDATION· .ed pile -.. --.... .on.:n:.... I ~I~~n ...........a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression. -.-.' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce.tr'lir...• ped~1 pile A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression.drel ......'...-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing m~n.1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area... _--_.. --.. 1<: .distribute the load from . sometimes ~ or taperea for Incre:asea s ~s.... 1 Unc.+ ..........1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other pile caps orfootlngs..

.1 I -1 rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr. Arigid fr. temperature.ectea at theirjoints.. ~'1 . and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In nee dt his hinged frame boo kp se L1 three-hi~ fume A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints. While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame. if • A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on .. I "raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4 pL1stic hinge A vlrtu.1me.ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane..FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf.Ise. fixed frame A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints.e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely. the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u".ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ. In aaaltion. Appllea loads produr. 104 .ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member. you A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints..lf dlsplacement produced In a r'. J. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM r• y cop f1 gin ori the al contractlon.ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~ ur cha I. The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure. .~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or otJ1er construction.1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr.. foundation. Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr.frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr... s Ides way The later.

15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU.SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces. or supports needed for staDil1ty. ~ dlfferenu 105 .ter. f'" 1 j stnlCture... and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints InkUrmil'\..Jncy •.ream defining a Single bay. .lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t.tstory frame . transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame.l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate ori \ gin \ 1=== I I i al ase the p<lrt.d 3t e. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure.-t:. Nkl~ ~ ~:.toryf""". Also called slngte-l1ay frame. portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a . resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ.. r petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'. and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st.d to parallel top and ~ chords.ll shar:..lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute. degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re.. connection. .'ah. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame. A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld .1I~ cop mme I I y I I' ~ eed ~ DODD DDDD DDDD tran.le for solur:cn...d ~ shear rackIng..il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre.~' r. Also called V1~ ~lrder. multi.un pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:. frames. The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm. A strvctural member. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c.. 10000000-0 0101010101001011 .clumn. V-terenJ~1 ~5 A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte.llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~. .."..iIt.-fergiraer ~-.s at the Jolnt. d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics. The C3rTtllever method :.1'U deUrmllJrte degreeoffr~m if y A Ir1ethod for J!t:.e WJ<-'"tUI"e.:cally determinate structure. Of or perta In Ir.lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:.ch point of Inflectlon.:ry ~ proportlonal.../ redund.1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a thi sb ook pu A method for a~lyzlng a mutt.q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of 1 r members. and that the acts :.o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level. IO]DID]ODlDiDiol ~-. moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :. ~!M4 ry pin . . . corm~tlons.:lulred for the statrillty of a st.. A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true .aUons for solution. Imaginary pin joints c..r' ""'! FRAME knee Thejur... ~rrt&ver~ statlcally ~1n:.ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s.. supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns.ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent.l5Surnes th.iIo'1Iter:. DOt] ou n rch •.

-.. -.. . AIso. cylindrical.r_ .1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon . arcu.. skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation.d points along its length.. or enclose...rte. ........ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists..me fIoorfr3minq platform fr3me roof fr3minq I froilmeworic Askeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to¥ther In order to support. ... 106 . define.FRAME froilmlng The ut. \ . arc~te Of or pert3lnlng to a sys~ of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns........Ieams to support wood planks or decking.girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io.. . pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction.am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam. stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water../ . j ! I I 1 1 ./ ..• principal !?eam Any large !leam In a structur... Also called primal)' ~m.. wood or metal.. or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure. . l light frame constructlcn A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng.. secondary !?e. often s~nder p~ of .tt&i if you nee I i poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly embedded In the ground asa pier foundation.... pole A long. / . Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \.~ balloon fr. J r"'"'' terttary !?eam Any beam that transmits Its load to a al ur cha se the ori kp dt his boo gin cop \ y seconml)' ~eam..Ids at IsoI.. J L J . proceS5..

