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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH ·ITECTURE
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Digitally signed by Arch. Francis V. Fernandez DN: cn=Arch. Francis V. Fernandez, o=SpiralArchitect, ou=Architecture, email=archfrancisfernandez@y mail.com, c=PH Date: 2009.06.06 05:53:27 +08'00'

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC
NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO

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This book is printed on acid·free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

Printed in ~e United S~ of America.
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U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

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This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.

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VISION 264 WAll 266 WINDOW 271 WOOD 276 pu ook sb eed FIRE SAFETY 88 thi if y INDEX 285 ou n flOOR 92 rch ase MEASURE 166 MEMBRANE 168 METAL 16? MOISTURE CONTROL 176 ORDER 179 ORNAMENT 182 PAINT 187 PLASTER 188 .(ONTENTS PREFACE 7 ARCHITECTURE ARCH 12 BEAM 15 BRICI< 18 BUILDING 21 9 FORCE 96 FORTIFICATION 98 FOUNDATION 100 FRAME 104 GEOMETRY 108 GLASS 112 HARDWARE 114 HEAT 117 HISTORY 128 PLASTIC 192 PLATE 194 PLUMBING 196 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202 ROOF 208 ROOM 216 SHEll 219 . SITEWORK 221 SOIL 224 CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 CEILING 30 CERAMIC 32 CHURCH 35 COLOR 38 COLUMN 40 CONCRETE 42 CONSTRUCTION 48 ~ DOME 60 DOOR 62 DRAWING 66 ELECTRICITY 74 ELEVATOR 80 FASTENING 82 FIREPLACE 87 MATERIAL 161 the DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 - ori LOAD 151 gin LIGHT 142 al JOINERY 140 cop HOUSE 136 y SOLAR ENERGY 226 SOUND 228 STAIR 233 STONE 236 'STRUCTURE 238 SURVEY 246 TEMPLE 248 THEATER 256 TRUSS 259 VAULT 262.

One can then refer to the appropriate section. a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images... . .. Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. history. dt al cop y 7 . Within each section. clarifies. brOn-5e the illustrations. . however. ____ ttl . This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe. and technology.he power of a solitary word or image. the ori gin Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign. the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich. r~'r ~ "'.. look rt up in the index. ' "')I if you nee One picture is worth a thousand words his boo kp ur I· r~ i i ~ I Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words. the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents. complex. then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index. r . ... While browsing. If one does not Know the precise teim. then one can 1001: it up in the index. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest." :. each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon.: . most of the entries naturally lend _themselves to graphic representation. and completes their meaning. and multidimensional nature of architecture.. =1~ __..-4-. if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. ~ I J Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. >+_. l ~.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning.. The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. RAther. cha se The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js. . Regardless of t.. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. and scan fer the terms. Since architectcre is a visual art. one C3'. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive. words are placed in a visual context which further explains.PREFACE .

Internal space. to know how to see It.~.l. Archftut.indsoon. which can De grasped and felt only through direct expmence..e Is l. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts. You must follow tr.palntlng. time.archttecture.:. ~hnology.palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~. to Pc more Im~"t than boo kp ur enemies. safe area In a profane and cha se It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities. In any sltuatlon. and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words. -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light. Tograsp space. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. materials. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors.in!z. when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others. to stress social identity and Indicate status. -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. ~urabll.ed.i Iphcnomen. Thought orders space. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly.' On the whole I think this Is true. and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure. smell. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. and Economy. The esstntIal step. and from supernatural powers.ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected. from human and anImal poten tsally dangerous !York.. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry.and sculpture are callecl the flnearts. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng. to esta~nsh place: to create a hum. that It act well.ls the J p"*. anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way. -l. and landscapes - are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. In the broadest sense. that Its~k well. -Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen L 8 . and ~ehavlor. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \. ori ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being. the book of their words and the ~ook of ~Ir art. ~use InJlldlngs .ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. - dt his if physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable. Propriety. No single explanation wfllsufflu. and engineering. methods of construction. Arran~ Eur:.. and economy. .are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures. and beauty. actlvIty: status. Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding l- people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve.gonlstof . -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng. for ordinary people. that It look well. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. roles. taste. therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all.thmy. But In the end.-Jng you nee l . I l I j pe~uty. They arelnstlMlons..lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society. touch. convenience. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r. and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture. a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time.e laws of nature and use gin al cop y desires and feel1ngs. the rookofthelrt!eeds. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone. and vision. Is the ordering or organizing of the environment. Is through the me3sura~le. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste.y ordinary people. .lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs. therefore. L L L the last. but of the three the only trust~or. whatever It has to do or ~. ana what Isexpec1'. the four facades may seem weU. and please us by Its presence.Arch~re.ed of them. baslc cultlJ. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that chrnate. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. and t. Sym metry. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~. convtn1enu. BUildings affect all of the human senses. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture. -John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect.sound.l::. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics.even appart11tly humPle dwcUl"4S.ools Kahn • Built environments have the I\uantltles of ~rk. the only varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements. -Bruno levi. But gr.

