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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH ·ITECTURE
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Digitally signed by Arch. Francis V. Fernandez DN: cn=Arch. Francis V. Fernandez, o=SpiralArchitect, ou=Architecture, email=archfrancisfernandez@y mail.com, c=PH Date: 2009.06.06 05:53:27 +08'00'

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC
NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO

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This book is printed on acid·free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

Printed in ~e United S~ of America.
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U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

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This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.

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(ONTENTS PREFACE 7 ARCHITECTURE ARCH 12 BEAM 15 BRICI< 18 BUILDING 21 9 FORCE 96 FORTIFICATION 98 FOUNDATION 100 FRAME 104 GEOMETRY 108 GLASS 112 HARDWARE 114 HEAT 117 HISTORY 128 PLASTIC 192 PLATE 194 PLUMBING 196 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202 ROOF 208 ROOM 216 SHEll 219 . SITEWORK 221 SOIL 224 CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 CEILING 30 CERAMIC 32 CHURCH 35 COLOR 38 COLUMN 40 CONCRETE 42 CONSTRUCTION 48 ~ DOME 60 DOOR 62 DRAWING 66 ELECTRICITY 74 ELEVATOR 80 FASTENING 82 FIREPLACE 87 MATERIAL 161 the DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 - ori LOAD 151 gin LIGHT 142 al JOINERY 140 cop HOUSE 136 y SOLAR ENERGY 226 SOUND 228 STAIR 233 STONE 236 'STRUCTURE 238 SURVEY 246 TEMPLE 248 THEATER 256 TRUSS 259 VAULT 262. VISION 264 WAll 266 WINDOW 271 WOOD 276 pu ook sb eed FIRE SAFETY 88 thi if y INDEX 285 ou n flOOR 92 rch ase MEASURE 166 MEMBRANE 168 METAL 16? MOISTURE CONTROL 176 ORDER 179 ORNAMENT 182 PAINT 187 PLASTER 188 .

.. a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images. the ori gin Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign... The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich..he power of a solitary word or image. look rt up in the index. history. Within each section. .-4-. and technology. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. and scan fer the terms. Regardless of t.PREFACE . . >+_. . then one can 1001: it up in the index. brOn-5e the illustrations... each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon. . r~'r ~ "'. then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index. RAther.. one C3'. ~ I J Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. While browsing. most of the entries naturally lend _themselves to graphic representation. and multidimensional nature of architecture. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive. clarifies. . dt al cop y 7 ." :. ____ ttl . ' "')I if you nee One picture is worth a thousand words his boo kp ur I· r~ i i ~ I Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words.: . Since architectcre is a visual art. however. =1~ __.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning. Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. complex. l ~. r . One can then refer to the appropriate section.. If one does not Know the precise teim. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest. and completes their meaning. the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents. cha se The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js. words are placed in a visual context which further explains.. This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe.

-John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect. -Bruno levi. time.even appart11tly humPle dwcUl"4S.indsoon. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light. convtn1enu. to stress social identity and Indicate status. which can De grasped and felt only through direct expmence. when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use.ls the J p"*. and ~ehavlor. and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. therefore.thmy. Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding l- people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve. L L L the last. -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order. that Its~k well. BUildings affect all of the human senses.e laws of nature and use gin al cop y desires and feel1ngs.i Iphcnomen. The esstntIal step. whatever It has to do or ~. and engineering.ed of them. touch. materials. Arran~ Eur:.ed. But gr. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng.. ~urabll. convenience.-Jng you nee l . In the broadest sense. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone. and from supernatural powers. Sym metry. and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture. Internal space. In any sltuatlon.sound. the four facades may seem weU. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics. and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture. the book of their words and the ~ook of ~Ir art. You must follow tr. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors. -Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen L 8 . ana what Isexpec1'. to Pc more Im~"t than boo kp ur enemies. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. and t. smell.l::. .are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \.archttecture. I l I j pe~uty. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. the only varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r.Arch~re.gonlstof .:.lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society. Thought orders space. roles. to esta~nsh place: to create a hum. and vision. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. the rookofthelrt!eeds. Tograsp space.palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~. and please us by Its presence. but of the three the only trust~or. Propriety. ~use InJlldlngs . safe area In a profane and cha se It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities.~.ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected. Archftut. ~hnology. ori ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being.l. and landscapes - are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~. and Economy. anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way. baslc cultlJ. They arelnstlMlons.and sculpture are callecl the flnearts. No single explanation wfllsufflu. that It act well. thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn.. for ordinary people. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty. from human and anImal poten tsally dangerous !York. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly. taste. and economy.lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs.e Is l.. Is through the me3sura~le. - dt his if physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable.palntlng. and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure. actlvIty: status. methods of construction.ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. -l.ools Kahn • Built environments have the I\uantltles of ~rk. and beauty.. -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng.in!z.' On the whole I think this Is true. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that chrnate. But In the end. -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all.y ordinary people. a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time. Is the ordering or organizing of the environment. that It look well. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts. . to know how to see It.

and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re r r if you nee dt his boo BUILDINGS kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y 9 . and SCIENCE architecture of DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments. collectively.I r I I r I I r' ARCHITEC The ART architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs.

and city planning. space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning.l7tJslness. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment. fittings. L J I 10 . 3 forecast of future requirements. trutirfulness. Also called town planning. and . discernment. Also. ana beauty The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. L L L if you L. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr. and proposals for legal.xture. originality. sometimes architectural features. with a the nature of art. layout. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu. view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. urean planning. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements. often unspeGlfIal7!e property. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. construction.ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. finishes. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. landscape architecture. inUrior design The art. beauty. urban design. esthetics. or other. excellence of craft. harmonious. e~lnurlng. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building. financial. aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with tJste. or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. fumishi~s. url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces. i J taste CriticalJudgment. and creative lm.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng.Ilvldual u nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt. city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community. design. includlng their color schemes.

-- landsc. development. structure. and the environment.. fu neticnlng. --~----------------~ ~~-0.''-''-'-''"''''"U .. '-"-?~-'- ~~... technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials.... technics The SCience of an art or of the arts In general. L ~-!~~~'cfitl.~:::~~~.. . ana environmental and soclal relations of humankind.. tectonics The science or art of shaping.~~/:~~:-:: t~~"'''.:). ..·~~~~~~~i~jl:'~tl~" . society. .. gin anthropology al cop y . '.-~'N~ :r~J:~~~. arranging. or assembling materials In construction. .J)i1fr-.-.. \. that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of human behavior In society.ape architecture The art. omamentlng. and their Interrelation with life..:t:.. . 'r t'\ architectonics r firmness The state or quality of uelng solidly con 5 tructed. or profession of designIng. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs. se boo kp ur cha nee dt his if you the l1ehavioral science Arry of the Sciences.~ '~rf/ ~ . physlc3l ana cultural development. )".ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalned!1y direct observation._ . engineering The art ana science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design ana construction of structures. ~cio(ogy ori social Institutions and relationships: sped. busIness.-~~:. the study of the origins... equipment. -: r:-'. -a i 11 . systematically arranged and showing the operation of generallal'ls... ana systems. The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work.--."'. experimental Investigation.. as salology ana anthropoiogy.. __ -.. and methodical study.j< ' . The science of human The science of human beings: speclf. the study of the o~ln..R..

.' one of the arch centers. j I . often In the form of a kp !7Iock. "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t.. Also CJi!ed cop y The triangular-shaped.:. VII I 5pring 1springl~..~h.I or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch. archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd .. I: dt I· his j boo ur L . the sprlMIMtI line to the .._s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_'~~~~========================== __ Impost r l . Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~h Ill(..h'e~htof~na_hfrom". N50nty M-ch ~ keystone The wedge-shaped. or .. Also called folster.es ornamented area 17etween the ~.1l)1per 51ip...' spandrel The point at which an arch.. des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression... ~voU$$Oir H--~_ __________---. r.-U-l.:. .t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch. '.:'. f ! L L l L L '>.e uppermost part of an 4IPutrnent. ~ An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs. ~_e. II j ffilllI{ _ L L / _ 12 L .. .... when e3ch Dro1·~...~. \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch. or molding..----------. you nee I... or dome rises from Its support. • extrados The exterior curve.-.ndos of two adjoining arches.... VJu~. capfbl.rJ t.. Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault.-..highest J'"Ir1 or point of a . ~croWn .ntraclos_ t J -----t5pn'.. sometin-. Also calle4C... _____ . havl~ side cuts converging ..f t M ! f ! .. Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_ l. ~\----~-E:1 Tr.".the The first v'oussoir resting on ~- M='=a=na=rch==_==================~===±~ ______ . cha se the t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down ori LJ I u I if 1.g Acrosspleu connectlng the I". -The...~\'~~[~. esp..h I ~enur!ng A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself. Also~Sp2ndril.. ". surface.. - ." . often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch.:. serving to lock the other voussolrs In place.------..1 It. camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch.~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ ..r-->n\---:intrados-.or~_ gin cormx ccnst:ructlon... I ! I from the crown to the Impost. _J 11 • formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ .···r lJUVUrt. as anarcn. or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch ..tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening.....-.!-~ .e pelcw.l>s in 3 centering.. I. i al vault. - -.J"'pCjond the o:'. from which OIn arch springs.

---------J-..4dt his boo kp arch -------~ ~Mment ~ The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch. i The thrust of an arched structure on Its ~~-#-r-------------t-I. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis...oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul.:. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses.. thru-hinged arch A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form.~ abutments. steel. and Inversely proportional tcthe rise .af projection y se I .-. one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading..m::hed structure of timber.--------------+-'arch action I The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway. ! --.~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure.:. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh. The setof·resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one.--.rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading. I .In ori arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis. vault. Junic~lar .-. proportional to the total load cha i ur ana span.L-. a TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o.~ line of thrust.1rc_h I An . Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture 13 .. r r .r 5hape for al Ithru5t.~. gin An tr. or strut.r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW.-.:liI~~·::it-"Jrlft" cop the The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another. two-hing~ if you nee .d C'ltritS horlzw. tigid arch--·i An .~----. . r--~-------+. As with any funlcu13r structure. f f . funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes.. ~ tie rOd An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie.ul concrete. I f" .l ARCH I l r r . A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form.gan archeJ form.. or relrrforc.ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern.pe for a c. esp..

Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r.1rch .. l~ ! o¥earch A pointed arch. .~ .:Idn. • ettuli~r3rarc&' equal to the span.rch having an Intracios that Mdens I ori aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to. {j !PeUarch with cUrYed taus. A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center..'trefol1 arch An .. round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc.nch.. esp..c:.-t-. drop al'C" A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r.ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t .. but no arch action Is effe. .. al cop '" 'to> fi) ..' ._________ hor$eSMe arch An.. I A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. : . often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng. a semicircular one..J/ .! . --~-------~ sti~darch ~ . se ur • skewPact -'. kp ·~·t··7-·.J I ~~~Iarc~··. ApoInted arch. \.:IdJl tess than the spar!. ".jJ rounded crown.. -3. fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the 1 ~\. / _l .':.. ~t corbel arch ~ French arch . . . Also C31~1c ai-aI:'. . Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch. I l. one havIng two centers and equal r. '\i. Alsocallefn~ de panic! \ if you nee dt his boo "---~_+ '---' I lJ polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown. An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn. o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening. • RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr.~ tJ .. basket-handle . .~ ":-:.1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three round or pointed foils..:. fUt.1rch Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes.A·· . <::<:..:ldos. . L i L I L i·t-~ : 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span . . ..cncave side uppermost I L 14 . The stepped reveals may be smoothed..i An arch strock from one or more the gin I cha centers ~Igw the springing line. 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels y . An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r..'ed Intrados.~.. -L . e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c..ed.\"'. G~thl~'~Rh. I r. esp.i~uations of the arctr0lt.:Idll la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span.. other.. /.Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests. \ ~ ~ .-_ _ _ _--' A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f.. i rampant.:Idiating from ~ center ~w.

~------.i-alaxis ..... alonq which no ~endirtg stresses occur.... ~ ~ \?ending' 5tre55 . ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ co ns k:lerJtIo n.J prevent slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' . a..1te for an anticipated ~ ~--~-- r l i ..-----------~ Un5lon of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end..-=---=--=--=----..lncre3sing with Ioad. --..__ . al boo I cop y ..J.em~ ~tes from .e to a ~~ roment.. The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear.. ori gin \ .--------. "'-....--'---------"vz:-~:.- section. .neut.1 true W1.J~ kp L .h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr.:-"-------------4I -r..::...= i~=!r~~ler ! span.~ualatanypoint ~ . -----. -...----L. i i r f under ?4nsverse loadlng.?'-"' An exta"Ttl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt ~14 his ~.lM span..-. urJertransverseloadlrtg.: __ . cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force. ~~h~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---1 ..ctty ofthe~L -===------------------~Iii =+ t f ±[f * -+ + [ distance l7etween the supports of il \ Ptnd~mcment -<...mpresslon ''-..----. and aecre3Slrlq ·.l... -: ~------ -An extern...!.. --~ : to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:.. ----... ~nt Into al>tam.--- ur r f dt nee cha se .-.e sectbn Deing conslderecL ~ft.~ ------.. :::::::::::::::::::::::::.alshearforu at il cross section of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~...... gIrder. ...-~---.-- -----+--____-L____ 1'~ The snearlng stressdevetOped t...oadsacross space r+---1-J-h __ 1span L...~\ ~ . fl1U31 to the a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on one side of the . 1 ~~moment t------------------~-• An fnt:er.ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or the modulus of ei3~. havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces.:. ~ : : ~ .::::+~..IIIii!lIlIii!!illIlIlIlI!liI..."ents.. The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of il span.~'. the ~~'. --.-.... 'U y .lII~IiIi~Ii~~tirjainiSViel~e. having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs. - ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure.. Also.... A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at.L.---:\ vertical shearing stress.i~ If'... or ~... rc\earspa~..!--------' ~~ulard1stance il spanr..BEAM A rigid structural member 5UPPOrtl"l! ..---... " " " " .-----.. I : : ___ . ~ 15 . truss to if you ~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y r compellS. to designed W C3rry and transfer ~ ~1!1I~~!i~II~.z<_~:.. the strocture so supported. .ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-. C An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or other rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng.-__.-T'.at that point AISO ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~1'in4 s~s..... -:-. generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~..

M C =MC{J)~-----where mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation. At the txtreme surfaces of a bam. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the m3teri.. I = extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng = bending n10mttTt = distJnc~ from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9 If Yc = ®~-------then fp =MIS 'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface. you nee L . prevent torsion or twlstlng. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ . Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material. JouPling th~ depth reduces t.25 inz = Area of section 11.a 16 .!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4. I 1i 33. I I ~- tension L L r I L J - 5hear ceo'Ur s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?· T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f. secuon.J she3r 5tre55eS. -.mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe.1l stres:.of the mem~er a~out. The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea.tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam. section modulu. the prlnctp..r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to Iongltudlnal axis.a transverselOad'.mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq. _1- cha se al boo L kp J if t dt At th~ nelltra/axls of the section. " = Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~ ry 3 tJacre{ z.61n' "" S 54.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion y cop 25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis 3861n 4 = iaboutx-xaxis 5 52.7in 3 = ori the ur gin principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam.BEAM fp f.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a. only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp.ect to botb be:nJlng x.( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur.s to the neutnl1Xl5. his For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut.

m..II.l. :: : I : Concentr. tJ. Also calW hu~-span...1i sim~~~u. J. The overall which vary hne. . .1 A~.!:.. shears.. .f-l-l.j.. of.BEAM l f r ...E 1representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support con.~* ~~~: .. nee dt 5u'pended-5pan A sImple ~m supporW by the cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans with plnneJ constructlonJoints at polnts of· zero moment.!!e.nsfer !:>ending 's~s. a~ on~one I momentdi.... effective length The dist3~ce l>etween Inflection points In the sp3~.ifT1ir..ff£ljs at Dot.d... and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its cress· sectlonal shape and ma~31. span and loaJlng but also on cross· sectlonal sn3F~ 3'1d material... '~. the values of an reactions.. whleh are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce.l ' i l t +111...t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the 5f!41 As5l.... 6' ~ J . nt..:fitlons.. A graphic 5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0. ... hearforcesthatacts "e:rtIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left pol rt of the structUrl: l>elrig'c·onsl. " ~~§Jn ordu tc aevelOp gr~~r rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple ~ms having similar spans and loading. ' :. Uniformly distribrMd loads produce parabciJc311y var:lr. T -. . and moments are dependent not only or..rfy between loads. r r i fF :-~:~~!-W..-L ~====~J====~l.~. .L.'. The overhang rl:duces the positlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~atlve moment at the Inse of the cantllever over the support.'I! Concentrated loads produce e~mal she~ -' cantilever peam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce line3ri) :....t ._.'''~J'~.": X'pro~rij veat:ns. and ~uce Its maxlmum defIect1on._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~r----... IJf the sp:m.."r:esutta ..J. t r i . I. I Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW l03d... Both fIXed· end and contlnuous !:>eams are Indetamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. shears.. dd1ected shape of a structure sul>ject to Pendlng can often ~ Inferred from the cantilever shape of its moment diagram.."'" overhanging l>eam Aslmple beam extending beyond one Its supports. : ..~. negativeshear ..t.: : t' ...:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr.lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m. I! ..~~~ tr.r.. of. ~i ur kp flIt.otlwfly detennlnate structure. .'''''.f a flxed·end or continuous beJ~.~~L. ~:. ~.. .~~ ..~c...-:-7"-"-..~J~.LL.....-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3 simp!] s~pportea 'eam.: A¥3EIC:~torrott~~n.u pPPfted.L 1.res~l?nt...l..t 3t midsp71 .~ ends.J. the projections for . I . if '=~'t.... J.~!"'''"'tant.L i. ! !. quiIl3ie..'~.P..1gram _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~.' y ori gin al his boo .. ccrttinuou5 pe4m .nlch the mommts om-the supports 3~ eqlJ3/ md oppo$'U to the momer.I. 17 . positive shear .ln: . As with any st.LM I ' cha positive moment .rW l.-L-L.-t. .:lered.. shearforcesth3tacts r vertIca~ upW1ra~n the left part of the structure !:>efrig ccnsldere. ..f~~jj. L.!<L :. se the ' r ~ .~ mcments..L L.. ·~~~tf~~~'~=:~~~~~==~~~~~~~ cop ~-:-:"rr.e projection for wltfch the morrr~ oy~ the 5I.-l A !:>ending rT1<lment ~ proaiJce$a concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure. I .. you ~ be3m exterJing~~t~~ih".re approximately '/. 3 uniformly distri/7r...s .heard~g"m li'l:1 Illllllllll' III ! (III ).lted loads produce bending mom~ts Iouls and support condItions.

. l i~iil~II~~~~~. _. producing a matte'textured surf~ 3 1 prick_type! r waterstruck hick A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rI3tlon In size.. 1drrprcss process i The process of fonnlng prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~.gwr prism while plastic and lurdened Py drying in the sun or firi~inaUn.e:q. y FDA F.. m=ks.. 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality. ~-----=::: se t1~­ ~-~~ Jfi!e. esp. 18 .T1echanlcal pafectlon are rea.. A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~'-~~ ~~as when used as a 113Gb. :..j~~SIIII~ . . a~.rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng frotn lIOIIurJformlty In size.. maximum water lorici~' ... Brick is pJd for use In each /'e9lon accoralng to ~ strength.ortk)n albwed In a facing ~rick unit.. and negllgll7le ...'" orin Itfterlor ma son r y . ~.. ..III~1 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~.ang I1ricl:: sulta171e for use where a !I'1inlmum V3tiatlon In size. producing dense surface.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7le for use where p. Also calrea fa c't" In-Ick. cha !cuU .. I:1aklng.i al ori gin the t MW~ ~thl~..cln~ kick sultJple for use where a wider color ~..S.moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e !:>rid: untt wfIen exposed to weathering. U I 3 weight of water absorPea ~... - t.5. color.. one for firing pottery.. ch Ippage• • "d dJst. ~ ... AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of iI~ iTl3S011f'y unit when ~..es Ukely to ~e. smooth-surfacea pricks...cc. . --: j5._' partIally Immersed for croe minute... ur his j5W ~ .. A ImCk grade sutta~1e for exposure to-' . . often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~. rex F.. j~~hin~'f f. 'ccmmott~~ Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re..l7ridcr· .. The ~ofW3ter a~ Py.. cop 1 b1n) l. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated U.il tile ~ extruding stiff l:>ut plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through a !~ ana cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing. moderAte.~_c~ ~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorPed ~5bhiy Dille hf!fflersta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight aDsor\:1ed when ~ In rolh~ water. claL Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time.. mingl1rict' Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall. u u I FB5 F.. . aria otHer objects exposed to high tempentlJres.. or dryi~ . formed into • rectar. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weIght of ~". narrow color rA ng~. ··: AGT{£mUle of fire cl3y ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces..edryl/l1lt.. and high degree of l... ..lSOlllj' unit when NW . boo .. I"'.....as when In contact with . fumau or oven for Pumll1g.1ndstruck brick Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process wlt. or dryl~ tlml:>er.andm3XlmumSJturatlon kp A dr!s~tUtIon Indlcatlng the aura!7i11ty of a .. _ _---=------~:::: if you nee dt \severe weatheri~.~ permeated with water In subfreezl~ temperatures.nd greater variation In size art' ~rmitted than for type FBX.: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr.. Also C311ea building br/clt _...~·dIng to annual winter rainfall ana the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days..~ mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9. ~!y_.. A !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to the ground or uSMon surfar.~glg~ ana 5\Jrfau text-ure.ulred. Wct¢ry A material having the a17i1lty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures..- . . A clay used In the making of ~rucl&t. resulting in sbrpedged. of 51 W under high pressure. ... color... Briel: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 a smooth. Indicating the ~ reslstJnce of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing..17a\:ir-3 .serer!.clent.. l. "trrt-mud pro~ ! The process of fonnlng prick and structur... expressed I~ grams or ounces p minute....Jt ~ ..-_ _--... -. coefl'....ls dIv1ka In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures. The processprocess of forming prick l:>y molding ! scft-mud relatively wet clay havlng~re C$Ywt. ana texture of the Individual units.lJJ..!U£Ki Am3SOf1f)' unit of clay..

nlt /.-. ''~r.' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her.'3 x12 in.' dim ". thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint. (102 x 102 x 203 mm)..... (406 mm) F==ib=~=:. SCRurick .e i-. .-~. fc. r r Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the m3nubct~~e-. ..ikl vertically with the I1read faceex~. engineered brick AInicl: h...~~} r~k l.. . '.. ou n ht-J A !mel:: cut t. cop ori gin al the pu rch ase • r r jumbo urick . A 17rld: or other m3sonry u.lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface. (20.. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) . (102 x81 x 305 mm)..d.wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s. -·r---· ·'h NormJn brick APricl: h. (20.~~J A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed. (102 x68 x203 111m) . ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons of 4x 4 x 5 in. ~l . 4 coursts = 8 In. 5 COU..wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21.. if y r r ~:. Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in..a. sb ook eed f i r thi seal' I -'i " stret:..5In.3 mm) y Roman ~rick Brick h~''. itorl . (102x51 x 305 mm).--~------_e====~~~.. -. TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a certain s~ c-r sl1ape.fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou.3Ying normal face 2In. ... -.~J A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed . rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~ :·'·'·' . (102 x 68 x 305 mm) ."'5ts = 16 In.'3 x3 in.3 mm) moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h."'J ncminJI dimensions of 4x2x 12 in.3 courses = 8 in. (I02x81x203mm).wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21.119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In.(51I11m~ dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot.:s 19 . .cMr A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid eage~ A brd or tl.~ Briel:: h3'..! '! 1 • See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr.BRICK rnoml. AI$O..Ion I to A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the .

ourst:S n ~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded po ~~~~~i~~~~= ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls.. lnaiCOlll'StS.A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP. Also called al cop y 6 Flemish CtO~5 Pond A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ ..cner of a wall..f'rieffi. with each heac... ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor. ... -..... ur forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng his boo kp cha ~ ~=~h::~. Also..1nl1~.. Also. ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f J J f Ii clesa' .t~:-:~~. esp. Also called 's~ron(U ..iI regular.--··-·· .. A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of OY~ stretchers...! I i I j pa.. --...... closure.. ODDDDDDDDC ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[ Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO( .. '~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~. Also. ~acked I1ond.-Dutdt~1 ori Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the gin ~~~l ~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD ..I.flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as a heac.ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.. cfO$Ure.successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily.. ki". . Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork...C\uun closure. ~tack~ond ').e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks. the conskuctlon.~. tM art of bondin9 Prld:s effealvely.. if -. !F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c.ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses.. having a seq~ence of a header and thru stretchers In each course. .. .00. reglbr !nicks. j ".otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers stretchers. : : . usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of ... br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : . you nee headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~. A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co. offset to form a dta mona pattera.. soldlerccur5e..- - se Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically ODDDDDDDDC .n~~/.. t= L L L f L J 20 ...AlsocalW .. recognluble.. -.BRI(K fbrickwcrij erfck~Ion.t Also..iI~.by half the length of a stretcher.t ~~C=::J( .. ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow dt A~ bon(i having alternatIng fJem~~~1 L ~da~ ---------.

aI.: f!. the projection is calJtJ . the 5h3ft. and l The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other. f3e5kks ~ valu. ~ xt ~ for access.i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip./ CiIp or. a~ns:r.e4 Py .aIl:.Jvcks. Wt Is ~ tMrJ. cha se system A group of Interacting. &ornJce~the~A~ 3f1~ ~ ~bya sa-trJf c.iIboIrt.Jose th~ 5pau WIthin. Interrelated. Atal pest Is caned a PIer. or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole.al/ed -William Robert Ware (he American Vignol.. Abc¥~ fC.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs.:rs.alled wpftals.25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:.XIII form a G3t>1e at t. . COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb. kp ur thaT the Ole.ln«pendentJy of ft5~. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t.3ch~. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (.3d rJfby a floor or reef. If two rQ/Js m. by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details.Ro:7fs and waDs. construction.1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~.a .:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~. the ItIcfJr.3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9.:twetn. a building ff!3y be In It6df.at~ In5tt. and the Cdumn.nd a Cdumn If It Is round.1b1e 35..../ Corona. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed.in Roof5 T/U'j b. esp. ~ the chidptofthe load they urry. ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa. Orcul.15 h35 been said. . or EpiStyk.it:. WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t.. .l1ld w.7t rests upon them. A low". If the rr. roof qf the ~ stcry b. the fL1t.fIeJ . If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry.arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e.Jn5 and le. his boo . A ~s (J( which Is c. door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95. JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI./ Y.alled The Wa( the PIer.?r1Unuou5 3rdI c.ve. a reentulng angl~. the projection 15 called the &.lt ~ ~.d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley. and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to ~ubstructure nee dt A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b.25 bng. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof.1t Is a/Joy~ them...er. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r.Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<).· the Frle:zt and Cornice. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m.. if The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 you cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude.tIIeJ .es. or curved.BUILDING Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use. the ori gin al cop y )1 . a Ccrrke. ! ~ uperstrLICture The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh. is c. The principal member (J( a ccmice.:. If It Is 5qlI3~. Wans 3rC ger. If the ~ emtmy m. and wind.1 sh~IUr.. fIrltIr the roof tit.11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int.J/f~ the ~ ArchItr.~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15 the~. :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who. The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c.~~~ sloping.15 to get a better b. A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in.dumn MJJ a tIr./ noble md delightful obJ~t. The ~ the keres. frieze. Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c../ ComJce.. to serve a common purpose.. SUn. me&t. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15. ~C:Z::. A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~.31 rlJge.ne ~ they meet In a hor/zorrt.lfthe fYX!f extenJs b..l pier or c. Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It. IfIt project6 nJCh.

ori __ .ow fre'. l. two.. typlcal~ unpartltloned ana I I sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses.' al I l comparatively large numl1er of stories and eqUipped with elevators.6L--_ _ _ _ _ _--i gin I se continuous floor ana comprising the . I loft ~ilding A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space. artists' studios.•..-J ".L..~"4 a contlnuous or nearly: :l the ~ I 1rR? ! i /\ /.p3r.. OM of ~rge size..J 1 . . \. I boo kp -~-' J J I H+l rF n~ his nr nr I I 4- i 1 n i f ~ - - jJ if you lk. u... . .nd usually 110 eleva te r.uently converted to residential OCCt. as living a. : spa~ l>et. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~.. or three stones. I nee dt ~ + III f. I I II I ( '( V I H B I - low-rise DescrlUiog ./'t I-f-- [] I ur ---~ .. or exh ii:>itlon ga l!eries.1.uarters. ') "1111 i 1111111 ii II ( cha '~ .. ma ssive structu reo or 1m posi~ appe:araru.leen two 1acent levels. 1j I i L1 J r I.._ _ _--d:f:bFfb--___~ L .---. I _. ·. I . I A II g J.a l1Uilding having one. high-rise Descrll1lng a l1Uildlng having a LJ o I I1uildi~.BUILDING I edifi~ j .r->. cop I -' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz. originally renUa out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r.o~ arvision of a y \..i .:-.1. j A l1Uila~lt\3.L l. esp.cy..

al ori gin the I ~ . _ f L -crawl space . torna..-... or hurrIcanes. Also called stann cell.fi~tfloor ! : if I The gl"O'Jna floor of a bu!k:flng.. L L cellar __ J A room or set of rooms. esp. esp.. subbasement Arry story or floor l1elow the maIn l1asement of a l1uifding . the first floor IS tile floor ImmedIately above the ground floor.. ur cha se boo kp ! . In 8rltaln and elsewhere.BUILDING L ..." An area In a Irolldlng hJvlng a clearance less than human height...v - . cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms.... !rot accessll1le I1y crawhng.1r./ A horizontal or Inclined door over a / cop -$-l . nee dt his -B-- r... extenalng horizontally throughout a : bulkltng...-.floor A contlnuous supportIng surface .. -.. air........ -. as cyclones. --.________________________~ [f l1ulkhe3d --.. "... ... areaway A sunken area affording access... wholly or partly underground and usually l1e'neath a bulk/ing...'" pasement : Astory of a l1ulldlng that Is wholly or part~· A I1elow ground level.. constftutlng one level In the strocture. usually hav~ng dormer wIndows for lighting. -•.---------~ ....... mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a l1ulkllng. or the like. y :'. havIng a number of rooms and . a house.... "..--. A usal7le living space withIn a sloping roof.ms... for the storage of food. and light to a !7asement door or wIndow. tsp...•.. luff eltory -.-.rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding. one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with the story I1eneath It. t....... fuel...• -.... -.~l__________~____s_ta_I~ ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_ts_s_to __ __ a_ce_"a_r_..ground floor : The floor of a Irolldlng at or neartstto ground level r k I ·"f fr--4.. such a space I1elow the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls. you --.