.......rer an Also called Ureast beam..... . !>etw.. queen post -. --------.... wattle and dau. ~hrn9.3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut:...-~ i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It 5U pPOrts....)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder..raiseagirt crossbea ms.. A heJ... Alsa Cd lied t>indin~ P-e. 17if\der --........ -...i ope~:ng. AprI"clpal ream supporting the ends of t:io-o sets of floor Joists... a noggedpanel of haft-timber construction....·-·... WIth studs one story high filling the interstices..\\. _ ...... wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo. ""\.................... _...':.. _. if thJtch _. __ ..t1on.. rv~..ren with thin branches...1 wattle and aaul1 ~ I'·. Also called full frame...1m....ln-acea framework of solid girts mortlsea Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame...--... -... Also.'T1er supporting a wan o... _.............. Also. "'--.~P.. -post ....--... sum mer -'" ... ---" .. dropped girt y half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster.. kp ur cha se the ori gin al --._ .. -. or palm leaves.\ you nee dt open-timl1ered pan A major vertical division of a wall. At:. \ str3ining plect _.......... _ .. .. cop tr3Ye _ . principal ~fter _... A form of wall construction.. .... "m!>e... . Also. consisting of wattles COIered ana plastered with clay or mud.. A SW11...-. -.girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo. _..-i A crossbeam or a bay formed by A girt parallel to ana level with the floor joists. ...."... and reeds... .. _ .. .. ntern or turret on the roof of a rnealCal !lulldlng having slatted a~.. . ---....... ..... ..... ....tnal foreaverlng a roof.. ~......... used In the construction of walls and fences...I 11111 107 .... fastened to..... Alsa called flush girt... ""'" .....'.... Also ' C3 Hed summert:ru. Also... esp.. 'fll-. ...re the ground floor..--------------- "no~ One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaft-timbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli... halftimbered... his boo Ioll'r'tr _.Jres for the eSC3pe of smoke and admission of air.....~~~. "-_ . fca m.. as straw._...-... the m'mbee' '" ..... .... _.. A mr...FRAME praced fra me A building frame employl~ a he3Yj1.. twigs.... _ .. . "... _ ...II.5tiJd Ineastsummer _ ..

polar angle The angle fortned !1y the polar axis and a radius vector In a polar coordinate system. or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point. . Also calLed axis of . deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt..aJ1:. / /1 1/ l. . ... __ . '/: \ Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the postulates of Eucnd... The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m.:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate cop y al paralld ... and seconas... i cha se kp skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting.e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure.es~n caordinate ! y-axis . or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes.o the horizon...r.. the ori gin rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordlnzte planes x-axis --_.i~1 to the y-axis..--+----+-!c--+---f Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal.... degree A unit of angular measure. Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines... system..-"'--~-. -. J I I !1y ~surlng parallel to thez·axls... 3Cute JnSIe An angle ltss than oo~ '. A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness. nee dt his faralleltoorope. 5U rf3ce.. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line.. ur Extending In the same direction.-. o~u!Je Jngle An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°.. "--. are perpendlcuJ.. horizonbl o 0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com..1in assumed properties of _. -. point A dImensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon._ . --: ..1~ssas. caordinate AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt.. The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another. and neverconverglng or diverging.. radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed origin of a polar coordinate system..ordinate ..j .d1nates or y. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum.right angle l . or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea.:... '\ z-coordinate A coordlnzte determl AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes. _ . eq!Jldlstant at all pOints... or of the circUMferenCe of a circle. minutes. -" ---.-. polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system..-. spau. and relationships of points.. if you --.. 57:3°.... z-axis _. V3lues are ~sured In a CartesIan coordln4U system.". . ~ccnd -+----. mea sured In radla ns or In degrees. 108 1 _ . -.tlr~ boo Ina plane line para lie! t.. radiln angle A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx. as the In~rsectIon of two hnes.GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties.___f __ polar coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane !1y Its radius vector and polar angle.. minute The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure..vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't.. Also called axi s ofordfuUs... ver".-"-'.ical f~~iartot:he p!3neof~ horizon...' T}.. ---.. angles..-. Also called x-coordlnau. The 3x1s along which o.mon point... c. esp. The 60th part of a minute of angular measure. measurement.lines. l"'4 .' a17scissa A coordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis. and solids. . _. A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm...-.

