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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH ·ITECTURE
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Digitally signed by Arch. Francis V. Fernandez DN: cn=Arch. Francis V. Fernandez, o=SpiralArchitect, ou=Architecture, email=archfrancisfernandez@y mail.com, c=PH Date: 2009.06.06 05:53:27 +08'00'

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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC
NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO

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This book is printed on acid·free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

Printed in ~e United S~ of America.
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U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

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This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.

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SITEWORK 221 SOIL 224 CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 CEILING 30 CERAMIC 32 CHURCH 35 COLOR 38 COLUMN 40 CONCRETE 42 CONSTRUCTION 48 ~ DOME 60 DOOR 62 DRAWING 66 ELECTRICITY 74 ELEVATOR 80 FASTENING 82 FIREPLACE 87 MATERIAL 161 the DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 - ori LOAD 151 gin LIGHT 142 al JOINERY 140 cop HOUSE 136 y SOLAR ENERGY 226 SOUND 228 STAIR 233 STONE 236 'STRUCTURE 238 SURVEY 246 TEMPLE 248 THEATER 256 TRUSS 259 VAULT 262. VISION 264 WAll 266 WINDOW 271 WOOD 276 pu ook sb eed FIRE SAFETY 88 thi if y INDEX 285 ou n flOOR 92 rch ase MEASURE 166 MEMBRANE 168 METAL 16? MOISTURE CONTROL 176 ORDER 179 ORNAMENT 182 PAINT 187 PLASTER 188 .(ONTENTS PREFACE 7 ARCHITECTURE ARCH 12 BEAM 15 BRICI< 18 BUILDING 21 9 FORCE 96 FORTIFICATION 98 FOUNDATION 100 FRAME 104 GEOMETRY 108 GLASS 112 HARDWARE 114 HEAT 117 HISTORY 128 PLASTIC 192 PLATE 194 PLUMBING 196 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202 ROOF 208 ROOM 216 SHEll 219 .

The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images. the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning. history.. RAther.. and technology. however. the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich. cha se The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js. Regardless of t..he power of a solitary word or image. . ~ I J Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe. and multidimensional nature of architecture. . ' "')I if you nee One picture is worth a thousand words his boo kp ur I· r~ i i ~ I Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words.. Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. the ori gin Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign. brOn-5e the illustrations. most of the entries naturally lend _themselves to graphic representation. clarifies. and scan fer the terms. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. Since architectcre is a visual art... .PREFACE . >+_. ____ ttl .. While browsing. each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon. r . then one can 1001: it up in the index. l ~.. one C3'. then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index.. look rt up in the index. and completes their meaning." :. If one does not Know the precise teim. r~'r ~ "'. =1~ __. Within each section. if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. . words are placed in a visual context which further explains. One can then refer to the appropriate section. dt al cop y 7 ..-4-. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest. . complex.: .

ana what Isexpec1'. materials. and Economy. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng.gonlstof . but of the three the only trust~or. and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. taste.lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs.i Iphcnomen. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry.. ~hnology. safe area In a profane and cha se It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities. that It act well.ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty. to Pc more Im~"t than boo kp ur enemies. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. Archftut. convtn1enu. But In the end. -Bruno levi.even appart11tly humPle dwcUl"4S. -l. Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding l- people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve. the four facades may seem weU. the rookofthelrt!eeds. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics. They arelnstlMlons.:.lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society.l.are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures.~. therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \. Is the ordering or organizing of the environment.. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts. Propriety. . and beauty. therefore.' On the whole I think this Is true. and ~ehavlor. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. that It look well. and t. But gr. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r. Internal space.ools Kahn • Built environments have the I\uantltles of ~rk. for ordinary people.and sculpture are callecl the flnearts. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. the book of their words and the ~ook of ~Ir art.ls the J p"*. thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn. - dt his if physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable. -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng.palntlng. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly.ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that chrnate. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors. the only varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements. Tograsp space.y ordinary people. Sym metry. touch. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. The esstntIal step. Arran~ Eur:.e laws of nature and use gin al cop y desires and feel1ngs. to stress social identity and Indicate status. a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone.thmy.-Jng you nee l . that Its~k well. -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light. In any sltuatlon. Is through the me3sura~le. time. .archttecture. BUildings affect all of the human senses.ed of them.. You must follow tr. which can De grasped and felt only through direct expmence.l::. Thought orders space. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste.. baslc cultlJ. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture.e Is l. actlvIty: status.in!z. ~urabll.Arch~re. ~use InJlldlngs . No single explanation wfllsufflu.sound.indsoon. smell. and landscapes - are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. roles. and from supernatural powers. -Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen L 8 . convenience. and vision. methods of construction.palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~. In the broadest sense. -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. to esta~nsh place: to create a hum. whatever It has to do or ~. and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use. to know how to see It. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~. -John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect. and engineering. and please us by Its presence. ori ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being. I l I j pe~uty. and economy. and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure. from human and anImal poten tsally dangerous !York.ed. L L L the last. anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way.

collectively.I r I I r I I r' ARCHITEC The ART architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs. and SCIENCE architecture of DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments. and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re r r if you nee dt his boo BUILDINGS kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y 9 .

construction. includlng their color schemes. ana beauty The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. sometimes architectural features.Ilvldual u nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt. and creative lm. layout. url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements. financial.ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. and city planning. finishes. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr. i J taste CriticalJudgment. originality. trutirfulness. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu. urban design. landscape architecture. 3 forecast of future requirements. or other. e~lnurlng. design. space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning. view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art.xture. fittings. inUrior design The art. urean planning. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. often unspeGlfIal7!e property. excellence of craft. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. L L L if you L. aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with tJste. fumishi~s. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building. with a the nature of art. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. beauty. Also called town planning. Also.l7tJslness. L J I 10 . or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. and proposals for legal. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment. harmonious. esthetics. and . discernment. city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community.

-a i 11 .. that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of human behavior In society. )".. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs. ana systems. . The science of human The science of human beings: speclf.. se boo kp ur cha nee dt his if you the l1ehavioral science Arry of the Sciences. development. society. the study of the origins. tectonics The science or art of shaping. technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials. '-"-?~-'- ~~. systematically arranged and showing the operation of generallal'ls.~ '~rf/ ~ ...j< ' .''-''-'-''"''''"U ..:). and their Interrelation with life.. .. engineering The art ana science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design ana construction of structures. equipment. or profession of designIng.ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalned!1y direct observation. experimental Investigation.~:::~~~. -: r:-'. 'r t'\ architectonics r firmness The state or quality of uelng solidly con 5 tructed._ .ape architecture The art. __ -. and the environment.. structure.--.R. \.. arranging."'. gin anthropology al cop y ..~~/:~~:-:: t~~"'''. ana environmental and soclal relations of humankind. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons... omamentlng. .. --~----------------~ ~~-0. the study of the o~ln. L ~-!~~~'cfitl.... . physlc3l ana cultural development. The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work.. ..·~~~~~~~i~jl:'~tl~" . fu neticnlng.-~~:.:t:.. busIness.-~'N~ :r~J:~~~.-. ~cio(ogy ori social Institutions and relationships: sped.. '.-- landsc. and methodical study.J)i1fr-.. technics The SCience of an art or of the arts In general. as salology ana anthropoiogy.. or assembling materials In construction.

~croWn .ntraclos_ t J -----t5pn'. often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch.." . i al vault. ". capfbl. or . VJu~.. Also~Sp2ndril.. \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch.h I ~enur!ng A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself.. Also CJi!ed cop y The triangular-shaped. havl~ side cuts converging ..... Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault. or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch .. Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_ l... or molding... II j ffilllI{ _ L L / _ 12 L . Also called folster. _____ .h'e~htof~na_hfrom"... as anarcn.. ~\----~-E:1 Tr.------.es ornamented area 17etween the ~.~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ .t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.. '..1 It. from which OIn arch springs..' one of the arch centers. f ! L L l L L '>.----------.rJ t.' spandrel The point at which an arch.:. you nee I.~\'~~[~.~. - . the sprlMIMtI line to the .1l)1per 51ip._s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_'~~~~========================== __ Impost r l ... serving to lock the other voussolrs In place. . when e3ch Dro1·~.: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch... ~voU$$Oir H--~_ __________---..e uppermost part of an 4IPutrnent. . sometin-. - -.-. "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t...!-~ .the The first v'oussoir resting on ~- M='=a=na=rch==_==================~===±~ ______ . des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression... often In the form of a kp !7Iock...J"'pCjond the o:'.. ~ An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs..e pelcw.-U-l.~h. j I .···r lJUVUrt.l>s in 3 centering. ~_e. I: dt I· his j boo ur L .-.r-->n\---:intrados-. camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch... surface.g Acrosspleu connectlng the I"..or~_ gin cormx ccnst:ructlon... N50nty M-ch ~ keystone The wedge-shaped...ndos of two adjoining arches... r. Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~h Ill(.. VII I 5pring 1springl~. archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd .tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening.f t M ! f ! . cha se the t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down ori LJ I u I if 1.-. -The...highest J'"Ir1 or point of a .I or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch. I. esp.:.:'... _J 11 • formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ .:. or dome rises from Its support. • extrados The exterior curve. Also calle4C.". I ! I from the crown to the Impost.

one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading.l ARCH I l r r ..4dt his boo kp arch -------~ ~Mment ~ The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch.rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading.r 5hape for al Ithru5t..-. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. r--~-------+.r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW.L-. or strut. . I . ! --. proportional to the total load cha i ur ana span.:. funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes. esp.. tigid arch--·i An . Junic~lar .In ori arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis.---------J-. The setof·resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one.~..~ line of thrust.1rc_h I An .-. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.m::hed structure of timber. vault..ul concrete. a TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh.gan archeJ form. thru-hinged arch A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form..oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul. or relrrforc. I f" ..~ abutments. r r .--.:. i The thrust of an arched structure on Its ~~-#-r-------------t-I.~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure.af projection y se I .pe for a c.ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern.~----. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses. and Inversely proportional tcthe rise . two-hing~ if you nee . fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form. Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture 13 ... ~ tie rOd An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie. f f .:liI~~·::it-"Jrlft" cop the The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another.-. A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir.d C'ltritS horlzw. As with any funlcu13r structure. gin An tr. steel.--------------+-'arch action I The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway.

'ed Intrados. drop al'C" A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r... a semicircular one..' ...1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three round or pointed foils.:Idll la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span.A·· . Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r.-_ _ _ _--' A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f. \... I A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. . ... se ur • skewPact -'. . . kp ·~·t··7-·.. round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc.. I l. --~-------~ sti~darch ~ . al cop '" 'to> fi) . but no arch action Is effe. • ettuli~r3rarc&' equal to the span.! .~. fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the 1 ~\.~ tJ . . e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c... often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng.J I ~~~Iarc~··. ~t corbel arch ~ French arch . basket-handle . l~ ! o¥earch A pointed arch. ApoInted arch. Alsocallefn~ de panic! \ if you nee dt his boo "---~_+ '---' I lJ polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown._________ hor$eSMe arch An. esp..cncave side uppermost I L 14 . : . -L .i An arch strock from one or more the gin I cha centers ~Igw the springing line.'trefol1 arch An . i rampant.:Idn.nch.J/ . 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels y . one havIng two centers and equal r.. • RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr.':.i~uations of the arctr0lt. fUt.1rch Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes. L i L I L i·t-~ : 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span . {j !PeUarch with cUrYed taus. other. o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening. An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn..-t-. '\i.Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests. Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch. I r.jJ rounded crown.:Idiating from ~ center ~w. G~thl~'~Rh.~ . / _l .:ldos. The stepped reveals may be smoothed.. . ".\"'.1rch .rch having an Intracios that Mdens I ori aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to.~ ":-:.c:. esp. .... \ ~ ~ . /. . An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r. Also C31~1c ai-aI:'.ed.. A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center. -3.ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t .:IdJl tess than the spar!... <::<:.:. .

.... I : : ___ . ~ 15 .h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr.. or ~.1te for an anticipated ~ ~--~-- r l i ..ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or the modulus of ei3~. to designed W C3rry and transfer ~ ~1!1I~~!i~II~.~------. truss to if you ~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y r compellS.= i~=!r~~ler ! span..i-alaxis .lII~IiIi~Ii~~tirjainiSViel~e.. "'-... ~~h~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---1 . --.--- ur r f dt nee cha se .. al boo I cop y . ~nt Into al>tam. ....--------...-. i i r f under ?4nsverse loadlng.e to a ~~ roment.lM span.-----..mpresslon ''-.~\ ~ .-__.. C An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or other rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng..~ ------.. the strocture so supported.:. " " " " .lncre3sing with Ioad.-.....alshearforu at il cross section of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~..-=---=--=--=----.- section. fl1U31 to the a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on one side of the .z<_~:.-----------~ Un5lon of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end.?'-"' An exta"Ttl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt ~14 his ~. -----.----L.i~ If'.. rc\earspa~. The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear. having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs.----.l. -. Also. ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ co ns k:lerJtIo n.BEAM A rigid structural member 5UPPOrtl"l! ...ctty ofthe~L -===------------------~Iii =+ t f ±[f * -+ + [ distance l7etween the supports of il \ Ptnd~mcment -<... .. and aecre3Slrlq ·.ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-. 'U y ...-T'. havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces..."ents.~ualatanypoint ~ ..::::+~..neut.J prevent slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' . - ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure. ...__ ... alonq which no ~endirtg stresses occur.!.::. --~ : to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:.:-"-------------4I -r......L. a.--'---------"vz:-~:..e sectbn Deing conslderecL ~ft.. -: ~------ -An extern. generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~...IIIii!lIlIii!!illIlIlIlI!liI.-..1 true W1... The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of il span...~'. the ~~'...---:\ vertical shearing stress.-~---. --...J~ kp L . cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force. ~ : : ~ .. gIrder.at that point AISO ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~1'in4 s~s. 1 ~~moment t------------------~-• An fnt:er...oadsacross space r+---1-J-h __ 1span L.---.. ----. ori gin \ . -:-..-- -----+--____-L____ 1'~ The snearlng stressdevetOped t. ~ ~ \?ending' 5tre55 ..: __ ...... :::::::::::::::::::::::::..!--------' ~~ulard1stance il spanr... urJertransverseloadlrtg. A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at.em~ ~tes from ...J.

I 1i 33.mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ . the prlnctp. Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material.of the mem~er a~out.ect to botb be:nJlng x.61n' "" S 54.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion y cop 25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis 3861n 4 = iaboutx-xaxis 5 52. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the m3teri. only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp.( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur.s to the neutnl1Xl5.a 16 ... M C =MC{J)~-----where mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation. I = extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng = bending n10mttTt = distJnc~ from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9 If Yc = ®~-------then fp =MIS 'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to Iongltudlnal axis.1l stres:. prevent torsion or twlstlng. his For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut.!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4. you nee L .7in 3 = ori the ur gin principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam. " = Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~ ry 3 tJacre{ z.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5. -. JouPling th~ depth reduces t. secuon. I I ~- tension L L r I L J - 5hear ceo'Ur s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?· T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f.BEAM fp f.tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam.a transverselOad'.25 inz = Area of section 11. section modulu. The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea. At the txtreme surfaces of a bam.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a.J she3r 5tre55eS.mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe. _1- cha se al boo L kp J if t dt At th~ nelltra/axls of the section.

...: : t' .P.LL.-L-L. and moments are dependent not only or.. ' :.. .. hearforcesthatacts "e:rtIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left pol rt of the structUrl: l>elrig'c·onsl.. I. .nlch the mommts om-the supports 3~ eqlJ3/ md oppo$'U to the momer..... shears.: A¥3EIC:~torrott~~n..s .'I! Concentrated loads produce e~mal she~ -' cantilever peam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce line3ri) :.re approximately '/..~ mcments.:lered.:fitlons.-L ~====~J====~l. " ~~§Jn ordu tc aevelOp gr~~r rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple ~ms having similar spans and loading. Also calW hu~-span. A graphic 5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0...L L. se the ' r ~ . the values of an reactions. positive shear .'''''... of.' y ori gin al his boo .!!e. 17 .ff£ljs at Dot.r. Both fIXed· end and contlnuous !:>eams are Indetamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. I ..BEAM l f r .L i....u pPPfted..res~l?nt. : ... nt.... quiIl3ie. of.LM I ' cha positive moment ...!:.. 6' ~ J .lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m.. .1i sim~~~u. whleh are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce. L. ~i ur kp flIt.L 1.~* ~~~: .:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr.II.l. T -.f a flxed·end or continuous beJ~...rfy between loads.. I ... .~ ends.ifT1ir.-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3 simp!] s~pportea 'eam.nsfer !:>ending 's~s.1 A~...ln: ..e projection for wltfch the morrr~ oy~ the 5I.... dd1ected shape of a structure sul>ject to Pendlng can often ~ Inferred from the cantilever shape of its moment diagram.. .. span and loaJlng but also on cross· sectlonal sn3F~ 3'1d material. the projections for ...-l A !:>ending rT1<lment ~ proaiJce$a concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure.l ' i l t +111.l.f-l-l..~.t .": X'pro~rij veat:ns. As with any st.~~ .d. ~:. you ~ be3m exterJing~~t~~ih".-t. Uniformly distribrMd loads produce parabciJc311y var:lr.t 3t midsp71 . I! . effective length The dist3~ce l>etween Inflection points In the sp3~..t. . tJ.J... ! !.. J..J.~!"'''"'tant. I Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW l03d..m. and ~uce Its maxlmum defIect1on. 3 uniformly distri/7r. shears... and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its cress· sectlonal shape and ma~31. ·~~~tf~~~'~=:~~~~~==~~~~~~~ cop ~-:-:"rr.~J~.. ..L..t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the 5f!41 As5l. shearforcesth3tacts r vertIca~ upW1ra~n the left part of the structure !:>efrig ccnsldere.. J. .'. if '=~'t..'''~J'~. negativeshear ... t r i ."r:esutta .. .lted loads produce bending mom~ts Iouls and support condItions.~~~ tr.. a~ on~one I momentdi.I.rW l.E 1representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support con.-:-7"-"-.otlwfly detennlnate structure..f~~jj.heard~g"m li'l:1 Illllllllll' III ! (III ).j.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~r----.~. r r i fF :-~:~~!-W. nee dt 5u'pended-5pan A sImple ~m supporW by the cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans with plnneJ constructlonJoints at polnts of· zero moment.!<L :.. ~.'~. The overall which vary hne.. The overhang rl:duces the positlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~atlve moment at the Inse of the cantllever over the support.._. :: : I : Concentr..~~L. ."'" overhanging l>eam Aslmple beam extending beyond one Its supports. '~.~c. IJf the sp:m..1gram _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~. ccrttinuou5 pe4m .

serer!. often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~. color.ang I1ricl:: sulta171e for use where a !I'1inlmum V3tiatlon In size. .... U I 3 weight of water absorPea ~... boo . rex F... ~!y_. .ortk)n albwed In a facing ~rick unit. -....17a\:ir-3 .. one for firing pottery.. . A !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to the ground or uSMon surfar. cha !cuU ..j~~SIIII~ . I"'.III~1 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~. of 51 W under high pressure. expressed I~ grams or ounces p minute... j~~hin~'f f..edryl/l1lt. aria otHer objects exposed to high tempentlJres.moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e !:>rid: untt wfIen exposed to weathering. and high degree of l. y FDA F. Also calrea fa c't" In-Ick..nd greater variation In size art' ~rmitted than for type FBX.. 18 ... producing a matte'textured surf~ 3 1 prick_type! r waterstruck hick A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rI3tlon In size.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7le for use where p... .i al ori gin the t MW~ ~thl~.. A clay used In the making of ~rucl&t..lJJ. 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality.. smooth-surfacea pricks.rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng frotn lIOIIurJformlty In size.S... producing dense surface. . moderAte. Briel: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 a smooth. ··: AGT{£mUle of fire cl3y ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces. l i~iil~II~~~~~.5._' partIally Immersed for croe minute.lSOlllj' unit when NW .. A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~'-~~ ~~as when used as a 113Gb.. .-_ _--.. 'ccmmott~~ Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re..es Ukely to ~e.1ndstruck brick Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process wlt. Brick is pJd for use In each /'e9lon accoralng to ~ strength.... ur his j5W ~ .e:q.. claL Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time.....clent..cc.!U£Ki Am3SOf1f)' unit of clay. Also C311ea building br/clt _. ~ .Jt ~ .. "trrt-mud pro~ ! The process of fonnlng prick and structur..~·dIng to annual winter rainfall ana the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days. ch Ippage• • "d dJst.. a~.. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weIght of ~".. and negllgll7le ... m=ks.. cop 1 b1n) l.. or dryi~ ..- .. mingl1rict' Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall...il tile ~ extruding stiff l:>ut plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through a !~ ana cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing. u u I FB5 F. ~-----=::: se t1~­ ~-~~ Jfi!e... .. Wct¢ry A material having the a17i1lty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures...~ permeated with water In subfreezl~ temperatures.T1echanlcal pafectlon are rea.ulred.. ana texture of the Individual units. AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of iI~ iTl3S011f'y unit when ~.~ mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9.cln~ kick sultJple for use where a wider color ~. formed into • rectar...l7ridcr· . _. --: j5. - t.. The ~ofW3ter a~ Py. Indicating the ~ reslstJnce of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing.. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated U.~_c~ ~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorPed ~5bhiy Dille hf!fflersta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight aDsor\:1ed when ~ In rolh~ water.gwr prism while plastic and lurdened Py drying in the sun or firi~inaUn. resulting in sbrpedged.. color. fumau or oven for Pumll1g. ~. _ _---=------~:::: if you nee dt \severe weatheri~. 1drrprcss process i The process of fonnlng prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~. :.as when In contact with . maximum water lorici~' . The processprocess of forming prick l:>y molding ! scft-mud relatively wet clay havlng~re C$Ywt.. coefl'.. l..'" orin Itfterlor ma son r y .ls dIv1ka In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures.. A ImCk grade sutta~1e for exposure to-' . esp.~glg~ ana 5\Jrfau text-ure. ..: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr. or dryl~ tlml:>er... narrow color rA ng~..andm3XlmumSJturatlon kp A dr!s~tUtIon Indlcatlng the aura!7i11ty of a . I:1aklng.

cMr A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid eage~ A brd or tl.. .'3 x12 in. if y r r ~:. ~l .3 courses = 8 in..! '! 1 • See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr..wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s. 4 coursts = 8 In. itorl ..-~.~~J A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed. -. SCRurick . TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a certain s~ c-r sl1ape. cop ori gin al the pu rch ase • r r jumbo urick .. -·r---· ·'h NormJn brick APricl: h. .'3 x3 in.3 mm) moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h..(51I11m~ dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot. .5In.' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her.. ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons of 4x 4 x 5 in. -. (406 mm) F==ib=~=:.' dim ". Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in.. sb ook eed f i r thi seal' I -'i " stret:. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) . AI$O. engineered brick AInicl: h. (102 x81 x 305 mm).."'5ts = 16 In. '.. rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~ :·'·'·' . A 17rld: or other m3sonry u. 5 COU.3Ying normal face 2In..fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou.lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface..a. fc.3 mm) y Roman ~rick Brick h~''. (I02x81x203mm). ou n ht-J A !mel:: cut t.--~------_e====~~~.nlt /. r r Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the m3nubct~~e-..119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In.-.d..:s 19 ... (102 x 102 x 203 mm).Ion I to A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the . ."'J ncminJI dimensions of 4x2x 12 in. (20.BRICK rnoml.wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21.. thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint... .ikl vertically with the I1read faceex~.e i-.~ Briel:: h3'.~~} r~k l. (102x51 x 305 mm).. (102 x68 x203 111m) . (20.~J A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed . (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21. ''~r.

.AlsocalW .e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks..BRI(K fbrickwcrij erfck~Ion. .flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as a heac. !F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c..by half the length of a stretcher. A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co...--··-·· ...otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers stretchers..ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.. Also. Also.ourst:S n ~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded po ~~~~~i~~~~= ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls......f'rieffi. '~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~. with each heac. ur forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng his boo kp cha ~ ~=~h::~. reglbr !nicks.. . t= L L L f L J 20 . the conskuctlon. usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of .1nl1~. .iI regular.ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses. j "...t~:-:~~..I. Also. ~tack~ond ').iI~. ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor. ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f J J f Ii clesa' ... Also called al cop y 6 Flemish CtO~5 Pond A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ . ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow dt A~ bon(i having alternatIng fJem~~~1 L ~da~ ---------... ~acked I1ond. ....cner of a wall.... cfO$Ure. lnaiCOlll'StS.C\uun closure..... recognluble.! I i I j pa. closure..- - se Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically ODDDDDDDDC .. if -. esp. -. ODDDDDDDDC ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[ Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO( .n~~/..~.. soldlerccur5e.. : : .. having a seq~ence of a header and thru stretchers In each course....00. --.t ~~C=::J( . Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork.successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily.t Also.. you nee headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~. offset to form a dta mona pattera. br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : . tM art of bondin9 Prld:s effealvely.A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP. ki".-Dutdt~1 ori Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the gin ~~~l ~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD .. -. A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of OY~ stretchers.. Also called 's~ron(U .

1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~..· the Frle:zt and Cornice.l pier or c.../ CiIp or. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It.~~~ sloping. his boo .:twetn.e4 Py .. and the Cdumn. . A low". the projection 15 called the &. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (.arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e.J/f~ the ~ ArchItr. The principal member (J( a ccmice. :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who. construction.aIl:. door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95.1t Is a/Joy~ them. . Atal pest Is caned a PIer.?r1Unuou5 3rdI c. the ori gin al cop y )1 .aI./ noble md delightful obJ~t.es. A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t.25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:. Wans 3rC ger. or EpiStyk. the 5h3ft. fIrltIr the roof tit..nd a Cdumn If It Is round. kp ur thaT the Ole.1b1e 35./ ComJce. frieze.:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh.. . If the rr. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15.15 to get a better b. if The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 you cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude..lfthe fYX!f extenJs b. Abc¥~ fC. SUn.. COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb.a . ! ~ uperstrLICture The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation.al/ed -William Robert Ware (he American Vignol. If two rQ/Js m.in Roof5 T/U'j b..:rs.alled The Wa( the PIer.31 rlJge.25 bng.fIeJ . ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa.i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip. The ~ the keres. and wind.Jose th~ 5pau WIthin. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof. If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry.~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15 the~.3ch~. If the ~ emtmy m. IfIt project6 nJCh. Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It. ~ xt ~ for access.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs.XIII form a G3t>1e at t. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r. roof qf the ~ stcry b.3d rJfby a floor or reef.11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int.: f!.ne ~ they meet In a hor/zorrt. to serve a common purpose.l1ld w. Orcul.Ro:7fs and waDs. the ItIcfJr.Jn5 and le. ~ the chidptofthe load they urry. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m.dumn MJJ a tIr. and l The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other.. a building ff!3y be In It6df. A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to.ve. esp.. A ~s (J( which Is c. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed.. a reentulng angl~. me&t./ Y.alled wpftals. the fL1t. a~ns:r.1 sh~IUr.7t rests upon them. &ornJce~the~A~ 3f1~ ~ ~bya sa-trJf c.it:.BUILDING Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use.tIIeJ . The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c. and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to ~ubstructure nee dt A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b.3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9.d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley.at~ In5tt.Jvcks. cha se system A group of Interacting./ Corona. is c.iIboIrt. If It Is 5qlI3~. by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details. or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole.Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<). the projection is calJtJ . Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c. JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI. or curved. Interrelated.ln«pendentJy of ft5~. a Ccrrke.15 h35 been said. ~C:Z::.lt ~ ~.er. f3e5kks ~ valu.:.. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~. Wt Is ~ tMrJ. WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t.

i .a l1Uilding having one.J 1 .. ori __ .. l./'t I-f-- [] I ur ---~ .p3r..1. cop I -' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz. I . 1j I i L1 J r I.leen two 1acent levels.. ._ _ _--d:f:bFfb--___~ L . OM of ~rge size... ·.---.1. I boo kp -~-' J J I H+l rF n~ his nr nr I I 4- i 1 n i f ~ - - jJ if you lk. high-rise Descrll1lng a l1Uildlng having a LJ o I I1uildi~. : spa~ l>et..o~ arvision of a y \.. I _.uently converted to residential OCCt.. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~.' al I l comparatively large numl1er of stories and eqUipped with elevators.. \. .r->.nd usually 110 eleva te r. I I II I ( '( V I H B I - low-rise DescrlUiog .uarters. I A II g J.6L--_ _ _ _ _ _--i gin I se continuous floor ana comprising the .:-. or three stones.ow fre'.cy. as living a. j A l1Uila~lt\3. I loft ~ilding A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space.-J ". ma ssive structu reo or 1m posi~ appe:araru. I nee dt ~ + III f.. artists' studios. typlcal~ unpartltloned ana I I sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses.. esp..L l.~"4 a contlnuous or nearly: :l the ~ I 1rR? ! i /\ /. . two. u. or exh ii:>itlon ga l!eries. originally renUa out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r.•. ') "1111 i 1111111 ii II ( cha '~ .BUILDING I edifi~ j .L.