BUILDING
l.;" .... ,~~
~

..

(.~

~~~~~~~~------.----.--- ---~~~
...

~~

" ",,_,
• -'-,

"',:r

The front ofa ~ulk:llng orany of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

fro nUspiece
A prtnc!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature a facade. often t~ as a separate elerT'l!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

eatment.

""
", """""

,Ii

OrT1a~ntation.

ase

:-- pavilion ~ Acerrtr31 or fIa r.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ subl~lvIslon~~ : of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d

the

ori

~"~~~==:S

gin

""""

al

cop

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y

1j

1

!

rch

distinction of ~~r,e.

IfII

pu

'=5e~~~~~f1~~~H I

sb

~~==~~~~~~

ook

~~~!:!..SI~Q.,.,&:!..Q,,~"l=f~A=1~n~1

.

!

nlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

d

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31
ofa n.ve..
dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

u

pay
Ar'rJ of. 1\~mber of prlr.clpal dlvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports.
bll~r"f

ou n

eed

thi

if y

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

I7lind
Descr\bi:'~;;

I
recess In awall havi~
~alccny

U

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (PII r.d wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of
Je~n.

An eb7ted p13tfonn
projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of' p3rapet.

l~
i

l=,I

==

fenestration
The design. proportioning. and alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings

II

t.w

I

:

ana

of a ~ulldlng.
I

L

nnnn
24

L

BUILDING

I l

r-

l
~~~
~

~
r = r-

~

~

. f==

I-

,~

~

I::::

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps
$Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.
ofahou~.

:p6~1?:1

at the

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a
~ulldlng.

\

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

ur

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

cha

se

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i
0

~n

roof;J ~~d

the

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure.

ori

~

r

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

IcnrWer/

gin

al
e
lf05te~tq

cop
.'.<
-/.~
:
I

y
-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.
' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

kp boo his

::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _ .......... 2"fO~hert: •

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.~>;:

dt

ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . .
1

fJ \L")
(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

nee

I i

: ;

I

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r
~ng. --.-------.--~

if

you

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25

BUILDING

rotunda
A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

,!' piloti _:._ ..i
1

I_L
arove

A wIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing
Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a TId sul10rdlnate to auntral or main part. '

---- Any of a serIes of
columns supportIng a an open pulldl~ ground level

I

~

.>.

A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ..., respect to its length hetqht. ~

3na

JI

~

II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof
~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

cha

Ploc1:

se

the

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng.

atrium

Askiit. central court In a
buil.::li~~.

kp

h3v1~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of

ori

esp. a farge Interior one

gin

al

C
~"
, .

cop

~

._entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~~~a open to the sky and mostly or

·-'V
./ '

y

I

I~

ur

courtyard

galb'es.

A court adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

~~

~ccurt.

you

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -.................... -........... J

nee

dt

A cOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an

his

-

................. .

L.fi "
atrium An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

boo

patio
A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls. .

if

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the
~floor.

D
i •

corU!e .. ---- .......... -- ..... --- ...... . A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

L y
patuza
A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

L
i

L
I

26

.' single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes. ......I---------~'" ~..JCture... uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables. ~ v n~ . A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind. ~~ .ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter.r j ~ CABLE STRUCTURE r- t ! sU5penslo~ structure r i A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads. I I 29 . . This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with ~ .e..-=~~~ ~.~~!~a~~~~~~~~... Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles. _ .. ~ ~ ~ r . ' .. supportlng the sum of ~ vert.. · ~.-... component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d . i ( i: ~ I if y r I I ou n eed r f [ f sb '-I ook pu rch ase i-----------.. gin al Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cable- One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure..I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends... ------~- ~. ' .-_.. transve~guyca17les.ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles...-.~ primary cable i r r I ' i f stayed structure. bound2rycable Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' .. Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon. cop r y douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different and often reverse curvatureS.. suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d. A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres. .-..' t I \. double-cable structure .~ r it~ . thi L . thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter. n ...c.. transferring the force to a ground foundation. . pm. - the ori secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter. cables In a suspenslon S"" I I. I C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern.--..

ceiling. (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of. A ceiling. pattern of recessed p:onel$. Aflat or vaulted ceiling of decorative l 30 .. ~.. plafona . al his nee dt you if character. o cop gin boo kp ur cha se the ori !?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showing ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling.ult aOorred Mt. bcunar/ . USUoiily square or octagonal panels in . often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above.h .1curur. or vault. 1 '.. Also called c.i.. y jcoffer One of a number of recessed.alsscn. room. orv. soffit.

~ ~_ I ... if you ari?or _ . lend Interest to a view..often ornamental ~ulk:ling In a garden.. ~" ~ .lllches or of nee dt French tern for a broad walk planteJ "..lS for pleasu~ or dlsp!ay.~ boo L An aro. ... used or 3 support for growing vines or plants I. affordl~ shade and rest In a garden or pari::. i 3 L ] bWcewor1: Irrtmwlnea with cl1mln~ v1n_~~ ._"' .y 3 bui!d1119 Or llultdlngs..I useJfora stroH orwall:. pro~fUde J ur cha maR. as on college CJmpus...3re or apen space In a city or town.. front To face In a specific direction or look out upon. Asmall.ll establishments..--.--.I l _ r- BUILDING orientation The position of a ~uik:ling on a site In relation to true north.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces. '_ A shelta c. his Jllee . A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peilms and cr05s1119 raftus or trelliswork.. kp al Asquar~ or 'tU3arangular space or court cop pergola . d flowers..' P .--. -. y DO' 27 .. se 941 lleria Aspaclo!J5 promenade. or unite ~radually by stages so as to I1lur identity or distinctions... -. (NU wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow.. -.. pavilion f L pL1Z3 A pul7llc 5qU. usuar1y having a vaulted roof and lined with comrr. or architectural feature of a 1lullJlng. or com memoratea person or event. !knd.. surrounded . ....-. court. or Indoor ::::::::=====rrrr=n:=T' r==rr:n==:rr===r ~Ivedere I[J[ If afd0Rf-H . to a sPeGlfiG place or feature. Qesi9ned and situated to look out upon 3 pleasing scene.f shruPs and 17r. to points on the compass. '.. Also called quad.. L r 'luadrangfe --. e.. .ith trees..":...: cbim To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn.erci._ folly A whimSical or extravagant Structure built to serve as a conversation piece. .. _.. or the work or art of such clipping. usually open on the sides..~n a pul7llc p!xe.--. r t .".----.. gazebo i-_ Afreestanding roofed structure.-.e. . or to local conditions of sunlight....esp.3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:.merge To comlnr.. --. the ori gin tapi3ry Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes. wln~ and :_. Al7ultdlng. r f [ L I iL uellis 3S a screen A fume supportlng apen latticework.

----...• --•••• -. "" ------.....•."....~·I~~·· ····-···1<'".-•.. !.. . •••._" .:iLl Ii 11- cha ~":~:::.•• ---.-... i ! ~ f~-- .-.. --. --.. -. Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load..~~....... ur C3P\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload.1on.._-..i... -. se l\ \ .•••..J "......m~'" his boo kp ~r.here Is only ~ general funicular shape. -. ..---.-.... resulting In no net lattral forces at the supports.._ .....ed...~~~..... If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges.......-. ... the Inte.---" ..~.•...• '" orsnbrelements are rtflufreJ ~ contJfn and ". 28 I I L A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualancea by the Inward pulls of a caple. ~~"" ./ ~ of a p3r..' \\' . / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng n-----------.' . I i Ii ~ ! ! funicularslupe ... ........ """ ~ ~mbl u m~re.. -..' sag Theyert~31 distance from the supports to the lowest point of 3 cable structure. ... -+-... ... dt uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne... /<~. having high tensile strength / Put offering no resl~ nee to com presslon Or~g...\~:--.'.••• al cop j i y ! funicuL1r structure u concentrated loads.-....-' ... .~·i~~:ki...o ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of ~.-.--..(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support.~-.•.... .' / \. if you nee I LJ thrusts. as wire rope or ~'chaln.. \". ... 8uttresses..•..• ..•. For arry given loading condit.. _.... j The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng ori funicular polygon· .~t '" /' the ..•.....•.. cap~ A flexIple structural meml1er. ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" ~5tnJtS. structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given loading Vi either axial tension or compression...' . For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon..• .... the cUrr'e approaches r..... -.-. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S. --...... gin C3P\e In direct to the magnitude ofresponse and location external forces.•...... bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure.1rola . ".• -.maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXrt3se.

":.. ·-~. kerf / ~rt1~qrid.... CEILING dropceili~ suspended ceiling A ceill~ suspended from an overhead floor or roof structu re to provide space for pipes./ ~ " lumino us ceiling c' A sus~nded ceiling of t~. ...\'.! i \ r r j accu5wltik Tl~ made In v..IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr- rch A thin metalstr:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo s-ck:a I t. ductwork.........:==========:::::..:.~slucent PJr. ..II ou n eed thi sb ook tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tlles of 3 suspended ceiling... r r 1 i al gin . :.. _--_.ea fau and contJlning a 5epante layer of sound· al1sortlng material r ori t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted tees supportin~ the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling ..- . I j r r ~=========:::.:~:ti::O::::::i+±::::::::::::::~z~:LZ!ti~ii::::.. :' ..o the eJges of an acoustlcal if y (j~r mebl uiling A suspended ce:1I"9 system of IIJrrow metal strips.l ~ .) ~::!'::':.. .Jnto.. :.. lighting fixtures.:~.•··..:.. usually a sheet· metal char..'e cut In c..._... y Ametal grid for supporting a suspended celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted r I ---.~11<. ~~ ~'.":'..7.. - ~p!ine pu f 11I1i!!i..~/ plenum / The space petween a suspenaea celilng and the floor structure apove.....unified whole.. Agroo... :. 31 ..l·-~ ~. acoustical ceiling A cellln!! of acoustical tile or other sou nQ' apsorblng material.ally a sheet·lretal tee carried by t~ main runn.: ': =. '.~: ~ A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln.9 •. one that serves as a recelvl"9 champerfor conditioned air to pe distributed to Inhapltecf spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central plant for processing.2..1.-& ..& linear diffunr ~ ~~ ~ ~... cop '~'g.ile= to ma~ a l>uttJolrTt between them. usu. dropp~ uili"i. \ metal pan _..... !umlnaires mount..:~':.: '... ..:Itertll.g or auC1Jl!ori.nel or tee suspended by ha"9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure.' .....~ ~ Integrated ceiling A suspended ceiling system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh. m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 memDer of the grid supportlng a suspendea ceinng system. ase the .\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor aluminum p3n having a perforn..·. ~ pconccal&:J grid ~ .'i(r '.crosstee A second3 ry me:.: .. hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles..els for diffUSing the light frc-r.1 J?~~' .ed above it... .::::::::..~: .:. ..... Also.:':.. uS1J311y Incorpor. ~ 'S. '<: p~ A long.~n.. louvered ceiling A suspended ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!dlng the nght sources mounted above ft..:) . narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system.) . sound-a!?sorVlng m. ber of the grid su pportlng a suspended ceiling system.::. ~ :.::.' .. or to ~tter the proportions of a room.. or other service eqUIpment... as corl mlnenf f1w.._. ".. .i 1 i ~'S..ers.. :<.a .tl~ modular tlghtl/l4 and alr-nanJn"9 compone:nts..' . esp. Also called slot diffuser.l~ ...rious sius anJ textiJres from a soft.f alr-l13ndling . A~ ~ ~ . £Qmponents. ""'!j.1 ~~! ~:'. or ~bss f1l>~._ ..._ . ..T"1 ~:. : .' ~ •.J! '10.±i~~b~ii:l:t::::::i::j~~!:::±~...

I or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln. '-.. or pottery.flred._.... _.. fired at a very high temperature..\ue Reseml1llng glass. high temperature to near Yltrtflr.... bi./ -----'. stoneware Hlgh...~~A\~. as In"!d:.. I1lsque· fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred atalowertemperature... Ared ~. as In tl'3nsparency. J I y temperWJ reo kp flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W. ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'". ...~ it dt ~ / ·l1l~ue.: \\}~\.e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels.. or having low or no porosity.. Also wiled china A translucent ceramic material.. and rl4tul'3lstone......(EMMIC Any of VArious hard.'". usually opaque.~:~. l1rlttleness.. A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~... nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71.... grassy coating ponded to ~~ .... glass. luster.. L' I I I 32 .. ..re. U I porcelain enamel An opaque. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal... tile... The structural portion of a ceramic ar--... <- / boo D b lurd·hrnea _. ...•...:":. as !nick.' "'. ... vitreous enamel.\~\. hardness. I by fusing at a high temperature... andpc«cy.. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf. .. micware Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay earthenware low·flred.. opaque. kaolin the ori gin al cop A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement.\~:' -. \'" \. opaque.\~. Also called china clay...i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature.. 5Oft·l7umed _...I... vftreo~ nee ~". ur . ~. and quartz. b if you 6· Earthenware or porcelain that h......... noncorrosive. I t li cu. / " .... vitrified cel'3mlc ware. fek:lspar.. translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln..fired Fired to harden a clay Poay.i ..~.. Also called W&allt. glaze-fired Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength.. cha o - se -------..s p~ flred once put not glazed..atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength. ...body ) \ . ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w. \ l~ I' t .. ': . nonvitreous ceramic ware. porcelain A hard... enamel A vitreous.. / ~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~. vitreous.. .lnittle...<t: his . -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of shghtly under 61.

(0. '132 to '/a In.. floors.8 to 32 mm) thld:.~. or an org3nlc adhesive.r- paver tile Unglazed ceramic floor tlle sImIlar In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker an. / glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving a rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rtght.. Alsa called promenade tile. used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors .. ~.lcl:-mcunted on sheets to fac~rtate handling and speed Installation. and usually face. used for levelIng or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· L t tile grout Acementltlous or resInous mIx for filling JoInts In ceramic tllewon:. y ase I.. and sometimes hydrated lime. I..~ U A thIn coat of mortJrfor rondlng ceramic tIle to a L>ading. ori gin the I.::.~'Nk~. ~ndcorl 33 .~ ..L_LJ ! I I I i I j thlck-~et process A tllesettlng pr'OUSsln which ceramic tile thln-l7ed proce~ A tllesettlng process In which ceramic tlle Is bonded to a contInuous.• . ---------r .~!1!!~. 1 r-r-: r-\-: r-rr-r-: r-r- : I I I I I : I I J J I· • o_ qU3rrytile / ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay DodJr. Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar bea ¥It to 1Vzln. rch I .. . cauntertops. (19 to:3a mm) thld:.. matte.t-r-r.• IEt. latexportland cement mortar.:~~ . glazed for surfacIng walls or unglaztd for use on roeh floors and walls... .. stable backIng with 3 thin coat of dlj'-set mortar. ook - ~ eed thi . ~~..rl . t...~>~ I! .:! lar~er In surface area.or lr.-_.:~.r- sb t if y ou n pu r.. .CERAMIC / ceramic tile Any of varlcus fired clay tHes used for surfacIng walls. water.. or ceystalltne glaze.L. sand. which allows for murate slopes and planes In the finished won:. portland cement mortar Afield mix of portland cement. set process. ep<JY:i mortar.~!!1li .t-- al Unglazed Ur"3mlc floor tile having a I13tural cop cl4y body.t-- ana r.~ f--+I-r1.

--. used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s.rp1Io.rJ-~rned.Infan.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. tl~ units. moisture problems.. ~ ~rJlterr~ n. or other mJsonry. ~ terr. and strict sanitation requlremen ts.. hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76. sand or other aggr~ate. terra cotta. . prick.(. L 1 1 i ~ I . glneJ or unglazed terra ccu.. .ra. and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction. Also calleJ plse. ~- al A n.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. and rammea~rth A stiff mixture of cf3y. plse de terre. esp..3 nd medlum color· frost u . plsay. fired cby. and narrow color range are desired..2 mm) or mo~ of stone.t. used for architectural cop u I y .a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres. .o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m.Mlctur. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection.~ -. structura Ifacing tile Structural clay tile having a glazed surface. used for facing walls ana partitions.. l j I " LeX l. FTX I Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9.(ERAMIC . minimum variation In fau dimensions. cotta·. slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh . ~Iy ustd In countrieS with if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the little . potttry.adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw.B l. ori gin ~s and ornaments.!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie.a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon.1~o.n ana stain resistance are required.ln areas subject to heavy wear.

.. The partied \.aste:m church.jnct@ L.a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred.. holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm...itlr..... --. develcpi"4ln1... - ~nu .\ ~lU-~j ~~ij L L L !i~~-:. as Christ or a saint or angel. flanked or SumllJ nde& by. usu. Is ce!eUr.-..---.-.. ~aptistfy.~~{ A coverea walk or outer narthex ur An InMr narthex when two are present.() the transept of later cruciform churches... 35 . kp exonarthex /' C ~'.' t~ .~ b'~.. symronc if you nee font A Pasin..itea.. cha I • se baptl5ttry A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered..-.....-.. /.j--... \_. extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles. . of stene or marbl. An e~Chri5tlan church. \' t..-- t..lon on which Icons are 1 placed.. appropriated ta ~nftents... -·-. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res.. Asac:ti-¥r~1y place.. ----..... tMJ or four lower side aisles. L ! euara .. the sacrament celeUr. u5l.. 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ • r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a P3SiJka ---:.. eson.. Also. Alsa. as that part of a .1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church.... I' ! of Jesa:sChrist. I I L -The bls~p's throne. Also.... / •..... Iconostas.. rounded on the teachings A l?uiUling for public Christian worship. ~. A transverse open space separating...arackrtzea by a long.. H I dt his boo situated before an Inner narthex. Also.--.... at the sanctuary or east end of a church. trivUMY .lncluding the Catholic.--. " the j ! : . ~ulkllng.j • 4 __ • i13.. -.. esp... J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf.~ ..llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of W3ter.. rectangular ptan..-----..i-.. The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister.. ori -I· __ l \1#~ ---~. separating the bema from the nave of an E..: iconostas(.Jrfy Chrlstlan or E. as an atrtlln....-....-. ana I I L l prothesis . usuafrj on the solIth side of the !Jenu.fifJ·-..rlyChrlsti3n church. baldachino. and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.. bakla'luln... _ . -A scrun or partr../ . : i .. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church. Elther Of two raised mnas from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church.. ..I-CHURCH· Ch~nity The~. ~~.. .. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church.astem Church where the Eucharistic e~ts are prepared...-----.. -...---. Also.. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf. -.rJ:5m A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity.. Also C3 lied vestry.---.l¥. Also cal~it'tal7~P5 The princlp31 or central part of a church.----.. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica. cop isfe=-4 tI'. I L I dbco nIcon A sacristy In an e. Also called ciporium. ch.-.. . separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or y An omamet!1:41 caner. the -"1I7emJ' nave and U!e3pseofan e.. baldachin / . exhedra........~ . uSU311y vaulted and used esp... --. Also....... apSis. I Tliefmurtof an early Christian church.arthex . --. A large apslaal extension of the Interior volume of a church..../ The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn...astern church..:a!1y on the north side of the bema...-...' -' • L...t.... ..----- Theta~leln aChristian church upon which the Eucharist. a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end.ally of 5WIe.. -----..ffrtiCOes:f church In which the princlp31 altarls placed. Iccn A represent3t1on of 3 sacred Christian Person.... 5Uristy A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept. al longitudinal divisions of a church. Pro~t..' Achapel In an E.'it .nYC::of~tk • .....Jtlon.!! Chrl5t's Last Supper. gin piers.. am1?on..-. --. ... of splritua I ~ner. l-. I ~ ~.e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church.

if you Interlacing arcade An arcade.-----. composed of cofumns.. used esp.1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i.1 r~pond ___ .. havl"i a tlmllerfrarne...lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<.:.-.. 36 I f ! . a I1Iind one. ...••. arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S.om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple.---~. I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration... .. lJ A PuI17ous.. a ~Iered.Iong the exterior 5~ve churchl L r I kp A anop\ed r~s for a ~ IIn3¥ or ICon.. his II roofea promenade. "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church.. _ A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel.••••. I ! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower...ln 1(~r..::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI.••.... crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir. 15plr~--·-···· A tall. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside . at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc uulldlng. esp. __ . stupty pitched roof. i A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or •.. arcU. ~~tterY1 . se the boo :. cbrr..• __ ••.. al cop p ~ I ori gin y f ur cha 6 t An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies. nee IIoft·t han. AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e. dt wall of a Pulldlng. ana few windows._ .--. __ •.~n?Upola ~y tower. Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or arcak ---. arcuauo.. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower. Also.. pf4lnk walls...... Also called InUrsecth!g arcade.elike roof te\1~ating onTondOlffil sharp point. usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure.cJ st·l1. esp.. I. esp.

ery sym met rica I ataoot t}. g3l1lee porch.. usually a !?ufld1~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery.. ~--"----T ... ----. esp. Acourtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister.. . garth _ . meditation... allure. usually located behirJ the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse.cor..... I I ch4p'Ur hoU5t: lnJrl.----~~~. the tarJ surrourJl~ or beside a ~ral I .i chancel The space al10ut the a!tar of a church for the clergy and choir. ~7r~...ent5 blIW onto Its surface or by Iuvlr~ V. rood ~un ~-- p""h chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne med1eval E.lted ~ trn. Including the apse and ambulatory.-. esp.e center....."--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church..'. lady clupel .~ or~ired by h3v1ng p~. : .~. The pl3ce where the chapter of OJ cathedral or monastery meets. onektween the transept and chapter house X a cathedral. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle. Also called cloister garth.1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL 'I boo ..ct'~. kp f I.. cntJrGh.-chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of thefounders or of persons named by them . :---. t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa human or animal esp..~-. rood --.ffi~~~Jff...ter A covered walk having .--. . c~ the An enclosed place.. usually part of the chanul lapyrinth ------ 1 ret roc hair A separate division behind the cholror high altar of a I3rge church. A chapel dedicated to the VIrgin Mary..-.3S crucified.:~ .51ype A covered passage.fL_.-Wfr.. ". esp.. ~win.• cloi._...------. ----------------..! pbce. one beneath the main floor of. .-------.n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard. often etlborately adorned and ~~rlJ' $Urn1ounted by a rood...J±::i1t=:::ctt=:O alure A walk or passage... ur Acfrcub.l~stmylnachurch.--------. -..Jow. contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> : [ f L ~-. cop gin the ori se al . + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of a rreJ~vJI church. esp. or small ".. lGt.. . -----. church.. -.------.. OM with lin open mouth that serves 35 A spout arJ projects from a gutter to throw rainwaterciear of a ~uilJif\!.-. choir The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir. usu311y of stained 913ss .. -. 37 .--------·----:·------------1' j An.----. i chapel \ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for \ private prayer.. ~ . #[...dow~ . ~~~.. .lHURCH ~ crlnear21 f The principal church of a d~.pr.. separating the c ha ~al or choir from the nave of a meaie-.- The part of a church reserved for the offici3tl~ clergy. f '. Also...~. a large one set . nee ~ .....---"- ASCru::1.~ his t !:. Also. Also.~ ~..religious services.s5'c. p~Pyury dt t if you I t r t f !tHe arches anJ ~ ana corresponding to the 5f3U Petween the V"3U ttir. i y -. or the rnemrers of a religious house or order. An assembly of the mon(s In a monastery.n9l1sh churches.'._. often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng or screen ./ A m3zel~ pattern the pavtment of a mcll"C:V'''. • ---------- am~ulatory An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church. slip. -.-------7 i A crucrfb: symbolizlr14 the cross on which Christ . ch4pter ". Also called deambul3tory. -..a the roof of an aisle. and dae..31 church.. • '-"" ________ ··_4 chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral.\ cha high 2tbr The main altar of a church...

COLOR .. ,
A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.
spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors
produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

pale
Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

~rllli.ant

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

~;:-~;\,"

'r.~;:~t,'

.~f':

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

II

11

I
~-

.... hue
One of the three dimensions of color. the
property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

.J

.:IeepJ
Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

j s.aturation
I

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cop

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

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f •

I

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

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I
r~

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

,"---.
. :.

the

r~color

,LJ
~.

I

ligh~!S

~

ur

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

se

f' . "j
,:,~~ . . ~~::~

cha

l

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

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The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

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I

kp

boo

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

if you

Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

nee

~eJ~rption -:.

dt

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

his

11-.
C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

~.t·t{'?1

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved
color.

U

brightness
The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

yellow

transmitted..
~uVtractlve color

U

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing
The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L
L
J

38

COLOR
color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.
, \ .. r:Jlow _ -__ • / yellow-green'

L
L
I

f

w.rm
D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

yeHow-O~3f1ge

,.~

--- / - - -----.- ---------

~~~m~;~~co!ors. as red. yellow. and
plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color ---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••
_'1

A color. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

cool •. _._j

f

_

Des~natlng 3 GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or Violet.

L

advancing color • __ . ____ . __ .. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an Illusion of space. rece.dingcplor •. _.. __ ._ ... __ •. _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.
/~-----

comptementarycolor
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

al se the ori gin ur cha kp his boo dt nee if you
---~

cop
------~

y
/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .. _._. ___ .-'- ___ .___ .______ ._______ 1on a color whee!.
coler scheme
An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole. , - - - - - - -.... triad A combination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

r 'plit compleme~ry
: J. combination of onecolor and the pair of colors adJolnlng Its complementary calor on i \ ... __ • ______ • __________ • ____________ • _....l acolor wheel.

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doul7lecompiementary
A comPlnatloo of two 3nalogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color

wheel.

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moncchroma~

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,

tint •.... _ •••. - - .•.. ". "'" ... - ... --~ A relatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

: Having only one coler or exhlPltlng varying ___ ._._ .. _ ..... __ .. _____ .. __ .__ .___.. _____ J Intensities and values of a single hue.

i polychromrt.lc
r

Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle
A triangular dl~l4Im developed by Faber 6 n-en to describe the relationship between 3 pure h~. white. 3nd PUck, which comblM to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prlrrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutlc pair of white and blacK. shade A rela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to It.

tone
An Intermediate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

L

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic
Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. plac!:. or gray.

39

COLUMN
A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural

memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends. pillar
An upright, relatively slender sh3ft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a buildIng support Or standing alone as a monument. post - ..... - .... ----- ............ . A stlff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlmberframlng.
I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslonallnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnw induced;y the action of acompressive 1ouJ. Bucknng can occur well before the yield stress of U1e material Is reached. l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes unst4ble.

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Under; buct/ing Io~d. " cdumn C31lIICt gent:riiU the Int:enul forces ~ to
resto~ Its orlgln3llJr-.ar conJitIon. My

a-ushlng5tres5:f~=P/A

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kp

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cha

_____________ L__

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J, ifu rc.rt.Io n The critical point at which a column, carrying Its critical ~cl:llng load, may elther!?uckle or remaIn undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rium.

;ddltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In k.ntifll Most columns In p7ctJa art: ~ to both com~ and be:nJirI§ due to rnt;tIon in T1I3terlaI propcrtIe5.lnitJiII Cl'OIXtdr.zs In f3brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJon. ThIs benJln§ qfterr C3~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln the critlC3/ budJlng to.1.

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r·:······ .............. critic.al !nJckllng load

r"-· critical Duckling stress
"-.l"

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........;-.'":':.~

nee

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,,:

The critical budllng load for a column divIded by the area of Its cross section.
..... '~:.:.::::...- f3ct()rofsafay

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"-

..........