- n. polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides. function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl. -.. "'-..~ trapezoid dt his trapezium parallel Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides tangent The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle.. .exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I An outward projecting angle or "-. Composed only of acute angles... n :. ~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" ..3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~.... as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe. ~ 35 the ratio of tr."'-..---.. ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _... ~~ triangle Apolygon having three sides and three angles.."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".. The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure..... parallel side... Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length.. the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter.. ...."" altitude .....-... surfaces.e s~ of a~ht triangle. -. angles e:q-.. of unequaller!gths. -..... -.. esp....... plane A surface generated l1y.e... ur u-Ig~etry ri9ht tria ng Ie boo '::'" hypoUnuse / .. ...... 1'3~ The the ~"""lOmetrlc regular . . ---. acuU . ...'-. you G nee Q _...... . formed l1y. plane geometry The pranch of geometry th. / I···· _.. rectangle ! ----"'~~ side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side.... C' Ci 2 I b-: .. CoInc~ 3t all points when cant . past!: ...... -. &iN! kp A triangle having a right angle....... Is opposIte the right an~le. straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point..... or characterized l1y stralght lines.. . Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --.... ~carrt "---... if The ~rr. one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent angles or vertlces of../ The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle. reentrant Reentering or pointing Inward.... C05eCarrt A polygon having six sides and six· angles... 109 .. and of their ... Having ~ite unequalsk:les. aspect ratlc In any rectangularconflguratlon... aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~ A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel.~--------l. GEOMETRY he~ht :.\_...' -.rtuse angle.d.. 1:......'---: side adj3cent to the angie T~ ~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides.r...' _.. Havlng. rectilinear Forming. the . v cop y coincideJTt ..• dIagonal right angles.3 polygon or r-:..C.. as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than 150~ --'•...cf!$.. ....uadribteral Apolygon having four sides and four angles..........o¥. polyhedron..... .. \..... -..... "'-......... square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles.:r.... .. Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr) - cot. :.: :. .. ~ q..JL ori $U~rI~ gin al The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides. - . The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand.. ...:. octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles.... ...etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~.j---.:'. Extent ex distance upward from • glven level to...' .espondlng II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. from which .- figure A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape..... interior a"9le ._ .... ".... such that..-..1.. rectangular Having edges...e.3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides. Lsalient obtuse --.·'"t.... r- Occu~ tM same place In spaceort:~..J~ tr'. hexagon Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU. ~jmibr cha se ........ -... "'-..--= '-t:-. or parallel surface...'-. .. -. fIxtd point. ~-+--:""~+----t' c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use.1-. . The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex. -----..... vertex \. as sine or coslM.. -H. I 1 I part. CO"9/"tlCft _ •. . The side of a right tri3ngle that ..rlc functions..i the sIde opposite a given angle:.:..•• . straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface.an altitude ~n pe C011Str1....: :... u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie.3ppfk7'..'... I ~1eM -.. The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~.41 and cor./ . ... ..tde3ls WIth pl3ne~ures.An ol7l1que hne or surface. ..../ .. pentagon A polygon having flve sides and flve angles.. or faces that meet at right angles. ...

®I /-..A . "'>'" " The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve. a ccnstolrrt equ~ te 3. ~': '..:::=--.. ~ ~llw< .......... meet.g-----+----r-~..------ boo ! I i i ur rouchlng at a single point.I '-" e{Jj~ ---. pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter.---. --.inflection Achange of curvature from convex to y al se ' colIC3Ve or vice vel'S3.minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular A closed pbne cUrYe generated by a point to the :T"-3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant ~ In such a W7"j th.J The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear ·flgure.-. hyper~ol... numrered counterclockwise from the upper right.. . dlst./ I -..t the sums of Its from the foci. cop cherd -'---'" . ------.... --. _ ."O".uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines. . cycloId A curve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line. without ~. asymptote A stralglr.. circumference _.. __ . plane . esp... eng.. ....! Includ. kp . another curve. if "---../ / . ----=-. .... Is cha I .. .~./: :' r-'''''--'' Any .. the fOCi. .ice... . ..~ b"dl" II"". point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:. concentric Having a common center.. eccentric Not having the same center Or center line. _ . -'.. . _ . or the envelope of the nortTUts te... raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere te the circumference or Pound1n.t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~.---... evolute rhe locus of the centers of curvature of... _.. as a straight line In relation to a curve./ .... --..ne curve 9tnerated ty a point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the plane remains constant... convex Curved or rounded outward 11I:e the exterlorof a circle or sphere.'. as a pl3ne with a tangent cylinder. concave Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere.14159+.. '. nee ...-... a constant... ...di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere. __... L . or In contact along a $lngle hn!:..... ..1 Aplane curve ~t3tea by...... --. helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a cylinder or cone Py the rota'tIon of'a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle. off-center Not centered or attne center point.-...na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb end.-.GEOMETRY circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve... - An Imaginary line that plsects. ___ ..centerline figure.. . his dt ."oJ from or appl'03c:hl11g It. ..__ . spheres. ......s the curve Is extended to Infinity. ---. _.e......g surface. ...' .. --.p3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle.. . ... \ ._.arc ... . ellipse. 110 ......-..---.. cusp A point where two pranches of curve and are tangent.. sector A ptar.. / I . the ~....... ._...d arc of a Circle..Involute Acurve traced by a point on a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder.~?'~~:slng through the tn'ofocl of an ori i \...' .. __ ._ . A p!.::t or surf.. One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular dls~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero...... -. -. (f ~ \ An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a.... ---. .nces from tl'lC flxed points. you spiral •.....~rant cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer.... as clrc~s or .~ . _-.. ." .. gin :. the perimeter-of a circle._. q.--. or the point within 3 regular polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices...... angles.....