.1r....... constftutlng one level In the strocture.---------~ .. !rot accessll1le I1y crawhng... cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms....floor A contlnuous supportIng surface ..... the first floor IS tile floor ImmedIately above the ground floor. a house. "..-.. In 8rltaln and elsewhere... fuel. L L cellar __ J A room or set of rooms... _ f L -crawl space . ur cha se boo kp ! ..." An area In a Irolldlng hJvlng a clearance less than human height..-. one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with the story I1eneath It.. esp.. areaway A sunken area affording access.--.... --.. -.. nee dt his -B-- r. such a space I1elow the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls.. you --.. ". .. air.. or hurrIcanes.~l__________~____s_ta_I~ ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_ts_s_to __ __ a_ce_"a_r_.....rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding. tsp. luff eltory -.. usually hav~ng dormer wIndows for lighting..ground floor : The floor of a Irolldlng at or neartstto ground level r k I ·"f fr--4.. extenalng horizontally throughout a : bulkltng.... havIng a number of rooms and . torna.... for the storage of food.ms... -.. subbasement Arry story or floor l1elow the maIn l1asement of a l1uifding . y :'.. t. or the like. al ori gin the I ~ .•..BUILDING L .fi~tfloor ! : if I The gl"O'Jna floor of a bu!k:flng. A usal7le living space withIn a sloping roof..________________________~ [f l1ulkhe3d --.-.. -•... and light to a !7asement door or wIndow... Also called stann cell.. -..'" pasement : Astory of a l1ulldlng that Is wholly or part~· A I1elow ground level./ A horizontal or Inclined door over a / cop -$-l . mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a l1ulkllng. wholly or partly underground and usually l1e'neath a bulk/ing.v - . as cyclones..• -. esp.

BUILDING
l.;" .... ,~~
~

..

(.~

~~~~~~~~------.----.--- ---~~~
...

~~

" ",,_,
• -'-,

"',:r

The front ofa ~ulk:llng orany of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

fro nUspiece
A prtnc!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature a facade. often t~ as a separate elerT'l!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

eatment.

""
", """""

,Ii

OrT1a~ntation.

ase

:-- pavilion ~ Acerrtr31 or fIa r.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ subl~lvIslon~~ : of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d

the

ori

~"~~~==:S

gin

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al

cop

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y

1j

1

!

rch

distinction of ~~r,e.

IfII

pu

'=5e~~~~~f1~~~H I

sb

~~==~~~~~~

ook

~~~!:!..SI~Q.,.,&:!..Q,,~"l=f~A=1~n~1

.

!

nlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

d

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31
ofa n.ve..
dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

u

pay
Ar'rJ of. 1\~mber of prlr.clpal dlvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports.
bll~r"f

ou n

eed

thi

if y

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

I7lind
Descr\bi:'~;;

I
recess In awall havi~
~alccny

U

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (PII r.d wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of
Je~n.

An eb7ted p13tfonn
projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of' p3rapet.

l~
i

l=,I

==

fenestration
The design. proportioning. and alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings

II

t.w

I

:

ana

of a ~ulldlng.
I

L

nnnn
24

L

BUILDING

I l

r-

l
~~~
~

~
r = r-

~

~

. f==

I-

,~

~

I::::

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps
$Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.
ofahou~.

:p6~1?:1

at the

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a
~ulldlng.

\

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

ur

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

cha

se

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i
0

~n

roof;J ~~d

the

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure.

ori

~

r

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

IcnrWer/

gin

al
e
lf05te~tq

cop
.'.<
-/.~
:
I

y
-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.
' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

kp boo his

::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _ .......... 2"fO~hert: •

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dt

ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . .
1

fJ \L")
(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

nee

I i

: ;

I

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r
~ng. --.-------.--~

if

you

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25

BUILDING

rotunda
A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

,!' piloti _:._ ..i
1

I_L
arove

A wIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing
Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a TId sul10rdlnate to auntral or main part. '

---- Any of a serIes of
columns supportIng a an open pulldl~ ground level

I

~

.>.

A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ..., respect to its length hetqht. ~

3na

JI

~

II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof
~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

cha

Ploc1:

se

the

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng.

atrium

Askiit. central court In a
buil.::li~~.

kp

h3v1~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of

ori

esp. a farge Interior one

gin

al

C
~"
, .

cop

~

._entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~~~a open to the sky and mostly or

·-'V
./ '

y

I

I~

ur

courtyard

galb'es.

A court adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

~~

~ccurt.

you

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -.................... -........... J

nee

dt

A cOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an

his

-

................. .

L.fi "
atrium An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

boo

patio
A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls. .

if

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the
~floor.

D
i •

corU!e .. ---- .......... -- ..... --- ...... . A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

L y
patuza
A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

L
i

L
I

26

A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind.--. ' ..' single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes.JCture. Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles. uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables.. i ( i: ~ I if y r I I ou n eed r f [ f sb '-I ook pu rch ase i-----------..ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter. ------~- ~.-. _ . - the ori secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter..-_..~ r it~ ... ~ v n~ .. suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d.. .-. pm.r j ~ CABLE STRUCTURE r- t ! sU5penslo~ structure r i A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads.. thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter... supportlng the sum of ~ vert.. .. bound2rycable Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' .e.~ primary cable i r r I ' i f stayed structure. transferring the force to a ground foundation.. .. double-cable structure . cop r y douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different and often reverse curvatureS.. · ~...c.I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends... . ' .. cables In a suspenslon S"" I I. component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d . Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon. ~ ~ ~ r ..-=~~~ ~.. transve~guyca17les.. A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres.I---------~'" ~.ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles. I I 29 .... n .-.. gin al Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cable- One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure. I C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern..~~!~a~~~~~~~~.' t I \. ~~ . thi L . This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with ~ ..

pattern of recessed p:onel$.. ceiling. (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of. bcunar/ . plafona ....ult aOorred Mt. al his nee dt you if character. soffit. USUoiily square or octagonal panels in . Aflat or vaulted ceiling of decorative l 30 .h . orv. y jcoffer One of a number of recessed. o cop gin boo kp ur cha se the ori !?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showing ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling. or vault.i. room.1curur. often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above. Also called c. 1 '. A ceiling. ~.alsscn.

~ ~_ I . se 941 lleria Aspaclo!J5 promenade... wln~ and :_... .. kp al Asquar~ or 'tU3arangular space or court cop pergola .. court. or the work or art of such clipping. surrounded .~ boo L An aro. or unite ~radually by stages so as to I1lur identity or distinctions. usuar1y having a vaulted roof and lined with comrr.3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:. gazebo i-_ Afreestanding roofed structure. -... --. -.-.".. front To face In a specific direction or look out upon.lS for pleasu~ or dlsp!ay.~n a pul7llc p!xe.f shruPs and 17r.. (NU wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow. to points on the compass. y DO' 27 ..e. . as on college CJmpus. .--.. Also called quad.. !knd.. .":..--._ folly A whimSical or extravagant Structure built to serve as a conversation piece..: cbim To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn. usually open on the sides. '_ A shelta c... pro~fUde J ur cha maR.. Asmall..erci.-. d flowers.----.. ~" ~ .. A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peilms and cr05s1119 raftus or trelliswork. lend Interest to a view.I useJfora stroH orwall:...y 3 bui!d1119 Or llultdlngs. his Jllee . Qesi9ned and situated to look out upon 3 pleasing scene.. affordl~ shade and rest In a garden or pari::.. the ori gin tapi3ry Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes. if you ari?or _ . or to local conditions of sunlight.--.merge To comlnr. r t . i 3 L ] bWcewor1: Irrtmwlnea with cl1mln~ v1n_~~ .lllches or of nee dt French tern for a broad walk planteJ ". Al7ultdlng. .esp. -.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces....ll establishments.. pavilion f L pL1Z3 A pul7llc 5qU. _. r f [ L I iL uellis 3S a screen A fume supportlng apen latticework. L r 'luadrangfe --. or Indoor ::::::::=====rrrr=n:=T' r==rr:n==:rr===r ~Ivedere I[J[ If afd0Rf-H ... or architectural feature of a 1lullJlng._"' ..often ornamental ~ulk:ling In a garden.. to a sPeGlfiG place or feature... or com memoratea person or event. e.--.3re or apen space In a city or town. used or 3 support for growing vines or plants I.ith trees.I l _ r- BUILDING orientation The position of a ~uik:ling on a site In relation to true north.. '.' P .

.. Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load.•.... . dt uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne..~·I~~·· ····-···1<'".-.•...• -.----.-. -+-.... For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon.. ".. ur C3P\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload.-... !.•..~t '" /' the .••• al cop j i y ! funicuL1r structure u concentrated loads.• '" orsnbrelements are rtflufreJ ~ contJfn and "...m~'" his boo kp ~r.......~~... the Inte...~~~.. bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure.... .. -. the cUrr'e approaches r..1rola .-•.• .i.._ ... j The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng ori funicular polygon· . .here Is only ~ general funicular shape.. /<~.' ...~-.....1on.... I i Ii ~ ! ! funicularslupe ...' \\' .J ". --.. . i ! ~ f~-- .... resulting In no net lattral forces at the supports. gin C3P\e In direct to the magnitude ofresponse and location external forces..:iLl Ii 11- cha ~":~:::... se l\ \ ... \"..---.---" ......• .. -....' ...-.. •••....•••.. having high tensile strength / Put offering no resl~ nee to com presslon Or~g.. .--.../ ~ of a p3r.... ~~"" .. .".maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXrt3se.•._-...~·i~~:ki.... cap~ A flexIple structural meml1er...... --..' sag Theyert~31 distance from the supports to the lowest point of 3 cable structure...' / \.•._" .(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support. / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng n-----------. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S.•.-... -.•.ed. . .• --•••• -.. as wire rope or ~'chaln. -.•• ---. structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given loading Vi either axial tension or compression.......... 8uttresses.~. -.. if you nee I LJ thrusts.o ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of ~. _...\~:--. "" ------... For arry given loading condit.. 28 I I L A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualancea by the Inward pulls of a caple...-...-.. ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" ~5tnJtS... .. If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges...•.'.. """ ~ ~mbl u m~re...-' .. --.

:..a .../ ~ " lumino us ceiling c' A sus~nded ceiling of t~. sound-a!?sorVlng m.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr- rch A thin metalstr:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo s-ck:a I t.2..: '.:~':.ers.l~ . ..crosstee A second3 ry me:. cop '~'g..) .' ~ •. uS1J311y Incorpor. or to ~tter the proportions of a room. \ metal pan _.. y Ametal grid for supporting a suspended celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted r I ---.~ ~ Integrated ceiling A suspended ceiling system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh.nel or tee suspended by ha"9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure. narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system..: . ~ 'S. :' . usually a sheet· metal char. ". ":.tl~ modular tlghtl/l4 and alr-nanJn"9 compone:nts. £Qmponents..i 1 i ~'S.:) ...ally a sheet·lretal tee carried by t~ main runn..ea fau and contJlning a 5epante layer of sound· al1sortlng material r ori t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted tees supportin~ the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling .... :.... Also.. louvered ceiling A suspended ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!dlng the nght sources mounted above ft.:.. .. dropp~ uili"i...J! '10..~: ~ A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln....'i(r '.. '<: p~ A long.. acoustical ceiling A cellln!! of acoustical tile or other sou nQ' apsorblng material.II ou n eed thi sb ook tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tlles of 3 suspended ceiling. r r 1 i al gin . ~ :. ... or ~bss f1l>~.\'..9 •..T"1 ~:. :<..·.:Itertll.. Agroo.:~:ti::O::::::i+±::::::::::::::~z~:LZ!ti~ii::::.. _--_.. ..& linear diffunr ~ ~~ ~ ~....::::::::.±i~~b~ii:l:t::::::i::j~~!:::±~._ ..::.' ..- .. ""'!j...:==========:::::..l ~ ..Jnto.' .) ~::!'::':..! i \ r r j accu5wltik Tl~ made In v. or other service eqUIpment.. Also called slot diffuser..~11<.::......'e cut In c. A~ ~ ~ ...~slucent PJr..1 J?~~' .~n...ed above it.._. CEILING dropceili~ suspended ceiling A ceill~ suspended from an overhead floor or roof structu re to provide space for pipes._ ..... : ..o the eJges of an acoustlcal if y (j~r mebl uiling A suspended ce:1I"9 system of IIJrrow metal strips.•··.~: .-& .l·-~ ~. .. '. I j r r ~=========:::. 31 ...f alr-l13ndling . ·-~._.ile= to ma~ a l>uttJolrTt between them.7.... as corl mlnenf f1w.:.: ': =.. . :.":'.' . usu. :. !umlnaires mount..1. ase the . m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 memDer of the grid supportlng a suspendea ceinng system.:~...unified whole. one that serves as a recelvl"9 champerfor conditioned air to pe distributed to Inhapltecf spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central plant for processing...1 ~~! ~:'..rious sius anJ textiJres from a soft..~/ plenum / The space petween a suspenaea celilng and the floor structure apove. ductwork..:':. ~~ ~'. - ~p!ine pu f 11I1i!!i. . lighting fixtures.els for diffUSing the light frc-r.... hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles.. ber of the grid su pportlng a suspended ceiling system.. ~ pconccal&:J grid ~ . esp. .\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor aluminum p3n having a perforn..g or auC1Jl!ori. kerf / ~rt1~qrid..

The structural portion of a ceramic ar--..s p~ flred once put not glazed.re. ..... opaque.... Also called china clay.. as In"!d:.. _.lnittle.. A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~. nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71. vitreous.\ue Reseml1llng glass. usually opaque./ -----'.. ur ...:":.. ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w. porcelain A hard. grassy coating ponded to ~~ .. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal.._. kaolin the ori gin al cop A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement.. translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln..(EMMIC Any of VArious hard. or having low or no porosity.. Also called W&allt. \'" \.. ~. 5Oft·l7umed _...... glass. b if you 6· Earthenware or porcelain that h.... and rl4tul'3lstone....i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature. hardness..... glaze-fired Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength. I t li cu.... vftreo~ nee ~". J I y temperWJ reo kp flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W.. fired at a very high temperature...: \\}~\... \ l~ I' t .~~A\~...atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength. '-. . vitreous enamel. <- / boo D b lurd·hrnea _. andpc«cy. enamel A vitreous.\~.. L' I I I 32 . high temperature to near Yltrtflr.. l1rlttleness....'".....~:~.<t: his ...flred.. vitrified cel'3mlc ware.. noncorrosive..\~\..e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels.. . .\~:' -.body ) \ ..~ it dt ~ / ·l1l~ue.' "'. . micware Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay earthenware low·flred. Also wiled china A translucent ceramic material.. fek:lspar. luster. Ared ~. I1lsque· fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred atalowertemperature. as !nick... opaque.. / " ...•. bi.. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf..... . stoneware Hlgh. nonvitreous ceramic ware. I by fusing at a high temperature...fired Fired to harden a clay Poay.. ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'". cha o - se -------.I. ': .... tile.. I or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln..~. .. / ~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~. -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of shghtly under 61... or pottery. U I porcelain enamel An opaque. as In tl'3nsparency..i .. and quartz.

set process. ~~.• IEt. ~ndcorl 33 .rl . t.~!!1li .lcl:-mcunted on sheets to fac~rtate handling and speed Installation. used for levelIng or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· L t tile grout Acementltlous or resInous mIx for filling JoInts In ceramic tllewon:.:~.~'Nk~.~!1!!~..:~~ . rch I . matte.. or an org3nlc adhesive..t-- ana r.. / glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving a rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rtght.. which allows for murate slopes and planes In the finished won:. . stable backIng with 3 thin coat of dlj'-set mortar.. cauntertops. portland cement mortar Afield mix of portland cement. floors. water. ~..L.. I. 1 r-r-: r-\-: r-rr-r-: r-r- : I I I I I : I I J J I· • o_ qU3rrytile / ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay DodJr.r- paver tile Unglazed ceramic floor tlle sImIlar In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker an. (19 to:3a mm) thld:. latexportland cement mortar. .t-r-r. and usually face.~ f--+I-r1.-_.. '132 to '/a In.r- sb t if y ou n pu r. glazed for surfacIng walls or unglaztd for use on roeh floors and walls.CERAMIC / ceramic tile Any of varlcus fired clay tHes used for surfacIng walls..t-- al Unglazed Ur"3mlc floor tile having a I13tural cop cl4y body.~ .:! lar~er In surface area. y ase I.L_LJ ! I I I i I j thlck-~et process A tllesettlng pr'OUSsln which ceramic tile thln-l7ed proce~ A tllesettlng process In which ceramic tlle Is bonded to a contInuous. Alsa called promenade tile..8 to 32 mm) thld:. .::.• .or lr..... ook - ~ eed thi .. Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar bea ¥It to 1Vzln. ep<JY:i mortar. (0. ---------r . or ceystalltne glaze. sand. ori gin the I.~>~ I! . used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors .~.~ U A thIn coat of mortJrfor rondlng ceramic tIle to a L>ading. and sometimes hydrated lime.

(..B l. ori gin ~s and ornaments.(ERAMIC .Mlctur. minimum variation In fau dimensions..rJ-~rned. glneJ or unglazed terra ccu. and narrow color range are desired.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn. and strict sanitation requlremen ts. .ln areas subject to heavy wear. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection.t. or other mJsonry. ~ terr. potttry. structura Ifacing tile Structural clay tile having a glazed surface.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. plsay.. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76.o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m. FTX I Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9. ~- al A n.!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. tl~ units. and rammea~rth A stiff mixture of cf3y. ~Iy ustd In countrieS with if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the little .. --.1~o. terra cotta.a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres. L 1 1 i ~ I . hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as. l j I " LeX l. moisture problems. prick. used for facing walls ana partitions. ~ ~rJlterr~ n.2 mm) or mo~ of stone. cotta·.adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw. used for architectural cop u I y . used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s. Also calleJ plse.n ana stain resistance are required.. esp.~ -. and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction. plse de terre. . slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh . fired cby.Infan. .rp1Io..ra. sand or other aggr~ate.3 nd medlum color· frost u .a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon.

. ~..itlr.. symronc if you nee font A Pasin..aste:m church. -·-..'it . Also called ciporium... I I L -The bls~p's throne.. Also... ~aptistfy.. kp exonarthex /' C ~'. Asac:ti-¥r~1y place.fifJ·-. " the j ! : .llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of W3ter.... ori -I· __ l \1#~ ---~.-- t.. -.Jtlon. L ! euara .nYC::of~tk • ..' -' • L..~ b'~... 5Uristy A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept.. Iccn A represent3t1on of 3 sacred Christian Person. I Tliefmurtof an early Christian church..~ . An e~Chri5tlan church...~ . -. esp. bakla'luln. the sacrament celeUr.. apSis. Also. I' ! of Jesa:sChrist. Alsa..-.() the transept of later cruciform churches.arackrtzea by a long..--. Also C3 lied vestry. am1?on...arthex . extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles.---. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf.\ ~lU-~j ~~ij L L L !i~~-:..... rectangular ptan. baldachin / ... 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ • r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a P3SiJka ---:.-----.. \_. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica.--... --...j • 4 __ • i13. A large apslaal extension of the Interior volume of a church. as an atrtlln.. usu.. : i .. Iconostas...j--.. ..---... appropriated ta ~nftents. ~~.. .e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church.: iconostas(. _ ... holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm. --. Also. H I dt his boo situated before an Inner narthex... cop isfe=-4 tI'. ch....a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred.. l-.rJ:5m A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity.... Is ce!eUr.. trivUMY .. usuafrj on the solIth side of the !Jenu... A transverse open space separating.......itea..!! Chrl5t's Last Supper.. .' t~ .... separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or y An omamet!1:41 caner. Also. . --. of stene or marbl. -----.. ana I I L l prothesis ..ally of 5WIe.. gin piers. The partied \.. Pro~t.-.. --.. develcpi"4ln1.-----...... \' t..../ The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church... eson.-..-...----.. as Christ or a saint or angel... Also cal~it'tal7~P5 The princlp31 or central part of a church. J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf. Also.-.t.jnct@ L. .1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church.. /. separating the bema from the nave of an E.. -A scrun or partr..Jrfy Chrlstlan or E. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church. cha I • se baptl5ttry A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered......-... of splritua I ~ner. The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister.-.........~~{ A coverea walk or outer narthex ur An InMr narthex when two are present. -. I L I dbco nIcon A sacristy In an e... al longitudinal divisions of a church.-.. ----. a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end....../ .i-. ~ulkllng. at the sanctuary or east end of a church. baldachino..rlyChrlsti3n church.' Achapel In an E.l¥. / •.. - ~nu . Elther Of two raised mnas from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church..... as that part of a . u5l.---. flanked or SumllJ nde& by.I-CHURCH· Ch~nity The~..ffrtiCOes:f church In which the princlp31 altarls placed... and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.astem Church where the Eucharistic e~ts are prepared....astern church. the -"1I7emJ' nave and U!e3pseofan e.:a!1y on the north side of the bema..-..----- Theta~leln aChristian church upon which the Eucharist.lncluding the Catholic.. 35 . uSU311y vaulted and used esp. I ~ ~.. rounded on the teachings A l?uiUling for public Christian worship... tMJ or four lower side aisles.lon on which Icons are 1 placed. exhedra.

1 r~pond ___ .. 36 I f ! ..--.. ~~tterY1 . crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir. ana few windows. Also.. Also called InUrsecth!g arcade.cJ st·l1.••••. havl"i a tlmllerfrarne. esp... Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or arcak ---. .elike roof te\1~ating onTondOlffil sharp point. nee IIoft·t han.. a ~Iered.. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside . arcuauo. pf4lnk walls.~n?Upola ~y tower. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower. lJ A PuI17ous.. esp. esp.... arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S.. al cop p ~ I ori gin y f ur cha 6 t An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies.... a I1Iind one. ... dt wall of a Pulldlng. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc uulldlng. at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~..-.. cbrr.. his II roofea promenade.. 15plr~--·-···· A tall. stupty pitched roof..••. usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure. arcU..1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i.---~. __ •... __ .ln 1(~r.Iong the exterior 5~ve churchl L r I kp A anop\ed r~s for a ~ IIn3¥ or ICon. _ A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel. used esp. se the boo :.lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<. if you Interlacing arcade An arcade.. i A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or •.._ . "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church. composed of cofumns.:..• __ ••.••. I ! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower.om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple. I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration.. AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e.-----.::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI. I.

Also.. . ch4pter ".. a large one set .. allure. Also called cloister garth.... often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng or screen . 37 . + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of a rreJ~vJI church.. onektween the transept and chapter house X a cathedral.cor.• cloi. .ter A covered walk having . rood ~un ~-- p""h chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne med1eval E.. garth _ . usually a !?ufld1~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery. A chapel dedicated to the VIrgin Mary.n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard.. ~win.! pbce. An assembly of the mon(s In a monastery.. -..31 church.- The part of a church reserved for the offici3tl~ clergy..---"- ASCru::1. ~~~.. rood --. I I ch4p'Ur hoU5t: lnJrl.. Acourtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister. • '-"" ________ ··_4 chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral..l~stmylnachurch.Jow.. separating the c ha ~al or choir from the nave of a meaie-. c~ the An enclosed place...--. cop gin the ori se al . contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> : [ f L ~-. : .~-.51ype A covered passage. g3l1lee porch... ... lady clupel .~ or~ired by h3v1ng p~. or the rnemrers of a religious house or order.. esp.n9l1sh churches.fL_. lGt... -./ A m3zel~ pattern the pavtment of a mcll"C:V'''. Including the apse and ambulatory......J±::i1t=:::ctt=:O alure A walk or passage. i chapel \ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for \ private prayer._. often etlborately adorned and ~~rlJ' $Urn1ounted by a rood. esp. f '. cntJrGh..dow~ . ----------------..--------·----:·------------1' j An.. . ~--"----T .lHURCH ~ crlnear21 f The principal church of a d~. -.1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL 'I boo . and dae. the tarJ surrourJl~ or beside a ~ral I ..s5'c.. OM with lin open mouth that serves 35 A spout arJ projects from a gutter to throw rainwaterciear of a ~uilJif\!.a the roof of an aisle. #[. esp... nee ~ ..._.--------.-. -. choir The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir.ffi~~~Jff.. ----.~. The pl3ce where the chapter of OJ cathedral or monastery meets. Also called deambul3tory.pr.'. usually located behirJ the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse. .religious services.~ his t !:..-Wfr...------. ". t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa human or animal esp. kp f I. slip. or small ". meditation..~. • ---------- am~ulatory An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church.ery sym met rica I ataoot t}. p~Pyury dt t if you I t r t f !tHe arches anJ ~ ana corresponding to the 5f3U Petween the V"3U ttir.. one beneath the main floor of.'. Also. ur Acfrcub.-.3S crucified.:~ ."--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church.e center.-. usually part of the chanul lapyrinth ------ 1 ret roc hair A separate division behind the cholror high altar of a I3rge church.. ~7r~.ent5 blIW onto Its surface or by Iuvlr~ V..\ cha high 2tbr The main altar of a church. i y -..... :---.. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle.----~~~.-------7 i A crucrfb: symbolizlr14 the cross on which Christ . church.. esp.----. Also. usu311y of stained 913ss . ~ . -..-------. -----.~ ~.i chancel The space al10ut the a!tar of a church for the clergy and choir.lted ~ trn.-chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of thefounders or of persons named by them .ct'~.------....

COLOR .. ,
A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.
spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors
produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

pale
Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

~rllli.ant

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

~;:-~;\,"

'r.~;:~t,'

.~f':

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

II

11

I
~-

.... hue
One of the three dimensions of color. the
property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

.J

.:IeepJ
Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

j s.aturation
I

al

cop

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

I
f •

I

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

y gin ori
I
r~

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

,"---.
. :.

the

r~color

,LJ
~.

I

ligh~!S

~

ur

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

se

f' . "j
,:,~~ . . ~~::~

cha

l

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

'. 1

The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

J
I

kp

boo

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

if you

Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

nee

~eJ~rption -:.

dt

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

his

11-.
C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

~.t·t{'?1

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved
color.

U

brightness
The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

yellow

transmitted..
~uVtractlve color

U

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing
The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L
L
J

38

COLOR
color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.
, \ .. r:Jlow _ -__ • / yellow-green'

L
L
I

f

w.rm
D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

yeHow-O~3f1ge

,.~

--- / - - -----.- ---------

~~~m~;~~co!ors. as red. yellow. and
plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color ---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••
_'1

A color. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

cool •. _._j

f

_

Des~natlng 3 GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or Violet.

L

advancing color • __ . ____ . __ .. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an Illusion of space. rece.dingcplor •. _.. __ ._ ... __ •. _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.
/~-----

comptementarycolor
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

al se the ori gin ur cha kp his boo dt nee if you
---~

cop
------~

y
/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .. _._. ___ .-'- ___ .___ .______ ._______ 1on a color whee!.
coler scheme
An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole. , - - - - - - -.... triad A combination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

r 'plit compleme~ry
: J. combination of onecolor and the pair of colors adJolnlng Its complementary calor on i \ ... __ • ______ • __________ • ____________ • _....l acolor wheel.

Lr

l

doul7lecompiementary
A comPlnatloo of two 3nalogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color

wheel.

~-Ir

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moncchroma~

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,

tint •.... _ •••. - - .•.. ". "'" ... - ... --~ A relatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

: Having only one coler or exhlPltlng varying ___ ._._ .. _ ..... __ .. _____ .. __ .__ .___.. _____ J Intensities and values of a single hue.

i polychromrt.lc
r

Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle
A triangular dl~l4Im developed by Faber 6 n-en to describe the relationship between 3 pure h~. white. 3nd PUck, which comblM to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prlrrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutlc pair of white and blacK. shade A rela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to It.

tone
An Intermediate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

L

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic
Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. plac!:. or gray.

39

COLUMN
A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural

memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends. pillar
An upright, relatively slender sh3ft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a buildIng support Or standing alone as a monument. post - ..... - .... ----- ............ . A stlff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlmberframlng.
I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslonallnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnw induced;y the action of acompressive 1ouJ. Bucknng can occur well before the yield stress of U1e material Is reached. l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes unst4ble.

cop gin
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y al the ori

Under; buct/ing Io~d. " cdumn C31lIICt gent:riiU the Int:enul forces ~ to
resto~ Its orlgln3llJr-.ar conJitIon. My

a-ushlng5tres5:f~=P/A

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kp

ur

cha

_____________ L__

I,. /

J, ifu rc.rt.Io n The critical point at which a column, carrying Its critical ~cl:llng load, may elther!?uckle or remaIn undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rium.

;ddltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In k.ntifll Most columns In p7ctJa art: ~ to both com~ and be:nJirI§ due to rnt;tIon in T1I3terlaI propcrtIe5.lnitJiII Cl'OIXtdr.zs In f3brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJon. ThIs benJln§ qfterr C3~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln the critlC3/ budJlng to.1.

i~

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se
.

r·:······ .............. critic.al !nJckllng load

r"-· critical Duckling stress
"-.l"

.

dt

........;-.'":':.~

nee

his

,,:

The critical budllng load for a column divIded by the area of Its cross section.
..... '~:.:.::::...- f3ct()rofsafay

@IA

"-

..........