and SCIENCE architecture of DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments.I r I I r I I r' ARCHITEC The ART architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs. and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re r r if you nee dt his boo BUILDINGS kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y 9 . collectively.

fittings.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art. 3 forecast of future requirements. L L L if you L.ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. L J I 10 . e~lnurlng.l7tJslness. discernment. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning. fumishi~s. aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with tJste. design. and proposals for legal. finishes. Also called town planning. landscape architecture. urean planning. sometimes architectural features.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. beauty. often unspeGlfIal7!e property. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu. harmonious. urban design. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. and creative lm. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr. construction.Ilvldual u nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt. originality. ana beauty The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. i J taste CriticalJudgment. and city planning. includlng their color schemes. with a the nature of art. inUrior design The art. esthetics. city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community. and . layout. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting. url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces. excellence of craft. trutirfulness. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment. or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. financial. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building.xture. or other. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements. Also.

:t:...~:::~~~.ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalned!1y direct observation. systematically arranged and showing the operation of generallal'ls. --~----------------~ ~~-0. __ -. the study of the o~ln. The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work. busIness.. The science of human The science of human beings: speclf..j< ' . as salology ana anthropoiogy. society. -a i 11 ... structure.ape architecture The art. or profession of designIng. tectonics The science or art of shaping."'. arranging.-~'N~ :r~J:~~~.-.. technics The SCience of an art or of the arts In general. engineering The art ana science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design ana construction of structures.R. gin anthropology al cop y .--. technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials. ana environmental and soclal relations of humankind.·~~~~~~~i~jl:'~tl~" . development. that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of human behavior In society.''-''-'-''"''''"U .-~~:.. L ~-!~~~'cfitl. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons.. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs. equipment. fu neticnlng.. ana systems. omamentlng. the study of the origins. or assembling materials In construction.:).~ '~rf/ ~ .. and the environment._ ..-- landsc.. se boo kp ur cha nee dt his if you the l1ehavioral science Arry of the Sciences. '. and their Interrelation with life. and methodical study. experimental Investigation. . .. .. .... )". physlc3l ana cultural development.J)i1fr-..~~/:~~:-:: t~~"'''. '-"-?~-'- ~~. 'r t'\ architectonics r firmness The state or quality of uelng solidly con 5 tructed. -: r:-'... .. ~cio(ogy ori social Institutions and relationships: sped.. \.

.J"'pCjond the o:'.. _J 11 • formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ . . Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault.. esp. - . cha se the t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down ori LJ I u I if 1.". N50nty M-ch ~ keystone The wedge-shaped..' one of the arch centers.------. the sprlMIMtI line to the . Also~Sp2ndril. I.ndos of two adjoining arches. ~\----~-E:1 Tr. Also called folster.g Acrosspleu connectlng the I".._s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_'~~~~========================== __ Impost r l ..t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.. VII I 5pring 1springl~.-U-l...l>s in 3 centering.the The first v'oussoir resting on ~- M='=a=na=rch==_==================~===±~ ______ ... Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_ l.highest J'"Ir1 or point of a .. \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch.rJ t.~\'~~[~. as anarcn.... ". capfbl.r-->n\---:intrados-..1l)1per 51ip....I or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch.: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch.h'e~htof~na_hfrom"." .h I ~enur!ng A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself.. II j ffilllI{ _ L L / _ 12 L . i al vault. f ! L L l L L '>.:'. Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~h Ill(.f t M ! f ! .-. Also calle4C. ~_e.:.:.-. camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch.es ornamented area 17etween the ~. ~croWn .~h.----------.. '. or dome rises from Its support. or ... archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd .1 It. often In the form of a kp !7Iock..e uppermost part of an 4IPutrnent. havl~ side cuts converging . you nee I. - -.....' spandrel The point at which an arch.. when e3ch Dro1·~. . or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch . _____ ... ~voU$$Oir H--~_ __________---.~.. -The.or~_ gin cormx ccnst:ructlon.-.. I: dt I· his j boo ur L . VJu~. sometin-.tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening. I ! I from the crown to the Impost.. surface.. • extrados The exterior curve. des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression..···r lJUVUrt. "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t. Also CJi!ed cop y The triangular-shaped. from which OIn arch springs..:. r... j I .e pelcw. serving to lock the other voussolrs In place.. ~ An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs...!-~ ...~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ ...ntraclos_ t J -----t5pn'. or molding. often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch.

fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form..L-. two-hing~ if you nee .1rc_h I An .:.~ abutments. As with any funlcu13r structure.l ARCH I l r r .In ori arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis.. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh.--------------+-'arch action I The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway. steel.~----.gan archeJ form. thru-hinged arch A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form. one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading.af projection y se I . tigid arch--·i An . i The thrust of an arched structure on Its ~~-#-r-------------t-I.m::hed structure of timber..-..~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure.ul concrete. vault. proportional to the total load cha i ur ana span.ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern. or relrrforc.--. I f" .:. A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.~.~ line of thrust.. a TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o..rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading..oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul. r r . funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes.-. or strut.4dt his boo kp arch -------~ ~Mment ~ The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch. Junic~lar . The setof·resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one. gin An tr.. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses. esp.. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. ~ tie rOd An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie.pe for a c.r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW.d C'ltritS horlzw. f f .-. r--~-------+. . and Inversely proportional tcthe rise . ! --.---------J-. I . Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture 13 .:liI~~·::it-"Jrlft" cop the The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another.r 5hape for al Ithru5t.

~ .. . often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng...nch.'ed Intrados.. .. <::<:.\"'. I A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. . Alsocallefn~ de panic! \ if you nee dt his boo "---~_+ '---' I lJ polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown..c:. : . Also C31~1c ai-aI:'. esp. . . An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r.1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three round or pointed foils..~. • RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr. other..1rch Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes.~ ":-:.:Idiating from ~ center ~w. -3..1rch . .:Idn. l~ ! o¥earch A pointed arch. fUt.'trefol1 arch An .:ldos. I l. {j !PeUarch with cUrYed taus. An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn. se ur • skewPact -'._________ hor$eSMe arch An.J I ~~~Iarc~··. Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch.. .ed.. The stepped reveals may be smoothed.. o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening. L i L I L i·t-~ : 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span ..jJ rounded crown.. --~-------~ sti~darch ~ . A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center. / _l . a semicircular one. kp ·~·t··7-·. fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the 1 ~\. • ettuli~r3rarc&' equal to the span. . ApoInted arch.-t-. one havIng two centers and equal r. ~t corbel arch ~ French arch . 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels y .-_ _ _ _--' A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f. I r.Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests.:IdJl tess than the spar!. G~thl~'~Rh.' .cncave side uppermost I L 14 . round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc..:Idll la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span.. Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r. '\i. \ ~ ~ . basket-handle . but no arch action Is effe.A·· . /.':.i~uations of the arctr0lt...J/ . -L . al cop '" 'to> fi) . . i rampant..rch having an Intracios that Mdens I ori aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to.ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t .:.. e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c.i An arch strock from one or more the gin I cha centers ~Igw the springing line. ". \... esp.! . drop al'C" A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r..~ tJ .

J.---...:-"-------------4I -r.em~ ~tes from ..::. to designed W C3rry and transfer ~ ~1!1I~~!i~II~..--- ur r f dt nee cha se .----L..lncre3sing with Ioad. fl1U31 to the a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on one side of the . generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~..oadsacross space r+---1-J-h __ 1span L. I : : ___ .lII~IiIi~Ii~~tirjainiSViel~e.... having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs..-~---.....-......--'---------"vz:-~:. ----.~ ------.. ~~h~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---1 . -.. The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of il span. ~ 15 ..---:\ vertical shearing stress.. or ~........ - ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure.-----.1 true W1.-. a.neut.... urJertransverseloadlrtg.. havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces.l...e to a ~~ roment.~------.--------..----.-T'..IIIii!lIlIii!!illIlIlIlI!liI..BEAM A rigid structural member 5UPPOrtl"l! .i-alaxis .ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or the modulus of ei3~..= i~=!r~~ler ! span..__ . ~nt Into al>tam.!.: __ . the strocture so supported. :::::::::::::::::::::::::. the ~~'...~\ ~ ..alshearforu at il cross section of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~. ~ ~ \?ending' 5tre55 . cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force. 'U y . --.. --~ : to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:. -:-. Also... .-=---=--=--=----... C An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or other rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng. truss to if you ~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y r compellS. ~ : : ~ ..-----------~ Un5lon of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end.L....-- -----+--____-L____ 1'~ The snearlng stressdevetOped t. 1 ~~moment t------------------~-• An fnt:er. gIrder. "'-... ori gin \ . -----....at that point AISO ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~1'in4 s~s.::::+~.:. rc\earspa~..-.ctty ofthe~L -===------------------~Iii =+ t f ±[f * -+ + [ distance l7etween the supports of il \ Ptnd~mcment -<..1te for an anticipated ~ ~--~-- r l i .. i i r f under ?4nsverse loadlng. A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at... --.-__.- section.~'.!--------' ~~ulard1stance il spanr.J prevent slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' . " " " " . -: ~------ -An extern....?'-"' An exta"Ttl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt ~14 his ~..~ualatanypoint ~ . al boo I cop y . .z<_~:..e sectbn Deing conslderecL ~ft..i~ If'. alonq which no ~endirtg stresses occur."ents.... and aecre3Slrlq ·....J~ kp L . ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ co ns k:lerJtIo n.ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-.h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr. . The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear.lM span.mpresslon ''-.