..1 ~ do<b..hex..e .. _. .g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~ _....s <lna sides that are parallelograms. left aftercuttlng offtM top :..... .ed by a straight line.. co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne. . surface Arry figure having only two dimensions. 111 .. with. ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of ... _ . sphere major axis. cyiinkr -_ ..... congruent polygor..'.d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks.... r~ular H. cop al gin - y '..... ':.- -~ tet.. hyperbob . 3S an ellipsoid. pri~m / . esp... measured In cubic units.rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls...-_ . \---...raheaml..... ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer selid Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength....l:Ireadth.. Eklngated along the po~r diameter.1e flve re. --~ oct.cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces.. vertex.. prolate oblate Flattened at the poles.. prolate sphuoid Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener.ex.-_ . _ . prramid A po~t. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid. . _ . uuncmJ . hex3hedron.gul3r polyhedrons: te.. A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el.. . •· .g.t fates being 3 ri9ht angle. ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus._.mth are ell1pses. kp moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve. the gentra0".... A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone..edrcn havln9 a polygonallr. .... dt right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its his center .. a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon.. _ .lse and t. boo directnx. Asoild ger. poly41ron AsoIkI ge. Also called l7ody. -A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides. nee legs..nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us. _.a~ron A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces. and thickness.. Of' Ic054 heel ron... ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with .::Istra~ht line and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes..·· .. -----_ A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet.a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces. se An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'. hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us.directrix .... _.. t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac.'lvir.. esp.. A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt. by one parallel to the base. The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane.... or end \.erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter.tum Havl"9 the apex... the vertex... the ur cone ..base. cha A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau..etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau... ---.. cuP-e Asor. paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone. _. dodec3 hearon. and generatrlx.. passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt.--r.a sphere.."..'... equidistant from the center... you if vuux .-_.. pl3ne parallel to the :.. A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its skies.I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone.... whose ~rface Is at all points ~...iU1nic so~ One of t.. octahedr:.._ .GEOMETRY &pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to.. ed..n.fru. selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'.... ' Pl. _.. Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces. volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies.etrlc fi9ure. '. A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe.. Also called the ori generator -.:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-.