.... -.
"""-"""--

you

I

~----------+----+-- ~Iende~~ ratSo The ratio of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. . •.••.••....• A thlcl: column su~ to failure Py crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The higher the sJenJemess mto. the Iowa-Is : F;illuN: occurs when the direct stress the crltJcilf5tres5 th;t 1+111 C3use INckllng. A • from <lit axial load exceeds the prlT1mj' objective In'the design of; cdumn 15 to compressive strength of the material redua Its slenJerne5s mto by minimizing Its ml!;it,.!e In the cross section. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the r;dlus of eccentnc load, however, can produce gyr7t1on of Its cross 5tCtIOfl. kndl~ and result In an uneven stress dlstrlMlon In the section.

i j

if

L. ... almbie buctfing stres::s:~?/7,~??JJ;~~~;~-~-;;-~-::L.
L 1f7\---.......... ~
, I

:

--------~

The maxImum axlalloul th"t cart theorttlcalfy~app~toa column without causing It to buckle. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerseiy proportional t<> the 5qU3 re of Its effective length, ana directly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I and to the rncment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon . Also C3lled Euler ~ &cW.

boo

b

• {f;; r =y 1/A

radiu5cfgyrmon The radial dls14nce from any axis to a point <It which the mass oh ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of lnertla of the body abcM th<lt axis. For a structural section, the raaJus of gyratlon Is equal to the 5qU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment of Inertia and the are4.

!-.............. --....................... ..
intermedlau cclumn
A column havIng a mode of failure between that of a short co/umn and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushing and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

long column f. slender column subject to failure by
buckHng rather than Py crushing.

-.~

The higher the I1tilus of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jetennlnlng the cro5s-sectlon41sil;pe M" column, the objective 15 to provide the ~ry rUlus ~

gyr;tIon about tM dfffermt iIXes. For ;n _.. . ...... 35}mmetrlC31 cross sa;t.Jon, buclJlng w:11 Cend

to occur ;bout the ~ ;l1s or In the
dlrutlon ~ the 1e35t dimension.

40

J

!

.. A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer.~ .g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1. equal to the product of the load and tr. ori Irtflectlon points In. ! 1 } L i ... : t I ··"'·ir= ..... .5 p~)( ..• _.l ~I: '--t- ! ..d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4. y .. i' / . the~~coIumnfJl1s.! .-T... 1/ cop .. / ..7 .. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section..---. ~ k = 0. !..emPer to reduce Its effective Iength......0 P&14 /1 I' effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr...J 1 \ I ·1 f fixed fixed if you ~ I I J pinned fixtJ l I I i k=O..octlo.~---. - i ... _ ..( : ' : / / . ~nston\l.. gin ---.. \ 9---+ \I ~./ kern point of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area...~....ll'''' '"Y ho". column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14. enas I I I I I I I I I I laurall7racing _ _.1e section.mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e) ~ : : • [~- I . __ .. t Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis . i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ . ___ .~ rr. Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h.~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ . ~ coml1i~c:l5tresses ~ -I I p·delta effect __ . : I .13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane... '. Also called kern area. 1·_·1 ~.../ : ..- ..emPer dtfl.:'''tr.I. acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum.The effective kmgth of a column detennir. If) / his -l nee III 1-' I 1 I c:i dt " -oJ . ___ I'· The uraclng of a column or other compression rr. t.: C boo kp c -l C\i II ur \ \ \ \ \ \ \ cha se the ~. .. unl1racea length The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length 41 .0 4- l=2.cides.. __ .... 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column al 1• i effectlye ~gth r--@-. "~ The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of . _ ~ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~. i 1 k=I. ____ .I ri COLUMN [~ eccentricity axis- = = ~ ..:f J......: of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section.ectlon at any point... II II I I /1 11 11 rot.The dlstance dlamaet' / 4 re-t~n ~ .---.es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load.

.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of thi TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced content of trlcalclum alumInate.04 In.e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for. sb ~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement. ..rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt. sHlca R. or oil silicate.e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate. as In y the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i T~1I1: or long. A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of ..1 to 1. ou n eed ~.• • .. produces a hydraulic cement. 't~~~...d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar./s""IfWI'JtopowJer m' ~. ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift one: quarter of ~ volume of ~ nd cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging . Ahydraulic cement /I13de f.. .. h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt.. . Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es.les of the other types.. 1 r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r..~.lumffUt..... or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time ase J"glcwnuOic& •. & ."" port/3nd cement.e~t~ : ~.atiystrength ori I retaining walls.. ......~-" -. 5hz/e.. as fly ash.AiL . England. earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd..--. a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred.... . IlLm \II G it.1 .vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~.. tYF11y 0._ . t....empmtiJres.. Intentionally ~ In a concrete or ... • • J... mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS. . _ .. (0..-.il1 constructlon where reslstanr.l rch ?:~~::' ~.•..a-----. an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius.at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In. . ! TyPe II: moQerrt.a .rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr.. and tile grout..4 to 0.llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat. as Type IA.he construction of massive ~ structures...f-: ..ed Py the entrained air Microscopic. C/lnkerlsgroundlnto ....lW mixture jlnto cemerrt dlnket-.. clinker Qlcine Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal. To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r. -----1 hydraulic cement j i f ~ . A very-flnely ground portland cement n...-.. Ii · t. the l hlghe. Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to air-entraining pcrtl. L<_ ..~I~T!ral. •.. TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having...CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which.nln:g ag. .nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate.. named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll. -« . ---? .....0 mrrT) In ~metcr.... ..e.\:.1 Aportland cemelTt used for general construction. 1 . Le..a.e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging. ... It A. A calcJne. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate. makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer...-.. . that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement.. Also. as gl?ilty dams. ....ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef. ¥JJlronore.. catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-..." blended. . the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo. gin ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr. oyster-sheDs. . pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material.._. cop tnc. stur... .co.. pcnuol3 na..~ ook tricJlcium . when calclnea and ftnely pulverized. named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland. ' mortar mix ~ an.lcium sirute ---.:' suffix A.eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide.. j . ~ eo.\. . siliceous Containing sillc..1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme. .'/.. . e . S3IIJ. where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging. 5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement II13'trIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli. lessening the need for gypsum. pozzoIona.. rea..x>rtland pu -.uired for protection al Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f. ! ! i . if y I?>wmzUrl.ma t.3 sollcHuel furnace. causing It to cure mter and gain strength from low t. clay.or Type lilA.... e. " :.. ~ . ... II 0 A... The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly forco~ M i i portland cement ------~ TyPe I: narm./ ~ ~ne. ~~.--."..• ___ .......0Q.-._.i' white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw . -.~ .. r I~ 4l r ." .he h.. fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of.::.. ._ .. .ly a reac'tlon with water.tM\ g3ln in s~th of the U'II1erIt.9 Q It 0 .o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction... Type IIA.

'r'r"3ter. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. - dt his boo I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete structur41lllghtweigltt concrete expankd shale A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or shale. . 200 (74~ sieve.e 0.• . (6. The maximum size of coarse aggrC9ate In reinforced concrete Is IImtted by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars . vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light.-·.(JlfJllf1I~d. . as expanded sn31e or slate. tc produu lightweight Insulatln9 gin al cop uniform grading .8 mm) sieve. . W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e. and salts. weight. as sand and gravel. of mixing water requlred for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~.... lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength.400 Ko/ m3).. concrete.. and fire· reslsta nce of the hardened cone rete. dimensionally stable. wormlike threads. 43 .'t}§O •• ~'* A_. -- AggrC9ate having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading.4 (4..• . (9. o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water to ~ concrete mix. ur cha kp o retarder An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete. and be predominantly retained on a No. . srlt. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation. and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar agg~ate graded aggregate . . superpla stlclur.mortar mix to alter tts properties or tr. minerai materials. gravel. and fru of clay. mortar. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated. o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control tts color. I r r if which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. mortar.. particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material. fix. the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other aaattivesin eM mix. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. Also called expanded clay. added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. . spherical particles. particle-size distribution In which aggregate partlcles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes.1 . made with lightweight aggregate.840 k~1 m3) and compressive nee strength comparable to that of normal expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate.Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl ConcrC"'"~ Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggr"e43te.':~_... exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y. its properties are Important to the strength..~"!~I . Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tna 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals.. and In larger amcu~~5. Also ca lied perlite A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight. Also. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In.( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. (6.5 mm) sieve. Also called surfactant.. admixture Any suvstance other than cement. ~ mixing W4ter The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix. Agg~te shoukI ~ hard.3 r mix. o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount I insu13tin9 concrete lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductlvtty. or aggrC9ate. added to a concre'".4 mm): speclf. or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure. usee! as non structural lightweight aggregate and 3S loose·ftll thermal Insulation. or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings.: the ori Any of various hard.362 to 1. '~.(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In. as perlite..c_JL&~. conc~ you m. y o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workabiltty.ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr. Also ea ileJ addrtlve. or plaste:' r. cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting.: . almost entirely through a No. thereby facllitatil1~ the wettl"9 and penetratlng actlc" of the wate. • « •. Inert.ose of the hardened product. 4 (4.4 mm): sptclf. or plaster ~i.8 mm) sieve. expressed etther as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening.. concrete. o~ se acceleratcr An admixture that h3stens the sectlng and strength development of • concrete. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids ana surround the particles.-rx. pearlite. having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1.

. The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed I I lJ ur cha A mc-... "...• : :... A cynnder of concrete 6 In. cop The relative a!7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow.with sr....::. and 50 kg In COIl ntrles using the metric system..-.... ~ : water air The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix.3% expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix..... dura l7illty. ~ mpre"lon test A test for ~lnlng the compressive s~ of aco~ "atch.y 4 g3/1on5 of W3ter per 53ck of cement ori gin o -------~-~--~I IJ 5 6 7 i ~Iump~~ .....rqu.water content The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix.. with given concrete /n4teri3ts.... Conslsttncy depends Ia rgely on the 11 I al y proportion of~nt pasteto." . Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that. _.. usually measu red Uy the2!l!!TI p~~ for cone re:U and ITy the~ .. An open·~nJncated cone of mm}hlgh.•.. and ~te to p~concrete or mortar r-. and W'~htness.:.. In the ..cement ccfTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf cement NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty... a Va5"tiameter Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content 3nd runny consisten0'.•..ln Inches.. comp~ and finished. duralnllty.. :...1 workability the sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117... 112 117. _ . .. --. . ..."..... and the cone Is lifted._--.. ~. placed In fOr1T1W9rk.....:.. _..lgg~ate In a mix.. e •• " fine aggregate • 25% -.. and watertightness.. his /plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is readily mokled.~".~ ..... water.........::( ..- se slump concrete or mortar can Pc: handle4... ..... preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as adecimal fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117.. ....~metal..t2J=:( In 203 mm) and mm}.. (~mm) high. JIj:!..21%··-.. __ ....... to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test.:. _---. :. (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In.. usually ~ means of acore drill_ 1F~~-+------~~~~7-ccrete't j ... cast from a representative batch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cona. : : : J . .5117.: ...10 Canada.. The watercement railieantrots the strength... using a hyd. 16% . Wori::al7ihty depends partly on the water· 6 kp cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix. Also C4!1ed stHf mix. 87..fpr i.O'~·'. and testlng conditions.30% concrete... ..~r m~E.: .hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~ mea$lJ~ tke slump of a test speclmell.. expressed 35 the vertical setthng... Ij 51%-5/% I Jj consis~rn... curing. v nee dt if you dry mix A concrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and h3v1ng little or no slump..ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~.. A compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure.' : . tamped In a prescrll7ed manner..1tlons... strength.. 1 .... wet mix 51umpcone -_ .:.. yIeld1~ a product that Is low In strength... and watertightness of hardened . boo A measure of the conslstency and wori::al7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete.. sack of cement..[ water-ce~entratio 7% -15%·· .. preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix. Iso cal~J \139..te:st ..tCONCRETi! mix~lgn The n10St economlcalselecUon and proportIOning of cement. W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (.<: ~:'.t:~~l!X48ritaln. -A.. used a top diameter 4 In.y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In Chlca~..:. u5tcyUnder -. :. preferably 1% -.:. durability.... concrete or mortar mix.. of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone...

...' . bolsur .. varety of slotted d.-----.A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a his flying form Alar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne.IrIous lI1..wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:.. -.: ~ ... Any of... ~ . "'_" boo f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_ kp ITt3M ofccm~.. Also called metT1rer ~ has~..... '~' . Arty of Y... lift ~. COI'.spreader . ...d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng. ! i to al - cha form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift.-. . or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr.---....-. Sonawbe .. I "'....trongmk Avertlc31 support for aligning and relnfon:. -.. ~ snaptie i A form tie having notches or crimps which i: II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the y I' concrete surface after stripping of the forms.:::~~!1· . 'I ... . 45 .. -..~.terlJls..-. '-" -'-. ori Aform tie ha... -... A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place timper. Also called spacer. leaving a neatly finished depr"essloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed... ~ ~.~~~~" .t one tlme. .preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce...ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the ur "~ ~~=~1~......-'" -. and hardware.uo. .--L __ .serted through the form and threaded ontotheenasofan inner rod.ing various vertical members.-.. A brau..... A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r..! : :.. .. as In formwori: or she--<>t piling.CONCRETE form Uner --.. for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart.. . ---"'Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form....-... -.. 'K. -.: TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form • _______ • _____ •• __ . A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng.... _. .. form work The kmpor./A • se r:::~~~~~~-I~'~.....-.. . waler. if you conc~beamorsb!7....1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the . Also called partlni awnpound.eyw"3'f ------. A \o11g ltucin.:.."?. steel. -... used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings.11 ~roove or chan nel fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather '.....~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood.-'.. -. slipform •.... bulkhead ------....lng wales... re~$eagent form . the water rods are remcved while th~ Inner rod remains In the concrek. usually of wooJ. -..1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which altow it to also serve as a I:._ • _____ . II spreader.' • ". -... -.. resln'lmpregna~d paper. The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form . as ollar sillcoot.... cop : i II ~I ru~tian 1====r=t1. fa..~ :'--": -.. i Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --. clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee. or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng. sped.1I forms.. ran9er... .. or . -'.3. . _ . \ s~r-resistlng conc~ key for newly placed yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete... After stripping. -.--..ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete.l::nent.-- -. nee high ciuir > . proMlng a stlffitack.rs in a concrete beam or slab.. pi3st1c.. ' the A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member. \7raclng. -. Ii .. Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members. Also called In-east Boarding or sheeting of wood.•.-' !. '. concrete sur-fJu. • cfuir dt ~I A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete.. ~ II "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which Ji i I plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w..: form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly pi3ced concrete... __ are ir.... meta I.ePott strip gin : i ' . : . /" concrete rt a constructloo Joint.lr..

for mixIng cement.: ~ !. I . agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site.. ill I! f':~ . 46 . .. ... I ori II ! the GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement. cop . ~....~ ::.. free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute.: .~ ::'''''. vibration ----.. Concrete partially mfxea at a lr. ---... 9 ... 4 0" qf·:0 ... aggregate.d air within newfy placed concrete and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~. Also calleJ waUr' g. . drop chuu: .. •. oVenYon:lng of the mix.j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator.. Also called ~st-fn-sltu I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr... . concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum..$ piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden.. :: ~_~.. or crane l1ucl:et.1>':110. and water. I ."'* transit-mixed concrete Concrete dry !latched at .-..-" .. ---. or Improper flnishln1..~ •• 1'1 -..~'. :... Also called shotcrete.. : I ~'-:':: 0 ~~ : . truck mixer.. '0 -.\. •• "'l. .• 0.~. .. . .. etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying...4 ~ • ~ 0 -4'.. ~. 415 freshly mixed concrete. or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site.. •••0 .~ if y ou n t ~ ~:. ..4.. • 5tr._~'.~.. An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed ~ L L I concrete.. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '.. "4 Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I .. resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix.. . vi~rator Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete. 4' 'padi~ ~ .~ tn... 'l ... ~. --. A· • .: 4::·~· 4 -i.~ Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod.. slurry...Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site.-'!r'" "--:J '-II ..------.: '~ : "'S... -..l~·t·~ :./ time of haul The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a. ook chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y pu rch nose t1 ase . . . ! " . '...._ ..:: •• 0.. .1ln. shrink-mixed concrete . .-----. -. or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed. • transportlng heavy materials..lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~...:r 1" •• \:~--!.-~ . ~'. . ~ a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site.ed.. J Ccncrete &eposItcd. :/1..--. •~"t. ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water. pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached...~ • eed thi sb ~ravity...A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass. sa nd or crushed slag. buggy A cart. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure...ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top..::'i~3detIke tool.o. ~ ~..:.Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and i I ... .°.. L I laitance A milky depOSit containing cement . .. .1 'V'"Q • • 0 . for snort distances at a construction site. often motor-drIven. ~ 0t1 • ilL 1:1 b. for y pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete. often motor-driven. consolwt1on The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne.ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site...C:ONCRETE ~st-jn-pbce concrete .. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement. and water to produce gin al direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer. <l :.lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete. 4.'.. concr'eU.. concrete.·:/1". cured. fonr... -. stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te .. -. '.... ~uggy.

as during the setting and curing of a concrete ml)(..--.. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/.c:::~. -.arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \. mortar. ~pa!ling » lI To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement..a fresh concrete surface .. . smoothing. al appJ:t!ng. dry-shake finish A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement.'kl\ii) ill.. l~~'-':{'.:. concrete.-. ... when the concrete surface refleGts the texture.CONCRETE finl..~--- dar+J A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing . and cop trowel -----. ur . ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~. joints.:l:dl'"I ..:':..i.·iil'i'i' "I'. p13s:er. stucco.W.. ----. compact.-.. or stucco surfau with a wood fl. castlng... mortar.:' architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials.---. ~etting hydration The process In whk.a slllc.. and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir.--.-. ''-I...:t. as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water. .1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD. and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float... ..---.3l/ng..Pf...lmmedlately after screealng.-~'~1 - - crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage.ll:" t i l "':.. . exposed agg~ finish y if you nee dt ~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.... .atlon of de'.----. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening. 1 1. smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel. his &et ~.----------------. or toothed face..atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon. I £JDDDDCJO- ! i Vvlas on a formed concrete surface.: A port.. 47 .at ~-----. honeycom17 The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge..aw A whe.aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on vert1c41 shaft to smooth.' :11. flat blade attached to a long handle. l7ullflo. overlappi~ matlon. proom finish --.---------------- A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab. screed ----------------------------.-....i.. serrated... placing. _____ ----\ .-. Also called 5(. .... --- trowdfinlsh· --------Adense.--------------. rotary power saw eqUipped with.--Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir. . --------.-.-. forming.el-mounted. "-' . p\asw..at A float havll1{1 a large. :. .. c III:i:j! . ------------ ---------------------. or glue due to a cure ---------.j'I. Of' caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy insufficient consolidation. shrink3ge A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set.. or smoothing plaStlc material. and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce.:}:.. . ana fasteners of a !?oard form.'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: ".___ ~:%O'o"/. . ' :':T::I..-.. L_. ----------.. -----------. or plaster caused by a loss of moisture... Spreadl"9. won:lng."'3". jl. mortar. j 1 II'" "I : :11·illlll:I·!!..h a substance combines chemlGally with water. drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete.. float finish ..:'.~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set... pl3ster.:~.-..hlng The process of leveling. or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate. ' . hut of hydr.>. as concrete...... --.!!i l::: 'i ..--..-A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level.lITPf.g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated.-..1te about a • ..... finish Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface with a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated. peten brut Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed.. ". A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete.. A deccr3tlve flnlsh produced ry sand!:T!astlng.---.q 3 fresh CO!1crete. esp. ---. or plaster surface._. bu~hhammered gin .---.-0 . --. Arry of v... _ cha se kp the radlalarm5 that rot. etching with an acid... The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk. sand.'1 . and ~ boo p7f'ement .e surface. compacting. l:[. flc..on-carbiJe or diamond !n. ori powertrowd ~ . I.'~&±.cI"9 salts.j"\"'I. caused by hydration of the cement paste. 5GreeJ . -.1I':'I':I.' il·ill:I!::::!.~~>~.-.

.--. life..-.----.enttalltles of real esta~ esp...xt's f'/--c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent. _________________ . -. skilled. Iendil19 institution T~ institution. : I : contracts wfth a general contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon project.ma~ent.!I general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage ana supervIse a construction project. I I . from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng. I) ~Ion project. --. . :.. I L. JI L I speculnwe ~ui1kr I turn-leey Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy..--------------------1 I : .ni:. 48 ..-. --.--~ . Architect ana Subcontractor Subcontractor Subcontractor I ~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : I ____________________ for suPsequent S31e or lease. The art. for a y ! construction manager A person ororganlut\ol1 that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect.. as acoustics or IIghtlng. .----.--. .--.. award. I ~~ projectsfaroWMership. .t architect Aperson who engages In the profession of architecture. gin al cop ~-tefm fI~I~. or e!e. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons set forth In a contract are fulfllled. Iii T I : I I r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM I I I r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : p~Ject..-. providing the I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~ t pot.Il5~thearchlt. registered. '---t lib co ntracto r A person ororganlutlon that ! Insurance The Insurl~ of property.J ______________________ I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to I . the ori II I ur cha n I se 1 kp \ boo dt \ \ )' \~~U~ --~-- I \ U his / you ~ t I nee b if design-l1uiIJ I I I I I r I _________ IL _________ .----. Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design constnJGt a ~lldIng or project.-. I . professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of various ~ranches of engineering. ! H Aperson traIned. I j: 1 Inves~ In and develops the I I contractor Aperson or arga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials H and perform the wort for a construction project at a speclfled time and rate.J1e.ctrlcal engineerIng.. -1 ownu A person orarg:anlutlon twlr. Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors. -. or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved.CONSTRUCTION ofbu~ai~.. r--------:. usually a ccmll"erclal !1. science.J 10 or res.-~---..---...g the ~al right or title to a piece of ~ ~. as structural mechanIcal.------ Iicen5ea L~allycerUflecl bya governmental or other constItuted authority to engage In a !rosIness or professIon...J.. and construction phases of the project. -. usually trained and experienced in the desIgn and construction of vulldlngs. l . Also. or l1usiness - ~---------. or e~ineer ~ .

. se the ori technical or other advIsaDllity of a proposed construction project...... the relative significance of each event...----_....1 contract for a specH'ied sum.. between ~ or more parties to do or not to do something specified.._. ""-" ........ you buildi"9 offICial A person designated Uy a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster ancl enforce the provisions of a building code.1swility study ur cha ....•.... A written communication Issued Uy an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establ1shlng the date of commencement of the work..........••.....) Of or pertaining to project scheduling In if l7uilding permit A written author!zatlan to p..........ll his perform the wan: described In ......../ ~I CPM Critical Path Method....lssued Uy the local._----........ ...l To construct boy the raising... fe..... --....... which the design and construction phases : : : : J I I Ar-------::---""'T I _ _ _ _ _ _ _---' ' : COnstructlonphase4U .. combining all relevant Information Into a flow chart.....-. government agency havlngJurisdlGtion after p!..~....CONSTRUCTION The process of pUilding..-oceeJ wtth construction of a building project In accordance with approved clr... Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities.. top out To Install the highest structural member In .J I: Construction phase 2 6c=---------.. j ... p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical. +..... ... ~ .•.. assembly. usually In written form.. scheduling.. and finishing operations... from site preparation through erection. certificate ofoccupanq A c:Iocument Issued Uy a j.............. Also called staging...J 49 .. a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall ...... .. fittlng together........ .e compt:Utlve process of offering boo tv ccntnct A ~ally enforuable agtUment. kp notice to procee...ulldl~ official certffylng that all or a designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding co~......... Design ~ Q ~ ~ ~ fast-track ..:ns have been flied and reviewed.......•...... . I I Construction phase 1 0 I'--________. ofa~ltdlngprojectoverlaptocompre5s the total time required for completion. Occupancy· ... and fastening of materials or parts. j . positioning.. .-. functional and I1ehavlonl aspects of a completed l7ultdlng In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for tuwre programming and design activities............ ~ falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is not yet capable of supporting ttseff.i> .... dt L~I nee award A fOnTl3l auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS. I I I L.• -~ .. gin I I al conalJCf'...... and permltUng occupancy for Its designated ~. and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________.... :.......lwlngs and speciflcatlons.......ea to determine theflnanclal.. scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building..... a method for punnIng. and managing a project.•••.•..... A detailed InvestIgAtion and analysis I~I erect cop y i1iddin9 l"l...

. work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract.(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered.lct.\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material.-Arty In a ~ of standard1zea. 5y-s-U~ nee . . quality of execution of the . t proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products.am~ construction. conditions of the contr3ct.I documents comprising a construction contr. L • I. contract documents The Ieq...entrne. used as $\. frequently \nt.. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect. modifications. wnen cured.5ed-5kin pand -----~~:::::. 3M united into J whole. Cornbtl~ the dimensions of a structure and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents. trade. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl. ~Y.atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products.... Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref._. {)(YisJon 14 modularcooraiutiYn _. and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included.r:. --.il~ components used In ass. roof. Oivision 1 Otl'f51on2 OIrlslon 3 OIrlsJon4 OirlsJotl5 Oirlslon G Olvlslon 7 OIrislOf'l~ lj I y facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers. cein"40 or roof...lncludlng the ownercontractor agreement.l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng.=:-.. . reference ~pecification A specification that refers to a st<lndard spectfic. or function.. Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc. assemlkd.:iwich p~ . panel Ii ! I .IbJect to ~.mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent.. esp. orvarie module --. then tilting them up Into their flnal position. A pref. ----.r~n Doors & Windows Finishes kp Otl'f51on9 Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes ".Llb co~ion A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In . 'peciflCaticn. r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand. standards.. .ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection.. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding. / Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent.erchange.. i cop ccnc.... Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ uniform ~y~um Afo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. " ....n cha b I se ~U:Se. construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth In detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project. systems.ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor. Also called Industrialized Puitding..ysttm.tff~ size.mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St .. or processes without prOVision for substitution. . The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls./ Req.n. ana ana L . wall..1s Wooa' & P135tJcs ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:.. -.beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses. tilt-up construction A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete --wall panels on site In a horizontal position. and const<uction cost acccuntlng. ..uirement5 ~ 1j i gin al ~ ~ry ori 1i the Met. . . ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness-toweight ratio. ! l~ 50 .t ground b-ef and. lift-.. ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module. c:f~rjptlve 'pe-cification ~ I A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct qU3ntltles quahtles of rroterlals to be how they are to De asseml>led fumlshed In a construction.-.. prefal1ricm fabricate r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and usually standardized parts.. are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks. ---. --- .. flllng of technical data and product literature. if you {)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf Otrislon 16 Bec-tnc41 perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results.d loads.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute memw I.e:n~ untts of. or WAil Dendlng. U D/rI5lon 11 Oil'f5ion 12 D/risJon 13 EqUipment Furnishings dt his 5ped31 ConstroctJon Ccrweyfn.... ... The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of 1. ur modul.. boo f'lwr.-. Including all addenda. orfunalon. -. Gene.oor... . I: j I ana we. L f I . . Also called Masterionnat. 3S fr.

~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI).lnc.l . . comuustible construction Any construction th3t aoes not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan. .. V41rUllCe unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts.. type of co nstrllCt 100.ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s.emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety. -.thorlt~S.1 AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction./ ~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design.by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance. his AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In cha se ~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-.~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan.. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. - Of or pertaln~ to a material. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls. r~ecoven.~. r. as an agreement.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities.nt A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It.. r \ 51 . the ori unpl'Otected ordinary construction gin al cop y I ~. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). hea~ .. and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M). .wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities. unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and ) .. protected noncombustIble CONSTRUCT.. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US. Also called mill construction.. and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons.rl and western us. constructlon. ener~code 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use. 00. . 1992.d Ordlnarj' construction h.-~ t. .lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons. kp A lrull.:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and ur An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones.. protected ordinary construction -'" ....wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er. as pari.. specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts.nd welfare. and walls. . . and tr. J:Id use of Dulkllng s.nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31. l?ul.. Also called zonln§ co.1 ! An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt. ~ and enforced by a local go.rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped ..'ltel1ent. ~ BOCA N. type and Intended occupancy. or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code. professlona I socletSes.. esp. estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and reqt. Interior Pearlng walls. they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction..ab!ed. noncmrfONR~ I light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon..closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts.:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers. if you zoning ordinance nee dt . protected light wood frame \ construction . Also called construction cl3ss. ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~. and used primarily In the ~heastern u.--~ Ordln2rj' construction h.U. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials.nd decking of specified minimum sizes.s.alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~.'. ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame..: . 2S to restrict the height..lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable.In t&ecentr. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act boo f l-I -r the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs. r ) no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'. : ' nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states._ . Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of prlmrt.~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au. construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities. : . floors and cellin~s. and the prorisIcn of... roofs.

cofors. often resuftinq in a new Identity. ~ solely on dt an Intellectual and affective content --+X • • his if ~----..h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass.g a meaning and used In puce of a word or .··:... color or form.er of jointing that mJtes the united parts cIQr. and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other. ':1~0::j~{.. and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume.. @ \ . ... ·_ ........... shape suggests an outnne w..DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art . '-'.h appear to gin :.... esp..ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion... . 5ulrtractive ~ . ~ cha AIso.. apart from its... !textiirt " ... y -----/-+ [!] ~[RJ syntPo... . apart from Its color or form. or uniting.. flgu:-t h3v!r.. . resemPbnce...' ..~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects..--:. surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values.. distinct.. and relatlonshlp to one another. . .. boo kp Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which i~j~ ur ~ . The edge or wntdllr of a shape.-" . ... -..' . . Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having nee their Intrinsic lines.... part or portion without destroying . .J Characterized or produced by addtUOn.. resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals.. Characterized or produced by remmi cf....'GJ">.... \ ....:' / f~~~~~~:~ "'---. -.. '?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·'''''''·''''''''''''' ~--------------------~ se !~.a nds for or represents sornethlr...~~naI.. " ~. . ~nvenUof13! \ ~~f!1f::d you A unified compostlon of two-dimensional w~ht. ·· . . t addi1::i~e I A metf1CJOflhanr.~-'t-_ _ _ _ ----JI I... ··.. and Pul. ~~~ al cop The....I fOriit-i The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or materl3l . artJcubtio n shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes.#Iine /' \ L_'~_-->..pparent texture of... dcnsfty... tactile '\uallty of a surface... resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry.. The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of a surface.shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure.~rg. accumulation."~\~'\I '~..g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon.. ~se of the whole. or ~n.. . cc-. --..-. i tactile texture .... '''~\~:%~~~:\l'. I' ~~~~ I Something th3t st. While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole. '7 visual ttXture . ....> ~! the ori Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic.. derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs. one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of 7. 52 ... The visual and esp... ...

o VI proper proportion or relation 50 as t. cha s!up~. if you pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design. . the ----------------------~ j tature ori i . esp.:..'lrlly represent3tlol13l.a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze. of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr. that outlines.:g3.J form a unified whole. ~rranqement.3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a compcsition 50 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e.fr~t e Jlrrang n~ parts Or eIe me'lts fr.S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole. 'L_____ _ ___________ _ 53 . . I I -\ a' the parts..II al cop ~I y . cne h<lYing . or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole. or cl3rtftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole.11 • Th~a-. orga~~tiorJ 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~ ~i An InaiV1dual. A drawl~.~DESIGN form: The manner of arm-. nee dt his diagr. f4l>Mc .ent. nat neceS5. eXf-'ins. and prcportlons se The c~ractaistlc structure given to . I( III l1li •• II • gin " ".~rBrl.I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit.. represented b] a dlagram. boo kp ur . structure < 01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design. minute. COrn' .wm : .iffikJn of e~ments or p3-.