.... -.
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~----------+----+-- ~Iende~~ ratSo The ratio of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. . •.••.••....• A thlcl: column su~ to failure Py crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The higher the sJenJemess mto. the Iowa-Is : F;illuN: occurs when the direct stress the crltJcilf5tres5 th;t 1+111 C3use INckllng. A • from <lit axial load exceeds the prlT1mj' objective In'the design of; cdumn 15 to compressive strength of the material redua Its slenJerne5s mto by minimizing Its ml!;it,.!e In the cross section. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the r;dlus of eccentnc load, however, can produce gyr7t1on of Its cross 5tCtIOfl. kndl~ and result In an uneven stress dlstrlMlon In the section.

i j

if

L. ... almbie buctfing stres::s:~?/7,~??JJ;~~~;~-~-;;-~-::L.
L 1f7\---.......... ~
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The maxImum axlalloul th"t cart theorttlcalfy~app~toa column without causing It to buckle. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerseiy proportional t<> the 5qU3 re of Its effective length, ana directly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I and to the rncment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon . Also C3lled Euler ~ &cW.

boo

b

• {f;; r =y 1/A

radiu5cfgyrmon The radial dls14nce from any axis to a point <It which the mass oh ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of lnertla of the body abcM th<lt axis. For a structural section, the raaJus of gyratlon Is equal to the 5qU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment of Inertia and the are4.

!-.............. --....................... ..
intermedlau cclumn
A column havIng a mode of failure between that of a short co/umn and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushing and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

long column f. slender column subject to failure by
buckHng rather than Py crushing.

-.~

The higher the I1tilus of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jetennlnlng the cro5s-sectlon41sil;pe M" column, the objective 15 to provide the ~ry rUlus ~

gyr;tIon about tM dfffermt iIXes. For ;n _.. . ...... 35}mmetrlC31 cross sa;t.Jon, buclJlng w:11 Cend

to occur ;bout the ~ ;l1s or In the
dlrutlon ~ the 1e35t dimension.

40

J

!

..• _.1e section..mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e) ~ : : • [~- I . equal to the product of the load and tr./ : . t..The dlstance dlamaet' / 4 re-t~n ~ ..~..5 p~)( ..: of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section.. !.J 1 \ I ·1 f fixed fixed if you ~ I I J pinned fixtJ l I I i k=O..0 4- l=2. \ 9---+ \I ~..13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane. ___ I'· The uraclng of a column or other compression rr.. acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum...! ..cides.. ! 1 } L i ..~ rr.emPer dtfl.The effective kmgth of a column detennir..I. ___ .I ri COLUMN [~ eccentricity axis- = = ~ ..~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ .. : t I ··"'·ir= . column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14. / ... _ ~ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~./ kern point of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area. ____ .: C boo kp c -l C\i II ur \ \ \ \ \ \ \ cha se the ~.( : ' : / / .l ~I: '--t- ! . i' / . II II I I /1 11 11 rot.. i 1 k=I.. ~nston\l.es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load.---..:f J...octlo........- .g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1.. 1·_·1 ~.. gin ---.. : I . the~~coIumnfJl1s.. Also called kern area.:'''tr.. If) / his -l nee III 1-' I 1 I c:i dt " -oJ .~---.7 .---.. ~ coml1i~c:l5tresses ~ -I I p·delta effect __ .. enas I I I I I I I I I I laurall7racing _ _... 1/ cop ..ll'''' '"Y ho".. .... "~ The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of .. t Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis .ectlon at any point. unl1racea length The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length 41 ...d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4. _ . A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer. __ .-T. y . 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column al 1• i effectlye ~gth r--@-. '... ori Irtflectlon points In.emPer to reduce Its effective Iength. - i .. i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ .. ~ k = 0.0 P&14 /1 I' effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr. . Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h...~ . __ .

-. stur. C/lnkerlsgroundlnto . if y I?>wmzUrl.. as In y the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i T~1I1: or long. A calcJne. .. or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time ase J"glcwnuOic& •. Type IIA. _ .les of the other types. produces a hydraulic cement. and tile grout. oyster-sheDs. 1 r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r.. .. ~ ..0 mrrT) In ~metcr. II 0 A. A very-flnely ground portland cement n.. S3IIJ.:' suffix A.f-: . fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of..... .. -« . " :. sHlca R.ma t.'/. ---? ..i' white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw .. e ... Ii · t. pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material.. 1 . when calclnea and ftnely pulverized... ..at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In. Ahydraulic cement /I13de f.a-----. clinker Qlcine Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal..tM\ g3ln in s~th of the U'II1erIt. ou n eed ~..l rch ?:~~::' ~....il1 constructlon where reslstanr. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate... gin ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr... .. ' mortar mix ~ an.04 In.-. . Le. . .•..~-" -.. . 5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement II13'trIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli._ .nln:g ag.. ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift one: quarter of ~ volume of ~ nd cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging ....d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar. Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to air-entraining pcrtl... r I~ 4l r .lW mixture jlnto cemerrt dlnket-." . •. ¥JJlronore.1 to 1../ ~ ~ne..~ ...empmtiJres. earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd. ~ eo.lcium sirute ---.e.1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme..lumffUt. . as Type IA.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of thi TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced content of trlcalclum alumInate.._. t.. named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland. .. catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-....... a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred... Also.. -.1 Aportland cemelTt used for general construction. as fly ash.. j .." blended._."" port/3nd cement.. 't~~~... pozzoIona...AiL . (0. pcnuol3 na.o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction.~I~T!ral.ly a reac'tlon with water.e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for..._ . • • J.or Type lilA....4 to 0.. .\:..~. .e~t~ : ~.. . ! ! i .-. Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es.ed Py the entrained air Microscopic. as gl?ilty dams....\.0Q...rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt.eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide.-. ~~.he construction of massive ~ structures.x>rtland pu -... The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly forco~ M i i portland cement ------~ TyPe I: narm...he h...--.. & .3 sollcHuel furnace. .. ! TyPe II: moQerrt. 5hz/e..uired for protection al Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f./s""IfWI'JtopowJer m' ~.. A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of .~ ook tricJlcium .1 . lessening the need for gypsum. or oil silicate..llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat.. ..• ___ . .ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef.. an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius.::. Intentionally ~ In a concrete or .9 Q It 0 .. . IlLm \II G it. h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt..vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~..--. makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer....". that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement.a.atiystrength ori I retaining walls.• • . To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r.. England.. TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having. siliceous Containing sillc. tYF11y 0.. clay. L<_ . mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS.CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which.. rea. named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll. the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo. the l hlghe. causing It to cure mter and gain strength from low t. cop tnc. .co..a . sb ~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement.rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr.e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate.nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate.e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging. where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging. .. -----1 hydraulic cement j i f ~ ... It A... e.. ...

: . as perlite. and fire· reslsta nce of the hardened cone rete.( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated. wormlike threads. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In. ur cha kp o retarder An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete. 4 (4. weight. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength... srlt. (6. concrete. - dt his boo I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete structur41lllghtweigltt concrete expankd shale A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or shale. or plaste:' r... usee! as non structural lightweight aggregate and 3S loose·ftll thermal Insulation. -- AggrC9ate having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading. admixture Any suvstance other than cement. dimensionally stable. . or plaster ~i.. as expanded sn31e or slate. the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. of mixing water requlred for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~. its properties are Important to the strength. concrete. Also called surfactant. Inert. and salts... Also called expanded clay.. Also ca lied perlite A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight.• . . as sand and gravel. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids ana surround the particles. (9. or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure. tc produu lightweight Insulatln9 gin al cop uniform grading . thereby facllitatil1~ the wettl"9 and penetratlng actlc" of the wate. 200 (74~ sieve.-rx. pearlite.362 to 1.840 k~1 m3) and compressive nee strength comparable to that of normal expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate..400 Ko/ m3).e 0. 'r'r"3ter. • « •. or aggrC9ate.: the ori Any of various hard.ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr.8 mm) sieve. o~ se acceleratcr An admixture that h3stens the sectlng and strength development of • concrete.. The maximum size of coarse aggrC9ate In reinforced concrete Is IImtted by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars .1 . having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1.5 mm) sieve. or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings.4 mm): sptclf.. o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water to ~ concrete mix. and be predominantly retained on a No. and In larger amcu~~5..-·. mortar. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In. Also. almost entirely through a No. mortar. added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar.(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation.mortar mix to alter tts properties or tr. minerai materials. cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting. conc~ you m. y o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workabiltty.• . Also ea ileJ addrtlve. '~.Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl ConcrC"'"~ Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggr"e43te.~"!~I . particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material. and fru of clay. Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tna 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. particle-size distribution In which aggregate partlcles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other aaattivesin eM mix.8 mm) sieve. 43 . . .':~_.. superpla stlclur.'t}§O •• ~'* A_. made with lightweight aggregate. ~ mixing W4ter The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix. vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. .(JlfJllf1I~d. . Agg~te shoukI ~ hard.. W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e. added to a concre'".c_JL&~. o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control tts color.4 mm): speclf.4 (4. gravel. expressed etther as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening. fix. I r r if which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2. o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount I insu13tin9 concrete lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductlvtty. (6.3 r mix. and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar agg~ate graded aggregate .ose of the hardened product. spherical particles. exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y.

. water.cement ccfTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf cement NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty. with given concrete /n4teri3ts... preferably 1% -.. _... _.. dura l7illty... sack of cement.[ water-ce~entratio 7% -15%·· ...tCONCRETi! mix~lgn The n10St economlcalselecUon and proportIOning of cement..ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~. The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed I I lJ ur cha A mc-... usually measu red Uy the2!l!!TI p~~ for cone re:U and ITy the~ ...... 87... to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test. ..::...~metal...• : :.. and the cone Is lifted.' : ... .3% expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix... 112 117.fpr i... and watertightness of hardened . _ .::( ..... _---..ln Inches.30% concrete........:......:. ~ mpre"lon test A test for ~lnlng the compressive s~ of aco~ "atch. (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In.with sr.:. -A... placed In fOr1T1W9rk.t2J=:( In 203 mm) and mm}.. --. : : : J . preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix. 1 . An open·~nJncated cone of mm}hlgh.. :. .te:st .. wet mix 51umpcone -_ .- se slump concrete or mortar can Pc: handle4.... u5tcyUnder -.. tamped In a prescrll7ed manner.. ..1tlons.. W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (.....~". Iso cal~J \139.... usually ~ means of acore drill_ 1F~~-+------~~~~7-ccrete't j .. and ~te to p~concrete or mortar r-.. ~... :. his /plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is readily mokled.~r m~E. 16% .". using a hyd.lgg~ate In a mix... :.water content The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix...1 workability the sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117.....:.... ~ : water air The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix.10 Canada. __ ." . (~mm) high..O'~·'. "....t:~~l!X48ritaln. . JIj:!. Conslsttncy depends Ia rgely on the 11 I al y proportion of~nt pasteto.. strength.<: ~:'.. and 50 kg In COIl ntrles using the metric system.: .21%··-.. preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as adecimal fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117. and W'~htness. cop The relative a!7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow.y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In Chlca~. of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone.. Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that....~ ....... A cynnder of concrete 6 In........ and watertightness. v nee dt if you dry mix A concrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and h3v1ng little or no slump.•. a Va5"tiameter Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content 3nd runny consisten0'..hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~ mea$lJ~ tke slump of a test speclmell..:..... boo A measure of the conslstency and wori::al7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete. Wori::al7ihty depends partly on the water· 6 kp cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix.-.. cast from a representative batch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cona....•.. curing. expressed 35 the vertical setthng... .y 4 g3/1on5 of W3ter per 53ck of cement ori gin o -------~-~--~I IJ 5 6 7 i ~Iump~~ .. comp~ and finished. . and testlng conditions.5117. used a top diameter 4 In.rqu. Also C4!1ed stHf mix.. Ij 51%-5/% I Jj consis~rn.. In the . The watercement railieantrots the strength. concrete or mortar mix.:._--. durability.....: .. duralnllty. A compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure.... yIeld1~ a product that Is low In strength. e •• " fine aggregate • 25% -.

A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r.. sped.--.. • cfuir dt ~I A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete.... Also called metT1rer ~ has~. '-" -'-. pi3st1c..serted through the form and threaded ontotheenasofan inner rod.. -.:::~~!1· . _ . .eyw"3'f ------. if you conc~beamorsb!7. -. -.' • ". Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members.: form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly pi3ced concrete.. nee high ciuir > ... '~' ..preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce.l::nent.. "'_" boo f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_ kp ITt3M ofccm~.. concrete sur-fJu.... '......-..d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng...lr. ' the A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member...... \ s~r-resistlng conc~ key for newly placed yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete.:. as ollar sillcoot.. or . -'.~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood...~ :'--": -. Sonawbe .3... -.spreader . _. ..~~~~" .... -... slipform •.: TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form • _______ • _____ •• __ ..CONCRETE form Uner --. clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee..--L __ .~... ran9er..-' !.-'..---. ori Aform tie ha.1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the ..... or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng. II spreader. -. : .. fa..-. ~ . proMlng a stlffitack.. -. 'I .ing various vertical members.-... Arty of Y..... .. A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place timper. I "'. Any of. COI'.. Also called In-east Boarding or sheeting of wood... 45 . Also called spacer. cop : i II ~I ru~tian 1====r=t1. The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form . waler. for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart. .-----....... After stripping.uo. ---"'Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form.... used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings...rs in a concrete beam or slab.. i Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --. form work The kmpor.-.... ! i to al - cha form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift. bulkhead ------./A • se r:::~~~~~~-I~'~.. ... Ii .wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:. -..•... -.11 ~roove or chan nel fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather '. the water rods are remcved while th~ Inner rod remains In the concrek. bolsur .. leaving a neatly finished depr"essloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed.. .1I forms. . ~ ~.-. usually of wooJ.. varety of slotted d..lng wales.1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which altow it to also serve as a I:.trongmk Avertlc31 support for aligning and relnfon:.t one tlme. as In formwori: or she--<>t piling... /" concrete rt a constructloo Joint. ..-- -. . 'K....-'" -..! : :. re~$eagent form .IrIous lI1.. __ are ir.. ~ II "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which Ji i I plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w. ._ • _____ . -... Also called partlni awnpound.. meta I... .-.. -... A \o11g ltucin. steel.. lift ~.. -... -..... resln'lmpregna~d paper. \7raclng.. or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr. A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng. A brau."?.ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the ur "~ ~~=~1~.ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete.' .A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a his flying form Alar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne. ~ snaptie i A form tie having notches or crimps which i: II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the y I' concrete surface after stripping of the forms.: ~ .terlJls.ePott strip gin : i ' . and hardware...

. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '. often motor-drIven. truck mixer.4 ~ • ~ 0 -4'. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass.Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site. :...ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site..: '~ : "'S..1>':110.A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon...-" . . .1ln.. ~ 0t1 • ilL 1:1 b. Also calleJ waUr' g. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement. ---...... .. -.. .. shrink-mixed concrete .. oVenYon:lng of the mix.ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top.. or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site. 9 .:r 1" •• \:~--!.l~·t·~ :.. • 5tr. agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site.. .. : I ~'-:':: 0 ~~ : . . -.. or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed.C:ONCRETE ~st-jn-pbce concrete .~. '0 -. --. -.. . ... '.1 'V'"Q • • 0 ...~ if y ou n t ~ ~:.d air within newfy placed concrete and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~. concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum. sa nd or crushed slag.. buggy A cart. cured..j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator. . :: ~_~... ... . or crane l1ucl:et. J Ccncrete &eposItcd.. :/1. ! " .~.\... etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying. . ---.. fonr. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure.. 46 .: 4::·~· 4 -i..~ tn.. often motor-driven.. consolwt1on The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne.. I .·:/1".... Also called ~st-fn-sltu I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr..-~ .. for snort distances at a construction site."'* transit-mixed concrete Concrete dry !latched at . ook chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y pu rch nose t1 ase .:. An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed ~ L L I concrete.. -. pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached.~ ::'''''. ._ ...• 0./ time of haul The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a.-'!r'" "--:J '-II . ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water.lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~...-----.$ piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden. drop chuu: . ~.------. <l :.'.~ Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod.. resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix.....4.. 4 0" qf·:0 . for y pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete. . aggregate. 4. ill I! f':~ .~ ::. ~.. stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te ... ~'.... vi~rator Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete.::'i~3detIke tool...:: •• 0...~'.o... cop . vibration ----. . •~"t. ~uggy.-. •••0 .. free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute. ~. "4 Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I .~ •• 1'1 -. and water.. Concrete partially mfxea at a lr.Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and i I .°... I ori II ! the GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement. Also called shotcrete.. or Improper flnishln1. 'l . .. concr'eU. .. '. and water to produce gin al direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer. for mixIng cement..._~'. .--...: ~ !. slurry. • transportlng heavy materials. A· • .ed... I . •. ~ ~. concrete. 4' 'padi~ ~ ..: . ~ a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site.lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete. •• "'l.~ • eed thi sb ~ravity.... L I laitance A milky depOSit containing cement . 415 freshly mixed concrete.

. .aw A whe. . . or toothed face. --. c III:i:j! . ..on-carbiJe or diamond !n. drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete. screed ----------------------------.. -.-. ''-I.atlon of de'. smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel.._. dry-shake finish A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement. 1 1.-. -----------.c:::~.:~.a slllc. or stucco surfau with a wood fl. shrink3ge A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set.q 3 fresh CO!1crete.. or plaster caused by a loss of moisture... mortar.--.lmmedlately after screealng. mortar...:.---.:t. esp. or smoothing plaStlc material. serrated. and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float.. Arry of v. ~pa!ling » lI To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement. mortar. flat blade attached to a long handle.-.'~&±..--Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir.. .. . and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.1te about a • ."'3". jl.el-mounted.:':.. or plaster surface. "-' .:}:. exposed agg~ finish y if you nee dt ~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. etching with an acid. as during the setting and curing of a concrete ml)(.---.---. ". hut of hydr.i. . pl3ster. al appJ:t!ng.___ ~:%O'o"/.. _ cha se kp the radlalarm5 that rot.... peten brut Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed. compact....-..----. ' :':T::I.. --------. and ~ boo p7f'ement .. 5GreeJ .. honeycom17 The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge. concrete. bu~hhammered gin . as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water. A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete. ----.---.. castlng... -.cI"9 salts. and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir. ori powertrowd ~ .. I. l7ullflo. ----------. stucco.. when the concrete surface refleGts the texture..j"\"'I.-0 .1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD.3l/ng.-. . ur . his &et ~.. I £JDDDDCJO- ! i Vvlas on a formed concrete surface. .W.:'.at A float havll1{1 a large. and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce. smoothing.CONCRETE finl.·iil'i'i' "I'. placing.-. The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk....--------------. ana fasteners of a !?oard form.:' architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials.' :11.. j 1 II'" "I : :11·illlll:I·!!.h a substance combines chemlGally with water..'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: ".... Of' caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy insufficient consolidation. or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate.-.1I':'I':I.---------------- A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab.' il·ill:I!::::!.-..:l:dl'"I . --.. flc. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/..~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set.. or glue due to a cure ---------. A deccr3tlve flnlsh produced ry sand!:T!astlng....at ~-----. :.. p13s:er. won:lng. ---... Spreadl"9.a fresh concrete surface .arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \. p\asw. ~etting hydration The process In whk. joints...g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated..i. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening...'kl\ii) ill..-.~--- dar+J A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing . ------------ ---------------------.. caused by hydration of the cement paste...Pf. _____ ----\ .!!i l::: 'i .'1 .-.atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon.--. proom finish --...lITPf.. l:[. l~~'-':{'.. .~~>~.>. --- trowdfinlsh· --------Adense.. forming.: A port. sand. as concrete.. float finish ...--. rotary power saw eqUipped with. L_. compacting...-~'~1 - - crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage.aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on vert1c41 shaft to smooth.hlng The process of leveling. ' . overlappi~ matlon.ll:" t i l "':..-A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level. and cop trowel -----. Also called 5(.. ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~.-. 47 ..e surface.j'I.. . finish Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface with a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated.----------------.

I ~~ projectsfaroWMership.ni:. usually trained and experienced in the desIgn and construction of vulldlngs. : I : contracts wfth a general contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon project. Also. skilled.. or l1usiness - ~---------.ctrlcal engineerIng.. I L.-.-.. award.J 10 or res.. Architect ana Subcontractor Subcontractor Subcontractor I ~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : I ____________________ for suPsequent S31e or lease.----. registered. usually a ccmll"erclal !1.--.--. Iii T I : I I r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM I I I r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : p~Ject.Il5~thearchlt. -. as acoustics or IIghtlng. . r--------:. as structural mechanIcal. -. I . ! H Aperson traIned. or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved. Iendil19 institution T~ institution.-.enttalltles of real esta~ esp...J.t architect Aperson who engages In the profession of architecture. --. 48 . the ori II I ur cha n I se 1 kp \ boo dt \ \ )' \~~U~ --~-- I \ U his / you ~ t I nee b if design-l1uiIJ I I I I I r I _________ IL _________ .. I j: 1 Inves~ In and develops the I I contractor Aperson or arga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials H and perform the wort for a construction project at a speclfled time and rate.. -.--------------------1 I : .g the ~al right or title to a piece of ~ ~.J ______________________ I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to I . . :.. -1 ownu A person orarg:anlutlon twlr. life.------ Iicen5ea L~allycerUflecl bya governmental or other constItuted authority to engage In a !rosIness or professIon..-~---. providing the I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~ t pot. professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of various ~ranches of engineering.----. . l .. '---t lib co ntracto r A person ororganlutlon that ! Insurance The Insurl~ of property. The art. from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng.!I general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage ana supervIse a construction project.J1e...CONSTRUCTION ofbu~ai~.-.. Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design constnJGt a ~lldIng or project. _________________ .--. --. I) ~Ion project. JI L I speculnwe ~ui1kr I turn-leey Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy. ..----. and construction phases of the project.. I I . gin al cop ~-tefm fI~I~. for a y ! construction manager A person ororganlut\ol1 that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect..--~ . science. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons set forth In a contract are fulfllled.xt's f'/--c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent.ma~ent. or e~ineer ~ .---. Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors. or e!e..

..i> .......•........ ..-oceeJ wtth construction of a building project In accordance with approved clr. I I Construction phase 1 0 I'--________...e compt:Utlve process of offering boo tv ccntnct A ~ally enforuable agtUment.~. I I I L........• -~ .••.... top out To Install the highest structural member In ._----..... gin I I al conalJCf'... +..:ns have been flied and reviewed... usually In written form...•.....CONSTRUCTION The process of pUilding...J I: Construction phase 2 6c=---------..... :.... functional and I1ehavlonl aspects of a completed l7ultdlng In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for tuwre programming and design activities........ se the ori technical or other advIsaDllity of a proposed construction project....... A written communication Issued Uy an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establ1shlng the date of commencement of the work.) Of or pertaining to project scheduling In if l7uilding permit A written author!zatlan to p.... ""-" ..J 49 ........ a method for punnIng. combining all relevant Information Into a flow chart... p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical. scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building.......-..... positioning...•••. certificate ofoccupanq A c:Iocument Issued Uy a j......... . and fastening of materials or parts... Also called staging. you buildi"9 offICial A person designated Uy a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster ancl enforce the provisions of a building code. Design ~ Q ~ ~ ~ fast-track ....... and managing a project... . kp notice to procee. Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities... and finishing operations..... fe. and permltUng occupancy for Its designated ~.. which the design and construction phases : : : : J I I Ar-------::---""'T I _ _ _ _ _ _ _---' ' : COnstructlonphase4U . j ... ... fittlng together.. ofa~ltdlngprojectoverlaptocompre5s the total time required for completion............ Occupancy· .. the relative significance of each event...lwlngs and speciflcatlons../ ~I CPM Critical Path Method... scheduling....l To construct boy the raising..----_....•.. and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________....1swility study ur cha ........ government agency havlngJurisdlGtion after p!... from site preparation through erection. assembly.......ulldl~ official certffylng that all or a designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding co~.... .....-........ j ... dt L~I nee award A fOnTl3l auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS.•.. .... a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall .. A detailed InvestIgAtion and analysis I~I erect cop y i1iddin9 l"l....... between ~ or more parties to do or not to do something specified.. --.lssued Uy the local..ea to determine theflnanclal. ~ ..... ~ falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is not yet capable of supporting ttseff...ll his perform the wan: described In .1 contract for a specH'ied sum....._.....

beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses. prefal1ricm fabricate r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and usually standardized parts... .=:-...:iwich p~ ./ Req... work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract. reference ~pecification A specification that refers to a st<lndard spectfic.1s Wooa' & P135tJcs ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:.ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor. --- . roof. and const<uction cost acccuntlng. Oivision 1 Otl'f51on2 OIrlslon 3 OIrlsJon4 OirlsJotl5 Oirlslon G Olvlslon 7 OIrislOf'l~ lj I y facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers. systems.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute memw I. / Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent. 3M united into J whole. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect. 'peciflCaticn.(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered... quality of execution of the . . trade.il~ components used In ass.. . cein"40 or roof.. esp. then tilting them up Into their flnal position. orfunalon..-Arty In a ~ of standard1zea. construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth In detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project.. i cop ccnc. if you {)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf Otrislon 16 Bec-tnc41 perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results.r:. frequently \nt. . Also called Industrialized Puitding.. ! l~ 50 . -. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding.. The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of 1.n cha b I se ~U:Se. U D/rI5lon 11 Oil'f5ion 12 D/risJon 13 EqUipment Furnishings dt his 5ped31 ConstroctJon Ccrweyfn._.mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent. --.r~n Doors & Windows Finishes kp Otl'f51on9 Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes ". or WAil Dendlng.lncludlng the ownercontractor agreement..\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material. . panel Ii ! I . ---. ana ana L . ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness-toweight ratio.t ground b-ef and. or function. The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls. -. Including all addenda. I: j I ana we.-. assemlkd.. t proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products.-..tff~ size. ur modul. ----.... contract documents The Ieq. standards. 5y-s-U~ nee . and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included. orvarie module --. 3S fr. used as $\. tilt-up construction A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete --wall panels on site In a horizontal position... Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref.ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection.Llb co~ion A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In . boo f'lwr. c:f~rjptlve 'pe-cification ~ I A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct qU3ntltles quahtles of rroterlals to be how they are to De asseml>led fumlshed In a construction.5ed-5kin pand -----~~:::::. Also called Masterionnat.. ...erchange...e:n~ untts of. Cornbtl~ the dimensions of a structure and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents. . L • I.. flllng of technical data and product literature.mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St .. lift-. Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ uniform ~y~um Afo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. . A pref. Gene.atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products. wall.. .n. are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks.ysttm. " ..entrne..l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng.I documents comprising a construction contr. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl.oor. modifications. ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module. L f I .am~ construction. r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand. {)(YisJon 14 modularcooraiutiYn _. Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc. wnen cured.IbJect to ~.. or processes without prOVision for substitution. ..lct.uirement5 ~ 1j i gin al ~ ~ry ori 1i the Met....d loads. conditions of the contr3ct.. ~Y.

'. ~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI).nd decking of specified minimum sizes.. r \ 51 . l?ul. r. protected ordinary construction -'" . . and used primarily In the ~heastern u.. ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame.lnc. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). V41rUllCe unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts.rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped .wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities. protected light wood frame \ construction .l . Also called construction cl3ss.lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable. comuustible construction Any construction th3t aoes not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan..nd welfare.nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31.. r ) no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'.. constructlon.thorlt~S. . and the prorisIcn of...d Ordlnarj' construction h..~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan.~. . 2S to restrict the height.'ltel1ent. type of co nstrllCt 100..lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons.. type and Intended occupancy._ .. his AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In cha se ~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-. ~ and enforced by a local go./ ~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design.ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities.. as an agreement. roofs. ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~.:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers. esp.1 ! An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt.alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~. and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls. unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and ) .In t&ecentr.U..rl and western us... Also called mill construction.. kp A lrull. ~ BOCA N. noncmrfONR~ I light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon.: .:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and ur An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones.-~ t. protected noncombustIble CONSTRUCT. . Also called zonln§ co.emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety.wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er.. as pari. : ' nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states.. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities. Interior Pearlng walls. hea~ .by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance. Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of prlmrt.. the ori unpl'Otected ordinary construction gin al cop y I ~. J:Id use of Dulkllng s. or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code.nt A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It. : ... professlona I socletSes. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. 1992. . r~ecoven. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s.1 AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction.closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act boo f l-I -r the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs. and tr. and walls.s.. construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities. they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction.--~ Ordln2rj' construction h. and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M). if you zoning ordinance nee dt . specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. ener~code 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use. estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and reqt.ab!ed. 00. -. - Of or pertaln~ to a material.~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au. . . floors and cellin~s.

. --. ·_ . flgu:-t h3v!r...··:.h appear to gin :.. '-'..a nds for or represents sornethlr.... ...shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure.er of jointing that mJtes the united parts cIQr..."~\~'\I '~.. t addi1::i~e I A metf1CJOflhanr.... and relatlonshlp to one another. ':1~0::j~{. . apart from its.. -..g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon.ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion... .. or ~n.:' / f~~~~~~:~ "'---. color or form..I fOriit-i The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or materl3l .. \ . derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs. y -----/-+ [!] ~[RJ syntPo. shape suggests an outnne w... '''~\~:%~~~:\l'. accumulation.. ~ cha AIso. The edge or wntdllr of a shape. " ~... ~ solely on dt an Intellectual and affective content --+X • • his if ~----....~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects. ··..' .DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art ... Characterized or produced by remmi cf.. ·· .. The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of a surface. and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume...h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass...... 5ulrtractive ~ . ..#Iine /' \ L_'~_-->.. -...pparent texture of. I' ~~~~ I Something th3t st. resemPbnce.. cc-.. cofors.~~naI.-" ..... distinct. . dcnsfty..... . artJcubtio n shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes. i tactile texture ....g a meaning and used In puce of a word or .~-'t-_ _ _ _ ----JI I....'GJ">.~rg. ... esp.--:... one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of 7.. part or portion without destroying .... apart from Its color or form.. resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry. resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals. .. boo kp Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which i~j~ ur ~ . or uniting.. ~~~ al cop The. 52 .-.J Characterized or produced by addtUOn...' . ~se of the whole. ~nvenUof13! \ ~~f!1f::d you A unified compostlon of two-dimensional w~ht. often resuftinq in a new Identity. !textiirt " .. tactile '\uallty of a surface... .. The visual and esp. @ \ ..... and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other. and Pul.. '7 visual ttXture . surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values. . ..... Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having nee their Intrinsic lines.. .. While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole. . '?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·'''''''·''''''''''''' ~--------------------~ se !~..> ~! the ori Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic. .