?o~~j~ if y Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or ~nd!llas~ to wscu revlslon. _. Circular dis£: wIth a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod. faPrlcatlon. Wlre gi3ss Is WI1sldereJ a safety glazing m..----. heat :. NllIbctured by pouring molten glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly. __ ._ . produud Dy ~ a Iow-emlsslvltyccatlng -.staIJizJtion. crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Py ~lowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into 2 fbt.~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture to aVsorV aportion of the I'3d~nt heat and LL '. rsat~!!... ~ refleaIng the longer ~sofradla"...~~_ ~t.1..~Il..e «<aMI glass).ctly pm/lel resultln41n some distortion of vision. or pattemed faus. ht3t~enqthenedgl1~$ Annealed glass thJt is partl311y tempered Py a proctss of reheatlng:.-' -. Tempered glass has three toflve times the reslstanu of annealed glass to Impact and thermal I na J stresses ~ut canM Ue altered afte.1t I1re3ks Into relatlvely h3rmless particles.nd nearly dJ.. J ...)...:~ y ! I r~u~lgb" laminated or InsiJi3tlng glass used for SOU nd control ! i I 1 \Wire9ra.insmlsslon thro~h:l particular glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss. .':' rch more sheets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-st3ied alrsp3U5. lIIe ~ toondeJ to the exterior or Interor sUf"bce kI reflea J portion of the JIg ht and radiant heat th3t strike It.~ T 1 I vlsa.~k ~son. Heat·strengthened glass h:.nts If the gl3ss is mien. ori gin al . Also called~t~~·. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy roinng molten glass Into a plate (rotled glass) that IssuPse'luently ground and ponshed ~coonng. plate 5laS5 A fut.ren¢l glass Sf-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In.".. AIS<? called ~~:egUlar ou n fl§ured I~SS.sterl4l sdenkm Infuses a~ tlnt Also C4f1ed __ . Float glass is the successor to plate glas5 and account5 for the 1113jorIty of fl4it-g lass proJuct1on.as about twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness. -··~~·-::~~=ll-j ~. A tf.Ices are not perfe..5. and futtenl"! It (cyffnder . ~tem~red gtas. Iron oxide gives the !lass a pale ~. -"- ". hermetlc -_ ....lves together with a partla I vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings.. (2. shutgbss A flat..--.. made Py fusing two h.i'~~g~~~ laminated gl3ss havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength. si~~strength gla55 S~ glass h3-. hoilow The r.. A fut. ~~.. produced by fusing a ~ramlc frlt to the Interior surfa~ of tempered or heat-strengthened glass. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Pondea under he3t and pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resIn.l T 1 1 . ££~It ~~lmpartsa~h. 112 ..~!~l~~· ..s '" extremc:!y smooth . ~. r~ I 1. Glass biii'g'a thin...against a ~fack ~ at the ~me temperature. hUt-~Rf . . or Pyformlng a cylinder.. ~'~~~$j :~~~Wt~:..< I GLASS A lurd..lnstucent.. An o~~ glass ·f~ ccnceanrig the structural elements In curtain wan construction.:.uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded withIn It to prevent shattering In the event: of ~bge or excesslv~ heat. scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa ~rlcattd Py drawing the InOIten glass from a fumK. (32 mm). textured. ... == bfoc~ of glass wIth clear. When fracturea. * em~ The reb-tNe alIdlty of a surface to emit I'3di3nt ~t.-. _u .. __ . The flrepolished surf. -r1 i -t- ase '~i~~~ A glass unltCOi1Ststlng of two or the . i i cop I .~"::!~~fl3t9IaSSDoncWUnder I I I I I float glass . MUe airtlght by fusing or Staling..:... 'h~di~ ~lent ~V:j~~i~~I~ ~j..-. soda·h~sllicJ glass that J. II IL eed SlJrface pattern formed In the roOing process to obscure vlslon or to diffuse fight. Also called ..a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwled slowly to reHeve Internal stresses..1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn. produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without c!.le Ight tlut strike It.~ i pu I I ook sb '"~t.~~..stortlonfree..5~. "either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In t. heat.'~ : 1 = Flat or pattemed glass having a so.. sometimes having an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission. _.he sealed spaceoflnsula~ng glass.lass. dcuble-st. tJIvIdIng It lengthwise.. __ .. "_. I' Annealed glass thJt is reheated to just l>elow the softening point a then 1'3 pldly cooled to Induce compressive streS~ In the surfa~s and edges of the glass and tensile stresses in the Interior..._ .-l' .. Imp3ct'reslstant glass plock unit.and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl l1utyl'3l resin that retains tM fr39!?!t.iI~ eX solar heat tr.lniWe..lass).4mm)..~ thi ill J +. __ . _u. anne..ana sudden cooling. Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while -.lI1easured :. usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance. translucent met.

----.._ synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower edge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame.. -.-"" t '. measured In tnches.Jcegluing doul:Jle gl3zing The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound.. -.. used In '-.------------------.... unit'.GLASS t.ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening.. \. -----~. ~e p~ck --. --\--------_. curing to fonn a watertlglrt seal.azJng Urad.eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass C<lmpression ga~ket A preformed strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe.--.--. wi11dowframe. -. .structural Se3lant The . Also catted glazing stop. or mirrors.en aglJss pane or unit and a Window frame to form a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass. putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil.---. cr Icd-strip gasket. A Sm3n. A wood molding or meta! section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place. as In windows..----. A thin layer of putty or glazing compound lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng. Iockstrip gasket --.~ • . stop... patching woodwork defects. held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket. .mount of OYeNp between the edge of..las5_P'. pM or unit..___. doars...... the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i. ---... -..l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates .. -... " "" if '..--. stJbil1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass. -----.-.. ---. and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound. formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age.anu bet~ the edge of a glass p-ane or unit and.. I: The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on . --. The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame.--.-.----.. spaur. -----. secur!l1g windowpare5 or. One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c --_ ... .4 In glazing to form a watertlglrt seall7etween glass and frame....-. curing to form anairtlg ht sea I. gl. -- .... glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me..1rance -------------. -: . you "'- nee f.' ~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons or thermal expansion One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or dt or contraction...----. I'i l wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant.g system In which the framing members are setentlrely behind the glass panes or units to form aflush ~ surfau.. A high-strength SIlIGoM Sailant capable of adherlng glass to a supportIng frame. Also called gl. eageck.~zing .------. --. ".. ~-." y dry glazing . Apreformed ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use. -.. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass pa~orun!tandtheneares-tfaceoftts r".---------. =:'O~5~af~.ce _. of doug hfl:e consistency when fresh.. the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant.--.- fra me" stop. l:Jite ~. Also calIea centerrng shim... malntJln a uniform width of Sailant.I The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing tape or a hquid sealant.---~-"'m----r . The size of a glass pane or unit required for gLnlng 3n opening.. flush glazing Aglazlr.. ------.dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened.-----. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus. ancl Joined by. I glazier's point ---------. 113 . Also called cap l:>ead. glHS stu . IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass. -----.1 frame to unter It. with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions.-' ...::.lce c!elr~n.. A preformed gaske-t of synthetic ru..--------.. --. The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames. ~sured n~31 to th~ plane of t~ glass.a:zrng size....-----.... : An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead. ~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps. l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supporteJ at the head and sill In a conventional manner.cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame. cop al ori gin cha se the ur his boo kp . Iii \ . hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points. fAce putty .. glazir~ compound An adh~sNe compound used as putty. -----.----_ glazing ~d heel pe3d . -.. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol.----.. . ------The dlst.-. arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II rJb~ pl3ced l7etween sating block . Also called gl. s~.glazing tape : ...