. __ -------. [>f _ ... Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi..grated to afford comprehension cr arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness I recognition. cha se campJexity . essential pa rt...astheorJerl~ofelements In an Ii I[ 'caherent lc. II.U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms. ~e. pleasing.!. unity' The state or quanty of Peing combined into one.!S. A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept. concept. brder ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious. al gin ~- ur The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted.. order.. I! -/. or dlrectlon.... . often causing anxiety or excttement.. inoNIy' 0 §DDODD ODD DOD ~ 1 0 ~ I!14Jor idea. U I kmrchy l to importance or s~nlf\canu.e'mof eiements r..-=-::.. 1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye.:.. or relatIOn proximity '. acwrdin~ U i if l~~:~i opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and proGuce a more dynamic expres5iveness..ity.-=·-=.. cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed.. P ~ P J ! I A~Ion from the normal or expected form. or Interconnected prts.". ~======~ r rl~lR ··m II kp r-------. corresponJlng posltlons from an \ntervenlngspaceor<*ject. r~ L I I· ~ I ~ A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon.. Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM. ...stopermtt ·. I I ! I . .~-/~ ~. .. t comparlsonorcontnst. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its purpose.. or satlent feature ofa narrative or 'nt DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD ~QnUrpolnt .lntricate.' I u I Ne3rT1es~ln place.~... or lc. 11[.n of Delng placed close ~r()('s~byskk. homogeneeu ' ~~~::l ~~~~~====~I I \ : I I tJ I cop y canUnuity . ~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5.: 1---~... -.. .. ~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n. ju$~ ~>/ I I..e.. ~====~==~~====~==~~I========~ .. or regular. The state or poSm.alient Prominent or conspicuous.. wo.. . -... as a nne.. turmony The orderly. elasslf. L. ori ~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety....d. or arrangement. .. A syst.. ""' . order..~":'=d his nee .= .:Jically Inwngruous.~ DOD DDD DDD The stateOrquanty of being Identical. . or eha rae terlsties. 'j 1I~_..--' '<t " >'..~ to a stialqht nne.~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or lnU..: .. Inconsistent.... ' ' . and organfud one 3DOYt: another... : . :. caJlage the boo The stJte or 'l.". • I 54 ! r .0 L.. anomaly. ~ . The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi....= . or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an arUstle wno Ie...: : : := _-=... or coonterpolnt. ai~~ U Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged. L of effect.-.lnKea.so. ... you ~ ~~~ I~= : =. hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS. dt Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast. .... types.

'-I y 55 .i50h~metryi. are referred for pu rch I ase the U L+J-. A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a ~ure. or composltlon Is elements In <I compositlon symmetrical..tC:::5E=n:~lliJlllllU~-liabnce '1 Pa. ~cc~~-$ ACO..I )PESIGN-' . or o li o .:.. '--I tI "-. body.-.::S:~~! ori .:.--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar.d.-.r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~. i. j if y :-/ ou n eed i thi sb ook i . gin '~ilf The au ·_-----_·_--t ~~!/j The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_ ~k:>r-3 which rr.:.Jn~lanclng weIght -I orfw~ "'-I I L.y. An e<lUJI distribution of weig.lstlng ~~. ~ contr.ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe It ts di recu.. I -I 11 A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance ~~ri4m Itc=:. cop concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events... equipoise .~~ ..s cr opposing forces. -----. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn or composItIon_ fcxus. radiatIng parts a~ut a center point or central axis. rdJUonshlp." al ¥~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual successive stJges..-.. measurement or symmetry.

' .3... uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ~...lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ ' .. . II certain prof'OftIonate size.. The unending sequence of numbers where the first two terms are 1and 1.. eurythml Ha rmony of proportlOif fro~.........c:ntor space.... -_\'t_-. I 1 .. visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze. or mOvement.. -. ".618 to 1..hich form an arithmetic progression.... quantity.. LJ 1J I A B degree....... 1.---------.....--. .--=-':Io." 3/ 5. oraegree. extent. In which the ratio of the smaller to the I.. 5/ 8. and each succeeding term Is the sum of the... .\---?'<::- eed thi 1tutIu" ~ale sb ook St3ndard or point of reference. 8. ...- .._e... . Also called ~cd ~uance........ 2.-. . ~.mm~lately preceding.----~.. I harmonCC~' ~.... 2.. VI..0 mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement.r\ . Also c...1Ut respea to In'gnltuae. V2. - 56 I r- . 21...~....I The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third Fibonacci se~ . PE$I~N : . two l... The COlny...L ....000..... 5. -. '1.. AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne. : %=9 \ ~ 1...lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0. divideJ Py tile fOIl rth. pu rch ~Ie '...ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human . 3..---~--------- '" if y ou n The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r.. ~ harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of ". 1..proportlca.. or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole ". 8113 . 13. or an article of flnlture. golden~llj I I ! j A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression. proper. rel. j I ... ... or ase the ori gin al B cop y _ ....

· · ... ....' tendons.....) ~"..< presence and movement ana the size.ns.." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom." ... ffunctioM&imell5ion ".~ if you h:mdlc3ppd fl .. Also called ~uman engCnurin4.atlon of nerve endl~s in muscles.. mlt The correspondence II""··. or mo. 11 . Also called~! distance. . sha pe...Also.J ~.~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re."''' .·-. jVa~ Of or ~ini~ to spaces.·.". .. --.. Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch. or permission to approach.i.! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 I and In~al sltuat."etrent k. i territoriality The pat tern of ~havior associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or domain r . · . ----. f: !I:'J .rp~~ . ~ : a. The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody.. enter..'~'" f .. It Ra~ropoll10.· ! j f' ······1· a~r~~I11~ I l . .r.f To 3sc'rlbil humin furm orcharacterlstics to nonhuman things or I1elngs.fDESJGN I l ~gonomiG5 r ~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO. _ ! cop " y t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position. 35 reach.!J~.1ved chiefly from stlmu/.. or clea ranu.softhe tiuman body a nd It 5 p-art5.----.. nee his boo P~r. i' \: .-.a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL kp ~.. ana Jolnts.:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely.'. t olfutory' ReI....-. and facntt:es fully accessiple and usap!e by all ~1e. or use.-.i~~i?'~ i: " '~ f j /~V .. ~~ia..1nclud1~ the physically dt "{~. alld how the n3ture and kgru of this sp3ttal arrangement relJtes toenvlronrnental and cultural factors. stride.. ·····.J.. > ------" pe~11315pace ~ The vatia!7le and su~lectlve dlstance at which OM person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her. /~~ r I ]r. Ptllk:Il~s.- 57 . petween the sensory experk:nce of podily al ori the se cha ur '~. f gin !. k1na~$lai i presence. I I I Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the cha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an.-' .. -..-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement.....~esi5. and proportion of a space.. ~)13ptJc i .. : r..

fJ~tifying .--:_ _ _ _ _--.. or qu.1 DESIGN . . testing.f • The reason for which something exists or Is done.ading or directed to a partlcu~rc:ti PfO~S . r •. .) ~in~ € The pattern of change. .. econorny . as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations.._.. ~! fo chooSe from a numl?er of a~matlves ~ fitness or preference. I CO"""~ .rio.~ inflectio n ' boo To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means of a definite pbn or procedure. IteraUv~ process comprising the following phases. or Interchange Ideas.{y(ng structure through a series of alscw~ permutatlons and manlpulatlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity Of' ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria. ' -? I '. J~meniFY. or used. character. ". Ina way that Is clearly ana readily understood. A'iT..-. 5~parattng iph.rasu!1jtct a system or process to such condItions or operations as will lead to a critical evaluatlon of a!71 lit!e 5 or p~rform3nce subsequent acceptance or rejection. expand.. . or exists.i ..._ ~refut.. . A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into applications of existing Ideas or prinCiples..'Ilng a prol7lem.: I. growth. y Astandard. often dlve~ pa rts • or elements so as to form a single or t whole. ~. or pleasure.oi T'lie mental lIPility to perceive distinctions.... ~igll" /. f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more flne or precise...U5t Arty feature that provides or l!). esp.':".. function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is designed.-J3-'-tlO-'n--":::"~:l:. . or teaching..canvey.lltyof..~~ .. or action. or ~ lli:e by writing.:i traMformatlcn-' The process Oftha~glng In form or nee if you ~l&iitJon Slmulztlng. L L L L L @@ L L L L dt se gin fo asceruln or assess the slgnlflcance. and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources.1. ···········-···········t~#············~:··~'···-·-··-.h~ls J Comulnirig of separate. ~nd mod./ al ..tharttte.. in problem . cop ~ ~ / _'\ . used. I l...rnfitu~ represent3tlon. and physical ~xt. ~ .. An . or ~~yn..:. .. .-----~. CI'iterU. and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project.---. or construction of something. J refine. •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or }~~"lfor so. To expre5S. . lr--n.orslmilarchange:n the shape of" configuration.' jmoclc~up: AfuH-s!ziJ model of a Uulkllng or structure.. as a statement~ forth the context.. socia/' economic..~. A~nd.. or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other constru~ contrivefoform In an artistic or Ingenious manner.--.. fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth ln~ antlclpa~ for testln~ and evaluatbn.. or otherwise determlnea bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions made. II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le._ . L develop. ~ judgment ~ : .~~. f"OPO''' The off~ of II pia n for consideration. ~ model : . usuarly by careful appraisal and study.esp. to show the appearance ~~n' .Creases comfort. 58 L .sI1lp to some context or condItion Is lodlcate.. /~~.. J dmltll... esp...Also..nJ Its. or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end. buJlt accurately to scale for study....... testing. kp n o ur g cha ~ .. comprehend relationships.ss~~. coof. or realIZe the : capaPtlJttes or posslp!litles of so 3S to ~rlng 1 gradually to a fuller or more adva ncea or effective state. convenience. made. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols.:.J conditions.· ~ deve~ . worth. f 0 conulve. / . given. . ~ meons of which a changeofrelatJor. requirements. t~rifty.tnodifyl the ~icwttd 3n impIem~ solution In use ~ tk-specifieJ gozls and ori ~! fochange the form.: To wolt but. speaking. ~P~~I\ ! feeduack his .angle. EVaIu3tlve Information auout an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for a~ratlon or correction.-. a future preferrea state.'e..:::~:::~::M~OO' des~n project wtthln a specified tlme.--". Jesfgn f~'·. ~purpo~ .Ie. . analysis of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements... or distinguish alternatlves. ~[gJ elnt~: concept.i$e. th~ cycncal..... .. Infonnatloll..ina i . or prinCIple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ue ~ased. acceptance. usua ny ~ullt to scale..

eatlve processes.V. esp... The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring.... :..\ / / / .. or Interpretations. f5~~. proia. dt Rri~neJP~ A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar. .. .. : . . .'- .. or characteristic anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ.. as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals.~: The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality. plans. A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr. . a-nltogy ( . to pe developed In detail In later studies.~ IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031 .~. '.rtfuple... or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas... of 2Ctlon. ...A.._. I tBDJ]w w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference. o }. ana characteristically removed from re4nty. des~n conceyt r 1 ~ ~a... ! fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns are summoned. qUJl1ty. ""'_' _______ \ \ IJ ~~ •.. ~tf.:' r . I Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea. An un. 0 ) o-----~) ~ .n \ --.~ ! explaining. forms..acUvtty. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or nee Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr.s. _ .••• -~Q/...e creation of something. his T =~ c ~ /lY'~ .1cter. Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance. or distinction. asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded.'l . Aconcept for tl1eform.c-tu3r~nu or application of principles.. 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or cha .~r)'. structure. esp..a. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-.. or ~~ The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be. 4-.' '" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S mind. ~~pt ~~~} ~~~ 10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a ~rtk:ular fom... understanding.. tnJth.8 h~~ some fmn of o~tlve ~Irty outside of the ~~Inthesolutlonofa' \. asd1stll19ulshed from theory.:t yro~.. To rorintmental plctvre of a. esp...l4~" . playful. I boo I ! : ~hl~. -. ~ e LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng ~renJiFity ~klent.wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p. ". resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence. _ ~ . or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness ~rWeen y ~~ I . or predicting phenorr~.>stance.. .. -.---~Efl------..irtlcuur Instance.. or thinking In orderiy.. future possibility... am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation... ~pnctU . sul. and Independent ros~... A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be.. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5 Hlusory.dd~. • '-._ . you -~I char. j he~: al gin --'~(_-l.. . '. 1'e<11 . represented graphically Py diagrams.' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai.. ! I 59 .. vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something.::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern or structure for a des41n.iDESIGN . an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances./ irrt. ·-····-·-····· .. A fortUitous circumstance. An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr. -e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \ I crutivity . ~ ~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group ~ t model ' An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr.1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts. Jlld.. >>A rr. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a% or principles used in analyzing. -.e . them.-••• - \ I . _. The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas. ~. ~ph!J. arc~-·····--·-·-···· . .origiral~i The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner. patterns. ap~~ ur ~vfn9 ot>~e. qU3!ity.. " To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu.... .r. or amngement.~i .. mentallnventC1s that are whimsical.. The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char.~.-." cop ori the se M object.en61 representation of / sorr. i .. kp ..l'ltlonJl way..~_ .:.. --.._ . r r t f' if fI I • A nu..n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased..er construction.lCterls1lc. ve.ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5. To a'ir~theefforts or attention of... or other drawings. ' procedure.. \.: irrt3~in3ticn : The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell' --.

---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome structure.eridIonai forces... ...l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles..Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon .g the acme surface Into. compressive underfull vertical loadIng..er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~.---. ... ---... In 3 concrete dome.e~~io~~~ng the rr. so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns. hoop forc.. -...----...._~ .. and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation..DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of.e .... 5chwedler dome A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude... geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr...aldome A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn¥d In 3 raalalll". I rings at various heights...ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop . rr..-' forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load conditJons. whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome./ roo .. . and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles. hoop nne I . always kp ---4-J::':"'---. radl.. .. Hoop forces..~ .. gin ~ucerdcme al cop 11 11 11 great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere..Ir+- if you nee dt his boo ! . A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae. -... 60 ori y ... perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces...-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a hemlsp~re.ema Iloaa... ! .. 3rt compressive In the upper / zone ana ~sife In the lower zone. A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure..---""'. spnere../ .. ..: ur i the l7ase of il acme tc ...."" .. ~ttiudome . t. -..(").cent. thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell se the Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~..lI'ftlIItS... meridianal force ~ .IT" ! conb!n the outward components of cha .. A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface. - meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface.

:./ . 3S nlc he...... A strap. ---------- .. ring. orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together..{ A dlrc~iaropenlng.... '..lunette i .. one at the crown of -I : : r·-tb. It.-.... Whispering gallei'y\ rch ~) the ori ase ... \ pe~tttive dome ~ ... Asuperstructure crownIng a roof or dome havln~ open or windowed walls to let In light semiaome. y cop ~ pendentive ~ '\ }-1~3rne 1 " A dormer window In a roof or spire... cupou A light structure on a dome or roof. .... al ~'L ~Ulrn.... ~ oculu't a dome. -_ . as around the springing of a aome._ .. An arch or cOrl:>eltng pullt across the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octa~onal structure.:--.. Or belvedere...rt~) .lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola.1 J. ··~·--llrrterdome .1antern. H3ff a dome formed by a vertical sectIon. . --: --_. O'IU an apse or A semldome or'quarter. space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or vault In which low sounds produced at any of certain poInts are clearly audIble at certaIn other dIstant pu \L.age . .. as (Ner a semicIrcular apse..~cl andalr. A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure.DOME :... .sphere vault... A spherical dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentIves anel sits on " square pLon.. ~ gin . or sculpture. cul-de-four . serving 35 a l:>elfry. band... . \ I if y 'l ou n eed l thi sb ook ~l i . An area In the pLone of a wall framed by an arch or vault. paintIng.. The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome. 61 . /.-----------------------. containIn~ a wIndow... esp..

-:.LiI.~::s I I I that permit It to I swing In one direction only.. _ _ _ . wall. pivoteQ door AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot.. ur 1. DDD .. r-----Y---~.~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~ ---~.J.'''- ~ . / Y the foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when ~ se . ~ i overhead door A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves.revolving door An entr3nce aoar for excluding dr.... j_ .. -~ wIng One of the leaves of a double or revolving door. .. A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe.. the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer I~af pl. ~l or glass for opening .. -~ .~i:. -.g:~~~i~. / . Also called standing leaf.... . allU)m.. jill ir j A folding door that divides Into two parts... double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position..{l exclude drafts.: :. electric eye.Ine door pivot. ..erir.. hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter.. opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng.. or smoke. r ..IJ.... ~ ~. . sliding.. ... DOD DDD DOD Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold Pack In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied.. . room. A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile...' his i I I boo r I 51iJin9 door A door ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on. tnGt.../ !i ... ../ / / :.-../ \ . usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door.. double doors I.I../ / . .. astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light. I.rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ ." \. cha ...JJJj.' "' ' ...lr of double doors..I... or c... mullion A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p. J : . ...1binet.-.s from the Interior of a i7ullding.J i kp A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding b3ck In the manner of an accordion...' ~' .... ! . sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••.DOOR A hinged...oted ~t the jamb....Ilancea for easier opening and \ . door opener A mech3nism that automatically opens a door .pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal.. Inactive leaf The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f.' :'. . air curtain A stream ofcompresseJ air dlrec~ downward across" doorway so as ~ form a shield t.-_-U. nolse.- / . ":'-""-Ieaf 1! I A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter.. Also called openIng leaf. .._ . asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.. ~ ucordlon door ori -r+--"'i'~'-'-"" - l:rifolddoor gin al cop y ./ ..nd closing an tntranu to a building.. usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to. providing a'legal passageway on roth sides of... or other device. sw~ing door A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled... 62 ... .. sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door. - c1051 rtg...... / .. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertical pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:. ..jjii. or folding Darner of wooa. .. . l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT". ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe. active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached.. II ( I i . it-'-"Tl I : : I I dt I I I ('f"'-"'" : 'I I if you I 1: I : ~ nee I 1 I I I I __ .oft.

. ~---+-+-. Also calW transom.. Also called door \1ud.: <j "l- doorframe..':1 pmb Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway. r 1 711 do<xway.::.' . . allowing the door to swing free of the door frame.. nor prepared to receive hardware..oorH'3y. (51rnm) of door thickness. ·. casing ________ . AlSo callej '::1 stop :..... ~: the fau of the loci: stile. i i I A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame. tr~n50m Il~ht..--. usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In. cop al gin ori cha y '-~- j r ~~~?i.I i I • •1 63 .head :0. .c~--:-7::::7:~ DOOR doorframe Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y. esconson. as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\... rough puck. buc~ blankpmb Adoorjamb having no stops.."..-----.i/19 A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'! opening. ':1 doorstop..:1. doorles.. ' .. The finished.~ . '. _--- \~_t~~ ::' .~-..g weather protection at an exterior door.u. ·. splay 5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall. pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me.cased opening ':J..----. - th~hold The sill of a o....---. ua"~m ----------.~~~.----------- r .::=.. (32 mm) for each 2 In. • ~ \ A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another.. -··· .--. rauueteJ stop I.. I· t· I ----.i ">. The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes...-. I " .\.. ~e:=~~·I·~I~~~. to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding when oper... ' . . Also.. 1 r:·~·:~~~~~y ... -..-.K.~j r-"--"".---. -.::! wfnglight reYe411 ------------------.-. --· Maml . the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s.1 ' -=U'=== Veneti3n door A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window. -. scunch~n I~ .. if I A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it... doorway. .. '~------------~.-c-~-7:'. Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay. subca.J I r uan~cmwindow -----.-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway. esp. sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening.~.~. ~~\. ·· . se r r I ! --'------------ur kp dt the doorcle4r311U ------.. often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng. -. '. Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window... --- The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame.::1 The uppermost mem~erof a doorframe or wi ndow frame.--. covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr..fanlight Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window. or window opening.---.___ L __ <."---..s opening finished with trlmworl:. --...ed.·~··· . .-. __ . -- ~kleli9ht A window at the side of a door or another Window. The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II --.-.~-----W~------------------ . Also calle.saddle . Either of the two sidepieces of a .-. rough opening ---------.~-' doorjamb . ~ --------_ ."~-4 I :':: '. you nee sectlan of woodwori: directly above a his boo .' \./ . __ . consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted.1 .. __ .

l:: :nesh to ... as in a system of panenng..lfts.lils that hold a wire or pI3S'.-. or a ches~ vf drawers. ase ori L gin ccmpi~n door An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea. Also. f.~g.1.y of various:: ?right memDers fr. ook l. or door. usua!1y glazed.11 outer or supplemeir'. muting stile ~_J stiles In.-----.. or I Li al cop y severe we3tr. window The uppermost r3il connectJng the stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It..ming panels. ~ --. IocIcrail ---------------------------.' . pair of dou Die doors.s and diagonal Dracing.. Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_ louver --------~ An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl.h Inlla' 1113 teriJt . ico. door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~.----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow sa$lt. a pane!ed door.stile Ar. Ii j. a paneb:l door.t ~~ or dlvlskln of a wall c. filled with panels of a .e of the opening. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl".ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr.""'~=". ana ~ lI1untlns. french door A door having rectangular gl3ss pares extenang throughout its length. storm door . L .DOOR paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes. _ _ _ _ _ // . gl1:7 door.. louvered door A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air. L D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass. Iuminum sU!es ana r.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisce.l~'-3 i u vision light Asmallli.. for protecting an erTtr.-=-==d locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar. rails..-niL>te when cbsed.• p3nel A distinc.. L i L 64 ... Also. I.er.itter.. of a doo..elll~. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits.3'j door..=.------The . Jip door A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat. --. recessed r3a ::~~c~~~~~~~:_~ Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels.onn sash for winter..aht In the upper portlon cf... Or~ of the a!nJtt. and often hung In pairs. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude in~s. window sash.-' IU L below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame.. fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy. driving /din. Alsccalltd hangIng stile.5 In a system of paneling. louvre.. used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_ Dutchaoor A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately..that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~ i1ottom rail -------------.'lnting. pu rch o thi sb ou n eed if y the screen door A.lnce :XNr from dr. --D i Also callea shlltting stile. hi"¥stile The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or .tun door A door const~. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st.

65 'i . acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening if you . aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses..es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware .::! sides. A protect!ve lining. \""" A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance. core Awooden construction.J. p13stlc 13mll13te. or medium density overlay. reinforced wtth channels. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om.a'l~ pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !.lang ~ boo Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with ~ ~ . ~:m:t:HS1~.anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door. _.:. cha se the ori cop ur hollowmetalfr. ~r.:f frame i anchor Ar.. i I aM casl~ ~m. -- flush door A door havl~ smooth-surfaced faces.rase of a doorframe to the f.. cro5s(. . Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer. stop. The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface. as In a daor. at the !1a~ of a doorfrarT1(:. prehung docr Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure.krIockdownfume A met3! doorirame composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe .we!de..1 c:Ioorfr.' nee ~ dt his kp k3~mein door hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame. cutQff :.DOOR 1 I l i _.y of var'. partlck: Doard..ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal. cor-e. docrskin Asurface veneer of plywood.. Also. sanitary drywall frame A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall partition Is finished.. bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door. usually of stainless scul.-' gin t.... s :netal devices for orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher.____ _ A ma... or a minerai composition..llne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan. !lpat ~ . Alsacalled hospital stop. galvanized sheet metal. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core..dfnme A met31 doorfralT1e th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory. forming a lIacklng for face veneers.-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line a 45° or 90° angle. y flu5hfraIM r----L. groute. throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe. al backbend/. ~sketed ~ . hardboard. : ! t i. double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS..oor. sclkJ-ccre door Awood flush door having a solid core of staved lum!1er. hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips... crossl1and.t' an.

~5h. small spots.express a~. process.1ow.ttching ShadIng composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes. esp. body th3t expresses an Idea. . without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.DRAWING The art. low-key H3Vlng en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface. grisaille MonoehrolT'. the ou n sluding The r:ndering of light and dark V4lluesln ~ dr. or movement ase The effect or Illusion of moUon conveyed by the rel3tlonshlp of structural elements in a (I.. gesture drawing The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume.{' \. y gin al reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or. . 01' give the effect of color. or short strol: es. ~k visible In '. technique A method or procedure for accompllshlng a deslrea aim or tas~.-"".~~~:.. ~~~ng Shadlng by means of a netwon: of random. A1r'CI'e:m. centour The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng ~es of II three-dlmenslonal form.oss. or solidity on a two· dlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading.. high-key Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr.~~-deslgn or composition.'?s distinguished from sha ai~ or eolor:\ ~-------lZ-' \ ~ - I .3 tic painting in shades of gray to produce 3 three·dlmenslonal effect. "g~ ?t~=F==i~a:5. represent light arJ s-ha. image freehana drawing The art. L . stippling . In contrast to contour drawing. 66 . profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side.gnrrent. .=. f\j ure 01' object.ttching eed if y h. or " c:motlon. A representation of the form or : appearance of something. Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs am.ent. or technique of drawing ~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices. \- outline A line describing the outer bounaary of'a..:.n In close proxlmlty. for the representatlon of perceptions or the vlsualiz3tlon of Ideas. or dr3wing. continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~ surface with a pencil. as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls.Ice. or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject... F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG "'f'o.. key The dominant tonal value of a drawing or palntlng. Sh3dlng by means of dots. had. cop ori ook thi sb pu rch trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Il'asurerr. movement. arm. process. ph~raph.::::::::. f. rn. Pe:'!.'::. depth.-. mu/tJdlrectlonallines. or brush. '. SC3le. or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface. ••~ sculpture.::::.~ of the b na. gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the pa rts.:'. modeling The technique of rendering the illUSion of volume. opinion. I I I Il ~ DRAWING _. or proportlon. centour drawing The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject. scene.J~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality.st.(' line A thin.

r:sp..6 ~~ -'1 )?)~ 'I /? :P / V' passage An area. t I ' ~'.. or color that deflnes shape or form In general outhne rather than In detail.ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils. ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr. often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study. Any of the drawings made to aid In the visualization. es-quis5e A s. +. conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist.'. epure AflJrt-SQIe.ents./Ah_ vignette A drawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper 50 as to leave no definite line at the border. • J . the cartoon ori gin al mass A unlf'.toInsferred In preparation f.oI ~rl3Is. to ~ :.~ /' /~ 1. with respect to Its qualities of executlcn. Of made to record ol7servatlons.Oic.\:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan. draft A prelimlna!).( y $I:} r.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'.. ~~~~~~~ '\\ ~ ~~~. esp. sway r A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise. analyti~ue ".ed area of l'9ht. shade.orother~sumce.DRAWING design drawing . surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of Important details and some1:imes a pia nor section of the facade. one subject to revision. shades 3nJ shJdows: usua Ify done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and Of'" ur r I renderi~ Adnwing. a pers~ive. of a building cha se A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n. M~ ?fE. ort3~try.1wing. 67 . lI1OS.. esp. section.-.x a fresco. tfom~roeil A drawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile a-j spatial qU3rtt ies An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade. or detail of a work. productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:. from which are ~ the pattans forvarlous Dulldlng elar. s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n. fbao. and evaluation of a concept In the design process. . ~U3S\ort I rI r L if you nee dt his boo kp I • intu\ol" space. exploration. cop . . ~ drawing done Of1a wall.

ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point. Also called muhanlcaf drawing. 68 .. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt. wori:fng I ori A Im*en nne conslstlng of relatIVely long segments separated by SIn!J1e dashes or dots. plan. or dots. scales. engineer. closely spaced strokes. Also C311ed COfTt. and along which measurements are $Galea and Indicated. Indicating the extent or mag nltude of a part or the whole. 17re3kline A I1roi:en line conSisting of relatIVely long segmentsJoined by short zigzag strokes. snort sl3shes. esp. ---------1==3====i=r--t---t-:tt=IT--If¥=--ir--t"ff9· dotUd line ----------1H+-tr1+==---~l---{ Hf--~ A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of 11i:z'i\::nmb1~mt~~mt0~~c:. to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view. or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the state: wMre the work Is to ~ perfonTltJ. leader A short line leading the r. crowfoot A V-shaped mark. sometimes used In place of a dashed line. - .lccatlon. triangles.. ! if exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI"!J from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~. nne. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition.J~ closefy spaced Oots. used esp. tUshed line AIn-oken nne conslstl~ of short. ~I An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a licensed architect. kp ( you nee dt his boo /~~ ~-'. y co". used to cut off a portion of a drawing..iwi"4 s . L. ana o grid A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating and re1uiJtlng the elements of a o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject.. dlmenslon5.truction drawings The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn. unUrline 'l I gin the ur cha se al cop dr.DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares. . to which a dlmenslon hne Is drawn.nct drawings. '. dime~lon line j A flne terminated l1y arrows. sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. or area.the apex of which Is a reference point. for the compasses.

3r to a plctu re pl...·.ontc~I~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~ rocfpL1n A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng.Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys. contours. topographic pun or The d!ffmnu I.. and other soflds of a l:tulldl~ that are cut !n a floor pl3n or section drawlng. -" gin ori if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the " al poche The walls.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left.and orientation of a l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on a site. and conu. Also calleJ plan view. _ _ ~'~.:il1y shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls. DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry projection The process or technique of representlng a thru-dlmenslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh"t nnes... lnd1caw. typlc.. 1- ApI. or Its rep~rrt.lon remOr'ea. . columns. 1 69 .. gradi~ p~n A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ finish con tours and emtlon s cf the groo nd surface of a conWuctlon sI~ cop ~iU pL1n ~I ~dplaa ----~ -. '~'_ _ '.Jolnlng points of equal eM tIon 00 a s.ontcurline --------~---: An 1~lnary h~. ~a!e y A plan showing the form. or entlre floor of a uuilding as sun from above after a horlzootal section ls Clft and the upper port. mmi~pUn A pUn showing the pattern. The tl1rory of Mlng project1ons of threedlmtrl. map.ct1ons of die: structur. plJn -. to a picture plane.lr or roof of ~ bulldlng. windows.ztlon 011. elements. uSU311y 111Gludlng tl1e dImensions. graphicecale --------~ 1 ! Agraduated hnear Uar Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a represetlt3tlon and that which It represents . AI50 called plot plan. usually drawn to scale. either parallel or converging..!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1d1cul..3ne.: An orthographic projection of the top or section of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane. I r 1 ~ '"' I !"I 11===fF -< - ~j~1 ". and doors. !andSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot. _ .bce. c. orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a threedimet1slonal '*.. n of a room as seen from aw.. " . the form of Its roof..re hit hZffng its celhllf Sijrf3ces and elements proj«ted dowr. I I I I floor ptan A plan of 3 rOOm. esp.ch contour /1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or ~p. c. A proportlol1 determining the relationship of 3 represen"tatlCn to that ~lch It represents.. I __I area plJn A plan showing the principal elements of a design project In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~ent. suite.ll frame for a fu. Also C31bI ~ cef1l~ plln. _ _'l.J USl!311y In ulack or by hatching. e!MtIon represented by l e... Also called orthogonal proJection.locatlon .~- " Xi ----'-~1in9 '-. usl~ a system of symrols and drafting nnewon. narth arrow A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the direction of north.

would a~r In white tlght.hogr#phlc projection Of an object or dt SC3~ his struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of Its sides.erse section... t~.lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration. crt3tlng Illusion of three dimensions. surface. boo e:b7tWn .s it \.. _.. The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject . y U Lj 70 ! I: . form.. The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~U~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light 5O\IrGe.. usually drawn to The casting and rendering of shades ... 5Q~ It Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of... I It usually drawn to L.. at right angles to the ~ axis of an object.. lu Ii i . In orthogr3phlc views.I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon Is to be viewea. to conv~ li9ht...Ind shadows... esp........ An ort.11 cclor cop nee \... ~ opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object... used to IndIcate where ... if you shadow AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from a theoretical light source. S<':ction An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely. _.. esp.I DRAWING &tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure ...e se the ori shade _ ..... and depth.l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject. Also " III section line) Acerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow. shades ana shaaows kp \g)~ ur cha \00 relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast. cros. cai1ea mns. gin al r-·IcC..

in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion . r r r J perspective. 3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.1line drawi~ Arry ofv. exploded new A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_ opli'tue projection A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect.lMne draw'. c3Pinet drawing A paranne dra . used to represent a property IIne."ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to ook c~~ pu rch f- An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'. Also calW ~naed if y ou n eed thi dispby tM ~ior. having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale.atlonships to each other and to the whole. :~:f an oblique proJection. 71 . 1 r tn!1S~renttv permlt gin al reprtSelTt~ of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew. cop ph.~ cf an Isometric prdp:. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M.!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes ..ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings .1r. sb A dr.":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa.r p. view.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane. • ~ntPJrt. and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j.. haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n cavalier drawing A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection.en ase the trimetric projection ori An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two.l~ or .hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1..311 converging ~ In linear r1 il DRAWING .~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots. oPliqLle A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc.1xonometrlc projecticn The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal axes are foreshortened.l.e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le.1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made y dimetric projection isametric is-ometrk: projection An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI.. A par..r.tlon. phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr.ls.e scale.1. h1vi~4 . h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale.

. nee you I if ~ ground line Ahorizontallfne represent1~ the I~fon of tne ground pbne and the pIcture pl3ne In linear perspect~tl.. _.. dt his perspectlve. ~I perspective vertlc~llocn:lon A~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance by muting the hue.. size perspective ..nt objects higher In the picture pl3ne than otjects ~ed .ar perspective.....n.picture pl4ne j I I ur cha se ! An Imaginary transparent p13ne. Also called "'&alinl!! ....Xhnlque for representln~ depth or dlstance by emphastzlng the contlnulty of tne contour of a shape perceived as l:Ieln~ In front and conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It. _.vanishing point A p?lnt toward which nudlng parallel lines appear tcconve:rge In llnedr perspectlve.. usually the ~ane .a1 of space.' _____ '- - 1-... perptlndlcular to the picture 72 .. .d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture pl3nt: by straight lines converging at an ~rlly flxed point represerTtl ng the eye of the viewer.•.lr perspective wfthout the appearance of dIstortion. deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the untral axis of vlslon. on whk. Also called atmospheric A ~hnlque for representlng depth or dlstance !rt placing dist. perspectlve.ct Is projected.......rious ~hnlques for representlng t. - .as being closer. ~hnlque for representlng depth or dist. . -----+ ..1xf~ of vf~ion The si9htl1ne lnalcatlM4 the dIrection In which the viewer Is Iookl~ In linear pl3~e. contlnuity of pictorialspau ~ rn.h the lm3ge of a three-dimensional o!7je..DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2. tone. boo A flxt. sprtUl edge An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r.. ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as recedJng from the plcture·pl3ne.--! n-r~~·~ -: I I It perspective.. unterofvision ~ .. X ----->-- continuity of outline A f... arty fine or plane colnck:ltnt with the picture p13nec3n ~ drawn to exact scale..... ~ I al i P kp point .. ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve. ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which 3 three· cop y the dlrnenslonalobject Is rep~nte. In Nnear perspective.. i...ru-Jlmenslonal objects and ~tl31 rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau as they might appear to the eye... .. denneatea by a thlder fine or by a sharp COf1trast In value or texture. as aer!at perspective......ance by reducing the size of objects perulved as receding from the picture pl3ne. . ~'btion gin ori r .. .. supporting the object deplcU:d or on which the viewer stands. coexlsttnt wft:h the drawing surface. The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means.ground pl~ne Ahorizontal pl3ne of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve. central.d point III spuc representlng a sing ~ eye of the viewer In nnea r horizon line A nne representlng the intersection of the picture p13ne and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective.al~tIc~ .•. ' ... ... A point rtpresentlngthe Inte~ of the centl'2l axis of vision and the plcture pbne In hne..... linear perspective A mathematical system for representlng three·dlmenslonal oDjects and spatial relationships on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau loy means of perspective projectlon... Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by gradU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore plane.. The cone of vision serves as a guide In tktermlnlng ~t ~n ~ drawn In hne.. _ o". 1ac3 teJ at the point where 3 slghtllne parallel tcthe set of fines Intersects the picture plane.

' which can Pc used to take ..ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr.o.. so that vertlc3lllnes parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l. -. r diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point. I 1 1 .1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge.l ... his boo kp horizon line ur cha graphiC Of or relating to pictorial representation.• foreshortening wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane. . that which depfcts In a clear and effective 1T13nnu. IlOrI3dpcen't angl.~." . and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r .. -...'W mirror.c. 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right.. horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal.'1 I t. diJg<'naf •..-.-.- --~-..--. ---.-horizon line one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect ..0 the picture pl3M.lonate parts or multiplying" '.. . to canverge at the center of vision. -... usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth... . / or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane. y lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique . --. so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir. ~-------1 Pmllel lines p.. ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space.~~ horizon /in~. A straight line connectlng two . V3n~hlng trace . conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space.. as the ground line.es of a rectangle. parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points.urlng line .--... characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!. Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not mea.~! if you nee fd.. used .-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective..~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne..u-allel t<J the picturt pl.. isocephalic cop ori gin al se the a n.· "I ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines reude..--.- I j .. .nlshlng polrtt 3S they P"rallellines perpenJicul... DRAWING towara "cammon v...uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive.. '----'\ pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t. dt me3...' Par. 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into . propor.. 50 th3t vertical nn~ ~phalor f I l. "'If Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also..~rs~~.1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision. measurements In "nea.3 morpho...----... esp.~ points..lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line. peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene.. distance pOint. three-point ptr5pectlve A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M.d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine.. . View 3t" shallow angle from this point 73 .

esp. AI:1Vr.. kilowatt A tIf1itofpower..1nce ~ .r·· ... positive.. Also called spec. voltage ...: Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current Is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current.: C potential / (..__ .-. you In an atternatln§ current circuit.11 + -.. . electromotive force The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical.: A Ohm's law ..ermll14lofaprimaryCeHor n storage Pattery...tric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constai1t curren't of one ampere. equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance.... se the j ori f. ADPr. expressed In watts. when the power dissipated Petween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt... y ..It ~s 3S5UI1JeJ th3ta JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI oil positive point ~ a nee dt circuit per unit time. Symbol: 0 if am~e from neg3tiY~ r. usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes In an electrolyte. electric wrge The IntrinsW...... _ ... The basic 51 unit of electric current. Also called specific conductance... generator.al area...rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy... APlir.. Ii I I I two or more cells connected together to produce electric current. equal to 1..rrangementofcomponents 1n..000 watts....... or other form of energy llIto electrical energy.... mechanical. Abk. t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patenU31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere. ... the power required to o~ an electrical device or appliance. A~.l The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"eI1t Itt J direct·current circuit...ow: curnnt parallel •... including the source of electric series •... volt The $I unIt of potential difference and e1ecWmotlve force.. cop resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stance with aunit cross·sectlon. t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across 3 woauctor loy a current of one ampere In one second..: kWh 74 .::~~~~n~eaaa:~~:~e point.. An amount of power.l5 fuDy ~. ana the cosine of the p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage....... .. y ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the aulfltyof a sul>st. eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ Vy a CutT'e11t of 0IIe ampere flowing across a potential ctfferenu of one volt.. AI:1!?r....... The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance...../ f'otenU31 difference or electromotive force expressed In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow.. the effectlve Cll!'Tent... " ... property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1..ance to conduct electric current...:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng... wrtt The 51 unit 0{ po-""er..... I =VIR amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow. / w= VxA his power . '.....:R ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance.... / . defined as the dlfferenu of M. power 15 eqUJI to t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage..ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existena and interaction of electric charges... An .. In a conversion device as a ba ttery. ApPr..: W ~e neg3tlve one.. An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/1 negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor. ~j I t_ _ _ i--_ _ _o-__ --<)O--'~-~-_f 1111.. gin I al !.. ·..... ~:~~atlvet. current •.. ~··-··---······l \ 1-'" ...an~.. Abk V The complete path of an electric U I current.. Also called electric cell. More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w. or motor.. measured In amperes... leW I P lei !ow. t:quivalent to a flow of one coulom~ per second or to the steady currelTt produced \:1y one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm. storage Pattery. ThIs convention Is 5tlf1 used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn. galvanic cen. ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a boo ---r- kp ur cha resist. Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges repel each oU1er....::::~'~""' ::::~:ves a nun metallic medium. or vIce versa. J :":::~:::":::.: emf •. j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current.. circuit energy.. voltaic cell. . ~~~:Ive terminal of a primary celf or L .... ~agt!iof cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy. causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into heat and usually measure4ln ohms. the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component.easured in couloml:1s.... potential difference The voltage difference l:1etween two poInts that represents the wort Involvea In the transfer of a unit charge from one pollTt to theo'ther.. equal to the energy transferred or expenkd \:1y one kilowatt In one hour: acommon unit of electric power GOnSIJmptlon.... phenomena... I ' I electrolyte A nonmetallic conducting medium In which coulomp The 51 unit of electric charge. '. occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative algebraic ~ns and rr....... ..i& reslst.

. ..ELECTRICITY ¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J.--------------------l rI5wft(. A mass of Iron or other ferrous materIal In an electromagnet. . cop voltage. serving to transform high line drop The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine... I l I I ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or gen era t. __ .ecessary for controlling. metering... L _ L _J whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core.: DC electric motor _ _ _ _ _ _---'j~ A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy. The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a r--------------------l : .. or / transmitting high voltage. ~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection ..:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line.-=. powered by. ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 : dlrectly to the outside air.J }--.....: VA l I ·······r L---------_________J r- I : An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more J .. - I : . ____ ~.. -t-. A meter for rne. alttrtutor A generator for producing alternating current.. I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. _ .epped up or down.. 5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary..: AC 3 I I ----._. Abbr.....____ .or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a boo kp entranuconductor _.:-_------:!. 5ervice CO nd uctor Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building.. _ ur cha -I r.~' I vott-ampere I r------------------.... uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply..rteral The un. usually cause.. metering Instruments.----. as from DC to AC.. step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary.. 5el"lice drop bulkllng. .-.. Al:rbr. -. I I I I I lI=*====::c unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch. coil _________ .?r. gas..~ The portlon of 3 servu conducr. fuses. as water. measured at the point of use.:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--. bulkllng.. Also called swiUhgear.. f~der ~l"Ilce equipment i standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage.... _. se line volt.. --. _-.. Also c:J11ed emergency generator.l. : I -1 L ___________________ : I ---------------~- if you i rr-=-=::::----=--- nee r 'tIf<iItt-hour meter -. __ -::. senlng to transform low voltage to high gin ori the --..hg~r room ! tr.. and SWitchgear for a num!lu of electric circuits. __ .==--. a stq1-down transformer... or where voltage Is s"'.. having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner.. 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current In a surrounding coil..1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne... " I arl113ture ----_. 5e"".. dt his buikflng..------.~·~~-----------J . ""1...l ... _ . ~ ~ ~. ~ulred or demanded by the pu~\c. ___ 1_ . l k..-1 __1 . Induction co!1. step-up transformer ill y high-voltage Operated on..transformer I I Aunit of electric measurement. ._ .. wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit. ______ .. __ :=:-=-=::. Abbr. The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a .. time only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly. ~rviu l. •... and ~~Ity. A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng. switch!?-oard One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches.InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng. and circuit breakers.... _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to Introduce Inductance Into a circuit..i core ----.lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne.. I The supplyi~ of uUlitles.... alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~ at regularly recurring Intervals.. -::. A ~ or carron conductor serving l1r~h I L~ ___ ~~...1--' I I I I I I I I I I I The equipment r..=:::~7nhd~~d. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a numl7er of electric circuits.. and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng.. ovucurrent devices. _ .. equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems. usually located on '-rl'J.-::. or transformer. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches. voltaqe to low voltage. I I L ______________________ ~ 75 ... __ . (/~1 / al ~rviu electrical current Is converted. equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere.de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to._.

li. usually In the form of a soIkI copper p.ected to .. ---\ A conducting connectlon ~tween an etectrlc circuit or device and the earth i 1C.. 120V 120Y p.:)V dead Not electrically conr._J Of or pertaining to acoml-rinatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I7:t one third of a cycleorl20~ short circuit An abnormal. . 11 '.ed wfth a thre3. 76 .. grounded conductor -. three-phase _. tI: ~"----.-Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system Intentionally connected to a ground connection. ~ single-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized • Ir! I~"" ~ .. Also..l nJet3ll7lade at each end for IT14klng contact with the i fusll7le fInk within._.. se tuPe...-':r. ground-fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M SC1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults And Instantaneously shuts off ~r ~ damage or InJury c. Aisocalled caPlnetand ACCesslP!e from the "us . Not electrically char~ed. and circuit F= -..~~~ lr. nee ~nclt clrcults. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or voltages differing In phase ~ OM r'-:' quarter of a cycle or 9O~ f./ AC3~ fuse having .--..1IeJ I>u. or electrlc~11y chJrged SO.Alsccaned ori metal Afuse hooJsI~ • fuSl'c!e link In 3 porcelain cupfltt. ground plate.-_ .")'sluvlngarr~ ..'::: :-.......__ .. groundlng of a conductlng wire. ".-.. . rnwlem~1 .f~:.Alscc3rlid ~f"oundlng ground wire ~. "7 120V 208V 208 V 120 V 120V fault A 001 failure In the Insulatlon or continuity of a conductor. ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle thro~h which tlme has adv..n occur. time-deL1y~ ur u ~a=rd on which are mounted the swftches.=--=-.. hot. -.j--·-r----------· ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor. : r ..ed m an Insulating fiber cha f~si~e alloy..ry.. damagIng apparaws In the circuit or for collecting.. -. ~ -~ u .. Aconductor connect. measured from a speclflea reference point and often expressed as an angle. 3S when starting a motor..-. _. Also called short.ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch tlut automatlcally Internl~ an :1 ~_-_-1_ .: §til .:I:-------------..:' :1 ~. resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit. --.r.'l boo front only...---------r----------r---------- h :1 L~:==~:::~=~:~:~~=::~-:.. .i nced.lnstalled In a protectlng a numver of similar l!: : dt P-rea~ersforcontroUingAnd Ii his I: ~~ 'I i A fuse that klays opening to allow.... _ .! .-_____ .. _..i short· term ovedcaa to pass..... ground fault Amoment. result1ng In a flow of excess current..rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current I /l if fr. or In the functlonlng of An ...-j in various safety ~4'~.... flrmly em~dded In the earth to est3l7l1sh a ground ccnnectlon. i ~ \ ~?~ 1 1 ground --. :-~ 1 live Electrically connected to a scuru of voltage. -=========1==~ll I. Also called ~Ur.. and d\stc1ht1ng large eltctric '""""._~:!______________ Ii d . I'Iire of fusible metal al c... kp : ___ knife-!1lak fuse . u ~" ~ cartrWge fu5e " "'.-... { ~ '~n electrical system. J 1. ..--. --:. -.... l I L .[. or ccld·water pl~..~ --~.. ... __ L_. p.----+:j ~ causIng ~ fire.."y conductor. equlpmerlt or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~.~ CIl""Cuitm... .. A circuit In-eaker I13Y Pc rec'~ And reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components.. used as solder .lea metallrase. melts under the heat gin the i!. A fuse havlng a ont-Ume or renewable fuslvle I1nl: encJos. -_ ._ .neutrAl or other point of zero potentlal one Ie .. ---. n "./S to luve A potential different from thJt of ~rth.. us~11y accidental condition of ~w by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differIng ~ 180°.-T' ~r] ~ ..cTUptlng the circuit. _--.. AI".. ! 2::'.Al7!:>r.J source of voltage.:rt velow :3000 F (:'7C). . fuses.-.··'-·fr-· i Aheao.. used I~ I! you Ii pandl7~rd..I... cop _ I r Auud I7:t exuss y plug~ .device contJinlng a strip C'" shock The muscular spasms caused I7:t an electric current passing through the body.-='====-·=:":"·...~ 1-.t:~J of va rious ..7. =.~oJ electric ! : L____ J e r3 conductor.....b"... as a metal ground rod.. carrying. us1J311y acclkntal...

. and rerr.II L-..o'.al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and appll3nces...~. heating and cooling systems.i struct. '-I distriMlon panel A pa nd for als. 5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval of time. dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure. Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at the top of . \. ...uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment. I ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod .i discharge of electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ c:femana fKtor The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system.-. Indlvk:hul cirr.ac:fflctor L ori gin 1 ! al g!ner. Io.. t law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage..---.ol overcu rrent device The I'3tlo of the average load on an electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period. using span: gaps to carry the current to the ¥Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device....-----.. .ilr Unnin3 L ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously.---.-I t1. .Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load may be applled at any time.ve raceway. I y appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces. maximum demand lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh- -/ voltage currents. Tl . if I you I ______ .e lighting fixtures.inJ grounded to \ load .rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads. nee dt his boo kp [9]1 ur cha se l the cop I Li Dr3nch circuit The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn. ~-I c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole. \ The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer. voltage. Also called .. -----.--------" \. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device.... used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr. Intercoms.ectrodes. Low·vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect..re. protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit.--.. used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls. dCrosS whlch. ~.

/ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry..... y I . often Insulated with a dlelectrlc materlaland used as a conductor of electricity.. !:>ody.Knockout ..--.. digital. 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic. or electric Ity. ~reakdown l~ mineral-insulated caple Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed. Also called 6X caiJle. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr. down. ex cutting. _. or device th3t ev"nduct5 heat.. Cj')"".. ". Asu rface· mounted r. A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity.. lJ u 11 coawlcaple A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency telephone. nonmebllk. or television signals..... _.-._____--_--J~ ur He3'fj'-wafled.." . EMf his boo compression or setscrew coo p/lngs.. usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-. nee used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment. .lnsulatlng refractory mineral voltage The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator UreaKS down and permits current to pass. signal... Also called Romex c.. / .. rmored caple Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible. hammerir~. tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C.. 1>0<. helically wound metal wrapping..s per unit of thlcl:ness. noncorrosN~ locations. cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors.." .. u conduit A ~Pe... junction box An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits..1 electric or magnetic ftelds.I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole. L underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor.......ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s. ori se the cha f ( l!{() grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in .. I. dielectric A nonconducting substance.>red!. and telephone ou~!ets. wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands... conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core. often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power. pipe. Also called Pu5way.. 78 . . . Also called Grunfleld dt ~!~~!I~. ri9id metal conduit ~- ./ &urface raceway .a£. to provide an opening Into the Interior... .. shielded caple gin al cop An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern./ protect ~ wires and cal7les. Al7k: kp =~. -. sou nd. moisture-resistant.." Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed.{e..:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1u.tteeway designed to house the elect.. or duct for enclosln~ and protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le. as by punching. l .1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another.. flameretardant she3th.. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one P"""' "CO". Pu~duct ..>. dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !..:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ conduit.. orcal7les. insulator . . nonhazardous.?r A substance. An enclosed runway for housing conductors you Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure..e undesired flow of current. racewJy Achannel expressly designed to hold and ..~ conduct. _./ multi-outlet assemply _.rlcal wires for a circuit and a J if series of receptacles.

. ~~ taggle switch A switch In which a lever or knob. i U I I ""&-+------------H: r .ctin. An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of ase r f Iccm A flexible.lln knobs ana tubes. urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr.--I .. wire n\It Aplas>J. Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way. II form of air swftch In which a hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed betwxh two co~tact cnps. another or to:...c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to grounding outlet A snna~l.. the 5ln.--+. ~i: ~! ! r electric Ilght without appreciably affe.Oor more CCflductors. convenience outlet _~ sb An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances.outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U.:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice @ . . Also called socket. key. :!: . .~-. connection.ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air. if y ou n eed leu! A flexl~ In~ted conductor for ekctr... or dlrectlng an electric current.)+--Fe--l d -" ___ . ook thi "''--' __ ' --.. ':--' bceplate \. nonmetallic...~i~~i~::~. ori cop ----. ". A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\... Drcaklng. .ma clcses anelectric An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that circuit by shifting a sealed !:. .Iass t..-. . moving through a snnallarc.q for 5C~""ing onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t .g~. r= 79 . doulne-throw switch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations.---.#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle.:i.----. grounding plug connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors '. ----:~1+-1:.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon.1nd-tu~ wiring gin J al outlet A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus. flexl!ne. ~-~J--------------r!8:>~ ~ :._ _ _ _+-!. "" swiU:h A device for making. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port.l circuit.."... causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit.------------.. I : ~ ! 'I I I kncl7-. threaud metal ftWr.l. outlet or light swi"~h.I statlor... . ~.. Also called dimmer switch. p~n A short.~..--_. ---. fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring. spatl31 dlstributlon. ..c connec" 'Vcontainln~ 3 . \ I!Jl -~ polarized A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground J..-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~. float switch fuatl~ A switch controlled by a conductor In a liquid mercury switch opens .u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts. knife switch ./ / : four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from three locations. -. facIlitate connectlng an electric device or I rheostat Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances.wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by --. .ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'. An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne.sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS.. '. plug A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a receptacle. receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug. /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:. : ! rch y pu receptacle to a wiring system.:'-~-'- three-way switch A Single-pole..ed on porcd..i:.. ____ .._.ctlon.