. nat neceS5. nee dt his diagr. that outlines.. I( III l1li •• II • gin " ". boo kp ur . or cl3rtftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole.J form a unified whole. if you pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design. esp.o VI proper proportion or relation 50 as t. cne h<lYing . orga~~tiorJ 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~ ~i An InaiV1dual.:. of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr. minute. COrn' . f4l>Mc ..fr~t e Jlrrang n~ parts Or eIe me'lts fr. structure < 01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design.3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a compcsition 50 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e.wm : .~DESIGN form: The manner of arm-. 'L_____ _ ___________ _ 53 .'lrlly represent3tlol13l.II al cop ~I y . I I -\ a' the parts.~rBrl. eXf-'ins. the ----------------------~ j tature ori i . or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole. cha s!up~.:g3.11 • Th~a-. . represented b] a dlagram. A drawl~.a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze..iffikJn of e~ments or p3-.I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit.S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole. ~rranqement.ent. and prcportlons se The c~ractaistlc structure given to .

unity' The state or quanty of Peing combined into one.stopermtt ·..: 1---~. homogeneeu ' ~~~::l ~~~~~====~I I \ : I I tJ I cop y canUnuity ..: . or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an arUstle wno Ie..e'mof eiements r.. hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS.. .lntricate.: : : := _-=.. 1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye. or eha rae terlsties. cha se campJexity .grated to afford comprehension cr arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness I recognition. concept. cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed..-.. ori ~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety. r~ L I I· ~ I ~ A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon.!S..!.~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.. .-=-::. . order. Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM. [>f _ . P ~ P J ! I A~Ion from the normal or expected form.n of Delng placed close ~r()('s~byskk....~ DOD DDD DDD The stateOrquanty of being Identical..alient Prominent or conspicuous. anomaly. order.... dt Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast. __ -------. and organfud one 3DOYt: another. or arrangement. II. I I ! I . wo. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its purpose.~-/~ ~.lnKea..e. .. pleasing. brder ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious...d.. ~ . : .~":'=d his nee .0 L. ~e....". ~======~ r rl~lR ··m II kp r-------.~. A syst. ~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n..:. or dlrectlon.. .. or coonterpolnt.... or relatIOn proximity '. or regular.. inoNIy' 0 §DDODD ODD DOD ~ 1 0 ~ I!14Jor idea. .. .. acwrdin~ U i if l~~:~i opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and proGuce a more dynamic expres5iveness.".--' '<t " >'. al gin ~- ur The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted. I! -/. ' ' . Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi. or satlent feature ofa narrative or 'nt DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD ~QnUrpolnt .. or Interconnected prts. ..:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or lnU...astheorJerl~ofelements In an Ii I[ 'caherent lc. A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept... t comparlsonorcontnst. caJlage the boo The stJte or 'l.. ""' . you ~ ~~~ I~= : =.. The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi. 'j 1I~_. .. U I kmrchy l to importance or s~nlf\canu.' I u I Ne3rT1es~ln place.:Jically Inwngruous. . -.~ to a stialqht nne. ju$~ ~>/ I I. essential pa rt. The state or poSm... corresponJlng posltlons from an \ntervenlngspaceor<*ject.ity. ~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5. as a nne... turmony The orderly. L. types... or lc....U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms. -. elasslf. 11[. :. Inconsistent.-=·-=.so.....= .... often causing anxiety or excttement..... ~====~==~~====~==~~I========~ ..= .. • I 54 ! r . ai~~ U Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged. L of effect.

are referred for pu rch I ase the U L+J-. equipoise .:.. '--I tI "-..i50h~metryi.::S:~~! ori . '-I y 55 . or o li o . measurement or symmetry." al ¥~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual successive stJges.s cr opposing forces..r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~. rdJUonshlp.-.tC:::5E=n:~lliJlllllU~-liabnce '1 Pa. An e<lUJI distribution of weig.~~ . i. radiatIng parts a~ut a center point or central axis.Jn~lanclng weIght -I orfw~ "'-I I L. I -I 11 A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance ~~ri4m Itc=:.y.lstlng ~~. ~ contr.-.. cop concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events.. A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a ~ure. ~cc~~-$ ACO. gin '~ilf The au ·_-----_·_--t ~~!/j The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_ ~k:>r-3 which rr...--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar..d.:.. body. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn or composItIon_ fcxus. j if y :-/ ou n eed i thi sb ook i . or composltlon Is elements In <I compositlon symmetrical.-.:. -----.I )PESIGN-' .ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe It ts di recu.

" 3/ 5..\---?'<::- eed thi 1tutIu" ~ale sb ook St3ndard or point of reference.. 8113 . j I .... VI....proportlca.0 mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement... 5/ 8... extent. rel.-. Also c...... uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ~. ..- .. The COlny.~. I harmonCC~' ~. 8... 5.... -_\'t_-.. .. ~. .._e.. V2.....3.. 21. . 3.--. and each succeeding term Is the sum of the.--=-':Io..L .----~..... Also called ~cd ~uance.1Ut respea to In'gnltuae.. or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole "...' . ~ harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of ". In which the ratio of the smaller to the I.hich form an arithmetic progression... golden~llj I I ! j A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression. . II certain prof'OftIonate size. divideJ Py tile fOIl rth.... -. or an article of flnlture..lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0.. AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne.. 1.---~--------- '" if y ou n The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r.. 13.I The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third Fibonacci se~ ... .... PE$I~N : .lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ ' ...618 to 1...ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human . eurythml Ha rmony of proportlOif fro~. LJ 1J I A B degree. pu rch ~Ie '... 1.. The unending sequence of numbers where the first two terms are 1and 1.. two l. -. '1.. or mOvement.. "...r\ . 2.. ..---------. proper... visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze....mm~lately preceding.. : %=9 \ ~ 1...... 2...... quantity.. I 1 . oraegree. or ase the ori gin al B cop y _ ..000.c:ntor space. - 56 I r- ....

.ns.-' .~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re..~ if you h:mdlc3ppd fl .. .:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely.. ----. --..f To 3sc'rlbil humin furm orcharacterlstics to nonhuman things or I1elngs."etrent k.. .Also.< presence and movement ana the size.'~'" f .· ! j f' ······1· a~r~~I11~ I l .... or mo. ana Jolnts..' tendons." .'.- 57 .!J~. .) ~"... · .. 35 reach. 11 .-. ~~ia. f: !I:'J ..J ~. ~)13ptJc i .J.·-.. petween the sensory experk:nce of podily al ori the se cha ur '~. or clea ranu. -.----. i' \: . Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch. or permission to approach.i. Ptllk:Il~s..-.. k1na~$lai i presence. The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody...i~~i?'~ i: " '~ f j /~V ..rp~~ . stride." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom. Also called~! distance.. : r. ~ : a. ."... alld how the n3ture and kgru of this sp3ttal arrangement relJtes toenvlronrnental and cultural factors..-. t olfutory' ReI..·. Also called ~uman engCnurin4... sha pe.r. jVa~ Of or ~ini~ to spaces... ·····. and proportion of a space. It Ra~ropoll10...fDESJGN I l ~gonomiG5 r ~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO.a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL kp ~...1nclud1~ the physically dt "{~. I I I Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the cha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an.."''' .softhe tiuman body a nd It 5 p-art5. mlt The correspondence II""··... · · .atlon of nerve endl~s in muscles. /~~ r I ]r.-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement. > ------" pe~11315pace ~ The vatia!7le and su~lectlve dlstance at which OM person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her.. or use.. ffunctioM&imell5ion ".1ved chiefly from stlmu/.~esi5. nee his boo P~r.! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 I and In~al sltuat.. f gin !.. _ ! cop " y t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position. enter. i territoriality The pat tern of ~havior associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or domain r .. and facntt:es fully accessiple and usap!e by all ~1e.

J dmltll.: To wolt but./ al ... . or ~~yn.rio. ~ . f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more flne or precise.. J~meniFY.... . To expre5S.. ~igll" /. ~nd mod. L develop.angle. coof. .. or prinCIple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ue ~ased. or used..~.. and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project.. or ~ lli:e by writing. An .-....h~ls J Comulnirig of separate. analysis of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements.. ~ judgment ~ : ..1 DESIGN . or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other constru~ contrivefoform In an artistic or Ingenious manner. fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth ln~ antlclpa~ for testln~ and evaluatbn.. esp. Jesfgn f~'·. II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le. lr--n. character.. EVaIu3tlve Information auout an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for a~ratlon or correction.esp.{y(ng structure through a series of alscw~ permutatlons and manlpulatlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity Of' ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria. A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into applications of existing Ideas or prinCiples. A~nd..:.orslmilarchange:n the shape of" configuration. testing. ~ model : . or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end. buJlt accurately to scale for study.--.---. ~ meons of which a changeofrelatJor..:..~~ . cop ~ ~ / _'\ . . convenience. •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or }~~"lfor so. as a statement~ forth the context.. Ina way that Is clearly ana readily understood.· ~ deve~ . or exists..-.. I CO"""~ ......ss~~. ···········-···········t~#············~:··~'···-·-··-. . or distinguish alternatlves..--:_ _ _ _ _--.: I. used. growth.. or teaching. ' -? I '.. ~[gJ elnt~: concept.. . and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources.J conditions.. L L L L L @@ L L L L dt se gin fo asceruln or assess the slgnlflcance..Creases comfort. I l. .. and physical ~xt.f • The reason for which something exists or Is done.. . acceptance. expand.i . or otherwise determlnea bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions made. to show the appearance ~~n' . in problem . 58 L . a future preferrea state.nJ Its. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols.tnodifyl the ~icwttd 3n impIem~ solution In use ~ tk-specifieJ gozls and ori ~! fochange the form.--"._ ~refut.. Infonnatloll. A'iT.'e.' jmoclc~up: AfuH-s!ziJ model of a Uulkllng or structure. testing. th~ cycncal.Also.rnfitu~ represent3tlon.canvey. requirements.ading or directed to a partlcu~rc:ti PfO~S . f"OPO''' The off~ of II pia n for consideration.'Ilng a prol7lem. ~P~~I\ ! feeduack his ..i$e.. r •.. / . t~rifty.._ . J refine.tharttte. or pleasure... . /~~. worth. y Astandard.. usuarly by careful appraisal and study. speaking. .-----~. or realIZe the : capaPtlJttes or posslp!litles of so 3S to ~rlng 1 gradually to a fuller or more adva ncea or effective state.. IteraUv~ process comprising the following phases.. often dlve~ pa rts • or elements so as to form a single or t whole. as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations.) ~in~ € The pattern of change.rasu!1jtct a system or process to such condItions or operations as will lead to a critical evaluatlon of a!71 lit!e 5 or p~rform3nce subsequent acceptance or rejection.. .:i traMformatlcn-' The process Oftha~glng In form or nee if you ~l&iitJon Slmulztlng. usua ny ~ullt to scale. comprehend relationships. 5~parattng iph... f 0 conulve.. CI'iterU.ina i . or qu..:::~:::~::M~OO' des~n project wtthln a specified tlme. ~. socia/' economic.1.. fJ~tifying . esp..~~.sI1lp to some context or condItion Is lodlcate.oi T'lie mental lIPility to perceive distinctions. ~purpo~ . econorny ._.-J3-'-tlO-'n--":::"~:l:. kp n o ur g cha ~ . function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is designed. ".~ inflectio n ' boo To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means of a definite pbn or procedure. or Interchange Ideas. . ~! fo chooSe from a numl?er of a~matlves ~ fitness or preference. or action... made.':".Ie.lltyof. or construction of something. given.U5t Arty feature that provides or l!).

'. To a'ir~theefforts or attention of.. or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas.V.ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5.. i .'- . ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea..-.s..-••• - \ I . :. -. A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr. understanding. proia.~r)'.wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p. or distinction.:.dd~.n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a% or principles used in analyzing. The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas.. kp . or Interpretations. An un. I Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. asd1stll19ulshed from theory. . . Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance..::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern or structure for a des41n. arc~-·····--·-·-···· . or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness ~rWeen y ~~ I . an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances.. ".. ' procedure.~.l'ltlonJl way.:' r . _ .e creation of something.~: The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality.." cop ori the se M object.. To rorintmental plctvre of a.. or characteristic anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ.' '" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S mind. The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring... ana characteristically removed from re4nty. his T =~ c ~ /lY'~ . : . you -~I char. \... 0 ) o-----~) ~ ...en61 representation of / sorr. ~ph!J.. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr. plans.. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-..e ..: irrt3~in3ticn : The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell' --. f5~~. esp.. o }.. future possibility. structure.:t yro~.eatlve processes...~i . A fortUitous circumstance.\ / / / ... 4-. --. -. as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals.. The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char. • '-. -. or ~~ The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be.'l . esp. I tBDJ]w w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference._ ... _ ~ . ~pnctU .. or other drawings.. ~.rtfuple. . to pe developed In detail In later studies. and Independent ros~.. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or nee Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr. vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something.... mentallnventC1s that are whimsical. ve. a-nltogy ( .lCterls1lc.r..~_ .. . ~ e LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng ~renJiFity ~klent.1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts.A. r r t f' if fI I • A nu.••• -~Q/. or amngement. Jlld._...' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai..er construction. 1'e<11 . esp. _.l4~" .. ! I 59 .8 h~~ some fmn of o~tlve ~Irty outside of the ~~Inthesolutlonofa' \.. am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation. tnJth.._ ... playful. 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or cha .. ap~~ ur ~vfn9 ot>~e. of 2Ctlon.~ ! explaining. .>stance. . j he~: al gin --'~(_-l. patterns.. . . asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded.. ~tf.... ""'_' _______ \ \ IJ ~~ •. " To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu. Aconcept for tl1eform. resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence.. . ~ ~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group ~ t model ' An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr. A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be.a..~ IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031 . ~~pt ~~~} ~~~ 10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a ~rtk:ular fom. qUJl1ty. sul.n \ --. '..... or thinking In orderiy. them.acUvtty..iDESIGN ./ irrt.. -e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \ I crutivity . ·-····-·-····· .. >>A rr.1cter.c-tu3r~nu or application of principles. qU3!ity.---~Efl------... des~n conceyt r 1 ~ ~a.. represented graphically Py diagrams. ! fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns are summoned. dt Rri~neJP~ A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar.. I boo I ! : ~hl~. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5 Hlusory..origiral~i The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner.~. or predicting phenorr~. An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident.irtlcuur Instance. . forms.

Ir+- if you nee dt his boo ! . thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell se the Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~. -. -.lI'ftlIItS...ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop .---. A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure.IT" ! conb!n the outward components of cha .. .... t.. ---.. I rings at various heights../ . and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles. gin ~ucerdcme al cop 11 11 11 great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere..(").. and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation. so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns... always kp ---4-J::':"'---.. meridianal force ~ . .----... rr.. Hoop forces... .. 60 ori y .e~~io~~~ng the rr. radl. 5chwedler dome A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude...eridIonai forces. A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface.cent....: ur i the l7ase of il acme tc ."" . whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome. geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr. -.---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome structure....~ ...._~ . spnere.. ..-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a hemlsp~re./ roo ..ema Iloaa....aldome A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn¥d In 3 raalalll". ..e ....Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon .. A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae.-' forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load conditJons.. ~ttiudome ... In 3 concrete dome. - meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface. ! . perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces..l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles. compressive underfull vertical loadIng.DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of... 3rt compressive In the upper / zone ana ~sife In the lower zone.---""'. hoop nne I ..g the acme surface Into....er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~..... hoop forc.

. as around the springing of a aome. cul-de-four .lunette i . ---------- ...1antern.. as (Ner a semicIrcular apse. one at the crown of -I : : r·-tb. ring. . A strap.lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola... An area In the pLone of a wall framed by an arch or vault. ~ gin ... /. . cupou A light structure on a dome or roof.sphere vault.... A spherical dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentIves anel sits on " square pLon..... y cop ~ pendentive ~ '\ }-1~3rne 1 " A dormer window In a roof or spire.. band. ··~·--llrrterdome . \ I if y 'l ou n eed l thi sb ook ~l i .~cl andalr.. Whispering gallei'y\ rch ~) the ori ase .... Asuperstructure crownIng a roof or dome havln~ open or windowed walls to let In light semiaome._ ..1 J. esp.:--.. paintIng.....DOME :. It.age . ... or sculpture. containIn~ a wIndow..... -_ ..:.{ A dlrc~iaropenlng./ .. al ~'L ~Ulrn. '. 3S nlc he. 61 .. space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or vault In which low sounds produced at any of certain poInts are clearly audIble at certaIn other dIstant pu \L. The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome.. --: --_... orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together.-----------------------. . serving 35 a l:>elfry. \ pe~tttive dome ~ .. H3ff a dome formed by a vertical sectIon.. O'IU an apse or A semldome or'quarter... A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure. Or belvedere. ~ oculu't a dome.-.. .. An arch or cOrl:>eltng pullt across the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octa~onal structure.rt~) .

' his i I I boo r I 51iJin9 door A door ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on.{l exclude drafts.. double doors I... the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer I~af pl..._ .... / Y the foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when ~ se .. 62 .. -~ . J : . . astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light. .oted ~t the jamb. pivoteQ door AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot.s from the Interior of a i7ullding. ../ / .'''- ~ . . ":'-""-Ieaf 1! I A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter./ !i ..JJJj.. Inactive leaf The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f. opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng.nd closing an tntranu to a building. DDD . ~ i overhead door A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves. door opener A mech3nism that automatically opens a door . ~ ucordlon door ori -r+--"'i'~'-'-"" - l:rifolddoor gin al cop y .... room.J.. .jjii. mullion A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p./ / / :... ... tnGt..-_-U. . sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door. ! . A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe.J i kp A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding b3ck In the manner of an accordion.. or c.Ine door pivot.... providing a'legal passageway on roth sides of.. ..~::s I I I that permit It to I swing In one direction only. or smoke... jill ir j A folding door that divides Into two parts. . sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••./ \ . it-'-"Tl I : : I I dt I I I ('f"'-"'" : 'I I if you I 1: I : ~ nee I 1 I I I I __ . .......' ~' . wall.- / . ur 1. allU)m.DOOR A hinged.. DOD DDD DOD Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold Pack In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied.I. double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position. sw~ing door A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled.revolving door An entr3nce aoar for excluding dr. A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile. cha . nolse.. I.. l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT". electric eye..Ilancea for easier opening and \ .' :'....IJ.../ . / . - c1051 rtg. -~ wIng One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.g:~~~i~..-...-. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertical pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:. Also called standing leaf.... -.. j_ .. ~ ~. usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to. . r .. II ( I i ... Also called openIng leaf. usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door.. sliding.. / ... or other device... _ _ _ ..LiI.1binet.. active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached.~i:. ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe... ~l or glass for opening ...~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~ ---~. hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter.rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ . or folding Darner of wooa...erir.. ..." \...lr of double doors. .. r-----Y---~...I.pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal. -:...oft. . asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.: :. air curtain A stream ofcompresseJ air dlrec~ downward across" doorway so as ~ form a shield t.... .' "' ' .

often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng.. cop al gin ori cha y '-~- j r ~~~?i.."---..--.I i I • •1 63 . nor prepared to receive hardware. ·. i i I A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame. ' . or window opening. -. consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted.. you nee sectlan of woodwori: directly above a his boo . - th~hold The sill of a o. -··· .. rauueteJ stop I...-.. allowing the door to swing free of the door frame.~~~..-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway..1 .---.J I r uan~cmwindow -----. Also. Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay.. _--- \~_t~~ ::' . Either of the two sidepieces of a ..: <j "l- doorframe.fanlight Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window.-. rough puck.. ~: the fau of the loci: stile. -- ~kleli9ht A window at the side of a door or another Window. to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding when oper.. ·· .~-.."~-4 I :':: '.:1. sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening.~-----W~------------------ . -. ~ --------_ .' \. ':1 doorstop. '. pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me. r 1 711 do<xway... (51rnm) of door thickness..saddle .. ' .--..':1 pmb Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway.-c-~-7:'. The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes..::=. AlSo callej '::1 stop :.ed. ·.K.. The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II --.~... --- The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame.head :0. rough opening ---------. casing ________ .cased opening ':J. if I A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it.~-' doorjamb . -.::1 The uppermost mem~erof a doorframe or wi ndow frame. '~------------~. se r r I ! --'------------ur kp dt the doorcle4r311U ------.s opening finished with trlmworl:.---... Also calle. __ .~j r-"--"". covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr.~ ..::. __ . ua"~m ----------. scunch~n I~ . splay 5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall. .----. __ ..-./ . the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s. Also calW transom..i/19 A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'! opening.. . ~~\. --· Maml .' . 1 r:·~·:~~~~~y ..1 ' -=U'=== Veneti3n door A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window. ..-.~.--.i ">.. Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window. subca.oorH'3y.. buc~ blankpmb Adoorjamb having no stops. --.. doorles."... '.·~··· . I " .-. esp. Also called door \1ud.___ L __ <. doorway. .\. esconson....-----.u.. I· t· I ----. usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In.---. ~---+-+-. (32 mm) for each 2 In.. ~e:=~~·I·~I~~~. -. tr~n50m Il~ht.-. • ~ \ A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another.::! wfnglight reYe411 ------------------.g weather protection at an exterior door. ..----------- r .. The finished. as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\..c~--:-7::::7:~ DOOR doorframe Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y..

..3'j door.----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow sa$lt. _ _ _ _ _ // .-. Also. window sash. --D i Also callea shlltting stile..-' IU L below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame. pu rch o thi sb ou n eed if y the screen door A.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisce.. used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_ Dutchaoor A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately. storm door . louvre.lfts. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude in~s. for protecting an erTtr.lnce :XNr from dr. Ii j.l:: :nesh to .. french door A door having rectangular gl3ss pares extenang throughout its length. gl1:7 door.~g. door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~.""'~=". L D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass.h Inlla' 1113 teriJt .. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits. ico. usua!1y glazed..ming panels. Jip door A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat. muting stile ~_J stiles In.t ~~ or dlvlskln of a wall c. --..er. L . Alsccalltd hangIng stile. filled with panels of a .onn sash for winter.l~'-3 i u vision light Asmallli.aht In the upper portlon cf. ook l. recessed r3a ::~~c~~~~~~~:_~ Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels. or I Li al cop y severe we3tr. and often hung In pairs. louvered door A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or . or door. as in a system of panenng.. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl"...------The . a paneb:l door.e of the opening. ana ~ lI1untlns. I..1. IocIcrail ---------------------------.. fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy.lils that hold a wire or pI3S'. ase ori L gin ccmpi~n door An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea.' .tun door A door const~.'lnting.• p3nel A distinc..that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~ i1ottom rail -------------.ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr.=.stile Ar.y of various:: ?right memDers fr.elll~. driving /din. Iuminum sU!es ana r.DOOR paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes. a pane!ed door.-----. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st.. Or~ of the a!nJtt. of a doo. f. rails. Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_ louver --------~ An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl. L i L 64 . hi"¥stile The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung. Also..-=-==d locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar.. or a ches~ vf drawers....-niL>te when cbsed..s and diagonal Dracing. ~ --.11 outer or supplemeir'. pair of dou Die doors.itter.5 In a system of paneling. window The uppermost r3il connectJng the stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It.

.DOOR 1 I l i _.. prehung docr Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr. hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips. usually of stainless scul..rase of a doorframe to the f. at the !1a~ of a doorfrarT1(:.oor..we!de. reinforced wtth channels. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core..:.krIockdownfume A met3! doorirame composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe ..ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal. cor-e.____ _ A ma. !lpat ~ ..-' gin t... or medium density overlay. : ! t i. acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening if you . ~:m:t:HS1~. ~sketed ~ .. throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe. A protect!ve lining. 65 'i .1 c:Ioorfr. The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface. cha se the ori cop ur hollowmetalfr. or a minerai composition. \""" A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance. _.a'l~ pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !. i I aM casl~ ~m. aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses. cro5s(.. cutQff :.t' an.. as In a daor. docrskin Asurface veneer of plywood. stop. y flu5hfraIM r----L.dfnme A met31 doorfralT1e th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory.. .lang ~ boo Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with ~ ~ .:f frame i anchor Ar.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure.llne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan. crossl1and. s :netal devices for orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher. hardboard. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om. groute.. p13stlc 13mll13te.y of var'.es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware . Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer.. sclkJ-ccre door Awood flush door having a solid core of staved lum!1er. ~r.. -- flush door A door havl~ smooth-surfaced faces. al backbend/. double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS.::! sides. bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door.J. partlck: Doard. Also.anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door. galvanized sheet metal..' nee ~ dt his kp k3~mein door hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame.-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line a 45° or 90° angle. sanitary drywall frame A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall partition Is finished. core Awooden construction. Alsacalled hospital stop. forming a lIacklng for face veneers.

:. mu/tJdlrectlonallines. centour The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng ~es of II three-dlmenslonal form. the ou n sluding The r:ndering of light and dark V4lluesln ~ dr.n In close proxlmlty.. for the representatlon of perceptions or the vlsualiz3tlon of Ideas. continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~ surface with a pencil.. L . low-key H3Vlng en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast.oss. \- outline A line describing the outer bounaary of'a. or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface. scene. body th3t expresses an Idea.-.-"". or brush.~ of the b na. I I I Il ~ DRAWING _. without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.ttching eed if y h.express a~. process. y gin al reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or. ~~~ng Shadlng by means of a netwon: of random.st.=. key The dominant tonal value of a drawing or palntlng. f\j ure 01' object. or proportlon. 66 . cop ori ook thi sb pu rch trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Il'asurerr.3 tic painting in shades of gray to produce 3 three·dlmenslonal effect. rn. ~5h. or technique of drawing ~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices.. movement. depth. gesture drawing The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume. or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject.::::. In contrast to contour drawing. ~k visible In '. .ttching ShadIng composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes. '.'::. ph~raph. Sh3dlng by means of dots. process. SC3le. had. represent light arJ s-ha. profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side. small spots. opinion. . or movement ase The effect or Illusion of moUon conveyed by the rel3tlonshlp of structural elements in a (I..{' \.~~~:. . Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs am. ••~ sculpture.. or short strol: es.:'. Pe:'!.DRAWING The art. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface. arm. image freehana drawing The art. "g~ ?t~=F==i~a:5. or dr3wing. esp. or " c:motlon.'?s distinguished from sha ai~ or eolor:\ ~-------lZ-' \ ~ - I . gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the pa rts. 01' give the effect of color.1ow.. A1r'CI'e:m.. F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG "'f'o. technique A method or procedure for accompllshlng a deslrea aim or tas~.ent. as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls. modeling The technique of rendering the illUSion of volume.::::::::. A representation of the form or : appearance of something. f. grisaille MonoehrolT'. stippling .~~-deslgn or composition.gnrrent.Ice.J~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality.(' line A thin. centour drawing The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject. or solidity on a two· dlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading. high-key Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr.

/Ah_ vignette A drawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper 50 as to leave no definite line at the border.\:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan. with respect to Its qualities of executlcn. exploration.1wing.DRAWING design drawing . . esp. ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr. sway r A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise.x a fresco. one subject to revision.toInsferred In preparation f. . to ~ :. of a building cha se A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n. surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of Important details and some1:imes a pia nor section of the facade.'. draft A prelimlna!). Of made to record ol7servatlons. ort3~try. shades 3nJ shJdows: usua Ify done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and Of'" ur r I renderi~ Adnwing.orother~sumce. section.. • J . productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:. epure AflJrt-SQIe.ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils.( y $I:} r.ents. cop . often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study. lI1OS.Oic. 67 . esp. or detail of a work. ~~~~~~~ '\\ ~ ~~~. conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist.-. r:sp. analyti~ue ". ~U3S\ort I rI r L if you nee dt his boo kp I • intu\ol" space. Any of the drawings made to aid In the visualization. a pers~ive. s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n. or color that deflnes shape or form In general outhne rather than In detail. M~ ?fE. tfom~roeil A drawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile a-j spatial qU3rtt ies An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade. ~ drawing done Of1a wall. the cartoon ori gin al mass A unlf'.... t I ' ~'.ed area of l'9ht.6 ~~ -'1 )?)~ 'I /? :P / V' passage An area.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'.~ /' /~ 1. +. fbao.oI ~rl3Is. from which are ~ the pattans forvarlous Dulldlng elar. es-quis5e A s. and evaluation of a concept In the design process. shade.