Also calledJudas hole.·1-- ori man slot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war..s.. . ' ... .. fastenings. -.---.--.-. ~ ~- y . A ~~!e for opening a door. . A device for hotdlng • door open._/ AtlevIu In a hydra!... ········-·'·········:~I. In terms of right OIna left.. ------i I hand The position of the hinges of a door. the house Or apartment num~.'~ doo~p boo . floor closer --:... door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more than a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed. I J ....ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ .. ~h hardware .... I Fl~) ---- rlght-hana Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads. -.. through which mail Is denve. Bor". . often i'fith a hinged closer....-. nee dt ~ ...•. --....!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the Inside of ....--. and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed doorclo~r overhead conce....l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor. .. gU3rd... or the IlI::e.--. door chain Ashort chain with a remov:. --.---. ' door h. !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name... A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches.-....1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads.". you L _________ . ___ -.. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the floor. l1umper A~~ rim. nails. kp ur cha se the ". - .. ../.•.--.l i.-.--. cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3... Also called letter slo1:.-... windows. kick pL:rte ---... L/ L right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads...J house or room....small weight.. when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to which t. Ii -.1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door. doers. A hlngej ring. -. -/. d"" . push plate .-... pad. judas I door pull ~ .-... if left-hand Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which the doorway leads.. Also C31~ architectural hardware. al cop pun par _.....HARDWARE The metal tools.. and fittings usea in construction.·..eilas a utilitarian purpose.onstructlon. A pt:t:Fho!e.. _ ....ie doorwIIY leads.e . _... used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass.... as a wedge ex.--... 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:../ .' door...ed._. L L 114 .at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission.!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me. hinges.---:::--...-. ~ac~~ck finish hardware Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as.. . gin A Ir. ... or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng. as In an entr..... . Also called AcIocrcloserconu. ana knocl:er -. screws. doorptrt..!"" door closer for sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened. _.3 ttd cfcser c... . .--. Dar..i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell.. as the other accessories for lod:s. A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming. -' A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of .....automatic door Pottom his A horlzonta IIr..heclc...----------.--...A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~.