----. .tric hoisting m-..heave A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim. speed governor. hrake.I4Inding .evator c.--. A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system. i The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n eIemor holstway. IL. top car cle.----. usea for the receJvlng ! y cop guider. AI~ his boo Q/bltnvd- kp The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by .------------t-~I--. Also called t. driving sheave. 011 whleh t.. i..1rance The vertical distance from the top of an el. elevator pit ---. nee dt IlA counterweight A weight halancl"9 .tw... consisting of a motorgenerator set....traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to 3 flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway.an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the ~r ~rsafety . Qr ~.------.-------. hoisting machinery The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car.rryir.mother weight.------- h~kest larJings oft'" holstway. huttons.-----. ~~!--_".after A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food.-------. pan~ . ~ . as an elevator car. hulk/lng.l'~r elct'rlor penthou~ pulkhe3d Aroxllke structure on a roof providing access to . duml>w. e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls.~ operator . supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les. or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of .1 driving ."'.--_. ur t. Also called elevatcr shaft. Uul1dln~ controlled cne or more elevators. al .-----.-.----------.a UullJlng..ay ----... If used.e3Y)'cargo. ori gin .. \ hoi5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car. as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtteri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an if you elevator WI r.n • limit 5witch A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It.g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu. Also called deflector she3ve_ lu I~ machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator.--------------------------A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and stopping an elevator ~r In the event of actuated by a ousslve ~ or free governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action.. -. used as a pulley for hoisting.. idle 5heave A vertlcal enclosed space for the travel of hol.. fre~ht elct'ator ~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel A panel contain 1"4 SWitches.r3ctJon elevrtcr.arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading the freight are permftttJ to ride.a common operating S'jSt. il One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht.::hlnery.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extendIng from the fevel of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~ buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of l>ottom carck.n.--._-----------------. 80 .and discharge of passengers or freight.and an elevator landing. cha se the I' I~ hoi$tW3)' door ----------.em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton. . no 1"11141 fly closed except when an elM tor car Is stoppea.r to the nearest overhead obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing.ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c.-----. An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r.---------------A door ~ween ~ holstway .---.. stalrwen or an elevator shaft_ A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .--------. An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S.--..1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers.. travel. and other equipment for regulating electrical devices.-.----.----. and Mven byeb..----.-_'_:_I~ Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ by.r-r-~-\o~' " ana gears. rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator.-. has passed a given point.--. drive shaft.. . p.at the landing. dishes. traction machine..

and door or 93 teo ! ---.1.ltlon of an elevate-r car unless its a..3 stairway..:. piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure. L .\.ELEVATOR r L elevater car The !oacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y.'1e i i. over the entranu to an elevator on each floor of a multistory ~ullding. --4-. Also caned moving staircase. door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an elevator C3r unle:s$ the hcistway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ position. _ . that signals the apprcJcn of:. person or goods along a stairway. ising ana Ioweri"'3 an ~C3r. cop gin the ori ase c of floor landings. .. sb An elevator system COI1s!stlrtg of a car supported by . and $haves for . I . moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor. used for raising or lowering. door cont.. and contrcl eqUipment. _. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congested urban 3reas J lift. mOYirl. M~ht • cnetal enclosure.~ people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~...• elevator.1ct Asaf~ device for prevenU"9 t~. '.:·:--~-r '.x1" or gate Is fully cl~.r carrying pedestrians horizontally c-r akJq low Inclines. ook eed thi r o •• J1 .~'~·~~'. -. eleVl/torcar safety. usd ." CO m17plate The toothed portion of the th res hold plate at roth eMS of an escJlator or mGVIng wall::.311 17uttcn ~ al pu rch hydraulic elevator A push l7uttan for requesting a.! . ~at. u$tJ for movl"9 passengers up and dcr'ln Petween fars. designed to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway. ~ ~~:':sually . gulde shoes.upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte-r. consisting of a car frame. Also cal!ed gJ~ contact.rt.tor A power-driven stairway conSisting of steps attached to a continuously Circulating Pelt. -'-. -'..J if y : ou n / . control equlpmcmt. platform. continuously moving surf3C'e.i el~.e oper. k\'\.carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor.. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles.c-r.. hoisting ca~les.~. . Alsocal!ed stair A power-driYen." newel ~ .• ... annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 y machine room Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'. slmllJr to a conveyor belt.. c. 1'4 f'~ [Thehor!zontalsectionofrai!ingJtt~e .

slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other 3{Jmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm shank The straight. and a !Iluntdbmond point. cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel 0 n spike wire un A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire. c·_- . as by d. Symbol: d l. suffold nan. a miterJoint.. s. parallel to the grain of the wood. as of steel or concrete... ori C '.....)1 .... driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together.. welding or 5OIderi~. I L L 82 I f I . used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res.... anJ a ~monJ point.. I • sharpeneJ. .. A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two rut lnclin--"A slaes meetln£! at a sharp angk:. namng strip A strip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface. al ~ the A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an.. _... cc~lUii you ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng. ..e Si1I1e le:n§th.W roofing nan ~~--====== P ~~ii~.... 0' A~ having a 1rari1ed. between the head 3nd the pOint.:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of Q-..Ii!ht.. ~uiI ~th4n a common 0 il -U~~________________~~ Artad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more nail of the same til"" ~~lUa gin .toen. .. ~Iso called saewnai1..1<Jso QlbInu SON')' IU iI. driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:.tn I7y nailing perpendicular Ul thP. dt 'I II '~1~'~~'f«! _ .• penny IV2' 2' 2Vz' 3' 4' The deslqnateJ length of a nail..::..'.h'~l<lowth""". or bolt. (102 to 356 mm) long a~. a mechanically defOl111ed shant.. .ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver. 5tr... J .-p round point An acute... L I ~.'1.... Also called form nee roo ... face-nail To fas-:.: . -. .=~~··... ~!i:ure a nail or screw In position bY hammerln~ down the protrudlnq point.. his boo Pnd c RUllI!!! ~... U 1 '.. . pin.naI con~1 ~a... st...1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends.. a flat hea. b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener... six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long.. I .. nail set.Jn .d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail ! l•....... ~~ ~~ end-nait To fasten I7y ru\ll~ Into the end of a board.. as scaffolding and formworc. face of the wo~..H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members. _...d... ry ronding with an adhesive. with .. Also carted wiggle nail l.. driven Into a surface Ul secure sheet material or to hold a hasp. ur . be driven at opposite anqles to prcl't'lde IncreaseJ holdIng power. : ~ .' ..~""''''''''' "'wlthaca.. ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk cha 0"'1111 ~ ··' · arm cop y . '~'.xure • .bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall..tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener. ' eightpenny nail A nail21f2 Inches (64 mm) long. 1 . . "lIh"d ~ ~ -.. for unltlng two pieces of wood.-:-~ ~-. I ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank. or Dy 4J 6J 8d 10J 12d 16d 20J .rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe 3S In . narrow part of a nail or bolt. . drW$Crt.. i currug. n... from twopenny to slxtypenny. .." L I ••• u ••• u . used In finish won: In whlGh the head mzy remain vlslb1e... doub(c-~ded na iI A113. so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.. End-na lling flooring na n A oUorfllstenlng floor roards._ •• _ ••• ~=...1I1. To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~einqJoIned.. r.... f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like.. thre3ded. conical point on a nail or Spi(e b I se ~ ~. I7y nalll~ In such a way that To nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::.' kp fictshing nan A l13.. havl~ a s.. AM4I fast..3 diamond point An acute..4to Min. pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e... chi~lpoint A ~flnlshlng rui!.-. mae ~ P!1I1!1 A heavy nail for fastening together he3vy tlm!ler5. ~hankrun ~u A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power. Alwnate nails mil)' if A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank ana a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry.. Also called driftpin.. or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d...~:!lok' 511.1i1 ......

used In areas Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally lang bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver.~" ~ ~ -. often without a head. "'-------. cop ori cha y cap screw Ametal fastener for machine pa~. . and a conical bearing surface_ e OV31 head . 83 .-.-. --. designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning. having a straight.--. ------------- security head A screW head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver. sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material. screw A metal fastener having a tapered. -. thread ----.. spherical shape with a conlcall1earing surface.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger. or bolt_ ---1 ~<C.-----------------------~~ . r I pan head .e the bdl of a bugle.J FASTENING.--------. ~ I futl~ad ~ KIIII e se the gin ur kp his boo dt you nee al if "'. Also called coach screw.-. haVing a straight. --. thum\:1screw Ascrew having a flattened.A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface. helically threaded shank and a slotted had. A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder.---------i I A screw head ha"llng 3 shallow. ..The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw. p~lehead Allen head Ascrew head having an axial hexagonal recess.---.: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface. lag "oIt. nllisterhead ----.~ pitothole ~--------------------­ lag screw A heavy.:'~?l. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench. Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw. or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver.The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw. Phillips head Ascrew head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. driven by an Allen wrench. pitch . knur. threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative -.-----.-. setscrew Ascrew.--. ~~ ~~ ~'\. strip To tear or darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru.-. o 1 ' r I slotted he3d A screw head having a single slat. countersink . nut. as with a screwdriver.--. Also called tapping screw. ------. A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii". machine screw A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole. threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with a screwdriver. -----. threaded shank held by threads tapped In the hote Into wh1ch It is screwed.-. or ~t_ wood screw A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver. nut.---.------------A screw head having a flat upper surface movement. tap To cut screw threads Into an opening. .----~a _ i self-tapping screw Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven. screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head.---.--------.

lon 170 It An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of.: ~ ~ .. cha se ! ccun+.0 hoW It. togglel1olt·· . cop al ori @~ A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose..eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc...-"'-'-. :t<~:::WU'M.l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of . .dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr.11 FASTENING" ~It square head A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench. I ~ i I two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger.. the.~~~ted dis( of metal rubt>er.a Pr. " db \l:J/ :~:stle nut. _~ The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe..lon 'hiekf -. An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c.... '" . ~-. :.. "'" """ ""'" ~ . sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so th... y ~. and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation.. used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure. Dott. ~~ Fi--I _ O ~Uli-..t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥.an.-.iIW~'m..id or nut cf a Dolt or screw.. _. ···· -~ An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through. A thre3ded metal pin or rod..: Asqum~orr. when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'" . _ •• _ . -.an... end distanu + r if you his boo .I n . ..'--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It..ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt.." ".lted wr.lnd of expansion bolt spilt.. A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1."d. __ h2v1~ . >_.. © ~ .. Ats-J IL. Melly .en tr. "fi) m? ~ 0---..e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole... a flat beJring surface. or rerle1e friction.e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te. hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete. fox~lt sleeve.. prevent IeJI:"':le.~ &W A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd . Also called ac.. usually h3vlng .~re<o.. -'. -····.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~ rraaeman: for. -.l: pm'or.__ • ~__ .... exp.lslori ill the lockwashu the r I gin I .\.. ____________ . -'--' ---.om nut..s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-...d of 3 screw.I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall. II -$.:h a threadd r.. machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh. : i ~~ locl:nut ~..~...oll!li~~~~'~" .ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je Ii carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head. c .:. neck Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head. Also called thumlmut.. ~ I __ exp. nee I + . hollow wan. ! I l l..1 head at one end.~_----"=.. nut . __ ... ··-····· __ ··-···... kp ur r row spacing dt The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts. esp. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut..-----. edge d15tan.-JC.... ~ hex head A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench. 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened.ap !?etwe. or piJstlc.jJ ~:~t~:.erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he. used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng. Also cal~d expansion Iewi5 ~It An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured '..

:!-.---. the ori gin C"p.r I tull¥' A.. ".--.. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for / / joining light wood framing members.--. and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt.''"''!l~ Pdt.pct. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves... y ou n A fIr. purlin. hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces. uid ~ lateral Ioods. Soi.. ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt.prUlg or to them. or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for eed ~piU grlJ thi A $-~-rret. Also called a.. ..---------------. rch A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1. . 1 5~r p~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove. haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces..:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger. t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture sb ook ~pbte pu dcwdpirt.----. or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess. consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon. Also called hurricane tle . ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~ . ---.e s~ member Is through shear b '.-' . --. using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal. ase ~j .-----.floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall.--------------_.. used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther.l>ut load transfer t. held III piau Py a :. flush with the face of a tlm!1er._----------- tim\7er connector A metal ring.--. cop if y ~~ havytwt~.:. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth. or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection.---------. .frtwood~ al Ir.~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for FASTENING .Jolst.:..-..jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring.. rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon. : _ . plate..r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam. or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II.----. Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections.'li pbte punched to produce . The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces.

~. arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii. haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or l ':--~~!ot-""'~''<'r''---<.=.:f IIytM corrtlnuOlls flow of an Inert gas from an external source.o\i:t:::::::::. JI flux 1-..:.---'-'- kp full'penetratio nweld A ~tt I~d having a depth puddle weld A weld made I1y truml~ a hole In a piece of sheet metal and filling with./ .nd the addition of an Interme-diate or flib. fusi~. I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1Per Is ~ from one side.. rivet~ A tool fOf' shaping the second head of • rivet.----- -----.----<. -"-.! re-si.JoIned. " i the .jJ group of welding processes utlr!zlT'g the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe passage of a e!ectnc current.~e met3ls to few together.<:-:-i arc welding Any of a9roup of welJ1ng processes utinzlng the heat of an arc Detwee-n 3 n electrode 3nd ~he base metal. filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding. or soldering process..h P-.. Also called electric arc. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't). . boo A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being . slt13li pool of molten rretal. Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u.ise metal.l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced D:i the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas.11ong the seams of two overlapplng plet:es of metal tM Ir.. -groove weld A weld made In 3 preformed IndentaUon Petween two alMtl"4 pleces of IT'<:t. dt I '~" his ----.et . "'~ " <D3. or soldering.~ fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consumable dectrode or by a separate weldl~ rod.arc weldi"9 A method of arc welding In wh~n the weklarea Is shle!de. f ---'''... dolly Atool for receiving and holding the head of 3 rivet while the other end 15 I7elng headed. usually a copper-zInc alloy.rr.. .flLlX'cc~ arc weldi"9 Amethod of arc welding usi"4 a tutrular stu! electrode conta Inlng • core of vaporlzlng flux that forms a ga~s shlelJ around the weld area I Y submergea arc welding A method of arc welding In which the se weld area Is shie!de. \1ase metal . PJrtial'pen~atlon weld ~.ea~.!loy... This shield protects the weld are<! from oxygen aM nitrogen In the iilr that would C3use ra pld oxid3tlon of the flquld metal L1 welding rod '.~J The princIpal met31 to lie welded. doul1le-vu weld Agroove weld In whk. sometimes y. remove oxldes from .it A groove weldin which the edge of one abutting memller 15 !?eveled from path sides.lt Is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr. Also called weld ~d. aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt. or cut.1 nee welding Any of. soldered. the filler metal Deing $lJpprled by a consult13lne metal electrode or Dy a sep-a ra te weIJ1 ng rod. -----------------1-'-\1 cha I lj1 h~_o:.t.-=-/- throat A sulistance.-:. tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or polts....'... drift A rouM../ // gin A wek:I ~.:.. ur l-. at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't).th pressure .-_ _ _ _ _ _----"'~~-=-=-c»--->""""..----<~". used for uniting two or more plates IIy passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head. ~:I::hatofth' mota I. weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t.filleJ shank th. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the el~ does not rJmish the filler metal .".:f by a ~n~et of granular metal that n-.--------. shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of arc welding using a consurnaDIe metal electrode that " relases an Inert gas to form.. Also called drlftp!n. !lrazlng. .et31. c!rcuit or between two electrodes. shield around the arc.. .l'Id prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'.FASTENING $O'kr To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous braze To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders.elts to form..?. explosive rivet Arivet for ajoint 3CCe5slble from or-e side only. double·l1evel we14 if you nee l5ingle-vu weld A groove weldin which the edge of each abutting mem~ Is !?eve1ed from the same side.. havlng 3n explosive. applied to.. Dr3Zed.::.. as acety\el1e.1 surfaces to I7e joIned ~ wek:I1ng.e edge Is of each ab-vttlng !leveled from both s!des. "'\1ead A continuous deposit of fused metal."~~_. as distinguished from filler metal.. solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton.<... memw rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end... wetaing Any of. '-. pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with 3 """t set to form the second head of a rivet.~{1.inert-gas shielded .o. . as rosin. Imzing..toe o A wire or rod of filler Iretal used in gas-welding and mzing processes. root The point at which the I7acl: or rottom of a weld !nUts cop y Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl.e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole. _ al lap weld --. g3S solders. USU311y a~In-~ . equal to the thickness of th~ slt13ller of the two mempers Delng joined. ./-' The distance from the root of a weiGl to the f3ce of the I7ase metal ori _ _ _. ..~~~""'_.. 86 .

usually of brlcl: anQln theform of haff of a segmental arch. used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flrepiJce or chimney.311y coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner. b front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room. !1etween 3 chimney and 3 header In a floor structure to support a hearth. drili A devrce for regulating the current of alrln a stov~ or fireplace. Aisc.Imin4 the Apart of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall.c...mney pot --- .------------------------A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe. d. smoke aome ---------------------The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal flrepiJce unt!o downdraft A downward current of air In a chimney or flue...___ ---.~~s. chimney. " .. flreplace. lth se3ting 1\lso called chimney corner A ca5t·I/"()(l door pr(Nlding access to an ashpit for removing ashes. as In a room. cha supporting the bre. esp..--------"\'..-. r..::S:~·~-~~~~i~~'-"-'-~' or ~ lixe. nee throzt The narrow openl"9 ~ a flreplace and Its flue smoke chamPer.. fitted on top of a chImney to .. contained within the flreplace Itself. ___ / j Increase draft and disperse smoke.--~flue lining A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit flre cuy or nghtwelght concrete. if you or hearth The floor of a fireplace. . -===============:!==++================.lncomUustlb!e structure contaIning aflue through which the smoke and gases of a fire or fumace are carried off to the outside and by means of which a draft Is created. or stone. open flr~pIJce. --- smokesta<:k A pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion.. Ame~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equIpment. or oval sectlon. Also called camper par. assemUlea from factory- r ITt3de parts. Also called Inner hearth. i / I /7--".lchimney par I I I I boo /r. / A raised cover for a chimney. or a chimney m~st al cop A screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room. tumlng par. usually of brick.. often carrying smoke with It.:-"'~"'-_-~"". pack hearth ! _ trimmer arch An arch.h a damper. stove.. A steel lintel for carrying the rna sonry above tM flrepl3Cc opening. hood ---.. dt i " his chimney cheek The sides of a fireplace opening supportlng the mantel. A cylindrical pipe of earthenware or . . or stove. usually In the form of asia b or cornIce./ . the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_ / ~chimneycap ~~~ii. . se chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening... rectanguur..FIREPLACE Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce.mteltree Astor. ashpit aoor i~lenook A comer or nooI: nar aurge. 87 ./"'-(--_________ chl. ashpit A receptacle in the bottom of J fireplace or flreDax for the collection and rem(N31 of ashes. !~~. or to. chimney Avertl<:al. often extending a short distance Into a room.. .e1 m."- fPiiiiiiiii~~ .-( I I ~ ! .Ctfoc.lst../t metal. i I prefa~ricrted flue .1nUIplece. fire screen flue pargeting f opening of.. caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure. AcurretTt of air In any enclosed space. h3vln!l a ~uare. ori A~stnJCtlon fr. -. --. often closed wtr. kp smoke shelf Aledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer. 1J5u311y provlded . chimney. Also called outuhearth.-----------. so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimney.mOkA''''· An IncombustIble passage or y A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pia s ter for a chimney flue... l The part of the hearth 15 --.r. the masonry arch used In place of such a lintel... or J cowL hood. parget. firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a fireplace. Or furnace. or wInd cap to Increase Aframed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire. damper A movable piJte for reguiJtlng the draft In a fireplace. Also called m. or ventiLJtcr. I I I 'I' . ~ /1 \\ ~\ i I .~. used for lining the flue of a chimney.-. tile.----draft. ur sm(ike cha mper An enlarged area Petween the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney. usually Inside a Uulkllng.e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening. . gin 1Tt4nt.········~velitliJtor.3 flrepbce and usu.l chimney fer removing SCOG.

..nt r " nee ~ J 'f "':~..r FIRE SAFElY The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire.. -. .... :~. _..'-----i y ~ . "'-". ur o o --L-. [ZID .... ~ -.. combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng..sn 200~. [LJ '..: .. 1000 controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen.... fud-GcntriPutlan rating A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c.i:• •• : .-=-.. metal lath and plaster ~ . I r L 88 I ~ ...-.. L• ..•.... and 15 replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main. -"-- al ori the ~ i cop d ! ~ 600 (!)!+---. including limiting fire loads and hazards. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems. l~ukJ-filled column I ~ I A hollow structural·steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment.::.._-_ . confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon..- cha - ~ I •.:. the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire... the establishment of adequate firefighting services... 01' construction having a flreAlso.--~--~~--~--r--7--~~ contrl!nIte to a fire.' : . ----~-~-~~--..:. ". -_.- . '...' :'.. r '...~~-~-~--~--~--+--+-~ gin r------: 1.. :~ .. :.. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire. when exposed to the heat of a fire..' ~ L I ... fire hazard Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire. ... 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature ~ 8oo~1~~----~--~--~--~---+--~~~ ~e......... developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot ~ases. ' ..-. .. >:~ .:.. : ..... fumeret3rdant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0. applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre..... flame-spread rating Arating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 while a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O.. I U I boo dt .....7": ••..:-:":..----+----=----i----..:~ . as concrete... se kp /'.. } time ~nition point flash point The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame. fire-nslstlve.- : .. I fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng.ayfrom the fire. swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread and comvustlon.- : ' ..... used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire..• : .. ... and t.. I on the slde aw.. : .: ... rises by convection to remove the heat. If exposeJ Ul flame. 2 time. : I ~" - .... the water aPsorVs heat. ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures... _. intumescent paint A coating that. '.. :.f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire.. '. of a flammable material. . _.... Also called 5Ulner tunnel test. . ::.. flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing.hou" 6 8 I~_ii/l u I _ if you -.. : " .. __ . .. Materials having a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~ aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside InJlldlngs..:. IJ ~ fireproofing Any of various materials.."'"-.. smoke-developed rati~ A rating of the amount of sm'*e 3n InW.aterial can produce when It 1nJrns. _.----T---7--: Atest measuring the time It takes for" use.. determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve. reslstanu rating required by Its tunnelu5t 1200 j ~!--i--~~-7---7--. measured In pounds per square foot of floor area. his f:?·~+~:· . ~ ~ []I " . I 'pray-on fireproofing A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder.. -~ ... gypsum. fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material.. ~.': . 01' minerai flber. . thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre.---~--.~.."=..... assemL>!y.. J . The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrul! hea t......or finish IT'... ..~ ... i I t..]c.- ~ I .. Q.

.k rr3~ of iI fusible metal._•.sem'-lu __ .. r ! I! tfit\ ___..... cha ~ ~ ~ se the ori gin al fire door A door ~l>ly. _. .3tlc·closlng fire assemDIy. or the exterior wall of an adjacent i1IIlldlng...anchorag~ frarntS labeled Of or pertaining to a l1ulidlng materlal or assemu\y having aflre·reslstance rating certtfled by Underwriters' La roratorles....... and (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination service of UL if you nee cop y maae ~_~ :}~..•.. or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor ..11W fire ... -... A ftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "'....IncIud1ng all requ~ hardw3re.'~ a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equipped with ~ <In a.' _ / fu5ilk finK A hr.3. '···0'" ...I I 89 . reqUired flre·reslstance r3tlng for ''". An opening In a wall. or other recognized testing la~aratory....~d:~~~". ... When exposed ~ the heat of a fire.. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~. boo l l .._ .. An open sp... cr the Ii~e to close. ~ fire assembly irl· ~ dt his UL laPel _. wall..uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng.I".•.J having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of fire from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng..atlon of Underwriters' LaPora-torles. -~--- kp 4Smo(e~. ========= .. flr/! d3rnpe~..1L[t()m. -... fire window."J "Its location and use."" cau~s a fire door.s. " II . "firetUmpu W AM~~b~...I '. the center hne of an adjacent street or public space. component. or other fire sep3r3~n.•. extending from the foundaticx1 to a parapet above the roof and having 3n openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected by a self·closlng or autcrr... and Sills.p~ device to Insure closll19 ... anchorage.' FIRE SAFETY firezofl('! A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone. ". all measured at right angles to the exterior wall. ...-. flre·r3t.arove. with a fire assemlily having the ~1f-c1o. fire area An area of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire. ~ .._ III >" fire wi I'Idcw ~:::.catfng that the product (a) has a ratlng vased on performance tests of such product..... ...ed shaft. anch0r3g~ frames and sills.arJ latchl~ a&r havfng Peen opened for use.. distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a uulidlng and a property nne.rtk-c105i~ fi~ a5~mbly . A laDe! affixed to lIi111lidlng material. l..... -1 firewall A wallll3vfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of ftre from one part of a D<Jltaing to <lnather... Inc. .. floor.. frames.... .• . or roof-ceiling construction having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire.~~r ~ ~.lI .. ~E~~~=~~~:· Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct autcrnat!cJlly In the event of fire to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e..... ur A fire <lsseml7lythat may remain In an ~ posltlon and wiU clese ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by .. [.• protected opening _ . the nn~ mel:s ... or other tests for safety. or roofor fire damper.. Exh portlon of a building separated Dy one or mere fire walls rruy ~ COIlsklered a separ3te uulldl~ when calculating the floor area and height allowed Dy a i1IIlla'lr~ code'l L drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction. havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and tJ5<l. (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y exJmlnatlon to ~ from Nterials and by ~ses essentf3rly taerrtlc31 to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre.~I~I~'" required hardware•.. The assemDly of 3 fire door. Inc.. __ .=========~ A vertical or horizontal construction \l. occupancy separation _... fire~reak fire separation Arry floor.. or devlce wlth the authorlz.-------~. ex a n area of a city to another. electrlcal hazard. required whae a duct penetrates a fire wan. -~""'. I '.... Ind'.lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardwart.

5tandpi~ A w. usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr. orflame-senslng devlce. smoke-. sprinklered Of or pertaining to. L f L I I 90 .must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors.llrt or pu mper " ''1I I I ... 35 gasoline. and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature.---. dry5tlndpfpe --------------.ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow.---. 011 and grease. automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire. wets~ndpipe wet·plpesystem "'1 r I ----. as magneSium or sodium. connected to a suitable water supply. 3 preselectM I'3lue. -----.6fire waUrmafrl j A fire Involving flammap\e liquids. allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle.. fire-~n symm Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm. A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_ I y cha I I i I I A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate. which rt<tulres a nonreactive. I I I r gin nee dt his siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building... conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ " ~I cop al boo A pump th3t provides the rea. c\a..J if you kp . heat·al:>sortnng extinguishing medium. ur cbs. __ .t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr. -. tkttctlon system. I the I ori se /-'fire pump used v. providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system..etals. as wood. which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium. L fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. .--. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing. pa ~ :md cloth.-------. cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment..FIRE SAFElY flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a firesprinkler .lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor.-. --- truct:.elts at a predetermined temperature.ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building. I 'i I r I I .. preactlon system A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads. 5moke deUctor An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke. stlrinkler head A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. .--. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times. dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire.-. whlch. Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish. cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr.. through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire. building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly maintained sprinkler system. I .. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance. ..

stairs. An exit stairway down an outsfa/: wall of a !7ulla'lng.. exit door A door providing access to a means of egress.ir.. travel exterior exit balcony Alanding or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJl1dlng and sm-Ing as. protectea by an ~~ . -.l re<:tulred means of egress.-' A j13ssageway serving as. and venul3ted by natural or mechanical means to nmrt the penetration of smoke and he3t. and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approximately the same level In aapGerrt bUltdIng..neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ his 91 .ilrJ enclosed by flre-resls'tJve constnlctlon as reqUired for the walls. 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors. emerger. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use by the square feet per occupant permitted In that use. having no openings other than required e:dts . s wing 1"9 In the direction of exit travel and usually e<:tulppea with a panic cha ur Par. fjre~pe required exit.cy lighting A hghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for 5Jfe /:91"es5 from a !lulldlng In the event of a pcwer failure.om3tic-closing fire door. accessl~ by ii well A shaft for .1. an /:Xft court. enclosed by fire-reslstlve construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the direction of exit cop exit light ..a! number of persons that may .airway A stairway leading to an exit passageway. Bulkling codes usually reqUire on/: or more of the exit stairways for a high-rise !7ulldlng ~ protected elevator.. 'constructed to the same sta:ubras as an interior exit stairway. BUilding codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 b<J'Id!ng. fuors. or an vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. ~ __ .1 ntumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a y enclosed by walls of fire-resistive coostroctlon. he riUlITtJ I exit A passage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation. and ceiling of the building served. or pupllc way. '-. smo keproof enclosure The enclosing of anexit sta Irway by wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction. BUlkling codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required. exitacce55 That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit. -': exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire. (I) occupant leola The wr.. extending vertically th the floors of a ~uilding. exit 5t. nee dt o exit passageway A means of egress cor.I required &. boo kp • -< exterior exft An exit cIoor opening directly to an exIt court or public way. if you /:Xft Of' exit court with a public way. i t L r occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. by a smo~proof enclosure. ngh t. leading from an exit access to an exit discharge. al gin ori se the exit ~rrUlor .FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In a bUIL::I1ng to the outside at ground level.

.col : ! : ! iI ! ~ I 1 l. esp...----.ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks. floor framil\9 The act... studs.':...:/...::>.~"--'-"-[~===jlliililii!~ -.FLOOR The level. plywood. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng ... fWshtd &01".._._ . cetnngs.: totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts... or rafters. solid I1rtaglng fixed Bridging consisting of short vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.. -----Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement. when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6. A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls. A~m. or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe. -_ . . or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme. .-------.. ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors...e of .=~'...~~~~U... Atrj of .--:.' '--~---". gin ~3rds. or flat roofs.rimJolst AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the . (.~~~~~....-:: I if you __ nee dt his boo kp ur cha --..- A rela-tl\le!y short ~am. _..~-fu. Also called stringer. Also.. ~Jnc:I fWor.. proc:ess._ . jo~t the header .. ..'...:::=~l-::-':':=T~-:::·: c.="~=~~:·~-_~~.Afram~member~andsupportlng ! ~ ~-:o. or 17fters. y al perimeter of a wood-framed fuor.d to the floor joists. so as .-.-:":'_~~~~"':==~"'...:::~~::::~·:~'::-·.. floor./'OUfh flM-./ . se cop y LA I the eMs ofjoists.•.. or manna. ---The wearing SUmc.illled he3aer. I l F~. ..: y flni5h floor .--.. roaras cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists. Also called ~U~~~"'. ~ilpiece ------- .. / // studs..... -. ori '>----:::--1~. floor. trimmer ~----.HIy bid (Net ..of constructing the structural frame eX . Also c. i i l f~r:. or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other.joIst. sulrlloor... USU.joI5t. :7 I.

awtenJolsts or Peams In or on top of a m3S011ry wall.FlOOR i1e31T1 fig deck The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied.. -'" gin al shear stud I. rafters.-----.a reinforced concrete sla b Metal deckl~ servlng.. Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling. I . steel pin welded to t./ ur --------------.. decking Self-supporting units of wood. beam pccket---·------------.metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW·rolilng a series of rips or flutes Into It.1cou~tk duking cellular decking . . or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing. The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations. ori -'.----. ------- An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam wall..... JOists.. 93 .bles.~:O.. for flIllng the sp~ t.-r. forming a series of raceways fo!. ~ ________ _ _./ . --/ . whe~ It enters a masonry r------------.. • .. se cha I the ~I dectlng servl~ as permanent und ~ stlb C3n support Itself.. electrical wires and c. kp form duking composiU decking . metal. Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete. ---.and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit... and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance. if you nee dt his boo fonnworl: for.:-_____7-'-'-_::>"7 cop .. Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm.l:>e3m filling. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:. allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th. or concrete capable of spanning beams. y -------- floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath..he topftange of a steel ream or girder .• Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut. AIso.as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern._____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam. stiffening the memrers.:>r.