'.. dlmenslon5. engineer. for the compasses. ---------1==3====i=r--t---t-:tt=IT--If¥=--ir--t"ff9· dotUd line ----------1H+-tr1+==---~l---{ Hf--~ A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of 11i:z'i\::nmb1~mt~~mt0~~c:. or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the state: wMre the work Is to ~ perfonTltJ.ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point.DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares. Also called muhanlcaf drawing. or area. ana o grid A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating and re1uiJtlng the elements of a o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject. y co".truction drawings The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition. sometimes used In place of a dashed line. or dots. L..nct drawings.. unUrline 'l I gin the ur cha se al cop dr. and along which measurements are $Galea and Indicated.the apex of which Is a reference point. plan. leader A short line leading the r. wori:fng I ori A Im*en nne conslstlng of relatIVely long segments separated by SIn!J1e dashes or dots. - .lccatlon. snort sl3shes.. nne. closely spaced strokes. tUshed line AIn-oken nne conslstl~ of short. scales. ! if exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI"!J from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~. to which a dlmenslon hne Is drawn.J~ closefy spaced Oots. used to cut off a portion of a drawing. Also C311ed COfTt. Indicating the extent or mag nltude of a part or the whole. dime~lon line j A flne terminated l1y arrows. crowfoot A V-shaped mark. . kp ( you nee dt his boo /~~ ~-'. ~I An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a licensed architect. 17re3kline A I1roi:en line conSisting of relatIVely long segmentsJoined by short zigzag strokes. to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view. sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. used esp. 68 . triangles. esp.iwi"4 s .

narth arrow A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the direction of north.. '~'_ _ '. or Its rep~rrt. Also called orthogonal proJection. I __I area plJn A plan showing the principal elements of a design project In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~ent... !andSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot. usually drawn to scale.Jolnlng points of equal eM tIon 00 a s. _ . Also calleJ plan view.ontc~I~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~ rocfpL1n A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng. 1 69 .Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys. and conu. mmi~pUn A pUn showing the pattern..:il1y shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls.. and doors. usl~ a system of symrols and drafting nnewon. typlc. .ontcurline --------~---: An 1~lnary h~. The tl1rory of Mlng project1ons of threedlmtrl. A proportlol1 determining the relationship of 3 represen"tatlCn to that ~lch It represents.ztlon 011. c...!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1d1cul.. DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry projection The process or technique of representlng a thru-dlmenslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh"t nnes.and orientation of a l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on a site.. esp.lon remOr'ea. c. n of a room as seen from aw.. uSU311y 111Gludlng tl1e dImensions.ch contour /1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or ~p. map.·. contours. AI50 called plot plan. ~a!e y A plan showing the form. either parallel or converging. elements. windows.lr or roof of ~ bulldlng. or entlre floor of a uuilding as sun from above after a horlzootal section ls Clft and the upper port. and other soflds of a l:tulldl~ that are cut !n a floor pl3n or section drawlng. _ _ ~'~. the form of Its roof.~- " Xi ----'-~1in9 '-. Also C31bI ~ cef1l~ plln.bce.3ne.ll frame for a fu. I r 1 ~ '"' I !"I 11===fF -< - ~j~1 ". columns..ct1ons of die: structur. I I I I floor ptan A plan of 3 rOOm.. lnd1caw. e!MtIon represented by l e. -" gin ori if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the " al poche The walls.J USl!311y In ulack or by hatching.3r to a plctu re pl.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left. gradi~ p~n A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ finish con tours and emtlon s cf the groo nd surface of a conWuctlon sI~ cop ~iU pL1n ~I ~dplaa ----~ -. topographic pun or The d!ffmnu I.: An orthographic projection of the top or section of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane.locatlon ... " . _ _'l. orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a threedimet1slonal '*. 1- ApI. to a picture plane.re hit hZffng its celhllf Sijrf3ces and elements proj«ted dowr.. graphicecale --------~ 1 ! Agraduated hnear Uar Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a represetlt3tlon and that which It represents . plJn -. suite.

.. 5Q~ It Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of.. t~... and depth. usually drawn to The casting and rendering of shades .. if you shadow AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from a theoretical light source.... to conv~ li9ht.....11 cclor cop nee \. gin al r-·IcC..I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon Is to be viewea... In orthogr3phlc views. An ort. surface. used to IndIcate where ... esp... form.... S<':ction An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely. I It usually drawn to L. lu Ii i . _.lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration.erse section. y U Lj 70 ! I: . Also " III section line) Acerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow.. at right angles to the ~ axis of an object. _. would a~r In white tlght..e se the ori shade _ ...I DRAWING &tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure . The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~U~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light 5O\IrGe.s it \.l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject.. shades ana shaaows kp \g)~ ur cha \00 relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast..hogr#phlc projection Of an object or dt SC3~ his struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of Its sides.. boo e:b7tWn . crt3tlng Illusion of three dimensions.Ind shadows. ~ opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object.. cros. The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject ... cai1ea mns..... esp.

tlon.1xonometrlc projecticn The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal axes are foreshortened.ls. 1 r tn!1S~renttv permlt gin al reprtSelTt~ of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew.en ase the trimetric projection ori An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two.e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane. :~:f an oblique proJection. exploded new A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1. 71 ."ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to ook c~~ pu rch f- An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'. haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted.1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made y dimetric projection isametric is-ometrk: projection An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion . having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale..r p.hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.l~ or .~ cf an Isometric prdp:.e scale.!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes .lMne draw'. r r r J perspective. sb A dr.~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_ opli'tue projection A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect..ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings .in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. Also calW ~naed if y ou n eed thi dispby tM ~ior..":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa.. • ~ntPJrt. used to represent a property IIne. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n cavalier drawing A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection.1. h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale. and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j. phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr..1r. cop ph.311 converging ~ In linear r1 il DRAWING . h1vi~4 . oPliqLle A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc.r. A par.atlonships to each other and to the whole.l. c3Pinet drawing A paranne dra . 3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M. view.1line drawi~ Arry ofv.

..picture pl4ne j I I ur cha se ! An Imaginary transparent p13ne. denneatea by a thlder fine or by a sharp COf1trast In value or texture... as aer!at perspective.•. .. _.. sprtUl edge An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r.. dt his perspectlve. linear perspective A mathematical system for representlng three·dlmenslonal oDjects and spatial relationships on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau loy means of perspective projectlon.. The cone of vision serves as a guide In tktermlnlng ~t ~n ~ drawn In hne.1xf~ of vf~ion The si9htl1ne lnalcatlM4 the dIrection In which the viewer Is Iookl~ In linear pl3~e.. deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the untral axis of vlslon.. A point rtpresentlngthe Inte~ of the centl'2l axis of vision and the plcture pbne In hne. .. ~ I al i P kp point .. The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means....a1 of space. ~'btion gin ori r ... ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as recedJng from the plcture·pl3ne.DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2..... arty fine or plane colnck:ltnt with the picture p13nec3n ~ drawn to exact scale.' _____ '- - 1-.h the lm3ge of a three-dimensional o!7je. coexlsttnt wft:h the drawing surface. _. size perspective .. Also called atmospheric A ~hnlque for representlng depth or dlstance !rt placing dist.. unterofvision ~ .rious ~hnlques for representlng t.n..al~tIc~ ..ct Is projected..vanishing point A p?lnt toward which nudlng parallel lines appear tcconve:rge In llnedr perspectlve..... 1ac3 teJ at the point where 3 slghtllne parallel tcthe set of fines Intersects the picture plane. ~I perspective vertlc~llocn:lon A~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance by muting the hue.lr perspective wfthout the appearance of dIstortion... central.. boo A flxt. nee you I if ~ ground line Ahorizontallfne represent1~ the I~fon of tne ground pbne and the pIcture pl3ne In linear perspect~tl. perptlndlcular to the picture 72 . X ----->-- continuity of outline A f..... In Nnear perspective.d point III spuc representlng a sing ~ eye of the viewer In nnea r horizon line A nne representlng the intersection of the picture p13ne and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective.as being closer. tone. Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by gradU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore plane. - .. .d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture pl3nt: by straight lines converging at an ~rlly flxed point represerTtl ng the eye of the viewer.. perspectlve.ar perspective.. on whk. i. ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve.. -----+ .. Also called "'&alinl!! ..nt objects higher In the picture pl3ne than otjects ~ed ....•. ' . usually the ~ane . ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which 3 three· cop y the dlrnenslonalobject Is rep~nte.--! n-r~~·~ -: I I It perspective. _ o".....ru-Jlmenslonal objects and ~tl31 rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau as they might appear to the eye....ground pl~ne Ahorizontal pl3ne of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve. ...ance by reducing the size of objects perulved as receding from the picture pl3ne... supporting the object deplcU:d or on which the viewer stands. contlnuity of pictorialspau ~ rn. .Xhnlque for representln~ depth or dlstance by emphastzlng the contlnulty of tne contour of a shape perceived as l:Ieln~ In front and conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It.. ~hnlque for representlng depth or dist. ..

. / or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane..c.. that which depfcts In a clear and effective 1T13nnu... measurements In "nea. DRAWING towara "cammon v.----.~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne. ' which can Pc used to take .3 morpho..• foreshortening wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane.. .u-allel t<J the picturt pl. IlOrI3dpcen't angl... so that vertlc3lllnes parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l..~rs~~. ---. conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space.. I 1 1 . isocephalic cop ori gin al se the a n.... . usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth..1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge. 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right. distance pOint..~~ horizon /in~.... parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points.lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line.. "'If Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also... --. and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r .o.-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective.- I j .-.es of a rectangle.--. dt me3... 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into .. -. his boo kp horizon line ur cha graphiC Of or relating to pictorial representation. characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!.-.' Par.. diJg<'naf •... .nlshlng polrtt 3S they P"rallellines perpenJicul. propor.'W mirror. '----'\ pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t.. View 3t" shallow angle from this point 73 .· "I ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines reude. peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene. A straight line connectlng two ... y lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique .-horizon line one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect . horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal..1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision. Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not mea..- --~-.urlng line .. ~-------1 Pmllel lines p. V3n~hlng trace . 50 th3t vertical nn~ ~phalor f I l.. ." . ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space.uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive.~. as the ground line.~ points.--.. three-point ptr5pectlve A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M.~! if you nee fd. used ..--.l .ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr.. so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir. -.. -.d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine..lonate parts or multiplying" '. r diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point.'1 I t... . esp. to canverge at the center of vision.0 the picture pl3M.

. ThIs convention Is 5tlf1 used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn. ADPr. / w= VxA his power ..... gin I al !. ~agt!iof cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy... when the power dissipated Petween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt. y ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the aulfltyof a sul>st... I =VIR amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow.::~~~~n~eaaa:~~:~e point.. storage Pattery.......... or motor........l5 fuDy ~. phenomena...It ~s 3S5UI1JeJ th3ta JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI oil positive point ~ a nee dt circuit per unit time. current •. defined as the dlfferenu of M../ f'otenU31 difference or electromotive force expressed In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow. Abk..... causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into heat and usually measure4ln ohms. A~..: W ~e neg3tlve one. . t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patenU31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere.ance to conduct electric current. voltaic cell..an~...ow: curnnt parallel •. J :":::~:::":::. the power required to o~ an electrical device or appliance... circuit energy.... power 15 eqUJI to t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage. positive.ermll14lofaprimaryCeHor n storage Pattery... Ii I I I two or more cells connected together to produce electric current.. More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w...... electric wrge The IntrinsW... '. expressed In watts.rrangementofcomponents 1n.000 watts. An amount of power... ~~~:Ive terminal of a primary celf or L . ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a boo ---r- kp ur cha resist.: kWh 74 ... ApPr.1nce ~ .. equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance... ~··-··---······l \ 1-'" . wrtt The 51 unit 0{ po-""er. voltage .. . potential difference The voltage difference l:1etween two poInts that represents the wort Involvea In the transfer of a unit charge from one pollTt to theo'ther... ·.. APlir.... the effectlve Cll!'Tent. including the source of electric series •.. I ' I electrolyte A nonmetallic conducting medium In which coulomp The 51 unit of electric charge... j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current...11 + -. ... you In an atternatln§ current circuit. or other form of energy llIto electrical energy. kilowatt A tIf1itofpower. ana the cosine of the p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage..r·· . volt The $I unIt of potential difference and e1ecWmotlve force.....:R ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance..... AI:1!?r.. An ... In a conversion device as a ba ttery.. t:quivalent to a flow of one coulom~ per second or to the steady currelTt produced \:1y one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm.:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng.. equal to 1... the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component.l The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"eI1t Itt J direct·current circuit..... eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ Vy a CutT'e11t of 0IIe ampere flowing across a potential ctfferenu of one volt.: Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current Is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current. se the j ori f.tric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constai1t curren't of one ampere..: emf •... .ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existena and interaction of electric charges. Also called specific conductance.__ ..easured in couloml:1s. Symbol: 0 if am~e from neg3tiY~ r.: C potential / (.... occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative algebraic ~ns and rr...: A Ohm's law . / .. equal to the energy transferred or expenkd \:1y one kilowatt In one hour: acommon unit of electric power GOnSIJmptlon... An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/1 negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor. y . Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges repel each oU1er... ~j I t_ _ _ i--_ _ _o-__ --<)O--'~-~-_f 1111..al area.. measured In amperes... Also called electric cell... The basic 51 unit of electric current...-... '. " .rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy.... usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes In an electrolyte. esp.::::~'~""' ::::~:ves a nun metallic medium. Also called spec.. or vIce versa... property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1... leW I P lei !ow. galvanic cen.... mechanical... .. Abk V The complete path of an electric U I current. ~:~~atlvet.....i& reslst. electromotive force The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical. The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance. generator.. _ . cop resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stance with aunit cross·sectlon.. t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across 3 woauctor loy a current of one ampere In one second. AI:1Vr.

_ .. _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to Introduce Inductance Into a circuit.. Also c:J11ed emergency generator..or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a boo kp entranuconductor _...: VA l I ·······r L---------_________J r- I : An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more J .l. and SWitchgear for a num!lu of electric circuits. measured at the point of use. A mass of Iron or other ferrous materIal In an electromagnet.. se line volt.~ The portlon of 3 servu conducr. having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner. -...... I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. fuses. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches. 5e"". time only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly. ___ 1_ .?r.. Al:rbr.. ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 : dlrectly to the outside air. ~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection . 5el"lice drop bulkllng...1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne. - I : .lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne.i core ----. step-up transformer ill y high-voltage Operated on...-::. wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit. Abbr.----. 5ervice CO nd uctor Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building.. _.. ~rviu l.:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line.. uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply. or where voltage Is s"'.. and ~~Ity. _ ur cha -I r. serving to transform high line drop The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine... ovucurrent devices.. ""1.hg~r room ! tr.._ . I l I I ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or gen era t. ~ulred or demanded by the pu~\c. _ . 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current In a surrounding coil.. step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary...InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng. f~der ~l"Ilce equipment i standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage. __ . __ .. bulkllng. __ -::.. " I arl113ture ----_. _-. voltaqe to low voltage.. metering Instruments. The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a ... or / transmitting high voltage. a stq1-down transformer. alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~ at regularly recurring Intervals. _ ..1--' I I I I I I I I I I I The equipment r. gas. -t-.: DC electric motor _ _ _ _ _ _---'j~ A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy.... Also called swiUhgear... as water.de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to.. The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a r--------------------l : .. __ :=:-=-=::..J }--. switch!?-oard One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches. alttrtutor A generator for producing alternating current.. I I L ______________________ ~ 75 . 5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary. __ .. I The supplyi~ of uUlitles. cop voltage.. ______ .rteral The un. A ~ or carron conductor serving l1r~h I L~ ___ ~~. ~ ~ ~.... -::. A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng...... equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems.-1 __1 . ....transformer I I Aunit of electric measurement..-=. . l k..epped up or down.:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--.l ... ... . coil _________ ...ELECTRICITY ¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J..------._._. ____ ~. --.:-_------:!. equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere..ecessary for controlling. usually located on '-rl'J. and circuit breakers.--------------------l rI5wft(.. L _ L _J whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core. metering.... A meter for rne. : I -1 L ___________________ : I ---------------~- if you i rr-=-=::::----=--- nee r 'tIf<iItt-hour meter -. •. (/~1 / al ~rviu electrical current Is converted..~' I vott-ampere I r------------------.==--.-. senlng to transform low voltage to high gin ori the --. Abbr. I I I I I lI=*====::c unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch.: AC 3 I I ----. dt his buikflng..____ .~·~~-----------J . powered by. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a numl7er of electric circuits.. Induction co!1.. usually cause. as from DC to AC.=:::~7nhd~~d.. or transformer. and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng...

ground plate.:' :1 ~.--. ! 2::'.j--·-r----------· ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor.J source of voltage.device contJinlng a strip C'" shock The muscular spasms caused I7:t an electric current passing through the body. Also called short..Alscc3rlid ~f"oundlng ground wire ~.-='====-·=:":"·. ~ single-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized • Ir! I~"" ~ .._~:!______________ Ii d .Al7!:>r...f~:. equlpmerlt or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~. p.. _. 3S when starting a motor... or electrlc~11y chJrged SO.. . -.cTUptlng the circuit. ground-fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M SC1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults And Instantaneously shuts off ~r ~ damage or InJury c.. _ .-':r...-_ .. =.: §til .__ ../S to luve A potential different from thJt of ~rth. A circuit In-eaker I13Y Pc rec'~ And reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components. { ~ '~n electrical system..--.-. Aisocalled caPlnetand ACCesslP!e from the "us . i ~ \ ~?~ 1 1 ground --.b". hot....l nJet3ll7lade at each end for IT14klng contact with the i fusll7le fInk within. usually In the form of a soIkI copper p. time-deL1y~ ur u ~a=rd on which are mounted the swftches... or ccld·water pl~.~ CIl""Cuitm... -_ . rnwlem~1 .[. Aconductor connect. --... _--.---------r----------r---------- h :1 L~:==~:::~=~:~:~~=::~-:. -.. .ected to ...t:~J of va rious ... melts under the heat gin the i!.. Also called ~Ur.ed m an Insulating fiber cha f~si~e alloy..... u ~" ~ cartrWge fu5e " "'. Not electrically char~ed.ry. I'Iire of fusible metal al c. A fuse havlng a ont-Ume or renewable fuslvle I1nl: encJos. groundlng of a conductlng wire.. flrmly em~dded In the earth to est3l7l1sh a ground ccnnectlon. damagIng apparaws In the circuit or for collecting.. se tuPe.-T' ~r] ~ . and d\stc1ht1ng large eltctric '""""... ---.Alsccaned ori metal Afuse hooJsI~ • fuSl'c!e link In 3 porcelain cupfltt. _. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or voltages differing In phase ~ OM r'-:' quarter of a cycle or 9O~ f.neutrAl or other point of zero potentlal one Ie ... AI".~oJ electric ! : L____ J e r3 conductor. tI: ~"----.. carrying.n occur. li. measured from a speclflea reference point and often expressed as an angle. ..."y conductor.----+:j ~ causIng ~ fire. . ~ -~ u . as a metal ground rod. J 1. fuses.lea metallrase../ AC3~ fuse having ..-Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system Intentionally connected to a ground connection.. :-~ 1 live Electrically connected to a scuru of voltage. ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle thro~h which tlme has adv.:I:-------------.. 120V 120Y p..ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch tlut automatlcally Internl~ an :1 ~_-_-1_ . ". grounded conductor -...r.. used as solder .. --:. resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit... .I.-. kp : ___ knife-!1lak fuse . -.. -=========1==~ll I.i short· term ovedcaa to pass. n ".~~~ lr.ed wfth a thre3.")'sluvlngarr~ . 76 ......! ..1IeJ I>u... ---\ A conducting connectlon ~tween an etectrlc circuit or device and the earth i 1C.. us~11y accidental condition of ~w by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differIng ~ 180°... cop _ I r Auud I7:t exuss y plug~ ... "7 120V 208V 208 V 120 V 120V fault A 001 failure In the Insulatlon or continuity of a conductor.... result1ng In a flow of excess current.:)V dead Not electrically conr. : r ..-_____ .. .. ground fault Amoment._ .~ 1-..-.. us1J311y acclkntal. 11 '. nee ~nclt clrcults.. __ L_._..=--=-. and circuit F= -.lnstalled In a protectlng a numver of similar l!: : dt P-rea~ersforcontroUingAnd Ii his I: ~~ 'I i A fuse that klays opening to allow. three-phase _.··'-·fr-· i Aheao. or In the functlonlng of An . l I L ...'l boo front only. used I~ I! you Ii pandl7~rd.-.i nced...'::: :-.-j in various safety ~4'~. Also.:rt velow :3000 F (:'7C). .7._J Of or pertaining to acoml-rinatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I7:t one third of a cycleorl20~ short circuit An abnormal.~ --~...rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current I /l if fr...

-I t1. Tl .ectrodes.-.. ~-I c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole.ilr Unnin3 L ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously. I y appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces... voltage. protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit. Also called . Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at the top of .e lighting fixtures..i discharge of electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ c:femana fKtor The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system... 5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval of time.ac:fflctor L ori gin 1 ! al g!ner. used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr.i struct...II L-. . maximum demand lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh- -/ voltage currents.uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment.re.. Io.-----. t law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage. used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls.~.rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads... heating and cooling systems. '-I distriMlon panel A pa nd for als.Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load may be applled at any time.o'. if I you I ______ .. dCrosS whlch.al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and appll3nces.ol overcu rrent device The I'3tlo of the average load on an electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period. dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure. nee dt his boo kp [9]1 ur cha se l the cop I Li Dr3nch circuit The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn.--------" \. Indlvk:hul cirr. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device. .--.. I ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod . Low·vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect. using span: gaps to carry the current to the ¥Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device..inJ grounded to \ load . \ The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer..---.. \. and rerr. . -----..---. Intercoms.. ~.ve raceway.

.. as by punching.. Also called Romex c... 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic../ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry.rlcal wires for a circuit and a J if series of receptacles." . Al7k: kp =~.../ multi-outlet assemply _. usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-. junction box An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits. dielectric A nonconducting substance.. signal. nonmebllk.. or television signals. . or duct for enclosln~ and protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le..a£. digital.. Also called 6X caiJle. rmored caple Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible..s per unit of thlcl:ness.Knockout . down./ protect ~ wires and cal7les. Also called Grunfleld dt ~!~~!I~..>. EMf his boo compression or setscrew coo p/lngs... racewJy Achannel expressly designed to hold and .. Also called Pu5way.. 78 . nee used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment... Cj')"". or electric Ity. pipe. I.>red!.1 electric or magnetic ftelds.:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ conduit. y I .. cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors. ." Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed. !:>ody. ri9id metal conduit ~- . moisture-resistant. hammerir~. A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity. ex cutting.?r A substance. dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !. ". or device th3t ev"nduct5 heat.~ conduct. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one P"""' "CO".. ori se the cha f ( l!{() grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in .. ~reakdown l~ mineral-insulated caple Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed.:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1u.. flameretardant she3th. . tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C. Asu rface· mounted r.e undesired flow of current... often Insulated with a dlelectrlc materlaland used as a conductor of electricity.. sou nd. lJ u 11 coawlcaple A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency telephone..ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s. _.... shielded caple gin al cop An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern.1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another...--.. noncorrosN~ locations. orcal7les.lnsulatlng refractory mineral voltage The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator UreaKS down and permits current to pass. conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core._____--_--J~ ur He3'fj'-wafled.. to provide an opening Into the Interior.... l . _...{e. -. _... .. . wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands. Pu~duct .. and telephone ou~!ets. / .. nonhazardous../ &urface raceway . insulator .." .. helically wound metal wrapping.. 1>0<. often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power. u conduit A ~Pe. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr.I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole.tteeway designed to house the elect. L underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor.. An enclosed runway for housing conductors you Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure.-.

"" swiU:h A device for making.i:..#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle.ctlon.ctin. flexl!ne. . I : ~ ! 'I I I kncl7-. Drcaklng.------------. moving through a snnallarc..:i.I statlor.. A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\... another or to:. float switch fuatl~ A switch controlled by a conductor In a liquid mercury switch opens .-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~.:'-~-'- three-way switch A Single-pole. ".. the 5ln. plug A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a receptacle. key. ori cop ----. '.".. causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit. . wire n\It Aplas>J. -. ~~ taggle switch A switch In which a lever or knob.u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts.. knife switch . ook thi "''--' __ ' --. /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:.--_.Iass t.c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to grounding outlet A snna~l.lln knobs ana tubes. ':--' bceplate \.l circuit.1nd-tu~ wiring gin J al outlet A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus.-. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port.:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice @ .outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U..wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by --. nonmetallic. ____ .. . An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne. ~. convenience outlet _~ sb An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances. fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring.~i~~i~::~._.. ---.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon.. Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way. connection. spatl31 dlstributlon. : ! rch y pu receptacle to a wiring system. outlet or light swi"~h. .. ~i: ~! ! r electric Ilght without appreciably affe. r= 79 .. ----:~1+-1:. ..sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS. threaud metal ftWr. .ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air... urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr...g~./ / : four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from three locations.. . II form of air swftch In which a hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed betwxh two co~tact cnps.--I . doulne-throw switch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations. if y ou n eed leu! A flexl~ In~ted conductor for ekctr.Oor more CCflductors.q for 5C~""ing onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t .ma clcses anelectric An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that circuit by shifting a sealed !:.ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'..---.~. receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug.. An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of ase r f Iccm A flexible.. or dlrectlng an electric current. i U I I ""&-+------------H: r . facIlitate connectlng an electric device or I rheostat Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances.)+--Fe--l d -" ___ . p~n A short._ _ _ _+-!.l...----.--+. \ I!Jl -~ polarized A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground J. Also called socket.. .~-. grounding plug connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors '. Also called dimmer switch.ed on porcd.. :!: .c connec" 'Vcontainln~ 3 . ~-~J--------------r!8:>~ ~ :..

an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the ~r ~rsafety . traction machine..--. 011 whleh t..--------. Also called elevatcr shaft. -. as an elevator car.-----.r-r-~-\o~' " ana gears..-----. ----. al ..ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c.. rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator. ~ . i.--_. p. huttons..I4Inding .------- h~kest larJings oft'" holstway.---------------A door ~ween ~ holstway . travel.::hlnery. idle 5heave A vertlcal enclosed space for the travel of hol.----.1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers..g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu.n • limit 5witch A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It.e3Y)'cargo. elevator pit ---... .-. ~~!--_". supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les..--. used as a pulley for hoisting. stalrwen or an elevator shaft_ A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .rryir. and Mven byeb. Also called t.-. duml>w.----.r to the nearest overhead obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing. cha se the I' I~ hoi$tW3)' door ----------.arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading the freight are permftttJ to ride. or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of . An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r. no 1"11141 fly closed except when an elM tor car Is stoppea. Also called deflector she3ve_ lu I~ machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator.. .----------..--. top car cle..--------------------------A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and stopping an elevator ~r In the event of actuated by a ousslve ~ or free governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action.and an elevator landing. Uul1dln~ controlled cne or more elevators.. ori gin . as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtteri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an if you elevator WI r. pan~ . speed governor.evator c.------------t-~I--. and other equipment for regulating electrical devices. fre~ht elct'ator ~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel A panel contain 1"4 SWitches. consisting of a motorgenerator set.. AI~ his boo Q/bltnvd- kp The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by . dishes. hrake. il One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht.a common operating S'jSt.------. usea for the receJvlng ! y cop guider.-.and discharge of passengers or freight.-------.n._-----------------.1rance The vertical distance from the top of an el.tw. .. An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S.--.~ operator . drive shaft.1 driving .-----.----.a UullJlng.l'~r elct'rlor penthou~ pulkhe3d Aroxllke structure on a roof providing access to .. IL.. Qr ~.r3ctJon elevrtcr.ay ----. i The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n eIemor holstway. hulk/lng.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extendIng from the fevel of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~ buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of l>ottom carck.----.---.. 80 .. has passed a given point..at the landing. \ hoi5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car.traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to 3 flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway. e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls."'. hoisting machinery The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car.heave A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim.-------. ur t.after A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food.em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton. driving sheave.tric hoisting m-. If used.-_'_:_I~ Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ by. A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system.mother weight. nee dt IlA counterweight A weight halancl"9 .

and $haves for . used for raising or lowering. L . M~ht • cnetal enclosure.\. ~at.:·:--~-r '.. 1'4 f'~ [Thehor!zontalsectionofrai!ingJtt~e .! . ising ana Ioweri"'3 an ~C3r. . moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor. '..upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte-r. I . continuously moving surf3C'e.• elevator. Also cal!ed gJ~ contact.tor A power-driven stairway conSisting of steps attached to a continuously Circulating Pelt. piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure. hoisting ca~les.1ct Asaf~ device for prevenU"9 t~... platform. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles. and contrcl eqUipment. k\'\. sb An elevator system COI1s!stlrtg of a car supported by .i el~.ELEVATOR r L elevater car The !oacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y. gulde shoes. over the entranu to an elevator on each floor of a multistory ~ullding. u$tJ for movl"9 passengers up and dcr'ln Petween fars. consisting of a car frame... cop gin the ori ase c of floor landings.carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor.e oper.rt. _. control equlpmcmt.r carrying pedestrians horizontally c-r akJq low Inclines. annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 y machine room Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'. -'." newel ~ . _ . ook eed thi r o •• J1 . .ltlon of an elevate-r car unless its a..J if y : ou n / .. door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an elevator C3r unle:s$ the hcistway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ position. Alsocal!ed stair A power-driYen.311 17uttcn ~ al pu rch hydraulic elevator A push l7uttan for requesting a.x1" or gate Is fully cl~. eleVl/torcar safety.:. person or goods along a stairway.. -'-.c-r. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congested urban 3reas J lift. designed to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway. mOYirl.." CO m17plate The toothed portion of the th res hold plate at roth eMS of an escJlator or mGVIng wall::.3 stairway. Also caned moving staircase.~ people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~. --4-.~'~·~~'.• . that signals the apprcJcn of:. c. slmllJr to a conveyor belt. door cont.'1e i i. -.. and door or 93 teo ! ---..1. ~ ~~:':sually . usd .~.