\.l num!7er of flat plates rotatIng about a central pin...----.-----------.moofTk.' --------.. usually conslstlng of two leaves . 17afl-~Jring -.--II pin cw..-... 1 115 . _.-. -mounted on the fau of the door.-.HARDWARE hinge mortise hi~ doojamb_ ~----------------------­ A Pun hin¥ I10rtLsed Into the .proJectlngjolntofa hInge through whIch the pin passes. A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<. _r----.-J gin ori the . fun-surface hinge. sliding.='==-t~==~ ha~-.-.------. or shutter swings. . Also c31led concealeJ hlf14t:. r'-'-invi.d on ana the other the doorfra me..~~~ .~~ ~.. --- pau~"e A hinge havIng .----.turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-. door can stana . hinge ~---------------- _---. Also cafled ollvt: hinge.¥o 1a"e5_ rch pu ~ ase ------.atherextremltles. - A hl~e M3vlng a nonremovaule pin. htthinge A hInge com posed of two pf3tes secu red to the auuttlng surfaces of a door ana doo1amu.\j ~l I tlpring hinge ~------------------------A hinge co~ J coiled spring In Its u-arrel for closing 3 door automatically.es of a door ana docrlrame. -'----. usually fitted with sprln gs to Uring the doof to a cIosea poslt1cn after opening.urface li. -~- 10 ·Y·~ aou17te-acti"!'l hl"¥ A hinge permlttlng a door to swing In either direction. y ® .and the long stem loeing tM mavaD!e lat. with shoulders mortlse.lting the t. plvatl~joi. knuckle . templ1te hinge ~-.-. ~ from the pln_ Also called sb ook gudge. ~ ~"I . mounteJ to tile adjacent fa<. al .strap hinge o A hInge havIng two long !eaves for securing to the adJ3cent faces of A door and doorjamu. Ioc~pin hinge ------------------. ® pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re 0 0 0 ® slightly when opened .--. ------. Or moves.rolt on which something turns.I door can be unhuf11 P:i separ.es. ~ from the wall when My ~ Ioc~joint hinge ------. A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surface"...d~~~ ------I ---\\ th~ tdge of ~ door 5 urf~.- _. . rI~lng hinge AgravIty hinge causing 3 door to riSt 0 ® 0 piano hinge II long. ~ :!) olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having 3n MI-shapea knuckle...--------.-. A h~e Mavlng.dovetail hinge A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than at ~ei. parliament hinge An H-shaped hln¥ hJvfng a protrua'1ng knuckle SO that. hinge.I~. or otherwise mevable part of a door. gain A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hinge.rTt.on A socl:et for the pintle of a hinge. narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its . or tabletop.l reroovable pin 50 thilt . _.____________ '. ga~..las of a door and A jointed device. single. on which a door.. Also called T-h1"9t:. leaf Ahinged. ------------. .~ Thecylinarical.(£5 '--------4-r-----.Mtln~ sur-f. ~ . ---. A hin.. turns. ~ gravity hinge A hln~ that closes autcmatlcally by means of gravity.je hJvi~ one leaf mortised Into the doorframeana the other surface"--. Also called sInkIng....----.¥ .lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon.~. liftcff nl~e_ eed thi A hinge hJving a knudle formecl from half of each bf. flap bi"ge ------------------.d Into the door edge and doorframe SO 3S to concealed when cloSea. ----3S tI-~ gudqeon of a hinge. bst-pin hiO¥ (±) cop ~ A hir-¥ equipped with!r.'.-------.cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hl"¥ with tM crosspiece 3S th~ 5t4tlonary 1!1emPa.. if y ou n pintle -----------------.llIle hi"¥ A hinge consisting of. wlth the upper haff remo. Also called l7acl:fup hl"¥. Also called Putt. ~ah~.~~:oh~"6t .JoIned together lJy a pin.