.ise on which a •••. L I L 94 J ( . ~een It and a succeeding layer. sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials. -_ . woodfloori~ Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips... -. hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface. • rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert..4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t. Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical !. ••••••/:•. '.!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units.'~~h.. . . A flooring ~Iod made \. wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween..... Palladi.. :.awrd terrazzo -_ .p.• 4 Veneti.: .!/f) ./. solid plock flooring ------. al se Aflooring plod m~e \.·-·····"·"'·~.~'.'~:il' D ..dl=tly umentltlous or resinous matrix over a sound wood. -.eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab.rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~'.. .. cha cop you monollthicternz:zo- ~ WJ y Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD. -.1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \... narrow wood s~'ips. memDrane and a thin layer of sand.~ ~:.------. ~~~5..:.-. bf'. with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t . resInous matrix " '. -.__ ..iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips.1n temzzo .·'~I::=="PPI'. I'<-hich are not ground. if . separated from the subfloor \.tntltlous or resinous matrix and otr..!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '..:~ ..~ ~~.. •• 1" his boo kp ur P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'.---.' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps.:-:·..!i.----. ~~~.~ :. ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally. ~ .:-. or ~s.-.. IIIIJ unit bfc.-....!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive... thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~J·m3tched.!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise..•• ~ !... mrul. flooring composed of~..... -..~~I~~... . !B'lI ... ~~~ consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~... usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting. ='" . een.FLOOR fin~h floori~ M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr.--.. or floor We.~cl-~r~·~~.!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern.1n. terrazzo topping Is applied. -.. .'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface..-.. Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~.------------ --- Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring.:. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting.~... strip floorin9 ... r·"I:\.. polyester. ': underbed ----. as ~ rdwood. rustic terrazzo A ur.. .u--_ _ _ ~.. ptlnks. . The mortar Ir.-.4-' . .: • " <.~. :Ii..lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is . i l ~ sleeper .....~.-..er :t ~~':'~4f!l~ dt ='''''"p"... temz:zo.:'. ~.t..~ ~ substrate to create a Pond nee stone chips.c -.ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected. usu~lti side· and end· matched.-.~~~~~~~~~.311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $.' ~ .ck laminated plock the ori gin slatl7lock Aflooring U10ck made \. bondingagent ~------------.. and a subfloor. ~~~~11. o Achemical sul1stance appnea to a ~~ st.. '" . or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.' ..' 6 ". .. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips. or concrete sulrl'loor..l..~~ ..::or or cor....crete sb P.. par'luetly Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting._ ..' A latex. ipal"l\uet Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m. '.. . .. set In a :narble or cen-. ~~ndwhendty. consisting of a terr.

----. you ~ ~ nee I dt r r ill The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet. ~rpet made by looping the backing. available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment.. t ~ al cha se ana pile ~ . fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-.iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile. or other nonstructural flooring.-~ .-..IO Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials. ana floor covering Material.lUL_. or protective coating. or felted fabric forccverlng a floor.BHill~ ~~.-. I ~. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= .---. A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam. '. tufting. ru1?1?erti1e I l!~~r!~!!t!~~!!~~!!~!!~~~!!!!!!!~!J~~~~!!!!~~!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!! pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet. tufted or knitted ~rpet..l!lll!!.--------. as plywood or hardboard. linoltum resilie nt flooring Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed.A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-. ~nlttec. . -. f1uW carpet --····-..~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric. Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing. __ .-. even base for resilient flooring.-. -. . needle-tufted. §it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the cut pile r 1 if I width of. corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers. iiiit-·- tile carpet A flooring tile made of carpeting material... -. linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade. vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp. expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch. the gauge . st3ted In oonus per 5qU3t"e yard.. -.FLOOR A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated rosln.s.----. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth. dense velvets.. vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In I . and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns. . used to cover a fleer.10op pi'1e y his knit~C3rpet ·········-. finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride.ru!llI. ana reduce Impact sound transmission. _______ ... ori ! I gin In a Interweaving the backing 1. ur yarnsonaloont _----. neealepunched carpet .. orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ". cop carpet Aheavy WCNen. Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat.__ --~ carpetpad I.. uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness._____ .. r combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and p4Jments. A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers. Also called carpet cushion.. stitching. A carpet texture created by weaving.:=--.---.. --. p~ment.. carpet. stated In ounces per cubic yard. Improve dltr3blltty. -. -=.._____ . esp. and a fiber. boo kp p~~ity tufUa carpet •. ---.. -------IrmiWl·· . CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience.. anJ dimensional stability. . loops. \ . -. underl3yment A material.. lInseeJ oil powdered con:..f. and pile yarns with three sets of needles.. -.. --~ -~ .. fett.::-------= ~ A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair. Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng. adhesive. 95 .gDB~ . or foam !:rackIng. producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short. strength. '. Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade...

.....Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force. '~ .a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect. ---. ---~ M.malle!. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus.q the same Nne of actlon.hat o~ In a Single plane. ---........ ...e to produce rotation of a body a~. . with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It. untrold The cem:a. The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c. Also caf1ed resultant. A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent..ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e descri1>ed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent slJes which represent th~ two force L vectors ~I~ addea.. -..ltlonJl equJllDrlum.. vector .... 96 .. kp ur cha se The poInt ...-----. •.... Aforce SYSt. .. ~ ~ an arrow whose length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •. para lief forces : ~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to produce rota1lon Put not translation.. ... .m""" f.. L L .".......-.--. ..mmal effectofthefo~.FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape ormovem~. and whose orientation In space represents the direction.. For conven fenu In structural anafysls.. component6ofJforce •.. .• •···• .... ~Is point. 1--_ _ _ _ _ ....-.av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt. " actbn.•...1nar forus Forces . ~... 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ . -..:. ' .... vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon.~ ~ '-....h~ last yector.. '--... these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU.. Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without .. and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector gin if you nee : al dt his r' that ~nt5 the result3nt force. altering ther... Aforce whose nne of action p.-. -.... ~ -.. ")I wpl.1I polnts In the Agure Is zero.:J~ wnuntratea so forctS..• tri.twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment.-.1f SlJ~ ai.. the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt.... wncurrent forces Forces h..um ~. ....er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field.--- y A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors. mornentcenter -.. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon... Forces "3".a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium.... the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces. -----. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann . .. Aiso calleJ force arm. or two-dlmenslonal flgure.-..1"9 Ie method A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p.a poIrrt or nne.. .. center of rtU" --~-..•. j parallelforc~s '-: ••• - Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 that the II"IOmtnt a Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such rout any line through the Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action. couple -. or. u I 1 u .:==:b======~ Two or II'IOre COII(... aDout which the sum of the displacements of.1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point.~...•. {11111l ~J __ m " " ... the ori The tendency of a furc..?r that represents the result3 nt force. ---. extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of ..of.. ~.21 of 'twO equal. the l>ody remains In rot.. --... ..-. "'. _ _ _ _ _ _--1 point Is zero. boo moment'Mft ~..-... Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of " line of actio1I ..a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs......... .and acting In a clockwIse or counterclockwise alrectlol!. -.... . cop moment ---. nonca ncurrent force... Oi...". tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law... _.~.--. -.... ~ctlng ak:lr.....p...

third law of motion The pnyslcal law that for every force actlng on a Poay.qulllDrlum of bod:es or m3~rl.. the I70dy exerts a force having equal magnitude ana the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force.~ if I· you nee m. ~ujlil1rant roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody about an axis..(7:t3) + (Ix 0) ... y 3 : r .. .' . ensuring translational equlltlnium: l:Fx = a...:·1 ori The mlo of output force to the Input force app/1e.iJ element that pivots about a fulcn. " .m to e:xert.. = cop m LM. wttnaut rot:3tlon or angular dlsplaument. • tn n5Lrt.iInch of physics that 0&1 Is WIth ~ effects of forces on podles or rrt4terbl systems.lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I) I I mechanics The !:>r..~ concurrent forces Into ~ulflllrIUri1. : inertia The tendency of a \7ody at rest to rert13ln at rest or of a body In motion to retain Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon Dy an external force.. -. dt force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( l@et"3tion{l) r ~ I ..ic n ~ tmiforin motion of a I10dy In a strai9ht line.--..= 0.1lsysums under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus.F) ! r r-···- FORCE 1 Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remaIns at rest or In motion wIth a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY.~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn.-----.-..(Ix 0) 0 A state of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces.h of mechanics that deals with '. -. For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium..l:F). stlUc5 The ~n.....-----. equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action.-------------... i : ~ . two conditions are necessaij.-.d to a ~hanlsm. -..! ~ . --. reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody 011 another. comprised of st.-. gin ur llllllllll+ \ ~lunic31 ad~ntage al cha se 1 F r> fulcrum ..letlan and r!actlon. 97 . it i the ..-A ri.~ '''")1 .l pressure Of sustain Lh. statically equivalent HayIng the same translational and rotatIonal effect on a body. "" ··tsl--.• ! f f . ensuring rotatlonal equlfllnium: :EM =o. fIj ~ lever •. .-------The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a b'ert<Jrns.~1 systems.. ~mics The h~-ch of mech. Q I .lwtc =px Q. with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces.. Second.uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motion and e.. ~uilil1rium a ~ht at a seconJ polnt by a force appr~ at a third. 1 .. l:Fz = o. First. TheforcerequlreatobrI~asetof._. -.lppljed force An external force actlng directly on a Pody.. the afgel7ralc sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must equal zero.g ~ulljbrium among bodies or m. the yector sum of all forces acting on It must ~ual zero.AlsocalleJlawoflnerUa.. Also caneJ the law of . I .! ..':1/ his boo kp ~wton's'~orullawatmotion The physical law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody Is equal to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acceleration produced Py the force.1tlc 5 and dyn3 mIcs_ ~wton'.

. f.--.p::::./ .Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevaUon of ea rtn or stone prot.1 5 \ j bastion -------·----·-----·--·---________ LI. l1alley The outer ~II of a castle or the courtyard enclosed by It..lse to the main ------. The part of a Dastlon that extends from the curtain to thefau. An enclosing wall connutlng two Dastions or towers. AprojectJlI4 part of a rampart or other fort!&atlon.----------. _. shculder .-...\. -.::.'--------.• gorge The rear ~ss.rge number of tmJps w move npla'1y from the pesleged position 3na attacl:: the Deslegers. /-------. ----. .. emate A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart. .*ment of ~rth ra!sea as a fortlflcatlon around a place and usaa/ly surmounted Dy a pal"3pet_ .Jtlol'l ~ r dt J .lstlons.1~ _ _ . -..palfsade Afence of pales set fll"l!1ly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense.:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldiers Into the most line of fire .au gin al cop Thean~1e ~een the f3ccand t:hefunl: of I worts ~ two Ir. '. covering the ori l'2Velin Either of ~ two outer s!des that form tM sal1ent angle of a pastlol'l ___ ...t. consIsting of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey_ ------ _. motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'Ituries. curtain L . pale A pointed stlck or s't3l:~.• ~:J:~~ln. his A slope ex-'"..--------.FORTIFICATION A defensive military work coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position. i13vlng embrasures for artllkry./----. -..ectlng so!d1ers from enemy flre.'~...•---\.: /.-. typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir. slmllarotItwon_ " ._ _ --. • 98 . y ---..lr.J ~ moat of a forth'\c.Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of.. Also C4i1ed scarp.-. motU ./ A ~ateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 t... outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position esbDl1sr.-::: i boo kp ~bc~ I r r "rect cardon AproJecUng course of stones belcw the parapetofa rampart.--.:!:.• -. rr~ exterior slope or wall of the d"r-..ch surroundlng a rampart.en./ Asteep mound of earth surrounded Py aditch and sunnounted by a t:lm~r stocbJe and tower. C..:. --"-'--'-'--'-'~:" ~unterscarp cha T'~ Inner slope or wall of the dltch se eSClrp the A V-5ha~ outwork outside the main dltch of a fortress.. .sally port ..Istlon.• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted. circumvallate Surrounded Py or as If Py a rampart.1geway Into a Dastlon or wort. parapet .. nee / if you 1 :r:= L--_____ -..-.ea ~nd a In3ln fort~ ~ ur SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart.

. through . moat ' A Droad.. or drawbridge.. surrounding the rampart of a fortified town.. ---. . y .. The privy of.. gin ori the ~.lpet at the top of a CJstle wall. ~um An open space within or between the walls of a castle. ---. erected at the top of a lfJlI during:..l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I."11 if medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie. Also called / -. . frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground. rt..'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower.qy. Also called castle turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e.a prison or cell. his i IT + l An opening.=2:::::::':'::'::':":'::===< --. '~drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to Jfe{mlt passage Dene3th it. aye/te. ---.!. ward Power A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle..l loophole or crenel.I dt A snt311 or lI3rrow openl~ In ." 99 . A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'.---.. \ \ portculli~ dungeon A d. citadel A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city. -- -----... fortress. omet.. crenel.. --. ~. letdown.. ______ . usually filled with water. !n theuiOng. or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy ~neath.. ineJIev-31 castle. Also. 3S. '-----... ·~ donjen.. ::. complex. enceinte A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town.----. boo A pro~ng gallery or par. esp. Also called eml1attlement.. I machicolatWn ur supported by corVeled arches and having openings In the floor through which stones. loophole ..cl'eMI Any of the open spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement. merlen ~ . dr~~ridge A lnidge that can ~ raised.-------.-----A ~~ . deep ditch..--.__ 1. necessarium . a watchtower at the gate A slTl3I1 re.all o. you eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa . Also CJf1eJ tourdk.. or the place so gardero::'e. chapel Asubordinate or private place of worship or prayer within a larger A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times. HavIng battlements_ embr~~ure :.. molten Ie3d.( c he min-de. -----. l1arilacan._~!'_. through whlGh missiles may De dlscharged. Also.c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. In times of siege.. enclosed.ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (NU the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage. used as a place of residence.. -: '. used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege. . 35 In. kp I ." battlement A parapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels.I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of nee mlsslles..------.en undergrour. ~ .htch priSCf'trS were drOFPed A strong gr. _____ .ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---: al se cha '~..FORTI FICATI ON keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval cast~.Tted ._. esp.rYI'"!'--t:"..b~.barbican An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil.or door or glte to a fart arcast~. siege. cop ~-. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te'. l7artrun A sm.. oubliette -----.Ln¥OO having an opallr":J CJr1"./ :' . One of the solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlemerrt.... ' przttU _.. originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif. or castle as protection against assault..

cha se J. __ . .Jly on a supporting soil mass.5'1 ''\ ) softenlng of soil resulting from the thawl" of f".1Ied ~ry compression. I ! i i I I i I ::::::::.a squeal~ out of water from the voids I't"ftIIln the IlUSS..1llowal7le l1ealing kp ur ana cap.. .od-. i soU pressure The actual pressure tleveloped between a footlng and the supporting soli mass. ioo 9-.nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by Utml forces shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of a su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ soillly v~1 pressure...1cfty._. A reduction In volume of 1I soli mass under the action of.._.Y the freezing of Internal moisture.I3l Su~lJ1ng of a structure as the soli ~ Its fOUrWtlon consolldates urJerWdin~ ccnso IWtion The graau:.._.-t the -----_.~~ f·-·····--·-······~l~' i ... less ylekilng or restrained parts of the mass. fro$t ~on 2rching Tho t .1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vert~lstnJCt.~t'i~~~ i r" frost..a soil mass to adjoining.-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is utive e.u re.wt01....~ . . Aliowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 soil classiflc3'tlons are conservative values permitted ~ lIulld1ng codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon testing of the sot!....."f"""'y"IJI"'J of.l nsmftted and the area ori y permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter...FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on.._-..ndsot1 gin al that a soil ~S5 exerts on a vertical retal n1 ng stroct. / 100 ..... equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<. P'" 10~...1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure ~ The gr. 02'1 / ....i.... allc .l reductlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the application of a ~~!ned Io4d ~nd an Increase In ~5ttes5.a ~lned load.ent d the Internal structure of the soil In3SS after ~t of the load has Peen trlInsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlson&s.ol15OlldrtIon boo A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~ ~1~(q}=P/A if diffuent.~Jj\ I~ 0... DDDDD __ .... . designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth. nsf"ofst.Jre through the solL '" 5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings . partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground. Areductlon In vvlurne of a soli mass under the action ~._ .. due chiefly to lIt!ustr. cop 4IlIowa~1e be... "'''''T''' 1-.. due chiefly to.and 41 tr3nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli solids. r _ ~...1lsat!ement The relitlve movement of different parts of a structure caused IIy uneven settlement or failure of Its fou.. __ .abk ~ pressure.a sus~lned load. Also 5eCCrWry~n you c. AISiJ C3lbi ...<oJ.. nee dt his pf'im3 ry c. passive e. frost heave An upltft In scl C3used tr.line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost penetntes the ground.

..... Also called strap foothtg.:~.~~ ..mother footln~ In order to balance an asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load. tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun...@ ~~ .~. . ~ ...Unded to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J. ____ ...:t....1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil... ~ .-.v' cop al gin ori r- .....c.inchlng she3r ~ ' " ___ ' ..'e or below the sial:>. Also called grid.r"~' . ·r·····. sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce.. __ ''' __ ..1t A th~.3t providing a footing on yielding soil usually for an entire ~ulkllng..~ff~=------ ground sl# A concrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground.~..... . A rr.btlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the al1ow3tr1e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not exceeded..'co~f~ng~~:: .. ribs abc>... ~ -./ r .d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or an entire !:>u11d1~.·. _tonti~uotijf~...... the sla I:> must t. ... N:so called slab on grade.. ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lraSlment wails SlT">'. 101 ..J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r rI rl r ! concentrated leads...wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n boo P""f'CrlJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn if you raft m. flcatlng founJ.~{p.••. iI:SlJ311y reinforced with welded wirefJ!1rIc en grid of relnforclng lrars to sp~d footing Aconcrete footing extended I. l:r41~COUrse ~ . A refnforUa COncrete footing connected AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o./r~..:.. Also c. Also C3ltld~~~o.' nee !:>y a tie beam to . Over prol1lem soils.. --] ! A layer of caarse granular ~rlals placed and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ c.M the wdght of the construction s-upported <:t:""~r.~.. I I control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~. _ . foundation wall Th. -~.. des~ to support and anchor the I· "".... ....' :r~' Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s... . designed as a nut or raft foonaatloo...... -. FOUNDATION ~. .....1 F.:.- _. placeJ so that the we~htofthe displaced soli exceeds the weight of the construction. or piles.' .. ~~~~~s~pre3d footing of a ~ifo()tig: Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon. __ . ______ .~ as a mat foundation.pillary rise of moisture toa concrete ground sial:>. ' .-_ .. np17ta mat r" <.=<::.alled su!lstrate.!':... A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns. ik. critJc. L ....·tii.'. as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~. having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th./ .~~. ~ It. ___ .._.. To . "" . ur cha se kp ./ y . A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y a gfJ of . ArelrrforcelconGrete ream SUP~1I9 a superstructure at or neargrouna level arid tnnsfem~ the 9~~1rel' the pic:rs. · · · .- r I' r I I superstro<:1:lrre. ~ ".t ~U"" grak. dt his ~~~w~. _: 5 Ub-str3tucn ~-'-:----M ..~~parate or Integral f~s art required for heavy or ..t .i grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas......I ! r.~-.

i <~ ~\ '.. ~wn~ ---------~~ A pile dep<:Ung prillGlpally 011 the fric1Jon31 resl:stance of surroundlng ~ rth for SIip'f'<rt ... usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for lifting 3 pile In position !7efo". drivpl Into the earth by a pile driver until it meets the requlrea resistance. I 102 L . " .::/ .obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure. shoe /- ~~. pile C3pS. I f J ~ring stntum ____ J pile driver l1atterpile A pile driven at a specified angle to the vertical In order to provlJe resistance agaInst lateral forces. A machine for driving piles.'x~:.1 pile from Its pIa n wUoo the vertQl.:(. 3 drM~ hammer.'" the e!'\ se V H ori point-!>~ pile. I. Alsocalltd drive &hoe..' «/~~f~j~~~:i ~f. that transfers the driving force to the pile head.I:::~aa:~~~ : .:-'-~:.on~ Is not suitable for the direct Pe3~of~s. I L I if dt . Also called plfe ring. y ...:' ". cushion A cap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 "' driving operation. when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c.. :. :. i. a point of reslstanu.t cOncrete pile \.--- H-pile. pipe plfe . ":~' : . located just I:>elow the ra m. preca. used esp. ..1 ~~~~~~«.. having a round. ~ . or reinforuJ QlftCrete. sometimes ellGasea In concrete to a point I:>elow the water table to prevent corrosion.lift frictiHI The frY.tem t:hJt extends do.: ~t:~. J pile A~ slena:r column of wood.~.:-.FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn Afou~sy.1 load requlr~ to reach a ylelJ point. " .:.Jm.//·~t·¥~tE?~~. Also calleJ al SUITlXl~ soil mass ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long timber pile A log driven usually 3S a friction pite.' .t. '. s-tuare..:".l. or . ~<:..w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer !. as c:feterml~ by a ~all1lc plefonnub. or polygonal section and sometimes an open core. .t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of a pie and the soH Into which the pile Is . ~frictSon An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln.--.• " A precast. drM~.-'..~~:~ "" continuously for .- pile ~ity -.~~~· . The gin ~ l1eml>a. A~mofsonorrockon whleh a footll14 ~ or to wIlleh a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson.~ !~.. cushion head. 1- his pile to lmrIce fr. Also called cushion 17loGk.ciV3"tlon I:>efore i7elng fliled with COllGrete. rounaea tt::~J ~~~i:.. \ yield point The point at wn!ch 3n 11lGre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement. y cop f.r a .. anvil The component of a pile hammer. _ .'. j ":."en••mltea by the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOlI 111355.a"-9 pile -------~~ Ap~ ~g principally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath Its b:it for support. f I.!. '::::':.e p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile from the v~ for which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred.echnlcal Investigation of .' '" . An openeMed pipe pile ~ulres Inspection and ex... The hard. which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soli. drive l1and A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of a tlml:>er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven. point of refusal . driven or h3mmered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of a foundation system..a~ ~ st.. ccmpo.: . you nee A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete. often prestressed concrete cclumn. phed i. steel.1U pj~ A pile constructed of two materia Is... and tie l7eams fer transferrfftg !. and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer. H-sectlons can I:>e wekb:/ ~ether In the driving process to form 3fT'j length of pile. as 3 tlmver pile having a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile al70ve the water tavle from deterloratl~...~ .Julkllng loads dewn to a sult. '---. A steel H-sectlon driven as a pile. .. polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli.:' j: : :~ I~ ~·-·' · · ·/· ~ "Kf. ~!low3LoIe pt'1e Ioa~ the fourW1lon soil .. .'..a static load test. as from a single or numUeroff~tlon plies. often fltted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering.m. end-~e.eJ on a pile.A zone In a loaded soli mass by an ! arbitrarily selected Isobar of stress. ~"I ~~:~=:. The ~tIoI of.~. boo arm kp ur cha The NXlnII'I axb! 3nd bteralloads pennfU.----. resultlng In 3 reductkrl of Its allowable load. ---:--------. pi1efourWtion A system ofpks...:.11 specified period of tlme.Jullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate Uearing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure.~ r ' .

..... o 0 c~5t·ln·place co~rete pile A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground.:n:. -----_ . formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil ..'. A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section. A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete... y ori . i I f J pier .. _--_....• ped~1 pile A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression.... -. ........-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing m~n..-. -.. ......' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce. --.x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon c-=~ "..3~ Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'.. _......1 A pler.FOUNDATION· . ... ' . sometimes ~ or taperea for Incre:asea s ~s.. --... $eI')'(: f: A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process..d ~ driving 3 c.pile cap -------....cme pl~ Ir... 1 Unc..•. ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS .. Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground --..--..J-nd along wit...... --.... ~II . -..t.+ .. ..... ..on......~I"9 -.-..I cclumn or grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr.. ....1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other pile caps orfootlngs.• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar. A s... ..a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression. esp..... . I ~I~~n ..g cancw~ L.o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile..... Jalnl~ A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to...Ithln 3 c..~Cai5~n his . --...1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area.o -~ In o ° t::3 0 tiep~m oli}O Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont.!. -. ' The \... --: ..:r.... un-tll It meets the required resistance gin the i cas.... ..drel .. 1<: . boo pile rocl:~i5~n kp A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled......-. -.... --..tr'lir.-... when the roring Is 2 ft.. if you r nee dt ~(........ina then ftlnng It with concrete. cop al cha se I ... bdl17ucket ~I An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft. -' . (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom. c .o the gro'.e piles.distribute the load from .ed pile -. and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing...-. and then r...:hwn..- //' ur 103 .

1 I -1 rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr.lf dlsplacement produced In a r'. and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In nee dt his hinged frame boo kp se L1 three-hi~ fume A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints.frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements. fixed frame A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints.... the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie... J. .ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member. While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM r• y cop f1 gin ori the al contractlon. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u".e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely.1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr. In aaaltion. Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~ ur cha I. Appllea loads produr. I "raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4 pL1stic hinge A vlrtu.ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses. if • A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on .. 104 .ectea at theirjoints.ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane.. you A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints. foundation. Arigid fr. s Ides way The later.1me. temperature..Ise.~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or otJ1er construction.ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ. The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure.FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf. ~'1 .

ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent.~' r. .s at the Jolnt.. ~rrt&ver~ statlcally ~1n:.lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:.l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate ori \ gin \ 1=== I I i al ase the p<lrt. and that the acts :. Nkl~ ~ ~:.le for solur:cn. f'" 1 j stnlCture.iIt.. and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints InkUrmil'\.lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t.1I~ cop mme I I y I I' ~ eed ~ DODD DDDD DDDD tran.. Imaginary pin joints c.Jncy •..clumn. IO]DID]ODlDiDiol ~-. portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a . .. The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm.r' ""'! FRAME knee Thejur.. transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame.. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt.".o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level.un pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:..l5Surnes th. or supports needed for staDil1ty. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame..tstory frame . r petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'. connection.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU.. resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ.1'U deUrmllJrte degreeoffr~m if y A Ir1ethod for J!t:.lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute.ter. The C3rTtllever method :.. supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns.:cally determinate structure.:lulred for the statrillty of a st.-t:.d 3t e. Also called slngte-l1ay frame.e WJ<-'"tUI"e. multi. V-terenJ~1 ~5 A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte. Also called V1~ ~lrder.. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure.iIo'1Iter:.aUons for solution.d to parallel top and ~ chords.1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a thi sb ook pu A method for a~lyzlng a mutt.d ~ shear rackIng. Of or perta In Ir. 10000000-0 0101010101001011 . ~ dlfferenu 105 ..ch point of Inflectlon. A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true .il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre. corm~tlons. d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics.. frames.q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of 1 r members. . and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st..ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate.15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te...SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c. moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :.:ry ~ proportlonal.toryf""". . ~!M4 ry pin . degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re. DOt] ou n rch •.'ah.llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~.-fergiraer ~-..ll shar:. A strvctural member. . A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld ./ redund..ream defining a Single bay.

.. j ! I I 1 1 .1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon . AIso.d points along its length...• principal !?eam Any large !leam In a structur... ... wood or metal.tt&i if you nee I i poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly embedded In the ground asa pier foundation..... J L J . or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure.. .. or enclose. \ .. -. l light frame constructlcn A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng... define.. arc~te Of or pert3lnlng to a sys~ of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns. -. cylindrical. often s~nder p~ of ....me fIoorfr3minq platform fr3me roof fr3minq I froilmeworic Askeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to¥ther In order to support.. Also called primal)' ~m./ .FRAME froilmlng The ut. pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction. skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation.rte. Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \. .Ids at IsoI.. pole A long.. secondary !?e..ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists. . 106 ....Ieams to support wood planks or decking... proceS5.am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam.. J r"'"'' terttary !?eam Any beam that transmits Its load to a al ur cha se the ori kp dt his boo gin cop \ y seconml)' ~eam./ ..~ balloon fr.. / ..r_ . . arcu.girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io... stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water..

..--...... \ str3ining plect _.. ... rv~.. A mr........... ...... _.ren with thin branches. _ ..... -post .. cop tr3Ye _ .... ... fastened to....... _ . his boo Ioll'r'tr _.. .. A heJ.-.. Alsa Cd lied t>indin~ P-e.i ope~:ng.\\. a noggedpanel of haft-timber construction.... _...... !>etw._ ...II.. ..--------------- "no~ One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaft-timbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli.. . . esp.. ""'" .\ you nee dt open-timl1ered pan A major vertical division of a wall. kp ur cha se the ori gin al --.re the ground floor. Also... -......... ntern or turret on the roof of a rnealCal !lulldlng having slatted a~.. Also called full frame. _.5tiJd Ineastsummer _ .... ... WIth studs one story high filling the interstices.-.......1m... A SW11......':... ---" .... . _ ... 'fll-.1 wattle and aaul1 ~ I'·. Also....tnal foreaverlng a roof..ln-acea framework of solid girts mortlsea Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame...... .... _. Also.. principal ~fter _.. and reeds. Also...... Alsa called flush girt.. ---.. AprI"clpal ream supporting the ends of t:io-o sets of floor Joists. ..... wattle and dau...rer an Also called Ureast beam.. .·-·.... halftimbered. wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo.....)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder... or palm leaves....~P... dropped girt y half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster.... __ . -......Jres for the eSC3pe of smoke and admission of air.........'T1er supporting a wan o..... _ . if thJtch _......3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut:..t1on.. A form of wall construction....".... ""\.... as straw.-~ i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It 5U pPOrts. -.... the m'mbee' '" ..... ._........-i A crossbeam or a bay formed by A girt parallel to ana level with the floor joists. _ . used In the construction of walls and fences... sum mer -'" .'.~~~.--...... ~hrn9...... At:.. ~. twigs. fca m.. "-_ . queen post -.... _..raiseagirt crossbea ms.. Also ' C3 Hed summert:ru...FRAME praced fra me A building frame employl~ a he3Yj1... -.. "m!>e....... ..I 11111 107 .... "'--. "..... consisting of wattles COIered ana plastered with clay or mud. 17if\der --. --------.girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo...

. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum.-.i~1 to the y-axis. angles..GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties. measurement.. if you --...-. caordinate AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt. '\ z-coordinate A coordlnzte determl AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes..... and solids.right angle l ..1~ssas.. nee dt his faralleltoorope. '/: \ Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the postulates of Eucnd.___f __ polar coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane !1y Its radius vector and polar angle.tlr~ boo Ina plane line para lie! t. .lines. l"'4 . .-"'--~-. esp.. spau.... or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point. minute The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure... A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm.. degree A unit of angular measure.. A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness.' T}.ical f~~iartot:he p!3neof~ horizon. radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed origin of a polar coordinate system. Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines.e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure.. z-axis _.. point A dImensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon. 108 1 _ ..d1nates or y.aJ1:..... polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system. _ .j .mon point. 5U rf3ce. o~u!Je Jngle An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line. radiln angle A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx. J I I !1y ~surlng parallel to thez·axls. -. minutes. eq!Jldlstant at all pOints.. and relationships of points. 57:3°. ur Extending In the same direction.es~n caordinate ! y-axis . ~ccnd -+----..". The 3x1s along which o..' a17scissa A coordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis. ver"..r. -.--+----+-!c--+---f Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal.. -" ---..-. "--.-. i cha se kp skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting. are perpendlcuJ.. or of the circUMferenCe of a circle. _.. __ ...:. Also calLed axis of .. ---. horizonbl o 0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com..-...._ .ordinate . 3Cute JnSIe An angle ltss than oo~ '. system. The 60th part of a minute of angular measure. c. and seconas... / /1 1/ l.. V3lues are ~sured In a CartesIan coordln4U system. Also called x-coordlnau.. --: . or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea... or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes.vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't... The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another.-"-'. . deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt.:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate cop y al paralld .. polar angle The angle fortned !1y the polar axis and a radius vector In a polar coordinate system.. as the In~rsectIon of two hnes. and neverconverglng or diverging.o the horizon... . .. the ori gin rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordlnzte planes x-axis --_. Also called axi s ofordfuUs.. The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m. mea sured In radla ns or In degrees.. -.1in assumed properties of _.

.. v cop y coincideJTt .. rectangular Having edges.. Composed only of acute angles... surfaces.•• .'---: side adj3cent to the angie T~ ~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides.C.... pentagon A polygon having flve sides and flve angles...... polyhedron... The side of a right tri3ngle that . 109 .. aspect ratlc In any rectangularconflguratlon....'-.An ol7l1que hne or surface./ The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle. ~carrt "---........... rectilinear Forming..... ..JL ori $U~rI~ gin al The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides.·'"t. u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie. and of their . of unequaller!gths...espondlng II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......:. ~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" .. the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter. / I···· _../ ..1... plane A surface generated l1y... or faces that meet at right angles.. r- Occu~ tM same place In spaceort:~.\_. - n... The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand.... .3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~.. . acuU .etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~. one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent angles or vertlces of. if The ~rr. ....' _. ....exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I An outward projecting angle or "-.....an altitude ~n pe C011Str1.....:r.. ~ q.. formed l1y.r... esp. .. ...J~ tr'.. .. -...: :. "'-."" altitude .' -.. . -..e. GEOMETRY he~ht :.... .:....... the .~ trapezoid dt his trapezium parallel Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides tangent The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle.. I 1 I part... ..1-.3ppfk7'.. - . Lsalient obtuse --. ---..... -. The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~. "....... as sine or coslM. .. Extent ex distance upward from • glven level to.. .._ . polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides. ur u-Ig~etry ri9ht tria ng Ie boo '::'" hypoUnuse / . straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point... hexagon Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU.41 and cor.'.. aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~ A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel..e s~ of a~ht triangle.. Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length.. 1'3~ The the ~"""lOmetrlc regular . -----. . 1:.... I ~1eM -. . ~ 35 the ratio of tr. from which ... . parallel side. octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles. Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --. "'-... Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr) - cot.. fIxtd point.e.. vertex \. .. Having ~ite unequalsk:les. ~jmibr cha se .. CO"9/"tlCft _ •./ .."'-... &iN! kp A triangle having a right angle. C05eCarrt A polygon having six sides and six· angles.. or parallel surface.' . as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe.cf!$.. -.---...... -.• dIagonal right angles.. ...--= '-t:-.. Havlng.. The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure. ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _...: :..uadribteral Apolygon having four sides and four angles.d. plane geometry The pranch of geometry th.... as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than 150~ --'•. CoInc~ 3t all points when cant ...3 polygon or r-:....... :.- figure A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape. C' Ci 2 I b-: ... \.. -...i the sIde opposite a given angle:..... n :.. The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex.... -H....."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".. -. ~~ triangle Apolygon having three sides and three angles.. straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface... you G nee Q _....... reentrant Reentering or pointing Inward.j---.. ~-+--:""~+----t' c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use.. rectangle ! ----"'~~ side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side....-.... or characterized l1y stralght lines. such that....tde3ls WIth pl3ne~ures. interior a"9le ..rlc functions..... . -.. Is opposIte the right an~le. past!: .'-.......... . "'-..rtuse angle..:'... angles e:q-.o¥..3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides...~--------l.-.. function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl.... square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles..

! Includ.... . _. as a pl3ne with a tangent cylinder.' . ------. as clrc~s or .~ . ..... ~': '.---.e.. raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere te the circumference or Pound1n... helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a cylinder or cone Py the rota'tIon of'a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle.centerline figure. --. .. L . Is cha I . -'.. ...t the sums of Its from the foci..~...14159+. One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular dls~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero. .. gin :.. __ ..g-----+----r-~. nee . _... . meet.~rant cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer. ---.._... -...._.I '-" e{Jj~ ---.........------ boo ! I i i ur rouchlng at a single point.di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere. .. .---.. --. plane .. _ . a ccnstolrrt equ~ te 3.1 Aplane curve ~t3tea by.. you spiral •. a constant. ~ ~llw< . --..... 110 . . .. --.... cop cherd -'---'" . \ . .. ___ ... off-center Not centered or attne center point..minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular A closed pbne cUrYe generated by a point to the :T"-3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant ~ In such a W7"j th......:::=--...Involute Acurve traced by a point on a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder. esp... / I ...na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb end./: :' r-'''''--'' Any . '. the ~..-.t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~._ ....ne curve 9tnerated ty a point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the plane remains constant.. cusp A point where two pranches of curve and are tangent.arc . ----=-.GEOMETRY circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve......... sector A ptar...... eccentric Not having the same center Or center line.J The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear ·flgure.... without ~.. _ . __ .s the curve Is extended to Infinity... .A .nces from tl'lC flxed points.uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines...inflection Achange of curvature from convex to y al se ' colIC3Ve or vice vel'S3.' ...__ ../ ./ / ... .-....... or the envelope of the nortTUts te. concentric Having a common center... point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:. convex Curved or rounded outward 11I:e the exterlorof a circle or sphere..--."O". . ---.. "'>'" " The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve. . kp . --. if "---. . another curve...®I /-. ..-. ..g surface. or In contact along a $lngle hn!:. _ . circumference _..~?'~~:slng through the tn'ofocl of an ori i \...ice. dlst... concave Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere. - An Imaginary line that plsects.-. hyper~ol. _-._... the fOCi.../ I -. the perimeter-of a circle. evolute rhe locus of the centers of curvature of.~ b"dl" II"".. as a straight line In relation to a curve........'.. cycloId A curve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line. __. . -... eng.::t or surf.. A p!." ..p3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle.. asymptote A stralglr.. angles.---. pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter.. numrered counterclockwise from the upper right."oJ from or appl'03c:hl11g It....... his dt .. . q.-.. or the point within 3 regular polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices.. .. ellipse.. spheres. (f ~ \ An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a...d arc of a Circle.

.... _ .... Asoild ger.. -A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides. ed. the ur cone .gul3r polyhedrons: te. '.d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks. . selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'. cyiinkr -_ . dt right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its his center . ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer selid Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength. _. you if vuux .. A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone.. . ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus. prolate oblate Flattened at the poles.. . a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon. _ .. .... _. the vertex... cuP-e Asor.....ed by a straight line. Also called l7ody. ---. \---.. or end \.. passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt...fru. dodec3 hearon.directrix .. nee legs.rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls. pri~m / .. _ .'.... A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe.--r. volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies.GEOMETRY &pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to.mth are ell1pses. _. t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac... hyperbob .. kp moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve. 111 . -----_ A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet.. prramid A po~t.. pl3ne parallel to the :..... boo directnx.. the gentra0".:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-. esp. se An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'... and generatrlx...hex. cop al gin - y '.lse and t. ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with . Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces... 3S an ellipsoid.a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces.. A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el. --~ oct.... poly41ron AsoIkI ge.ex.... .'lvir.... equidistant from the center.1e flve re.1 ~ do<b."..tum Havl"9 the apex... uuncmJ .. A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt.edrcn havln9 a polygonallr..... measured In cubic units. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid..'.nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us. and thickness.etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau. surface Arry figure having only two dimensions. sphere major axis.. Eklngated along the po~r diameter.... •· ..e .. ' Pl. co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne..s <lna sides that are parallelograms.. paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone.. whose ~rface Is at all points ~._.g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~ _. A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its skies. esp.erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter.. congruent polygor.-_.iU1nic so~ One of t...n. The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane. Of' Ic054 heel ron.a sphere... hex3hedron.. _. by one parallel to the base.... hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us..a~ron A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces..::Istra~ht line and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes. ':. left aftercuttlng offtM top :... octahedr:....g. r~ular H....... _.t fates being 3 ri9ht angle.cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces..I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone. with.base.raheaml. .-_ ._ ...l:Ireadth....-_ . _ . prolate sphuoid Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener.. cha A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau. ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of ..- -~ tet. vertex.etrlc fi9ure.·· . Also called the ori generator -.

.. ~'~~~$j :~~~Wt~:.nd nearly dJ. . An o~~ glass ·f~ ccnceanrig the structural elements In curtain wan construction. J ..~~_ ~t. == bfoc~ of glass wIth clear..lnstucent. Wlre gi3ss Is WI1sldereJ a safety glazing m. A fut.... soda·h~sllicJ glass that J.. translucent met.. anne. _..< I GLASS A lurd. Float glass is the successor to plate glas5 and account5 for the 1113jorIty of fl4it-g lass proJuct1on.. __ .e «<aMI glass). Tempered glass has three toflve times the reslstanu of annealed glass to Impact and thermal I na J stresses ~ut canM Ue altered afte.against a ~fack ~ at the ~me temperature.. I' Annealed glass thJt is reheated to just l>elow the softening point a then 1'3 pldly cooled to Induce compressive streS~ In the surfa~s and edges of the glass and tensile stresses in the Interior. lIIe ~ toondeJ to the exterior or Interor sUf"bce kI reflea J portion of the JIg ht and radiant heat th3t strike It.. 112 ... Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while -. and futtenl"! It (cyffnder .le Ight tlut strike It.uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded withIn It to prevent shattering In the event: of ~bge or excesslv~ heat..nts If the gl3ss is mien..~"::!~~fl3t9IaSSDoncWUnder I I I I I float glass .. textured.-.s '" extremc:!y smooth . (32 mm).. or pattemed faus. ££~It ~~lmpartsa~h. produced by fusing a ~ramlc frlt to the Interior surfa~ of tempered or heat-strengthened glass. faPrlcatlon. or Pyformlng a cylinder. __ .a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwled slowly to reHeve Internal stresses. .iI~ eX solar heat tr...~k ~son. i i cop I ..". _u. made Py fusing two h.lI1easured :. Also called~t~~·.lass. * em~ The reb-tNe alIdlty of a surface to emit I'3di3nt ~t. 'h~di~ ~lent ~V:j~~i~~I~ ~j. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Pondea under he3t and pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resIn.lves together with a partla I vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings..~!~l~~· . si~~strength gla55 S~ glass h3-. dcuble-st.-l' . __ .4mm). heat.l T 1 1 . usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance.-' -..staIJizJtion. ~... Imp3ct'reslstant glass plock unit. Circular dis£: wIth a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod..5~. A tf.?o~~j~ if y Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or ~nd!llas~ to wscu revlslon. "_. Iron oxide gives the !lass a pale ~. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy roinng molten glass Into a plate (rotled glass) that IssuPse'luently ground and ponshed ~coonng. crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Py ~lowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into 2 fbt..~ i pu I I ook sb '"~t. heat :.. _. ~~. hUt-~Rf .ana sudden cooling.1t I1re3ks Into relatlvely h3rmless particles. ori gin al .:.. ht3t~enqthenedgl1~$ Annealed glass thJt is partl311y tempered Py a proctss of reheatlng:..i'~~g~~~ laminated gl3ss havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength. "either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In t. hermetlc -_ .~ thi ill J +.-.as about twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness.lniWe.lass). r~ I 1.._ . -"- ". sometimes having an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission.'~ : 1 = Flat or pattemed glass having a so.. produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without c!.._ . tJIvIdIng It lengthwise... Also called .. rsat~!!.~ T 1 I vlsa.. plate 5laS5 A fut.5.insmlsslon thro~h:l particular glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss..he sealed spaceoflnsula~ng glass. AIS<? called ~~:egUlar ou n fl§ured I~SS.~Il. . (2.. II IL eed SlJrface pattern formed In the roOing process to obscure vlslon or to diffuse fight. hoilow The r.. ~tem~red gtas.:~ y ! I r~u~lgb" laminated or InsiJi3tlng glass used for SOU nd control ! i I 1 \Wire9ra.~~..:.----. MUe airtlght by fusing or Staling. produud Dy ~ a Iow-emlsslvltyccatlng -.~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture to aVsorV aportion of the I'3d~nt heat and LL '. -··~~·-::~~=ll-j ~.and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl l1utyl'3l resin that retains tM fr39!?!t.ctly pm/lel resultln41n some distortion of vision. -r1 i -t- ase '~i~~~ A glass unltCOi1Ststlng of two or the .':' rch more sheets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-st3ied alrsp3U5.--. Heat·strengthened glass h:..stortlonfree.Ices are not perfe.ren¢l glass Sf-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In..).1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn... __ . ~ refleaIng the longer ~sofradla".. Glass biii'g'a thin. _u .1.sterl4l sdenkm Infuses a~ tlnt Also C4f1ed __ .. NllIbctured by pouring molten glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly.. When fracturea. The flrepolished surf.. shutgbss A flat. scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa ~rlcattd Py drawing the InOIten glass from a fumK.

anu bet~ the edge of a glass p-ane or unit and. s~. the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant.. ... -.___. --. putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil. . -. -----.---. eageck.mount of OYeNp between the edge of..glazing tape : . measured In tnches.g system In which the framing members are setentlrely behind the glass panes or units to form aflush ~ surfau. ". ~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps...-----.. Iii \ . ------The dlst... secur!l1g windowpare5 or..--.----..dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened.eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass C<lmpression ga~ket A preformed strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe.---------.----.----.. patching woodwork defects.. \.. glazir~ compound An adh~sNe compound used as putty. cop al ori gin cha se the ur his boo kp .. wi11dowframe. arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II rJb~ pl3ced l7etween sating block .-. hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points. IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass..l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates . ------. flush glazing Aglazlr. " "" if '. fAce putty .ce _. malntJln a uniform width of Sailant.a:zrng size..--. --.. Apreformed ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use... The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame.~ • . I: The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on ..structural Se3lant The .... ~e p~ck --.4 In glazing to form a watertlglrt seall7etween glass and frame.. .. glHS stu . -----. A thin layer of putty or glazing compound lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng. --\--------_.. I glazier's point ---------.en aglJss pane or unit and a Window frame to form a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass.~zing .-.. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus. cr Icd-strip gasket. of doug hfl:e consistency when fresh. glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me.I The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing tape or a hquid sealant.. or mirrors..azJng Urad.-"" t '. : An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead. -: .-' .. -----.------------------. gl._ synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower edge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame. curing to form anairtlg ht sea I. formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age. ancl Joined by.lce c!elr~n.ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening. ~-. Iockstrip gasket --.-.cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame..' ~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons or thermal expansion One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or dt or contraction...... Also calIea centerrng shim.- fra me" stop. One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c --_ . l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supporteJ at the head and sill In a conventional manner.GLASS t. 113 . I'i l wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant.--....... -.. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol. The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames. ---.--------..::... l:Jite ~. -... Also called gl.------.. -.Jcegluing doul:Jle gl3zing The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound.. The size of a glass pane or unit required for gLnlng 3n opening. -..las5_P'. Also catted glazing stop. -----. --. ~sured n~31 to th~ plane of t~ glass.. and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound. the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i. A preformed gaske-t of synthetic ru.--....--. Also called gl.---~-"'m----r .. pM or unit. used In '-.. stJbil1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass. =:'O~5~af~. Also called cap l:>ead. ." y dry glazing . with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions. A high-strength SIlIGoM Sailant capable of adherlng glass to a supportIng frame. -. doars. spaur.-. A Sm3n.----_ glazing ~d heel pe3d . ---. as In windows.----. held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket. A wood molding or meta! section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass pa~orun!tandtheneares-tfaceoftts r". curing to fonn a watertlglrt seal. unit'. -- .1 frame to unter It.1rance -------------.. stop.----.. -----~.-----... you "'- nee f..

onstructlon.' door. I Fl~) ---- rlght-hana Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads...--. as a wedge ex..... . d"" . through which mail Is denve. kp ur cha se the ".--. gin A Ir. --. Bor". if left-hand Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which the doorway leads..'~ doo~p boo . Also C31~ architectural hardware...... I J .---. when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to which t...... as the other accessories for lod:s.l i.!"" door closer for sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened..-. ········-·'·········:~I. doers. _ .i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell.--.. .. door chain Ashort chain with a remov:. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the floor. A hlngej ring. !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name... ~ ~- y .. -. A pt:t:Fho!e..----------. ___ -..---:::--. _. Dar. A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches.--. --.. gU3rd../ .small weight... . l1umper A~~ rim.e . fastenings. -..·.1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door...--... or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng.-.. nails.---. nee dt ~ . as In an entr. screws... often i'fith a hinged closer..!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me... ..--...-. ...A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~.heclc... floor closer --:....... L/ L right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads.. windows.. you L _________ . pad.HARDWARE The metal tools.·1-- ori man slot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war... doorptrt... al cop pun par _. the house Or apartment num~.. used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass.-. Also called letter slo1:..automatic door Pottom his A horlzonta IIr.-.•.--.. ------i I hand The position of the hinges of a door. hinges.-...-. and fittings usea in construction.. -' A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of . and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed doorclo~r overhead conce.... 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:...at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission... ._/ AtlevIu In a hydra!...•. judas I door pull ~ . .. cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3. - .J house or room... A device for hotdlng • door open. -/..--.. ana knocl:er -. Also calledJudas hole.1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads. or the IlI::e..eilas a utilitarian purpose. push plate . ~h hardware . . _... Ii -... ~ac~~ck finish hardware Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as..". ' door h..s....-.. Also called AcIocrcloserconu._. A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming.. .. door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more than a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed. L L 114 ..!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the Inside of .. A ~~!e for opening a door... .ie doorwIIY leads.. kick pL:rte ---. ' .3 ttd cfcser c. In terms of right OIna left....ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ . .l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor../.. -..ed.

d~~~ ------I ---\\ th~ tdge of ~ door 5 urf~.¥ .rolt on which something turns..and the long stem loeing tM mavaD!e lat. Also called sInkIng. usually conslstlng of two leaves . 1 115 .es. ~ :!) olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having 3n MI-shapea knuckle.strap hinge o A hInge havIng two long !eaves for securing to the adJ3cent faces of A door and doorjamu.~~:oh~"6t . _r----.' --------.-. ~ from the pln_ Also called sb ook gudge.on A socl:et for the pintle of a hinge. A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<. liftcff nl~e_ eed thi A hinge hJving a knudle formecl from half of each bf. - A hl~e M3vlng a nonremovaule pin.- _.. ------------. ~ah~.d on ana the other the doorfra me. plvatl~joi.-. hinge.d Into the door edge and doorframe SO 3S to concealed when cloSea..moofTk.----. \. wlth the upper haff remo. . door can stana ...lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon. single.. Also called T-h1"9t:. rI~lng hinge AgravIty hinge causing 3 door to riSt 0 ® 0 piano hinge II long.-.~~ ~. on which a door.--------.----. . ----3S tI-~ gudqeon of a hinge. templ1te hinge ~-.turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-. Also called Putt. or tabletop.(£5 '--------4-r-----.l reroovable pin 50 thilt . ~ from the wall when My ~ Ioc~joint hinge ------. ------.'.HARDWARE hinge mortise hi~ doojamb_ ~----------------------­ A Pun hin¥ I10rtLsed Into the .-------..I door can be unhuf11 P:i separ.-J gin ori the ..lting the t. A h~e Mavlng. A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surface". bst-pin hiO¥ (±) cop ~ A hir-¥ equipped with!r.atherextremltles. Also c31led concealeJ hlf14t:.\j ~l I tlpring hinge ~------------------------A hinge co~ J coiled spring In Its u-arrel for closing 3 door automatically.es of a door ana docrlrame. sliding.. . ~ ~"I . if y ou n pintle -----------------. flap bi"ge ------------------.='==-t~==~ ha~-. -~- 10 ·Y·~ aou17te-acti"!'l hl"¥ A hinge permlttlng a door to swing In either direction.~~~ .je hJvi~ one leaf mortised Into the doorframeana the other surface"--. 17afl-~Jring -. parliament hinge An H-shaped hln¥ hJvfng a protrua'1ng knuckle SO that.proJectlngjolntofa hInge through whIch the pin passes. or shutter swings.~.¥o 1a"e5_ rch pu ~ ase ------..cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hl"¥ with tM crosspiece 3S th~ 5t4tlonary 1!1emPa.dovetail hinge A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than at ~ei.-----------.urface li.rTt. ® pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re 0 0 0 ® slightly when opened .____________ '. -'----.. ~ gravity hinge A hln~ that closes autcmatlcally by means of gravity. ga~..--. ~ . with shoulders mortlse. Also cafled ollvt: hinge.. hinge ~---------------- _---. narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its .------. al ..I~..~ Thecylinarical.l num!7er of flat plates rotatIng about a central pin.. Also called l7acl:fup hl"¥. knuckle . _.-. leaf Ahinged. turns. gain A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hinge.. _.. fun-surface hinge.llIle hi"¥ A hinge consisting of.Mtln~ sur-f. --- pau~"e A hinge havIng .las of a door and A jointed device.--II pin cw.. -mounted on the fau of the door.JoIned together lJy a pin. mounteJ to tile adjacent fa<. y ® .-. ---. Ioc~pin hinge ------------------. usually fitted with sprln gs to Uring the doof to a cIosea poslt1cn after opening. or otherwise mevable part of a door.-. r'-'-invi.----. htthinge A hInge com posed of two pf3tes secu red to the auuttlng surfaces of a door ana doo1amu. A hin. Or moves.

...~ that falls or $ilks Int.GjW-.ng a !leveled head \ v~~~ Ioc~. ---. opern:ed ~h3 nisin.--"'. .. Alsocall&t~f!1~ al ~ ~e plate or surface throo~h which the Pelt of a lock cop reyel'5ible lock A led having a latchbolt th3t can be rev~rse.of an emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the uteh when pressure Is 3pplled.t hits a strl~ plate... -_ . _ kp Ont4 :r. A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-.J ~ jA ~. 116 L I .l that into posltlon !r..mbJer.mM An o~tructlng part In a lock that prevents a Dolt from relng propelled or withdrawn unUilt Is movea by the action of a Key.."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the bolt of a Into position l1y a that Is spring exupt when retracted ry a doorknol7.'e its ~..o fit Int. _-..---'. ccnsistlng essent13l~ cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the Dolt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have Deen pushed out of Its way.'.lncfuair<. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.._ .. '\.~Jdtt"~ i~~" A~~eor ~'f~~.. -.- (eyer'til.o A ~roove or hole.~ The'!iOrlZontal d1star... ~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that the Inactive A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lad bo!: .. • . or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed. cOQJ~i~!C_~.1 ~ 1 HARDWARE lock A ~ for securing a door. _pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ One cf *~ projecUn~ bl. ----.i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the &mit~~' -.·--··--··-··-··-········-~·­ lip .. ori An ont4rr.rt spans the Intero. : A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lock or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding war-If:.":.-..~b:.~--:-:.-~. _} 'i.-::::::~ .. //".. Also. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm. notch.3~ cut to. Mnr M:·-----------.'~iQift.(fl~sh'boit&iei.' The l1evel of a or lock on a door opening 1nU> the L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw. -'sc~ecn'1 face of a eek through . 'a for hoidlng 3 door c~._____ _ ~~wtUtil two ~Ies specL. '~'=--==:-". . ~'-t~ . drawer..ry leads.• b>evd .~..::-. ..1 doorpml1 having a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t wMn the door Is closed.• --.I I A' kd f3~~ to the f3a of a door.-'_7'.. -. as Dy a ~nob or key.~. ~. .l ~nc. ~ .y~ A slOt In a Iod: for receiving and guk:llnga~.. ~}t. cam· ... the turning Is of 3 ~nob or key rather than ry spring action. . . Also called stn~ piaU:.i .---. pani. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key.'.---.s.o~.--' --~--" A metal plate 0..nto a mortise In a the silL A horiz""tal~3r th..o a lad and :r"".. Afut meta! tUmDler having a pivoting motion actuated !r. of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door. if you ron ~... ~~~ A~ll1arorrodlnthe mechanism of a lock that Is gin pas~....~ ur rrcrea y ·>. :. .ental pl3te surrourJ1ng the sh. "'.. hen the door is closed. Thef.. POX aoor. Imh Ade...~.1f.~ . Also called~..~---.. boo .. The sIde of a lock facing In the same direction as the !level at the tTl aof the I3tchrolt. \. Also callea panic bolt....-.~.u irem the the knob stem.avlni1 a ~uare heat. '. -...:f 1- bevel The cplique end of a latch bolt th..-___ ~~ ~---:.L L L L L f "~ -y. sliding Into a socket In the head or striKe .gage with ana actuate elU-~::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock. .'. -_. Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu lar form that rotates or sl4les U> lmpa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface. roreJ at right angles to euh other. of 3 b:. the . or lid il posftloll when closed. .. . as arO'J rJ a keyhole.. t. movea \~. ~.d for installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door.br The prC¥Ctlng ulge or rim of a strike.·. keyhc~.---.ng a ~ey..u... one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---.fX comDlnatlonAn asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up 3 complete locking system.... edge of a door.:1omB~ II K:>&~ h. reverse bevel The Devtl of a Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the Pulld1~ or room to which the doorw3'j leads.'".. regu~r nee dt his Or shift that C3nies the knmand actuates tM I3tch •. leaf of a pair of doors Is permItted to close before the active leaf..:!y c~ t..'t) J l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into cha a doer ~ so ~ the led mecha nlsm Is ~ on ~oths~. the turning of a key.. or bolt of alocl:... ~.. .. Of locI: cylinder..hapeahandle ry which a door 15 o~orc~eJ "(fOcdiUilt -------.--.. drawer pulL '_ or r'9ht swluh.ich the bolt passes to the ~dJM of se turni~ propelled or withdrawn.1!-~ with the face or edge of a aoor. ___ doortoob..~ __ l ~~:.-:. panic h3rdware.e:rtal plate..f.

ruse..r .. if IC<J you 125lI I r------r-------------' nee dt his the ki10cJ lerie }: . 117 . In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure..-. kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm. . gin A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~.:.al. Also caW gram standard atmospheric pressure. .7ter. -' . . conduction.: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~. A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade degrees.. calorie .. 5ym~oI: I( triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid. . Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo.. snt311 C3lcrle.ospnere.------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~.. al : : which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under of -273./.-..latent hut "'*~~_=. first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit..r. . capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection.- ori ~.------I1 The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·.HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules. .l6 of the tr:ple point of v.67"F. -·· .. equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles.. g3seous.-e untlgr'3M.a l?solute zero The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete absence of heat. fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find Celsius.16°C or -459.~---__I1--~""r_--------___. _. ~ulv3tent to 4. 1 hatC3pacity ----------."ttem~tureaMpressure.. or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o. r · . se When you know degrees boo .iijbrlum .-- Fahrenh~itSC3le Celslu5~le kp A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n".. Also called ~ntlgrade scale.by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ". at a pressure of one aUr. 1: ~ const. ~ \ f }j)J ..c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase.al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale.alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree. _.186 joIJtes... ~!7s0lute ~are cop I I y I Atemperature SC3le In Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees. cha When you know deqrees Fahm:heit.. 'r<A j 1 epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F.alorle.-..3.eat required to r.~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea I l tlm~ -. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4. ----. Abw. AQl. expand: or evaporate. Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature. ur deg~Cdslus.a!ork:.16°e.lArge c. equal to -27..: c.lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(.