.. c·_- ... ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk cha 0"'1111 ~ ··' · arm cop y . as of steel or concrete..Jn . used In finish won: In whlGh the head mzy remain vlslb1e... ~uiI ~th4n a common 0 il -U~~________________~~ Artad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more nail of the same til"" ~~lUa gin . chi~lpoint A ~flnlshlng rui!. _. : ~ . I • sharpeneJ.......1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends.xure • . r. . ~!i:ure a nail or screw In position bY hammerln~ down the protrudlnq point... cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel 0 n spike wire un A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire..... A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two rut lnclin--"A slaes meetln£! at a sharp angk:..~:!lok' 511. used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res.naI con~1 ~a.tn I7y nailing perpendicular Ul thP. nail set.. 0' A~ having a 1rari1ed. i currug.. . Alwnate nails mil)' if A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank ana a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry..-:-~ ~-.. narrow part of a nail or bolt.)1 .. To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~einqJoIned. (102 to 356 mm) long a~.. pin. conical point on a nail or Spi(e b I se ~ ~.h'~l<lowth""".toen..3 diamond point An acute. doub(c-~ded na iI A113.. s. n.1i1 ." L I ••• u ••• u .....:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of Q-. namng strip A strip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface. f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like.::. al ~ the A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an.4to Min... st.. -... . parallel to the grain of the wood. as scaffolding and formworc. Also carted wiggle nail l. between the head 3nd the pOint.. "lIh"d ~ ~ -.. ..Ii!ht.. drW$Crt.. a mechanically defOl111ed shant..... driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:. pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e.. I .-p round point An acute.. a miterJoint... face-nail To fas-:. U 1 '. Also called driftpin. face of the wo~.-. . . or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d. J ... I L L 82 I f I . ~hankrun ~u A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power... slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other 3{Jmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm shank The straight. ur .: . driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together... or bolt.ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver. I ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank..e Si1I1e le:n§th.. .rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe 3S In .1<Jso QlbInu SON')' IU iI... ' eightpenny nail A nail21f2 Inches (64 mm) long.. '~'... be driven at opposite anqles to prcl't'lde IncreaseJ holdIng power. Also called form nee roo . as by d. thre3ded. Symbol: d l.. ~Iso called saewnai1.... L I ~... with .tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener... six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long. I7y nalll~ In such a way that To nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::. End-na lling flooring na n A oUorfllstenlng floor roards. cc~lUii you ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng. .=~~··..d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail ! l•.. 1 . dt 'I II '~1~'~~'f«! _ .' kp fictshing nan A l13.• penny IV2' 2' 2Vz' 3' 4' The deslqnateJ length of a nail. . driven Into a surface Ul secure sheet material or to hold a hasp._ •• _ ••• ~=...W roofing nan ~~--====== P ~~ii~.. 5tr.1I1..'. mae ~ P!1I1!1 A heavy nail for fastening together he3vy tlm!ler5. havl~ a s... so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.. and a !Iluntdbmond point.. ~~ ~~ end-nait To fasten I7y ru\ll~ Into the end of a board... AM4I fast.d. for unltlng two pieces of wood.. _....H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members. ori C '.. welding or 5OIderi~. ry ronding with an adhesive. or Dy 4J 6J 8d 10J 12d 16d 20J ..~""''''''''' "'wlthaca....' .. his boo Pnd c RUllI!!! ~... anJ a ~monJ point. a flat hea.bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall.. b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener.'1. from twopenny to slxtypenny. suffold nan......

83 . r I pan head . knur.-----------------------~~ . spherical shape with a conlcall1earing surface. countersink . or bolt_ ---1 ~<C. pitch . ------------- security head A screW head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver. threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with a screwdriver. or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. ------. haVing a straight. often without a head.---------i I A screw head ha"llng 3 shallow. thum\:1screw Ascrew having a flattened. screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head.------------A screw head having a flat upper surface movement. Also called tapping screw. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench. or ~t_ wood screw A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver. helically threaded shank and a slotted had.: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface.-. strip To tear or darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru.---. A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii".---.--------. cop ori cha y cap screw Ametal fastener for machine pa~. used In areas Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally lang bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully. and a conical bearing surface_ e OV31 head . machine screw A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole. p~lehead Allen head Ascrew head having an axial hexagonal recess.--------. . threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative -.. screw A metal fastener having a tapered.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger. thread ----.The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw. threaded shank held by threads tapped In the hote Into wh1ch It is screwed.---. . Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw.-. Also called coach screw. driven by an Allen wrench..-.~" ~ ~ -. -----. o 1 ' r I slotted he3d A screw head having a single slat. --. nllisterhead ----. ~~ ~~ ~'\.--. as with a screwdriver.--. designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning.:'~?l.A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface.-. Phillips head Ascrew head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material.The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw.----~a _ i self-tapping screw Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven. setscrew Ascrew. nut.e the bdl of a bugle. . A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder.~ pitothole ~--------------------­ lag screw A heavy. having a straight.J FASTENING.-. "'-------. --. ~ I futl~ad ~ KIIII e se the gin ur kp his boo dt you nee al if "'. -. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver.--. tap To cut screw threads Into an opening. nut.-. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver.-----. lag "oIt.

1 head at one end. ···· -~ An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through.-"'-'-.jJ ~:~t~:.I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall.:. A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1. _~ The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe. when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'" ..an. nut . prevent IeJI:"':le. __ h2v1~ .. ...s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-. ~-.. "fi) m? ~ 0---.om nut..0 hoW It.id or nut cf a Dolt or screw. >_. or piJstlc..: Asqum~orr. "'" """ ""'" ~ . I ~ i I two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger.. machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh.I n ..~re<o.\..~ &W A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd .ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt.l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of ...en tr..lnd of expansion bolt spilt. A thre3ded metal pin or rod.-JC....... togglel1olt·· .. -····. -'--' ---...~_----"=. y ~..e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te..~~~ted dis( of metal rubt>er. ~ hex head A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench.. 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened.'--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It...l: pm'or. used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng...: ~ ~ . and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation.. c . end distanu + r if you his boo . ____________ .-----..ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je Ii carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head. hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete.a Pr. -..eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc..11 FASTENING" ~It square head A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench. nee I + .-..iIW~'m.e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole. a flat beJring surface. Ats-J IL. : i ~~ locl:nut ~. esp. ! I l l.:h a threadd r. used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure....d of 3 screw.. ~ I __ exp.lslori ill the lockwashu the r I gin I .. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut. neck Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head. :..lon 170 It An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of. .ap !?etwe. ~~ Fi--I _ O ~Uli-. Also called ac. Dott.." ". II -$. '" .. the.. usually h3vlng . © ~ . :t<~:::WU'M..lted wr.dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr. cha se ! ccun+. _ •• _ .."d..oll!li~~~~'~" .lon 'hiekf -. " db \l:J/ :~:stle nut. kp ur r row spacing dt The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts. -. hollow wan. fox~lt sleeve.t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥. edge d15tan. or rerle1e friction. __ ..~..__ • ~__ ... cop al ori @~ A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~ rraaeman: for. exp...an. Melly . -'. sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so th... ··-····· __ ··-···. Also cal~d expansion Iewi5 ~It An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured '. _. An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c.erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he. Also called thumlmut.

held III piau Py a :. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring.---.r I tull¥' A... Also called hurricane tle . . --. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for / / joining light wood framing members.r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam.Jolst.pct.''"''!l~ Pdt. ". Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections.--. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth.prUlg or to them. Soi.. ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~ .---------. y ou n A fIr.. flush with the face of a tlm!1er. rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon.:.'li pbte punched to produce . 1 5~r p~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove. The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces.--------------_.----.. ._----------- tim\7er connector A metal ring.. plate.--.:!-.e s~ member Is through shear b '.----. .:. rch A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1. the ori gin C"p. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves..--.. t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture sb ook ~pbte pu dcwdpirt.:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger. and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt.floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall. consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon. purlin.l>ut load transfer t. : _ . Also called a. ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt. using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal.. or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess. ---..---------------.~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for FASTENING ..frtwood~ al Ir. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed. or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection. or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for eed ~piU grlJ thi A $-~-rret. ase ~j .-----.. haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces. or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II. used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther. uid ~ lateral Ioods. hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces. cop if y ~~ havytwt~.jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces.-' ..-.

shield around the arc.~~~""'_.et ...-:. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the el~ does not rJmish the filler metal . -"-. solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton. as rosin.....t.o. memw rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end. USU311y a~In-~ .'.---'-'- kp full'penetratio nweld A ~tt I~d having a depth puddle weld A weld made I1y truml~ a hole In a piece of sheet metal and filling with..flLlX'cc~ arc weldi"9 Amethod of arc welding usi"4 a tutrular stu! electrode conta Inlng • core of vaporlzlng flux that forms a ga~s shlelJ around the weld area I Y submergea arc welding A method of arc welding In which the se weld area Is shie!de. JI flux 1-..! re-si. double·l1evel we14 if you nee l5ingle-vu weld A groove weldin which the edge of each abutting mem~ Is !?eve1ed from the same side. ...!loy....:f by a ~n~et of granular metal that n-. 86 ..~{1.<:-:-i arc welding Any of a9roup of welJ1ng processes utinzlng the heat of an arc Detwee-n 3 n electrode 3nd ~he base metal.:. dt I '~" his ----. . "'\1ead A continuous deposit of fused metal.th pressure .-=-/- throat A sulistance. root The point at which the I7acl: or rottom of a weld !nUts cop y Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl.e edge Is of each ab-vttlng !leveled from both s!des. usually a copper-zInc alloy. PJrtial'pen~atlon weld ~. soldered. or soldering process. Imzing. -groove weld A weld made In 3 preformed IndentaUon Petween two alMtl"4 pleces of IT'<:t. !lrazlng.filleJ shank th. used for uniting two or more plates IIy passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head./ // gin A wek:I ~. dolly Atool for receiving and holding the head of 3 rivet while the other end 15 I7elng headed.::..toe o A wire or rod of filler Iretal used in gas-welding and mzing processes. I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1Per Is ~ from one side.. ~:I::hatofth' mota I. filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding.JoIned.<. ur l-. at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't). .----<. as acety\el1e.~. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't). arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii..11ong the seams of two overlapplng plet:es of metal tM Ir. \1ase metal .:. pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with 3 """t set to form the second head of a rivet..~J The princIpal met31 to lie welded. c!rcuit or between two electrodes. _ al lap weld --. sometimes y./-' The distance from the root of a weiGl to the f3ce of the I7ase metal ori _ _ _.it A groove weldin which the edge of one abutting memller 15 !?eveled from path sides.lt Is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr. wetaing Any of.~e met3ls to few together. Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u.:f IIytM corrtlnuOlls flow of an Inert gas from an external source.~ fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle. aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt. drift A rouM.FASTENING $O'kr To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous braze To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders.----<~". as distinguished from filler metal..--------. This shield protects the weld are<! from oxygen aM nitrogen In the iilr that would C3use ra pld oxid3tlon of the flquld metal L1 welding rod '.-_ _ _ _ _ _----"'~~-=-=-c»--->"""". .l'Id prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'..jJ group of welding processes utlr!zlT'g the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe passage of a e!ectnc current. doul1le-vu weld Agroove weld In whk.elts to form. havlng 3n explosive.ise metal. '-.l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced D:i the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas. or cut.. -----------------1-'-\1 cha I lj1 h~_o:. rivet~ A tool fOf' shaping the second head of • rivet. explosive rivet Arivet for ajoint 3CCe5slble from or-e side only.. g3S solders.----- -----.. Dr3Zed.. .e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole. f ---'''. Also called weld ~d. the filler metal Deing $lJpprled by a consult13lne metal electrode or Dy a sep-a ra te weIJ1 ng rod. Also called electric arc.o\i:t:::::::::."~~_.1 nee welding Any of. haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or l ':--~~!ot-""'~''<'r''---<. Also called drlftp!n.nd the addition of an Interme-diate or flib.h P-. shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of arc welding using a consurnaDIe metal electrode that " relases an Inert gas to form. tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or polts.ea~.inert-gas shielded . . fusi~.=.. remove oxldes from .. "'~ " <D3. or soldering.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consumable dectrode or by a separate weldl~ rod. weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t. slt13li pool of molten rretal. boo A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being .arc weldi"9 A method of arc welding In wh~n the weklarea Is shle!de...". applied to./ .et31...rr. .1 surfaces to I7e joIned ~ wek:I1ng.. equal to the thickness of th~ slt13ller of the two mempers Delng joined. " i the ..?.

as In a room.--------"\'. hood ---. A steel lintel for carrying the rna sonry above tM flrepl3Cc opening. often closed wtr. d. Aisc. r./"'-(--_________ chl. damper A movable piJte for reguiJtlng the draft In a fireplace. the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_ / ~chimneycap ~~~ii.-( I I ~ ! . or wInd cap to Increase Aframed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire. fire screen flue pargeting f opening of. --.Imin4 the Apart of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall. kp smoke shelf Aledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer. AcurretTt of air In any enclosed space. often extending a short distance Into a room.. A cylindrical pipe of earthenware or .. usually In the form of asia b or cornIce. h3vln!l a ~uare.3 flrepbce and usu.. stove.-.~. Ame~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equIpment. Or furnace. chimney. smoke aome ---------------------The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal flrepiJce unt!o downdraft A downward current of air In a chimney or flue..e1 m. i I prefa~ricrted flue .. or oval sectlon. . 1J5u311y provlded . " .mteltree Astor. / A raised cover for a chimney.-----------.. lth se3ting 1\lso called chimney corner A ca5t·I/"()(l door pr(Nlding access to an ashpit for removing ashes. contained within the flreplace Itself. or a chimney m~st al cop A screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room.~~s..::S:~·~-~~~~i~~'-"-'-~' or ~ lixe. rectanguur. ashpit A receptacle in the bottom of J fireplace or flreDax for the collection and rem(N31 of ashes. used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flrepiJce or chimney.lchimney par I I I I boo /r. . se chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening. cha supporting the bre. . ashpit aoor i~lenook A comer or nooI: nar aurge. ori A~stnJCtlon fr.········~velitliJtor. if you or hearth The floor of a fireplace. so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimney..Ctfoc. I I I 'I' . used for lining the flue of a chimney. tile.:-"'~"'-_-~"". or J cowL hood.. l The part of the hearth 15 --..e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening. . chimney. often carrying smoke with It. pack hearth ! _ trimmer arch An arch.1nUIplece..mney pot --- . ___ / j Increase draft and disperse smoke. esp. usually of brlcl: anQln theform of haff of a segmental arch.-. !~~. !1etween 3 chimney and 3 header In a floor structure to support a hearth.r. or stone. or to.lncomUustlb!e structure contaIning aflue through which the smoke and gases of a fire or fumace are carried off to the outside and by means of which a draft Is created. Also called m.------------------------A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe.....FIREPLACE Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce. nee throzt The narrow openl"9 ~ a flreplace and Its flue smoke chamPer. -. dt i " his chimney cheek The sides of a fireplace opening supportlng the mantel.___ ---."- fPiiiiiiiii~~ ..--~flue lining A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit flre cuy or nghtwelght concrete.. tumlng par. Also called camper par.l chimney fer removing SCOG. caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure.. or stove./ . usually of brick. -===============:!==++================. assemUlea from factory- r ITt3de parts.. Also called Inner hearth. Also called outuhearth./t metal. ur sm(ike cha mper An enlarged area Petween the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney. usually Inside a Uulkllng. ~ /1 \\ ~\ i I . ... i / I /7--".c. parget. drili A devrce for regulating the current of alrln a stov~ or fireplace.lst. the masonry arch used In place of such a lintel. 87 .mOkA''''· An IncombustIble passage or y A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pia s ter for a chimney flue. chimney Avertl<:al. b front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room.. firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a fireplace..h a damper. --- smokesta<:k A pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion. flreplace. fitted on top of a chImney to . gin 1Tt4nt.311y coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner. or ventiLJtcr.. open flr~pIJce.----draft.

. If exposeJ Ul flame. -"-- al ori the ~ i cop d ! ~ 600 (!)!+---..:-:":.' : . '.. Q..----T---7--: Atest measuring the time It takes for" use.. . his f:?·~+~:· . .. I r L 88 I ~ .- cha - ~ I •. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire.. Materials having a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~ aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside InJlldlngs...7": ••...i:• •• : ..."=.... '.. .'-----i y ~ .. '. ~ -.sn 200~.•.... -_. .. ----~-~-~~--. "'-". ::. Also called 5Ulner tunnel test.. :.. metal lath and plaster ~ ..r FIRE SAFElY The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire...hou" 6 8 I~_ii/l u I _ if you -.. I fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng.. 01' minerai flber. : .' :'. assemL>!y.or finish IT'... . r '. 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature ~ 8oo~1~~----~--~--~--~---+--~~~ ~e.:... :~. 1000 controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen.:~ . smoke-developed rati~ A rating of the amount of sm'*e 3n InW. ~.- ~ I .... _.. _...:. .:. : I ~" - . ...~~-~-~--~--~--+--+-~ gin r------: 1.::..... [LJ '. rises by convection to remove the heat.~. and 15 replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main. applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre.:... : " .. confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon....----+----=----i----.. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems. ' ..: . used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire. :. I 'pray-on fireproofing A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder..- .-..f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire. I on the slde aw.---~--....- : .. [ZID ... 01' construction having a flreAlso. gypsum. the water aPsorVs heat.. thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre. the establishment of adequate firefighting services. as concrete. the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire. -. _... l~ukJ-filled column I ~ I A hollow structural·steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance. intumescent paint A coating that. The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrul! hea t.. >:~ ... "...... J . flame-spread rating Arating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 while a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O. __ . when exposed to the heat of a fire.': ..aterial can produce when It 1nJrns.: .. fumeret3rdant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0. i I t.- : ' .ayfrom the fire.]c..... fud-GcntriPutlan rating A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c..... IJ ~ fireproofing Any of various materials. 2 time...~ ..-. _..."'"-... fire hazard Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire.-=-..nt r " nee ~ J 'f "':~.. I U I boo dt ... -~ ... :~ . . measured In pounds per square foot of floor area.. fire-nslstlve.• : .. and t... determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve.. ur o o --L-. developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot ~ases. fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material.. L• ..... : . of a flammable material...... combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng.._-_ .' ~ L I . se kp /'. } time ~nition point flash point The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame. including limiting fire loads and hazards........ swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread and comvustlon....... ~ ~ []I " .. flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing. reslstanu rating required by Its tunnelu5t 1200 j ~!--i--~~-7---7--.. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment. ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures.. .--~--~~--~--r--7--~~ contrl!nIte to a fire...

p~ device to Insure closll19 .. ~ fire assembly irl· ~ dt his UL laPel _... cha ~ ~ ~ se the ori gin al fire door A door ~l>ly... or roofor fire damper.. An opening In a wall.. required whae a duct penetrates a fire wan.. ...sem'-lu __ .. and Sills... Inc. ex a n area of a city to another.• ....... or other fire sep3r3~n. ~E~~~=~~~:· Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct autcrnat!cJlly In the event of fire to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e.. extending from the foundaticx1 to a parapet above the roof and having 3n openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected by a self·closlng or autcrr.' _ / fu5ilk finK A hr. reqUired flre·reslstance r3tlng for ''". havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and tJ5<l.~d:~~~".I I 89 . the center hne of an adjacent street or public space. wall..•. "firetUmpu W AM~~b~.•.. -...I '. component. " II . ...anchorag~ frarntS labeled Of or pertaining to a l1ulidlng materlal or assemu\y having aflre·reslstance rating certtfled by Underwriters' La roratorles. or roof-ceiling construction having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire..3.J having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of fire from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng..ed shaft... -~""'..rtk-c105i~ fi~ a5~mbly .-.lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardwart. Ind'.=========~ A vertical or horizontal construction \l.I". floor. electrlcal hazard. _.. anch0r3g~ frames and sills... ========= . -~--- kp 4Smo(e~.. A laDe! affixed to lIi111lidlng material... (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y exJmlnatlon to ~ from Nterials and by ~ses essentf3rly taerrtlc31 to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre. -. with a fire assemlily having the ~1f-c1o. or other recognized testing la~aratory._ .~I~I~'" required hardware•.. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~.. ...lI ...uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng.~~r ~ ~.. cr the Ii~e to close. fire area An area of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire... occupancy separation _. When exposed ~ the heat of a fire."J "Its location and use. . and (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination service of UL if you nee cop y maae ~_~ :}~.. l. fire window. .."" cau~s a fire door.1L[t()m. ._•. An open sp... ".'~ a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equipped with ~ <In a. Exh portlon of a building separated Dy one or mere fire walls rruy ~ COIlsklered a separ3te uulldl~ when calculating the floor area and height allowed Dy a i1IIlla'lr~ code'l L drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction. r ! I! tfit\ ___. -1 firewall A wallll3vfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of ftre from one part of a D<Jltaing to <lnather. '···0'" ... the nn~ mel:s .. fire~reak fire separation Arry floor. or devlce wlth the authorlz. or other tests for safety..• protected opening _ . flr/! d3rnpe~. ur A fire <lsseml7lythat may remain In an ~ posltlon and wiU clese ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by ..' FIRE SAFETY firezofl('! A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone.. ~ .-------~.•... I '...catfng that the product (a) has a ratlng vased on performance tests of such product.3tlc·closlng fire assemDIy.. boo l l ..... anchorage. frames. flre·r3t...k rr3~ of iI fusible metal....s... __ .. distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a uulidlng and a property nne..... A ftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "'.11W fire .._ III >" fire wi I'Idcw ~:::.IncIud1ng all requ~ hardw3re. [..... all measured at right angles to the exterior wall.arove. Inc. or the exterior wall of an adjacent i1IIlldlng.atlon of Underwriters' LaPora-torles...arJ latchl~ a&r havfng Peen opened for use. The assemDly of 3 fire door. or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor ...

c\a.. connected to a suitable water supply.. as magneSium or sodium.must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors. which rt<tulres a nonreactive. I I I r gin nee dt his siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building. --- truct:.ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow.. 35 gasoline. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. wets~ndpipe wet·plpesystem "'1 r I ----..elts at a predetermined temperature. L fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire.llrt or pu mper " ''1I I I . classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish.--. conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire. fire-~n symm Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm. I the I ori se /-'fire pump used v. 5moke deUctor An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke.-..ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building. providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system.J if you kp . as wood. allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle.lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor. I . I 'i I r I I .-. sprinklered Of or pertaining to. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing. ur cbs. whlch. -----.. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance. pa ~ :md cloth. usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr. heat·al:>sortnng extinguishing medium. and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature... cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment.etals...---.FIRE SAFElY flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a firesprinkler .t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr. -. 5tandpi~ A w. 3 preselectM I'3lue. . 011 and grease. __ . . through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-. building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly maintained sprinkler system. L f L I I 90 . tkttctlon system. .-------.. cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr. stlrinkler head A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials.. which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium.--. dry5tlndpfpe --------------. smoke-.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ " ~I cop al boo A pump th3t provides the rea. A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_ I y cha I I i I I A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate.6fire waUrmafrl j A fire Involving flammap\e liquids. dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire.---. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times. orflame-senslng devlce. preactlon system A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads.

airway A stairway leading to an exit passageway. having no openings other than required e:dts .. -': exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire. s wing 1"9 In the direction of exit travel and usually e<:tulppea with a panic cha ur Par. enclosed by fire-reslstlve construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the direction of exit cop exit light . boo kp • -< exterior exft An exit cIoor opening directly to an exIt court or public way. ~ __ . accessl~ by ii well A shaft for . nee dt o exit passageway A means of egress cor.FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In a bUIL::I1ng to the outside at ground level.-' A j13ssageway serving as. fuors.I required &. 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors.. '-. i t L r occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. exitacce55 That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit..neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ his 91 . protectea by an ~~ . an /:Xft court.ilrJ enclosed by flre-resls'tJve constnlctlon as reqUired for the walls. travel exterior exit balcony Alanding or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJl1dlng and sm-Ing as. he riUlITtJ I exit A passage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation. 'constructed to the same sta:ubras as an interior exit stairway. and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approximately the same level In aapGerrt bUltdIng. if you /:Xft Of' exit court with a public way. BUlkling codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required..ir.l re<:tulred means of egress. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use by the square feet per occupant permitted In that use.. ngh t.. al gin ori se the exit ~rrUlor . fjre~pe required exit.1.1 ntumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a y enclosed by walls of fire-resistive coostroctlon. and venul3ted by natural or mechanical means to nmrt the penetration of smoke and he3t. exit 5t. smo keproof enclosure The enclosing of anexit sta Irway by wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction. Bulkling codes usually reqUire on/: or more of the exit stairways for a high-rise !7ulldlng ~ protected elevator. or an vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. An exit stairway down an outsfa/: wall of a !7ulla'lng. by a smo~proof enclosure. BUilding codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 b<J'Id!ng. -. exit door A door providing access to a means of egress. leading from an exit access to an exit discharge. stairs.cy lighting A hghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for 5Jfe /:91"es5 from a !lulldlng In the event of a pcwer failure. emerger. or pupllc way.om3tic-closing fire door. (I) occupant leola The wr. extending vertically th the floors of a ~uilding.a! number of persons that may . and ceiling of the building served.

:::~~::::~·:~'::-·. Also c.... plywood.of constructing the structural frame eX . I l F~. floor... _.rimJolst AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the . cetnngs.~-fu.. .. .d to the floor joists.~~~~~. or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe. se cop y LA I the eMs ofjoists. :7 I. A~m..':. studs.:/. -. or flat roofs...illled he3aer..="~=~~:·~-_~~.FLOOR The level. ..HIy bid (Net ../'OUfh flM-.. y al perimeter of a wood-framed fuor. / // studs.. so as .. ---The wearing SUmc.. gin ~3rds. USU. roaras cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists.--.'.. floor. (.: y flni5h floor . i i l f~r:..joIst.. fWshtd &01". trimmer ~----. sulrlloor. proc:ess..::>. jo~t the header ..... Also.•.~"--'-"-[~===jlliililii!~ -. esp. -----Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement.col : ! : ! iI ! ~ I 1 l. .. when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6. -_ .-:: I if you __ nee dt his boo kp ur cha --.. Also called ~U~~~"'... A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls.- A rela-tl\le!y short ~am. ~ilpiece ------- ...' '--~---". ori '>----:::--1~. or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other. ..joI5t.-. or manna.ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks. floor framil\9 The act. or rafters.. solid I1rtaglng fixed Bridging consisting of short vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.-:":'_~~~~"':==~"'.. or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme..--:.=~'. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng ...: totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts...:::=~l-::-':':=T~-:::·: c..._ .. or 17fters.-------._. ~Jnc:I fWor.. Atrj of . Also called stringer.e of . ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors./ .~~~~U.----.._ .Afram~member~andsupportlng ! ~ ~-:o...

. AIso. for flIllng the sp~ t. allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling.. steel pin welded to t.bles.he topftange of a steel ream or girder ... I .and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit. y -------- floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath.:-_____7-'-'-_::>"7 cop .. se cha I the ~I dectlng servl~ as permanent und ~ stlb C3n support Itself.• Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut.1cou~tk duking cellular decking .metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW·rolilng a series of rips or flutes Into It.../ . The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations..-r. ~ ________ _ _..FlOOR i1e31T1 fig deck The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied...~:O. JOists. Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng. stiffening the memrers. whe~ It enters a masonry r------------._____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam.. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:. metal. and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance. Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm. • . electrical wires and c.a reinforced concrete sla b Metal deckl~ servlng. kp form duking composiU decking . 93 . or concrete capable of spanning beams. forming a series of raceways fo!. rafters. .-----. -'" gin al shear stud I. decking Self-supporting units of wood. beam pccket---·------------./ ur --------------.. ------- An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam wall.----.l:>e3m filling.:>r. Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete.. ori -'. or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing. ---...awtenJolsts or Peams In or on top of a m3S011ry wall. --/ .as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern. if you nee dt his boo fonnworl: for.