~'-t~ .. ~ ..y~ A slOt In a Iod: for receiving and guk:llnga~.-...'~iQift. "'..lncfuair<.-. regu~r nee dt his Or shift that C3nies the knmand actuates tM I3tch •. Of locI: cylinder.:!y c~ t._____ _ ~~wtUtil two ~Ies specL.~ __ l ~~:..~ ur rrcrea y ·>. keyhc~.... cOQJ~i~!C_~. 'a for hoidlng 3 door c~.-:. ----...J ~ jA ~.gage with ana actuate elU-~::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock.-'_7'..1!-~ with the face or edge of a aoor.. ~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that the Inactive A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lad bo!: . the turning of a key.i .~Jdtt"~ i~~" A~~eor ~'f~~.1 ~ 1 HARDWARE lock A ~ for securing a door.o fit Int. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key.ry leads...o~. ---. if you ron ~. Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu lar form that rotates or sl4les U> lmpa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface.. ... ~..mM An o~tructlng part In a lock that prevents a Dolt from relng propelled or withdrawn unUilt Is movea by the action of a Key.:f 1- bevel The cplique end of a latch bolt th. .ich the bolt passes to the ~dJM of se turni~ propelled or withdrawn.'e its ~..d for installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door. Also called stn~ piaU:. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.-::::::~ .~..- (eyer'til.GjW-. //".·--··--··-··-··-········-~·­ lip .. Afut meta! tUmDler having a pivoting motion actuated !r. edge of a door..~---.---. hen the door is closed.~ The'!iOrlZontal d1star. drawer pulL '_ or r'9ht swluh.L L L L L f "~ -y. the . . -.. Thef. or bolt of alocl:. The sIde of a lock facing In the same direction as the !level at the tTl aof the I3tchrolt.~. -_.. 116 L I . or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed.br The prC¥Ctlng ulge or rim of a strike. one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---.(fl~sh'boit&iei..'..I I A' kd f3~~ to the f3a of a door.::-.-___ ~~ ~---:.ng a ~ey. . panic h3rdware. _ kp Ont4 :r. '~'=--==:-". :. . ~...u irem the the knob stem.l that into posltlon !r.. _-.e:rtal plate..rt spans the Intero.i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the &mit~~' -. '.~ .avlni1 a ~uare heat.~--:-:.---.of an emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the uteh when pressure Is 3pplled.1 doorpml1 having a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t wMn the door Is closed. ~.'". ___ doortoob....":. ccnsistlng essent13l~ cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the Dolt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have Deen pushed out of Its way... cam· ..~b:. -_ .. as arO'J rJ a keyhole.. : A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lock or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding war-If:..--. Mnr M:·-----------.... leaf of a pair of doors Is permItted to close before the active leaf. .--' --~--" A metal plate 0. ~}t. .o A ~roove or hole.3~ cut to.-~. reverse bevel The Devtl of a Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the Pulld1~ or room to which the doorw3'j leads.---'.. • .• b>evd .l ~nc...fX comDlnatlonAn asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up 3 complete locking system. t.. Also called~..--"'. A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-.ental pl3te surrourJ1ng the sh."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the bolt of a Into position l1y a that Is spring exupt when retracted ry a doorknol7.. Alsocall&t~f!1~ al ~ ~e plate or surface throo~h which the Pelt of a lock cop reyel'5ible lock A led having a latchbolt th3t can be rev~rse. _pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ One cf *~ projecUn~ bl.• --. sliding Into a socket In the head or striKe . ~~~ A~ll1arorrodlnthe mechanism of a lock that Is gin pas~. or lid il posftloll when closed.nto a mortise In a the silL A horiz""tal~3r th. the turning Is of 3 ~nob or key rather than ry spring action.'t) J l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into cha a doer ~ so ~ the led mecha nlsm Is ~ on ~oths~. Also.'.o a lad and :r"". opern:ed ~h3 nisin.---. -._ . notch. Also callea panic bolt...:1omB~ II K:>&~ h.u.'. of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door.hapeahandle ry which a door 15 o~orc~eJ "(fOcdiUilt -------....~ that falls or $ilks Int. as Dy a ~nob or key.~. '\.. POX aoor.s.·. . .. _} 'i.mbJer... ..f.. . of 3 b:. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm.. roreJ at right angles to euh other.~.. ori An ont4rr. Imh Ade. drawer.... -'sc~ecn'1 face of a eek through . pani.. movea \~.t hits a strl~ plate. boo . -..1f.ng a !leveled head \ v~~~ Ioc~.' The l1evel of a or lock on a door opening 1nU> the L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw.. \.

or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o. Abw.. ruse.~---__I1--~""r_--------___.------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~.lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(.-- Fahrenh~itSC3le Celslu5~le kp A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n".HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules.eat required to r. 1 hatC3pacity ----------.iijbrlum . 1: ~ const. ~ulv3tent to 4.latent hut "'*~~_=..-.by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ".. al : : which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under of -273.lArge c...ospnere.al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale. . In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure.- ori ~..alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree.67"F.a l?solute zero The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete absence of heat. 117 ..------I1 The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·. g3seous. gin A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~.r .. 'r<A j 1 epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F. . calorie ..-.alorle. cha When you know deqrees Fahm:heit.186 joIJtes. 5ym~oI: I( triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid.~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea I l tlm~ -..: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~.7ter. first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit..l6 of the tr:ple point of v. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4.3. Also caW gram standard atmospheric pressure. ~!7s0lute ~are cop I I y I Atemperature SC3le In Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees. snt311 C3lcrle. Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo. if IC<J you 125lI I r------r-------------' nee dt his the ki10cJ lerie }: . r · .-e untlgr'3M. -' . _."ttem~tureaMpressure.16°C or -459.r. ----. at a pressure of one aUr.:. equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles. Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature. se When you know degrees boo .16°e. ~ \ f }j)J . fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find Celsius. kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm. ur deg~Cdslus. Also called ~ntlgrade scale.-. A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade degrees.: c... . _.a!ork:.. -·· . expand: or evaporate.al. ./.. equal to -27. . conduction. .. AQl. capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection...c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase..

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