•• ~ !.. .FLOOR fin~h floori~ M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr. '... polyester.. or concrete sulrl'loor... woodfloori~ Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips. L I L 94 J ( .-.rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~'.. I'<-hich are not ground. '.. !B'lI .'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface.' A latex. .----.. . ~~~ consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~.:'.:. i l ~ sleeper .:-:·. narrow wood s~'ips..-. . ~. cha cop you monollthicternz:zo- ~ WJ y Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD.~ :...~.~ ~~... :. with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t .. temz:zo.~~I~~. separated from the subfloor \. rustic terrazzo A ur..~~ . -_ . ': underbed ----. wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween..ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected.~cl-~r~·~~.. Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical !.------. ••••••/:•.eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab.-.'~:il' D .. ~~ndwhendty. A flooring ~Iod made \.. if ..~~~~~~~~~.. .!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units..1n. ~een It and a succeeding layer..:.. terrazzo topping Is applied. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips.tntltlous or resinous matrix and otr. resInous matrix " '..~'.~. '" ._ .u--_ _ _ ~. consisting of a terr.: • " <.c -... ...4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t. -..... par'luetly Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting. ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally. -.~ ~ substrate to create a Pond nee stone chips.!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise.·'~I::=="PPI'.dl=tly umentltlous or resinous matrix over a sound wood.!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive..er :t ~~':'~4f!l~ dt ='''''"p".-. mrul.~ ~:..!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern. .. ~~~~11. sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials. as ~ rdwood. •• 1" his boo kp ur P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'. -.311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $.. Palladi.:~ ..awrd terrazzo -_ .------------ --- Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring. usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting..' .ck laminated plock the ori gin slatl7lock Aflooring U10ck made \.. een..4-' .·-·····"·"'·~.. bf'.-. -.• 4 Veneti..__ . hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface.: .....:-. set In a :narble or cen-... o Achemical sul1stance appnea to a ~~ st. Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~..~. al se Aflooring plod m~e \.ise on which a •••. ~~~. thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~J·m3tched.::or or cor. usu~lti side· and end· matched. bondingagent ~------------... -.. .!/f) .' 6 ". ptlnks..t. strip floorin9 . IIIIJ unit bfc.' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps.-.!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '. The mortar Ir..l.. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting.. .1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \.--.... ipal"l\uet Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m.p.1n temzzo .. or floor We. ='" .' ~ ../.. solid plock flooring ------. and a subfloor.... • rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert. ..crete sb P. ~~~5. memDrane and a thin layer of sand. :Ii.'~~h. r·"I:\. flooring composed of~. or ~s. or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.. . -....---..lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is ..!i.. ~ .-..iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips.

available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth.lUL_. ur yarnsonaloont _----.. -.BHill~ ~~. expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch.. r combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and p4Jments.. and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns. §it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the cut pile r 1 if I width of. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= ._____ . uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness. __ . the gauge . vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp.l!lll!!. -. -.FLOOR A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated rosln. . strength. anJ dimensional stability.---.. boo kp p~~ity tufUa carpet •.. Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant. CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience.s..10op pi'1e y his knit~C3rpet ·········-. fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-. -. esp. ru1?1?erti1e I l!~~r!~!!t!~~!!~~!!~!!~~~!!!!!!!~!J~~~~!!!!~~!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!! pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet. \ . needle-tufted. stated In ounces per cubic yard.. or other nonstructural flooring.ru!llI. tufting.-.. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile. '.. ~rpet made by looping the backing.. even base for resilient flooring. lInseeJ oil powdered con:.. and pile yarns with three sets of needles. Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat.-. 95 . or protective coating.. finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride. _______ . carpet.-.----. iiiit-·- tile carpet A flooring tile made of carpeting material. vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In I . '. ana floor covering Material. . ori ! I gin In a Interweaving the backing 1. -..iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade.. dense velvets._____ . -. st3ted In oonus per 5qU3t"e yard. or felted fabric forccverlng a floor. linoltum resilie nt flooring Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed. you ~ ~ nee I dt r r ill The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet.. adhesive. p~ment. fett. A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers.__ --~ carpetpad I. f1uW carpet --····-. . producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short. stitching.---. -=.. linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade. -.--------.. I ~.:=--. orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ". or foam !:rackIng.. A carpet texture created by weaving. corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers...f. A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam..-.----.IO Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials.. as plywood or hardboard..A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-. underl3yment A material. tufted or knitted ~rpet. neealepunched carpet . ---. loops. used to cover a fleer.gDB~ . Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng. and a fiber. ana reduce Impact sound transmission.. --. Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing. --~ -~ . .-~ . Also called carpet cushion.~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric.::-------= ~ A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair.. ~nlttec. -------IrmiWl·· . t ~ al cha se ana pile ~ . cop carpet Aheavy WCNen.. Improve dltr3blltty.

. •...~.--. j parallelforc~s '-: ••• - Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 that the II"IOmtnt a Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such rout any line through the Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action.....a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect. Oi. ..... ........ .. '--...malle!.um ~... For conven fenu In structural anafysls.-... .....• •···• .-----....--...ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e descri1>ed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent slJes which represent th~ two force L vectors ~I~ addea. .:==:b======~ Two or II'IOre COII(.. component6ofJforce •.-.er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field.. ---~ M. nonca ncurrent force. ~.ltlonJl equJllDrlum.m""" f.and acting In a clockwIse or counterclockwise alrectlol!. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon.FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape ormovem~.:.. ~ -.... para lief forces : ~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to produce rota1lon Put not translation....1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point.. vector . 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ .a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs."...a poIrrt or nne.. Aforce whose nne of action p... -. ~Is point.".. center of rtU" --~-. vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon.a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium.e to produce rotation of a body a~.... or.... . .p.•. '~ .q the same Nne of actlon. altering ther. Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without .-..~ ~ '-.•.. -----. The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c.-.. wncurrent forces Forces h. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus.Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force.....21 of 'twO equal. the l>ody remains In rot. Aiso calleJ force arm. or two-dlmenslonal flgure..hat o~ In a Single plane..:J~ wnuntratea so forctS..... ~ ~ an arrow whose length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •... "'.. -...1nar forus Forces ..... . .. " actbn.....-. ---.. the ori The tendency of a furc. --.-. ---... 96 . couple -.1"9 Ie method A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p. Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of " line of actio1I .. ...twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment. the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces.. ---. L L . with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It.. the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt. _ _ _ _ _ _--1 point Is zero. and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector gin if you nee : al dt his r' that ~nt5 the result3nt force. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann ....... -.... kp ur cha se The poInt ... -.. {11111l ~J __ m " " ... Aforce SYSt...--- y A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors. _.?r that represents the result3 nt force. boo moment'Mft ~. tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law.h~ last yector.. cop moment ---.of. Forces "3"..mmal effectofthefo~..1I polnts In the Agure Is zero...•....• tri. and whose orientation In space represents the direction.. aDout which the sum of the displacements of... . ~ctlng ak:lr. ' . untrold The cem:a. Also caf1ed resultant.. ~. A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent.. ")I wpl. extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of .. u I 1 u .-. -. these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU.. .1f SlJ~ ai...av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt.~. 1--_ _ _ _ _ . ...... mornentcenter -.....

F) ! r r-···- FORCE 1 Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remaIns at rest or In motion wIth a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY. stlUc5 The ~n... --. the I70dy exerts a force having equal magnitude ana the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force. For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium....= 0..iInch of physics that 0&1 Is WIth ~ effects of forces on podles or rrt4terbl systems. y 3 : r .! ~ . ~uilil1rium a ~ht at a seconJ polnt by a force appr~ at a third.. .1tlc 5 and dyn3 mIcs_ ~wton'.. ~mics The h~-ch of mech.lppljed force An external force actlng directly on a Pody..l pressure Of sustain Lh.l:F)..g ~ulljbrium among bodies or m.--.! . the yector sum of all forces acting on It must ~ual zero.d to a ~hanlsm. l:Fz = o.-----... fIj ~ lever •.. dt force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( l@et"3tion{l) r ~ I .ic n ~ tmiforin motion of a I10dy In a strai9ht line.~1 systems.. two conditions are necessaij.-.-. "" ··tsl--. statically equivalent HayIng the same translational and rotatIonal effect on a body._.-A ri. ~ujlil1rant roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody about an axis.. ensuring rotatlonal equlfllnium: :EM =o.':1/ his boo kp ~wton's'~orullawatmotion The physical law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody Is equal to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acceleration produced Py the force.' ... Second. i : ~ . comprised of st.:·1 ori The mlo of output force to the Input force app/1e. = cop m LM. First. .(Ix 0) 0 A state of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces.-------The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a b'ert<Jrns. I .~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn. reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody 011 another.-------------.h of mechanics that deals with '.. -.m to e:xert.iJ element that pivots about a fulcn. TheforcerequlreatobrI~asetof.(7:t3) + (Ix 0) ... • tn n5Lrt. with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces.letlan and r!actlon.. " .qulllDrlum of bod:es or m3~rl. Also caneJ the law of ..~ '''")1 ..~ concurrent forces Into ~ulflllrIUri1. : inertia The tendency of a \7ody at rest to rert13ln at rest or of a body In motion to retain Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon Dy an external force.~ if I· you nee m.lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I) I I mechanics The !:>r.lwtc =px Q. equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action. third law of motion The pnyslcal law that for every force actlng on a Poay. Q I ...AlsocalleJlawoflnerUa. -.-.. ensuring translational equlltlnium: l:Fx = a. wttnaut rot:3tlon or angular dlsplaument. it i the ..1lsysums under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus.-----..• ! f f ... the afgel7ralc sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must equal zero.uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motion and e. -. 1 . gin ur llllllllll+ \ ~lunic31 ad~ntage al cha se 1 F r> fulcrum . 97 . -.

sally port . Also C4i1ed scarp. --"-'--'-'--'-'~:" ~unterscarp cha T'~ Inner slope or wall of the dltch se eSClrp the A V-5ha~ outwork outside the main dltch of a fortress.t..--------.::.au gin al cop Thean~1e ~een the f3ccand t:hefunl: of I worts ~ two Ir.. rr~ exterior slope or wall of the d"r-.. -.----------.Istlon.•---\.'--------..--. An enclosing wall connutlng two Dastions or towers..\. C. AprojectJlI4 part of a rampart or other fort!&atlon.. l1alley The outer ~II of a castle or the courtyard enclosed by It.FORTIFICATION A defensive military work coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position. outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position esbDl1sr.Jtlol'l ~ r dt J .. . '.:. i13vlng embrasures for artllkry.• ~:J:~~ln.. pale A pointed stlck or s't3l:~. motU .• -.palfsade Afence of pales set fll"l!1ly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense.. nee / if you 1 :r:= L--_____ -.:!:.J ~ moat of a forth'\c..p::::.en. .lr.lstlons. circumvallate Surrounded Py or as If Py a rampart.-. curtain L . -.-..ectlng so!d1ers from enemy flre..1geway Into a Dastlon or wort.. parapet ./ A ~ateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 t.: /..1 5 \ j bastion -------·----·-----·--·---________ LI.-. consIsting of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey_ ------ _.*ment of ~rth ra!sea as a fortlflcatlon around a place and usaa/ly surmounted Dy a pal"3pet_ .• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted.Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of. emate A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart.-::: i boo kp ~bc~ I r r "rect cardon AproJecUng course of stones belcw the parapetofa rampart..Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevaUon of ea rtn or stone prot.ea ~nd a In3ln fort~ ~ ur SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart./----. f.. .1~ _ _ .:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldiers Into the most line of fire . _. ----. • 98 .'~.. The part of a Dastlon that extends from the curtain to thefau. shculder ... y ---..• gorge The rear ~ss.. -. motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'Ituries./ Asteep mound of earth surrounded Py aditch and sunnounted by a t:lm~r stocbJe and tower.ch surroundlng a rampart. slmllarotItwon_ " . typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir. covering the ori l'2Velin Either of ~ two outer s!des that form tM sal1ent angle of a pastlol'l ___ .--._ _ --. his A slope ex-'".-.lse to the main ------. /-------./ .rge number of tmJps w move npla'1y from the pesleged position 3na attacl:: the Deslegers..

. usually filled with water.I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of nee mlsslles.I dt A snt311 or lI3rrow openl~ In ."11 if medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie.'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower. or drawbridge.l loophole or crenel.. ·~ donjen. I machicolatWn ur supported by corVeled arches and having openings In the floor through which stones. --.. cop ~-. HavIng battlements_ embr~~ure :.. Also CJf1eJ tourdk.. citadel A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city.( c he min-de. rt.. letdown. ineJIev-31 castle.Ln¥OO having an opallr":J CJr1". ~ .l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I. used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege. complex.cl'eMI Any of the open spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement. l7artrun A sm.. ~. siege.. gin ori the ~. crenel. ::.. Also called castle turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e. merlen ~ .rYI'"!'--t:". erected at the top of a lfJlI during:. through whlGh missiles may De dlscharged.ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---: al se cha '~. you eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa . used as a place of residence. \ \ portculli~ dungeon A d.. originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif. '-----. fortress.. enclosed. ward Power A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle. 3S.. ' przttU _.a prison or cell. l1arilacan.. necessarium .... -----.qy. One of the solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlemerrt." battlement A parapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels..all o.. or the place so gardero::'e../ :' ..htch priSCf'trS were drOFPed A strong gr. esp.-----A ~~ .barbican An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil. -: '.. ______ .. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te'.. Also called eml1attlement.b~.._~!'_. chapel Asubordinate or private place of worship or prayer within a larger A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times. moat ' A Droad. ._.---. _____ .. omet. .=2:::::::':'::'::':":'::===< --. A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'. The privy of.. ---. deep ditch. enceinte A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town. loophole . surrounding the rampart of a fortified town. a watchtower at the gate A slTl3I1 re. '~drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to Jfe{mlt passage Dene3th it.!.en undergrour.ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (NU the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage.__ 1.Tted . ---. molten Ie3d.FORTI FICATI ON keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval cast~.. !n theuiOng. y .c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. kp I . 35 In. or castle as protection against assault. In times of siege.----.--. Also.lpet at the top of a CJstle wall. boo A pro~ng gallery or par. frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground.. dr~~ridge A lnidge that can ~ raised.. Also. -- -----. ---. oubliette -----.------.. through .-------... ~um An open space within or between the walls of a castle." 99 . his i IT + l An opening.. or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy ~neath.or door or glte to a fart arcast~... esp. Also called / -. aye/te. .

5'1 ''\ ) softenlng of soil resulting from the thawl" of f"...~ .-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is utive e. partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground.. r _ ~.u re. __ . cha se J.1cfty.. AISiJ C3lbi ._.."f"""'y"IJI"'J of.~Jj\ I~ 0.line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost penetntes the ground.wt01. ioo 9-. ..od-.ndsot1 gin al that a soil ~S5 exerts on a vertical retal n1 ng stroct..1Ied ~ry compression. i soU pressure The actual pressure tleveloped between a footlng and the supporting soli mass.nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by Utml forces shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of a su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ soillly v~1 pressure... due chiefly to.. Also 5eCCrWry~n you c.a squeal~ out of water from the voids I't"ftIIln the IlUSS. "'''''T''' 1-.1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vert~lstnJCt. due chiefly to lIt!ustr._.... frost heave An upltft In scl C3used tr...... / 100 . .ol15OlldrtIon boo A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~ ~1~(q}=P/A if diffuent.ent d the Internal structure of the soil In3SS after ~t of the load has Peen trlInsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlson&s.. passive e.FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on. ..~~ f·-·····--·-······~l~' i ..Y the freezing of Internal moisture.._ .a sus~lned load.1lsat!ement The relitlve movement of different parts of a structure caused IIy uneven settlement or failure of Its fou. allc . less ylekilng or restrained parts of the mass.1llowal7le l1ealing kp ur ana cap.. 02'1 / .Jre through the solL '" 5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings ._. __ . .._-. cop 4IlIowa~1e be..-t the -----_..and 41 tr3nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli solids. DDDDD __ .. fro$t ~on 2rching Tho t .... nee dt his pf'im3 ry c.~t'i~~~ i r" frost.i..abk ~ pressure. P'" 10~.a soil mass to adjoining...<oJ. I ! i i I I i I ::::::::....l reductlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the application of a ~~!ned Io4d ~nd an Increase In ~5ttes5... equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<. nsf"ofst... designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth. Aliowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 soil classiflc3'tlons are conservative values permitted ~ lIulld1ng codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon testing of the sot!. A reduction In volume of 1I soli mass under the action of.Jly on a supporting soil mass..a ~lned load.. Areductlon In vvlurne of a soli mass under the action ~....I3l Su~lJ1ng of a structure as the soli ~ Its fOUrWtlon consolldates urJerWdin~ ccnso IWtion The graau:.1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure ~ The gr.l nsmftted and the area ori y permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter...

-...btlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the al1ow3tr1e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not exceeded. Also c. ribs abc>. A refnforUa COncrete footing connected AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o.. "" . A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y a gfJ of . --] ! A layer of caarse granular ~rlals placed and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ c.~~.••. _ ..M the wdght of the construction s-upported <:t:""~r.1t A th~.. np17ta mat r" <..:~...·.. foundation wall Th. ___ .. ik...c. A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns.. the sla I:> must t. ·r·····... designed as a nut or raft foonaatloo.~~ .@ ~~ .wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n boo P""f'CrlJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn if you raft m.. ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lraSlment wails SlT">'.. 101 ...'co~f~ng~~:: ._... as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~.. __ ''' __ .. having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th.-_ .~-..r"~' . To .- r I' r I I superstro<:1:lrre.. or piles... ur cha se kp . A rr...~ff~=------ ground sl# A concrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground.=<::.!':.. Also C3ltld~~~o.. -. dt his ~~~w~. ~~~~~s~pre3d footing of a ~ifo()tig: Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon.1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil..~~parate or Integral f~s art required for heavy or ../ y ...~{p. flcatlng founJ. l:r41~COUrse ~ .. . · · · . . L .. placeJ so that the we~htofthe displaced soli exceeds the weight of the construction. sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce.d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or an entire !:>u11d1~......I ! r. ... ./ r . .. -~.. I I control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~.- _. ____ ..mother footln~ In order to balance an asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load.~. _tonti~uotijf~.. ArelrrforcelconGrete ream SUP~1I9 a superstructure at or neargrouna level arid tnnsfem~ the 9~~1rel' the pic:rs. Also called grid. des~ to support and anchor the I· "".:...3t providing a footing on yielding soil usually for an entire ~ulkllng. _: 5 Ub-str3tucn ~-'-:----M .. Over prol1lem soils.'e or below the sial:>... FOUNDATION ~.t ... ~ ..:t.. ~ .' nee !:>y a tie beam to ... .alled su!lstrate./ .' . critJc.. ~ ".. ~ -.inchlng she3r ~ ' " ___ ' .... Also called strap foothtg. N:so called slab on grade..i grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas.pillary rise of moisture toa concrete ground sial:>.. __ ..~.t ~U"" grak. ______ .~.v' cop al gin ori r- .../r~.Unded to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J.. iI:SlJ311y reinforced with welded wirefJ!1rIc en grid of relnforclng lrars to sp~d footing Aconcrete footing extended I..1 F.'..' :r~' Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s.J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r rI rl r ! concentrated leads....:..... ' ...·tii. tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun. ~ It..~ as a mat foundation.

tem t:hJt extends do. boo arm kp ur cha The NXlnII'I axb! 3nd bteralloads pennfU.. having a round..FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn Afou~sy. used esp. as c:feterml~ by a ~all1lc plefonnub. I f J ~ring stntum ____ J pile driver l1atterpile A pile driven at a specified angle to the vertical In order to provlJe resistance agaInst lateral forces.t cOncrete pile \.~~~· .11 specified period of tlme.1 load requlr~ to reach a ylelJ point.a"-9 pile -------~~ Ap~ ~g principally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath Its b:it for support. or reinforuJ QlftCrete. pile C3pS. drivpl Into the earth by a pile driver until it meets the requlrea resistance.obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure. The ~tIoI of.. 1- his pile to lmrIce fr. ~wn~ ---------~~ A pile dep<:Ung prillGlpally 011 the fric1Jon31 resl:stance of surroundlng ~ rth for SIip'f'<rt .- pile ~ity -. An openeMed pipe pile ~ulres Inspection and ex.t.1 pile from Its pIa n wUoo the vertQl.:(.:".. located just I:>elow the ra m. H-sectlons can I:>e wekb:/ ~ether In the driving process to form 3fT'j length of pile. point of refusal . driven or h3mmered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of a foundation system.~. . .'x~:. 3 drM~ hammer.'. phed i. often prestressed concrete cclumn.I:::~aa:~~~ : .a~ ~ st.'" the e!'\ se V H ori point-!>~ pile. ccmpo.-'.~ r ' .t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of a pie and the soH Into which the pile Is ... The gin ~ l1eml>a.!..1U pj~ A pile constructed of two materia Is.~. :. preca. ~ .. shoe /- ~~. end-~e.----.::/ . I L I if dt . _ .:. as from a single or numUeroff~tlon plies."en••mltea by the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOlI 111355.. i <~ ~\ '. usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for lifting 3 pile In position !7efo".: . and tie l7eams fer transferrfftg !..Julkllng loads dewn to a sult... ~<:.:-.eJ on a pile. \ yield point The point at wn!ch 3n 11lGre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement. as 3 tlmver pile having a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile al70ve the water tavle from deterloratl~.. that transfers the driving force to the pile head..m..Jm. The hard. ":~' : ..' . j ":. J pile A~ slena:r column of wood.r a . '.. y cop f. pipe plfe . cushion head..' «/~~f~j~~~:i ~f. and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer. which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soli.~~:~ "" continuously for .:' j: : :~ I~ ~·-·' · · ·/· ~ "Kf.:. A~mofsonorrockon whleh a footll14 ~ or to wIlleh a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson. i. you nee A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete.A zone In a loaded soli mass by an ! arbitrarily selected Isobar of stress.• " A precast. f I..Jullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate Uearing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure.' '" . s-tuare. pi1efourWtion A system ofpks..a static load test. Also called plfe ring. steel.w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer !.'.//·~t·¥~tE?~~. polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli.. I. or .. a point of reslstanu. cushion A cap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 "' driving operation. '::::':.~ . when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c. Also called cushion 17loGk. I 102 L . or polygonal section and sometimes an open core. ---:--------.--- H-pile. A steel H-sectlon driven as a pile. .:' ". ~"I ~~:~=:. '---. .:-'-~:. often fltted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering. A machine for driving piles. y .: ~t:~...~ !~..on~ Is not suitable for the direct Pe3~of~s. sometimes ellGasea In concrete to a point I:>elow the water table to prevent corrosion.lift frictiHI The frY.echnlcal Investigation of . drM~. Also calleJ al SUITlXl~ soil mass ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long timber pile A log driven usually 3S a friction pite... ~frictSon An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln. anvil The component of a pile hammer. rounaea tt::~J ~~~i:. " . drive l1and A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of a tlml:>er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven.ciV3"tlon I:>efore i7elng fliled with COllGrete.--. ~!low3LoIe pt'1e Ioa~ the fourW1lon soil . :.. " .l.e p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile from the v~ for which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred.1 ~~~~~~«. Alsocalltd drive &hoe. resultlng In 3 reductkrl of Its allowable load.

.x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon c-=~ ". _.. i I f J pier ....~I"9 -. --. ~II .on... ..+ .. .. --...... Jalnl~ A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to.......... ..... ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS .. un-tll It meets the required resistance gin the i cas... -----_ . ' The \. .pile cap -------.. $eI')'(: f: A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process.e piles. A s.. A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section.....g cancw~ L.. . ..o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-.. -.-.....--........... y ori ........d ~ driving 3 c.. (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom.. -.. -' ..o the gro'. --..•. if you r nee dt ~(..... A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile.......' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce..distribute the load from . _--_..~Cai5~n his . sometimes ~ or taperea for Incre:asea s ~s..o -~ In o ° t::3 0 tiep~m oli}O Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont.3~ Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'...• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar..1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other pile caps orfootlngs. ..!..1 A pler. bdl17ucket ~I An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft... 1<: ..'.. formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil . Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground --.. ..t.-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing m~n.:r.... --: .a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression..• ped~1 pile A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression...FOUNDATION· .... ' . and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing.-. -.. -. 1 Unc. I ~I~~n .. --. and then r.... o 0 c~5t·ln·place co~rete pile A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground.-. ....drel ..:hwn.... esp...Ithln 3 c.-...I cclumn or grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr... boo pile rocl:~i5~n kp A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled.cme pl~ Ir.tr'lir.:n:.. -.1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area...ina then ftlnng It with concrete.ed pile -...J-nd along wit.. c . --. cop al cha se I . when the roring Is 2 ft....- //' ur 103 .-.....

Arigid fr.1me.ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane.frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr.ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses. you A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM r• y cop f1 gin ori the al contractlon. I "raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4 pL1stic hinge A vlrtu. 104 . s Ides way The later.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~ ur cha I. J...Ise.ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ. The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure.. foundation.. the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie.lf dlsplacement produced In a r'..ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member... Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u".ectea at theirjoints. ~'1 . if • A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on . While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame..~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or otJ1er construction.e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely.1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr. Appllea loads produr. temperature. In aaaltion.1 I -1 rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr. and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In nee dt his hinged frame boo kp se L1 three-hi~ fume A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints. .FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf. fixed frame A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints.

lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t.~' r.ll shar:.Jncy •. Also called V1~ ~lrder. transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame.-t:. and that the acts :.:ry ~ proportlonal. DOt] ou n rch •. A strvctural member.d ~ shear rackIng.iIt. Of or perta In Ir.-fergiraer ~-.d to parallel top and ~ chords..15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te. ~ dlfferenu 105 .. and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints InkUrmil'\. degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re.SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces. frames. ..d 3t e. and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt.o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level.ter. .'ah.llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~.. or supports needed for staDil1ty.il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre.l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate ori \ gin \ 1=== I I i al ase the p<lrt.. V-terenJ~1 ~5 A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte.. .". corm~tlons. A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true . 10000000-0 0101010101001011 . Also called slngte-l1ay frame..aUons for solution.. . d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics.lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c. resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ. Nkl~ ~ ~:.1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a thi sb ook pu A method for a~lyzlng a mutt.le for solur:cn.. Imaginary pin joints c.. moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :.toryf""". connection./ redund.. multi. The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm. portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a .q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of 1 r members. The C3rTtllever method :.lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:. A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld .un pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:.:lulred for the statrillty of a st. f'" 1 j stnlCture.ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent..s at the Jolnt.e WJ<-'"tUI"e..tstory frame .ch point of Inflectlon. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate.1I~ cop mme I I y I I' ~ eed ~ DODD DDDD DDDD tran.clumn.ream defining a Single bay...ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s. ~!M4 ry pin .:cally determinate structure.iIo'1Iter:. ~rrt&ver~ statlcally ~1n:. IO]DID]ODlDiDiol ~-..r' ""'! FRAME knee Thejur. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure. supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns..1'U deUrmllJrte degreeoffr~m if y A Ir1ethod for J!t:.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU.l5Surnes th.. . r petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame..

secondary !?e..1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon .rte... \ ..Ieams to support wood planks or decking. pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction... arc~te Of or pert3lnlng to a sys~ of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns..girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io.• principal !?eam Any large !leam In a structur.. J L J . l light frame constructlcn A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng.. proceS5... wood or metal.. pole A long.tt&i if you nee I i poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly embedded In the ground asa pier foundation..FRAME froilmlng The ut../ . .... . define. Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \..ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists... .. or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure. Also called primal)' ~m.Ids at IsoI.me fIoorfr3minq platform fr3me roof fr3minq I froilmeworic Askeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to¥ther In order to support. often s~nder p~ of . skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation.... -. / . arcu.... stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water. .r_ .am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam.. -.. cylindrical.. or enclose.~ balloon fr..... 106 .. j ! I I 1 1 ... .d points along its length./ . AIso. J r"'"'' terttary !?eam Any beam that transmits Its load to a al ur cha se the ori kp dt his boo gin cop \ y seconml)' ~eam.

A heJ... -... and reeds.... or palm leaves. At:.re the ground floor.... .. ......ln-acea framework of solid girts mortlsea Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame....-~ i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It 5U pPOrts...". Alsa Cd lied t>indin~ P-e......1 wattle and aaul1 ~ I'·. _ ........._.. . sum mer -'" .. -. esp...... fastened to.. "-_ .... ".. .... ............. consisting of wattles COIered ana plastered with clay or mud...... fca m...ren with thin branches.\\.. queen post -.. ---" .. "'--..~~~..........\ you nee dt open-timl1ered pan A major vertical division of a wall... ~....... Also.. his boo Ioll'r'tr _......... --------. _ . AprI"clpal ream supporting the ends of t:io-o sets of floor Joists. dropped girt y half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster. cop tr3Ye _ ..)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder. ""\....... a noggedpanel of haft-timber construction.... Also. . "m!>e... rv~. -post . principal ~fter _.... if thJtch _..3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut:... ... the m'mbee' '" . A mr... -......... _. _ .. .....1m.... ntern or turret on the roof of a rnealCal !lulldlng having slatted a~.raiseagirt crossbea ms..... . wattle and dau...... twigs.... .....':.. 'fll-... _....... _ . ..--... . used In the construction of walls and fences.. -.. ""'" ...... kp ur cha se the ori gin al --.. A form of wall construction... Also.. WIth studs one story high filling the interstices....-i A crossbeam or a bay formed by A girt parallel to ana level with the floor joists. halftimbered.I 11111 107 .--------------- "no~ One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaft-timbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli. ---.. ..~P... A SW11.--. _. _.. \ str3ining plect _....tnal foreaverlng a roof... __ ......·-·.. Alsa called flush girt........ as straw... Also called full frame. !>etw.. Also.'.-.....II.5tiJd Ineastsummer _ .......Jres for the eSC3pe of smoke and admission of air. _.. .-. Also ' C3 Hed summert:ru..i ope~:ng.... 17if\der --..t1on._ ...girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo..rer an Also called Ureast beam... _ .'T1er supporting a wan o. ~hrn9.FRAME praced fra me A building frame employl~ a he3Yj1... wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo.

Also called x-coordlnau.. mea sured In radla ns or In degrees. J I I !1y ~surlng parallel to thez·axls. nee dt his faralleltoorope.. as the In~rsectIon of two hnes. system. ~ccnd -+----. / /1 1/ l.vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum. . l"'4 .. A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness. ver".... ur Extending In the same direction. minute The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure.ordinate . spau.1in assumed properties of _. polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system. -... the ori gin rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordlnzte planes x-axis --_.lines. measurement.tlr~ boo Ina plane line para lie! t. polar angle The angle fortned !1y the polar axis and a radius vector In a polar coordinate system... . 5U rf3ce.. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line. -" ---. and seconas.-"-'. --: . eq!Jldlstant at all pOints. and relationships of points... or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes. 57:3°.. and neverconverglng or diverging. radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed origin of a polar coordinate system.. degree A unit of angular measure. 3Cute JnSIe An angle ltss than oo~ '.j ...___f __ polar coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane !1y Its radius vector and polar angle.mon point.. Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines.' a17scissa A coordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis... . V3lues are ~sured In a CartesIan coordln4U system. __ .-"'--~-. o~u!Je Jngle An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°.... '/: \ Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the postulates of Eucnd..' T}.r. esp..d1nates or y.GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties.es~n caordinate ! y-axis ...right angle l .aJ1:. . '\ z-coordinate A coordlnzte determl AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes.....--+----+-!c--+---f Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal. The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m. caordinate AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt.. A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm. are perpendlcuJ. -. or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point.o the horizon.... . minutes. if you --..:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate cop y al paralld . _.. point A dImensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon. -. horizonbl o 0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com. z-axis _..ical f~~iartot:he p!3neof~ horizon. deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt.e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure... The 3x1s along which o."...i~1 to the y-axis....... c.. ---. _ . "--..-. angles..-. The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another. or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea. The 60th part of a minute of angular measure.1~ssas..-. or of the circUMferenCe of a circle... Also calLed axis of .-. radiln angle A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx._ .. i cha se kp skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting. Also called axi s ofordfuUs.. 108 1 _ .-. and solids.:.

... ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _...41 and cor.. past!: . Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length.. as sine or coslM...exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I An outward projecting angle or "-. such that. .. CO"9/"tlCft _ •.........3ppfk7'..:... The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~. Having ~ite unequalsk:les... The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex. Is opposIte the right an~le... esp. acuU .... .. -..An ol7l1que hne or surface. . angles e:q-..d..... ~ 35 the ratio of tr.. octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles. The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure.'-.. 1:. ....---. rectangular Having edges.... Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr) - cot.. hexagon Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU. Havlng... polyhedron. u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie... plane geometry The pranch of geometry th......~--------l..-.\_.. plane A surface generated l1y...3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~... :..' -.. pentagon A polygon having flve sides and flve angles. The side of a right tri3ngle that ..... -........ Lsalient obtuse --. interior a"9le ... n :... "'-.1......- figure A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape. ~-+--:""~+----t' c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use. GEOMETRY he~ht :.. ---..tde3ls WIth pl3ne~ures.1-.. The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand. -...... -. and of their ..o¥.i the sIde opposite a given angle:..:. "....... ......... .. "'-.. ... v cop y coincideJTt .. 109 . function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl. or characterized l1y stralght lines... ~ q.. "'-.......C. . aspect ratlc In any rectangularconflguratlon. parallel side.. square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles... -..... the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter. .. CoInc~ 3t all points when cant .... formed l1y..... straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point.. straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface.. rectangle ! ----"'~~ side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side.. &iN! kp A triangle having a right angle... .e. I ~1eM -. or faces that meet at right angles. / I···· _. .: :..•• .. or parallel surface. Extent ex distance upward from • glven level to.. .JL ori $U~rI~ gin al The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides./ ."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".. r- Occu~ tM same place In spaceort:~.. surfaces./ . the ....'-... 1'3~ The the ~"""lOmetrlc regular ..• dIagonal right angles..an altitude ~n pe C011Str1... vertex \.."" altitude ...--= '-t:-..... . if The ~rr... -. one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent angles or vertlces of... -...... fIxtd point... Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --..: :... \.. ~~ triangle Apolygon having three sides and three angles. rectilinear Forming. of unequaller!gths.3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides. -H.."'-.. polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides.cf!$....' . . .....uadribteral Apolygon having four sides and four angles.r..... C05eCarrt A polygon having six sides and six· angles..e s~ of a~ht triangle..3 polygon or r-:. ..rtuse angle.. - ... from which .~ trapezoid dt his trapezium parallel Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides tangent The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle.rlc functions.etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~......e..... I 1 I part.' _...-. -.. . ._ ... ~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" .'. - n.. ~carrt "---. -----. reentrant Reentering or pointing Inward.'---: side adj3cent to the angie T~ ~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides. you G nee Q _..J~ tr'..espondlng II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. Composed only of acute angles. ur u-Ig~etry ri9ht tria ng Ie boo '::'" hypoUnuse / ... ...·'"t./ The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle...:r. as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe. as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than 150~ --'•..:'. ~jmibr cha se . aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~ A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel. C' Ci 2 I b-: .j---. ...

concave Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere.. circumference _.. . ----=-.. helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a cylinder or cone Py the rota'tIon of'a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle. eccentric Not having the same center Or center line. .s the curve Is extended to Infinity../: :' r-'''''--'' Any ..~?'~~:slng through the tn'ofocl of an ori i \.-. . ellipse..." . or the envelope of the nortTUts te. / I . _ . q.. spheres....d arc of a Circle.. (f ~ \ An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a......p3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle..~ b"dl" II"". . another curve... "'>'" " The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve... off-center Not centered or attne center point....:::=--.-... eng....... convex Curved or rounded outward 11I:e the exterlorof a circle or sphere.. _. ---. _-. ------. 110 ..J The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear ·flgure. . -'... L . '..-.' . -...... ..' .I '-" e{Jj~ ---. . -.centerline figure..... A p!... sector A ptar. nee ._. --..::t or surf. ~ ~llw< . plane .. --..Involute Acurve traced by a point on a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder. cusp A point where two pranches of curve and are tangent.. kp .. ..1 Aplane curve ~t3tea by."oJ from or appl'03c:hl11g It....---... if "---... as a straight line In relation to a curve.. esp.. . _ .ne curve 9tnerated ty a point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the plane remains constant.. a ccnstolrrt equ~ te 3...14159+.GEOMETRY circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve..... __ .t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~. ... ___ ... point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:..--. --.../ / .e..... Is cha I . .. as clrc~s or .. raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere te the circumference or Pound1n. ... __ . hyper~ol. or In contact along a $lngle hn!:... as a pl3ne with a tangent cylinder...-.._.---. ...ice.. meet.t the sums of Its from the foci. One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular dls~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero.. ~': '. without ~.. gin :... _ . ... the perimeter-of a circle.. --. .'... the ~.nces from tl'lC flxed points.__ .arc .A .~. pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter. _..g-----+----r-~. ---.------ boo ! I i i ur rouchlng at a single point.~ . or the point within 3 regular polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices... --...... __.. numrered counterclockwise from the upper right..na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb end..~rant cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer. - An Imaginary line that plsects. cop cherd -'---'" ./ I -. the fOCi. his dt . \ ..... angles. dlst. . asymptote A stralglr.... ...inflection Achange of curvature from convex to y al se ' colIC3Ve or vice vel'S3.g surface.... you spiral •. . concentric Having a common center..uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines..---....._. cycloId A curve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line. evolute rhe locus of the centers of curvature of..®I /-.! Includ.minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular A closed pbne cUrYe generated by a point to the :T"-3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant ~ In such a W7"j th.. ../ ._ . ."O"... a constant.di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere.-........ ..

_.1 ~ do<b.fru.. ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of .. _ . A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el. a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon... cop al gin - y '.. _ .. ed.GEOMETRY &pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to.-_ ...e . nee legs.edrcn havln9 a polygonallr. co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne. r~ular H.. cha A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau.... Also called the ori generator -.cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces.. pri~m / . _ .a~ron A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces. . dt right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its his center .g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~ _..... the gentra0"..rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls.gul3r polyhedrons: te..l:Ireadth...lse and t. se An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'.. 111 . with. you if vuux . equidistant from the center. -----_ A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet.'..... . pl3ne parallel to the :. A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe....... _.. ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer selid Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength.iU1nic so~ One of t.. prramid A po~t. boo directnx.-_ . ' Pl. hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us.d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks. A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone.hex. ':.... 3S an ellipsoid.--r... Asoild ger...nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us. surface Arry figure having only two dimensions. hex3hedron.erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter. by one parallel to the base.. the vertex.... cyiinkr -_ .... A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its skies.n...- -~ tet. whose ~rface Is at all points ~.base.a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces..raheaml... ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus. ...'. vertex..t fates being 3 ri9ht angle.. _.. dodec3 hearon.s <lna sides that are parallelograms. Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces.. _........ esp.:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-. and generatrlx.. paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone.. passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt. congruent polygor.1e flve re. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid.ex. _. ---.mth are ell1pses.... '.....etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau.. Of' Ic054 heel ron... t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac.. octahedr:.... ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with . A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt. poly41ron AsoIkI ge.. volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies. --~ oct..etrlc fi9ure. or end \.directrix . Also called l7ody.... and thickness. selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'. -A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides..ed by a straight line. Eklngated along the po~r diameter. prolate sphuoid Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener.a sphere.. prolate oblate Flattened at the poles.... The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane. _ . . measured In cubic units. . kp moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve. \---."..'lvir._ .tum Havl"9 the apex. uuncmJ .. ... the ur cone .::Istra~ht line and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes.. esp. •· .g. _.. hyperbob .I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone..-_. cuP-e Asor.·· .... sphere major axis.. left aftercuttlng offtM top :..

Wlre gi3ss Is WI1sldereJ a safety glazing m.~k ~son.. tJIvIdIng It lengthwise.----. ._ . * em~ The reb-tNe alIdlty of a surface to emit I'3di3nt ~t.. . made Py fusing two h. _.le Ight tlut strike It...nts If the gl3ss is mien. The flrepolished surf... dcuble-st.. _. -"- ". and futtenl"! It (cyffnder ..~~_ ~t.'~ : 1 = Flat or pattemed glass having a so. ~ refleaIng the longer ~sofradla". __ . _u . A tf.... soda·h~sllicJ glass that J. A fut. J .ren¢l glass Sf-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In. Tempered glass has three toflve times the reslstanu of annealed glass to Impact and thermal I na J stresses ~ut canM Ue altered afte... anne..1t I1re3ks Into relatlvely h3rmless particles.uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded withIn It to prevent shattering In the event: of ~bge or excesslv~ heat.l T 1 1 . or Pyformlng a cylinder...stortlonfree. ££~It ~~lmpartsa~h..lI1easured :.--.':' rch more sheets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-st3ied alrsp3U5.. -··~~·-::~~=ll-j ~.. ~'~~~$j :~~~Wt~:. ~tem~red gtas.. Iron oxide gives the !lass a pale ~. (32 mm).-' -... An o~~ glass ·f~ ccnceanrig the structural elements In curtain wan construction. shutgbss A flat. si~~strength gla55 S~ glass h3-..a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwled slowly to reHeve Internal stresses.1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn. _u.~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture to aVsorV aportion of the I'3d~nt heat and LL '.:.lass).lass.-.Ices are not perfe.... (2. or pattemed faus.iI~ eX solar heat tr..:~ y ! I r~u~lgb" laminated or InsiJi3tlng glass used for SOU nd control ! i I 1 \Wire9ra. Also called .lves together with a partla I vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings..~ T 1 I vlsa.". produced by fusing a ~ramlc frlt to the Interior surfa~ of tempered or heat-strengthened glass. translucent met. Heat·strengthened glass h:.~ i pu I I ook sb '"~t.~"::!~~fl3t9IaSSDoncWUnder I I I I I float glass .sterl4l sdenkm Infuses a~ tlnt Also C4f1ed __ .s '" extremc:!y smooth . 112 .?o~~j~ if y Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or ~nd!llas~ to wscu revlslon. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy roinng molten glass Into a plate (rotled glass) that IssuPse'luently ground and ponshed ~coonng.insmlsslon thro~h:l particular glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss. hUt-~Rf . ~~. ~.staIJizJtion. r~ I 1. Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while -.. . crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Py ~lowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into 2 fbt.5... scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa ~rlcattd Py drawing the InOIten glass from a fumK. heat :. == bfoc~ of glass wIth clear. __ .lnstucent.. II IL eed SlJrface pattern formed In the roOing process to obscure vlslon or to diffuse fight. usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance. Also called~t~~·. faPrlcatlon.lniWe. Float glass is the successor to plate glas5 and account5 for the 1113jorIty of fl4it-g lass proJuct1on. heat. produud Dy ~ a Iow-emlsslvltyccatlng -...~Il...5~... Imp3ct'reslstant glass plock unit.e «<aMI glass).ana sudden cooling..~~.~ thi ill J +.against a ~fack ~ at the ~me temperature. __ ... rsat~!!.. ori gin al . "either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In t. hermetlc -_ ..~!~l~~· ... MUe airtlght by fusing or Staling. textured.). 'h~di~ ~lent ~V:j~~i~~I~ ~j. hoilow The r.nd nearly dJ. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Pondea under he3t and pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resIn._ . sometimes having an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission.he sealed spaceoflnsula~ng glass. When fracturea. Glass biii'g'a thin.. plate 5laS5 A fut.. produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without c!. ht3t~enqthenedgl1~$ Annealed glass thJt is partl311y tempered Py a proctss of reheatlng:...ctly pm/lel resultln41n some distortion of vision.1.i'~~g~~~ laminated gl3ss havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength. Circular dis£: wIth a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod. __ .-l' . lIIe ~ toondeJ to the exterior or Interor sUf"bce kI reflea J portion of the JIg ht and radiant heat th3t strike It.and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl l1utyl'3l resin that retains tM fr39!?!t..4mm). -r1 i -t- ase '~i~~~ A glass unltCOi1Ststlng of two or the .-.:.as about twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness. i i cop I .< I GLASS A lurd. NllIbctured by pouring molten glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly. I' Annealed glass thJt is reheated to just l>elow the softening point a then 1'3 pldly cooled to Induce compressive streS~ In the surfa~s and edges of the glass and tensile stresses in the Interior. AIS<? called ~~:egUlar ou n fl§ured I~SS. "_.

---------.. curing to fonn a watertlglrt seal. you "'- nee f..~ • .-----.-. and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound......mount of OYeNp between the edge of.-----. --.g system In which the framing members are setentlrely behind the glass panes or units to form aflush ~ surfau.. ~-.. -.---~-"'m----r ...glazing tape : .. A high-strength SIlIGoM Sailant capable of adherlng glass to a supportIng frame.--------.- fra me" stop. curing to form anairtlg ht sea I. Also called gl.----. A thin layer of putty or glazing compound lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng.. "..-.en aglJss pane or unit and a Window frame to form a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass. One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c --_ . Iockstrip gasket --.azJng Urad. ---. fAce putty . putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil.. --\--------_..Jcegluing doul:Jle gl3zing The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound... -----.--.. -. eageck.' ~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons or thermal expansion One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or dt or contraction. held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol. ~sured n~31 to th~ plane of t~ glass.. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus.. --.--.. ------.. glazir~ compound An adh~sNe compound used as putty. . I: The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on ...-. formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age. Also catted glazing stop. A wood molding or meta! section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place.dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened.-.eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass C<lmpression ga~ket A preformed strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe. or mirrors. -. cop al ori gin cha se the ur his boo kp . -----.l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates . -- . stop." y dry glazing . patching woodwork defects..structural Se3lant The .-' .. Also calIea centerrng shim. A Sm3n.--...ce _.------. I glazier's point ---------.a:zrng size.----.1 frame to unter It.--..cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame.___. ---. l:Jite ~. Also called cap l:>ead. -----.---. -----. with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions.. ~e p~ck --. 113 .. glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me.-"" t '. flush glazing Aglazlr.. ------The dlst.I The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing tape or a hquid sealant.. The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame. unit'.. Apreformed ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use. the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant.----_ glazing ~d heel pe3d . used In '-. The size of a glass pane or unit required for gLnlng 3n opening. as In windows. doars. spaur.. Iii \ .... ancl Joined by. -. arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II rJb~ pl3ced l7etween sating block . -.----. A preformed gaske-t of synthetic ru. ~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps.. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass pa~orun!tandtheneares-tfaceoftts r". -: .. l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supporteJ at the head and sill In a conventional manner. The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames...----. -.. of doug hfl:e consistency when fresh.. : An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead.... \..GLASS t..::...--. -.1rance -------------. =:'O~5~af~._ synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower edge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame. . hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points.. " "" if '. glHS stu . pM or unit.. IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass.. malntJln a uniform width of Sailant.anu bet~ the edge of a glass p-ane or unit and. the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i.las5_P'. measured In tnches.. cr Icd-strip gasket. -----~. s~...----.lce c!elr~n. secur!l1g windowpare5 or...4 In glazing to form a watertlglrt seall7etween glass and frame. gl. wi11dowframe. --. I'i l wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant..ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening. . stJbil1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass...~zing . Also called gl.------------------. .

.-._..... L L 114 .-.i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell.. .. Also called AcIocrcloserconu.--. --... -. -. Also C31~ architectural hardware.onstructlon. . as the other accessories for lod:s..s.. .·1-- ori man slot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war.. l1umper A~~ rim.automatic door Pottom his A horlzonta IIr..!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me. ' door h..l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor. used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass. nee dt ~ . A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches...ed.-. ' ... I Fl~) ---- rlght-hana Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads. fastenings.-. ········-·'·········:~I... .J house or room. Bor".. doers.•. A pt:t:Fho!e.----------.--. A ~~!e for opening a door.-. _. . A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming. judas I door pull ~ ..--... hinges. ___ -. --..--..eilas a utilitarian purpose. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the floor.l i. as In an entr.ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ ...at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission. windows.. .1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door. gU3rd..A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~. you L _________ . .--. or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng....... . or the IlI::e...--.·. doorptrt. ~ ~- y . 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:. if left-hand Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which the doorway leads. -/..e . push plate .. kp ur cha se the ".. kick pL:rte ---. and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed doorclo~r overhead conce. In terms of right OIna left. floor closer --:./ ..._/ AtlevIu In a hydra!....ie doorwIIY leads..-. pad... gin A Ir..3 ttd cfcser c.heclc..---. through which mail Is denve. !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name. Dar...... ~h hardware ..-.. al cop pun par _.....--.--.. cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3.-.---:::--..'~ doo~p boo ./. Also called letter slo1:. -' A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of .!"" door closer for sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened.. ... -. .. Also calledJudas hole.. screws. d"" .."....' door.... ana knocl:er -. Ii -. ------i I hand The position of the hinges of a door.. nails.small weight.. A device for hotdlng • door open... and fittings usea in construction. . when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to which t. often i'fith a hinged closer.... _.---.. L/ L right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads....!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the Inside of .. A hlngej ring.... as a wedge ex....•.. I J ...1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads. door chain Ashort chain with a remov:. - .. ~ac~~ck finish hardware Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as. door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more than a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed...HARDWARE The metal tools. _ .... the house Or apartment num~.

.----.-----------. sliding. ~ from the wall when My ~ Ioc~joint hinge ------. ~ ~"I .--II pin cw.on A socl:et for the pintle of a hinge. ~ :!) olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having 3n MI-shapea knuckle.-. _. fun-surface hinge.--.turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-. Also called Putt. ------.¥ .lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon. Or moves. usually conslstlng of two leaves . -'----.proJectlngjolntofa hInge through whIch the pin passes.. Ioc~pin hinge ------------------.. ~ah~. _r----.. if y ou n pintle -----------------.I~.-. -~- 10 ·Y·~ aou17te-acti"!'l hl"¥ A hinge permlttlng a door to swing In either direction. ~ from the pln_ Also called sb ook gudge.urface li. Also cafled ollvt: hinge. leaf Ahinged. -mounted on the fau of the door.JoIned together lJy a pin..HARDWARE hinge mortise hi~ doojamb_ ~----------------------­ A Pun hin¥ I10rtLsed Into the . \.Mtln~ sur-f. - A hl~e M3vlng a nonremovaule pin..-. or shutter swings. htthinge A hInge com posed of two pf3tes secu red to the auuttlng surfaces of a door ana doo1amu.and the long stem loeing tM mavaD!e lat.-.. on which a door. knuckle . A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surface". rI~lng hinge AgravIty hinge causing 3 door to riSt 0 ® 0 piano hinge II long....-J gin ori the .I door can be unhuf11 P:i separ. A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<.____________ '.atherextremltles..lting the t. 1 115 .'. ~ gravity hinge A hln~ that closes autcmatlcally by means of gravity.-------. . Also called l7acl:fup hl"¥. single.='==-t~==~ ha~-. _. mounteJ to tile adjacent fa<. ------------. gain A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hinge.es.. Also called T-h1"9t:.l num!7er of flat plates rotatIng about a central pin. . narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its . A h~e Mavlng. turns. parliament hinge An H-shaped hln¥ hJvfng a protrua'1ng knuckle SO that. usually fitted with sprln gs to Uring the doof to a cIosea poslt1cn after opening. y ® .d on ana the other the doorfra me.. 17afl-~Jring -..rolt on which something turns... ----3S tI-~ gudqeon of a hinge.\j ~l I tlpring hinge ~------------------------A hinge co~ J coiled spring In Its u-arrel for closing 3 door automatically.' --------.strap hinge o A hInge havIng two long !eaves for securing to the adJ3cent faces of A door and doorjamu.~~ ~.-. liftcff nl~e_ eed thi A hinge hJving a knudle formecl from half of each bf.~~:oh~"6t . Also c31led concealeJ hlf14t:.--------.las of a door and A jointed device.-. plvatl~joi. or otherwise mevable part of a door.rTt. templ1te hinge ~-.cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hl"¥ with tM crosspiece 3S th~ 5t4tlonary 1!1emPa. ga~. ® pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re 0 0 0 ® slightly when opened . hinge ~---------------- _---. ---. Also called sInkIng.moofTk. or tabletop. ~ .------.d Into the door edge and doorframe SO 3S to concealed when cloSea. door can stana .¥o 1a"e5_ rch pu ~ ase ------.je hJvi~ one leaf mortised Into the doorframeana the other surface"--..d~~~ ------I ---\\ th~ tdge of ~ door 5 urf~. bst-pin hiO¥ (±) cop ~ A hir-¥ equipped with!r.~~~ . al . A hin.dovetail hinge A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than at ~ei. ..(£5 '--------4-r-----. hinge.~.l reroovable pin 50 thilt . flap bi"ge ------------------. r'-'-invi. with shoulders mortlse. wlth the upper haff remo.----.- _.----..llIle hi"¥ A hinge consisting of.es of a door ana docrlrame.~ Thecylinarical. --- pau~"e A hinge havIng .

-. POX aoor. //".. Also called~.-~._____ _ ~~wtUtil two ~Ies specL. regu~r nee dt his Or shift that C3nies the knmand actuates tM I3tch •. panic h3rdware. Also.'"..l ~nc. 'a for hoidlng 3 door c~.y~ A slOt In a Iod: for receiving and guk:llnga~.---.1 doorpml1 having a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t wMn the door Is closed.' The l1evel of a or lock on a door opening 1nU> the L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw. ~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that the Inactive A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lad bo!: ....---'. ..~--:-:.~ that falls or $ilks Int. hen the door is closed.....I I A' kd f3~~ to the f3a of a door.. . -. movea \~.ry leads.br The prC¥Ctlng ulge or rim of a strike. as arO'J rJ a keyhole. . . ori An ont4rr.. ~ . Mnr M:·-----------. t.hapeahandle ry which a door 15 o~orc~eJ "(fOcdiUilt -------. -'sc~ecn'1 face of a eek through . boo . ~}t.:1omB~ II K:>&~ h... ~.. ~~~ A~ll1arorrodlnthe mechanism of a lock that Is gin pas~. drawer pulL '_ or r'9ht swluh. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm....J ~ jA ~.'.i .. Alsocall&t~f!1~ al ~ ~e plate or surface throo~h which the Pelt of a lock cop reyel'5ible lock A led having a latchbolt th3t can be rev~rse.~. '.u.. Of locI: cylinder.- (eyer'til. -_ .---.o a lad and :r""..1!-~ with the face or edge of a aoor.. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key. -. _ kp Ont4 :r.(fl~sh'boit&iei. cam· .'. _} 'i. leaf of a pair of doors Is permItted to close before the active leaf.~ The'!iOrlZontal d1star.. or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed.ich the bolt passes to the ~dJM of se turni~ propelled or withdrawn.3~ cut to.'e its ~. ---..~ . A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-. sliding Into a socket In the head or striKe .. ----. of 3 b:.-::::::~ .~.ental pl3te surrourJ1ng the sh. or lid il posftloll when closed. the . Afut meta! tUmDler having a pivoting motion actuated !r.• --. Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu lar form that rotates or sl4les U> lmpa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface. _pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ One cf *~ projecUn~ bl.rt spans the Intero. Thef..mbJer..'~iQift.~ __ l ~~:. -..avlni1 a ~uare heat. _-.1f... keyhc~..ng a !leveled head \ v~~~ Ioc~..1 ~ 1 HARDWARE lock A ~ for securing a door.---. ."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the bolt of a Into position l1y a that Is spring exupt when retracted ry a doorknol7.--' --~--" A metal plate 0..lncfuair<.t hits a strl~ plate. . drawer... ___ doortoob.fX comDlnatlonAn asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up 3 complete locking system.u irem the the knob stem... "'.mM An o~tructlng part In a lock that prevents a Dolt from relng propelled or withdrawn unUilt Is movea by the action of a Key.l that into posltlon !r._ .~. or bolt of alocl:.o fit Int. edge of a door.. pani..f.. cOQJ~i~!C_~.. ~.~. . opern:ed ~h3 nisin.'.o A ~roove or hole.. The sIde of a lock facing In the same direction as the !level at the tTl aof the I3tchrolt. ~'-t~ .'t) J l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into cha a doer ~ so ~ the led mecha nlsm Is ~ on ~oths~. -_..·. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.-'_7'.. . Also called stn~ piaU:.. ccnsistlng essent13l~ cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the Dolt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have Deen pushed out of Its way..ng a ~ey..s... '\.~---.. ~...":...--"'.o~. roreJ at right angles to euh other.--.:f 1- bevel The cplique end of a latch bolt th.::-.~ ur rrcrea y ·>..e:rtal plate.GjW-. Also callea panic bolt.. \.-___ ~~ ~---:. as Dy a ~nob or key. reverse bevel The Devtl of a Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the Pulld1~ or room to which the doorw3'j leads. .of an emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the uteh when pressure Is 3pplled. if you ron ~..i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the &mit~~' -.L L L L L f "~ -y. the turning of a key. notch. .·--··--··-··-··-········-~·­ lip . the turning Is of 3 ~nob or key rather than ry spring action. 116 L I .. one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---.~Jdtt"~ i~~" A~~eor ~'f~~.-......... Imh Ade.:!y c~ t..d for installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door. .nto a mortise In a the silL A horiz""tal~3r th. of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door. '~'=--==:-".-:. • ..• b>evd . :. : A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lock or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding war-If:.~b:.gage with ana actuate elU-~::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock.

_. ur deg~Cdslus.HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules. AQl. .c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase. 1 hatC3pacity ----------. -' . calorie .alorle..a l?solute zero The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete absence of heat.16°e. expand: or evaporate..7ter..al.ospnere..- ori ~. . kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm.r .. equal to -27. gin A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~.~---__I1--~""r_--------___. Also caW gram standard atmospheric pressure..: c. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4. ~ \ f }j)J .al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale.-- Fahrenh~itSC3le Celslu5~le kp A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n". first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit. if IC<J you 125lI I r------r-------------' nee dt his the ki10cJ lerie }: . se When you know degrees boo . r · .alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree.: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~. . ~!7s0lute ~are cop I I y I Atemperature SC3le In Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees.:.. Also called ~ntlgrade scale. . 5ym~oI: I( triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid. equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles. Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo. In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure./.~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea I l tlm~ -. Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature. 117 .. fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find Celsius.. ~ulv3tent to 4. A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade degrees.l6 of the tr:ple point of v..latent hut "'*~~_=. al : : which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under of -273. or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o.. at a pressure of one aUr. Abw. cha When you know deqrees Fahm:heit.-..3.-e untlgr'3M.a!ork:..lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(. 'r<A j 1 epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F.eat required to r."ttem~tureaMpressure.iijbrlum . g3seous. conduction.lArge c.. -·· .. ruse.67"F...16°C or -459.-.------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~.------I1 The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·. 1: ~ const.-. _. snt311 C3lcrle.186 joIJtes.. ----. .r..by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ". . capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection.

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