of the mem~er a~out. _1- cha se al boo L kp J if t dt At th~ nelltra/axls of the section. M C =MC{J)~-----where mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation.!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a.1l stres:..( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the m3teri.tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion y cop 25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis 3861n 4 = iaboutx-xaxis 5 52.mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq. The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea. prevent torsion or twlstlng. JouPling th~ depth reduces t.a 16 .61n' "" S 54. " = Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~ ry 3 tJacre{ z. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ .J she3r 5tre55eS. only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp.a transverselOad'. At the txtreme surfaces of a bam. his For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut. I I ~- tension L L r I L J - 5hear ceo'Ur s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?· T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f. I 1i 33. section modulu.ect to botb be:nJlng x. Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material.s to the neutnl1Xl5.mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe..r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to Iongltudlnal axis. you nee L . the prlnctp. secuon.7in 3 = ori the ur gin principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam. -.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5.BEAM fp f. I = extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng = bending n10mttTt = distJnc~ from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9 If Yc = ®~-------then fp =MIS 'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.25 inz = Area of section 11.

heard~g"m li'l:1 Illllllllll' III ! (III )..E 1representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support con.lted loads produce bending mom~ts Iouls and support condItions. ! !. the values of an reactions. shears. Also calW hu~-span. and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its cress· sectlonal shape and ma~31.. Uniformly distribrMd loads produce parabciJc311y var:lr..J. .'''''.. ... quiIl3ie... .ifT1ir. .. IJf the sp:m.otlwfly detennlnate structure.'. effective length The dist3~ce l>etween Inflection points In the sp3~.t .e projection for wltfch the morrr~ oy~ the 5I. hearforcesthatacts "e:rtIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left pol rt of the structUrl: l>elrig'c·onsl.. positive shear . As with any st._.1gram _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~.'''~J'~.. ccrttinuou5 pe4m .~~L..t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the 5f!41 As5l..-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3 simp!] s~pportea 'eam.. 3 uniformly distri/7r. nee dt 5u'pended-5pan A sImple ~m supporW by the cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans with plnneJ constructlonJoints at polnts of· zero moment..LM I ' cha positive moment .. a~ on~one I momentdi.. if '=~'t.re approximately '/."r:esutta . you ~ be3m exterJing~~t~~ih"...l."'" overhanging l>eam Aslmple beam extending beyond one Its supports.f a flxed·end or continuous beJ~.~c..!!e...~~ . T -.f-l-l.:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr.. nt.rfy between loads..r. whleh are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce. The overhang rl:duces the positlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~atlve moment at the Inse of the cantllever over the support.P...LL...BEAM l f r . of..I. shearforcesth3tacts r vertIca~ upW1ra~n the left part of the structure !:>efrig ccnsldere.' y ori gin al his boo .ff£ljs at Dot.~J~. I..lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m.~* ~~~: .J..~... .~ ends...L 1.j...-l A !:>ending rT1<lment ~ proaiJce$a concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure. t r i ....~ mcments..-L ~====~J====~l.t..L L.'~. The overall which vary hne.. ~.. I ...II.nlch the mommts om-the supports 3~ eqlJ3/ md oppo$'U to the momer.ln: ..d.l ' i l t +111.!:. .~~~ tr..~!"'''"'tant.-L-L.. J.: : t' . '~.. of.!<L :. A graphic 5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0. J. I Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW l03d. 17 . L. r r i fF :-~:~~!-W.1 A~. I .:lered.l.m.-:-7"-"-. ·~~~tf~~~'~=:~~~~~==~~~~~~~ cop ~-:-:"rr. 6' ~ J .-t. ~i ur kp flIt..t 3t midsp71 . and ~uce Its maxlmum defIect1on. ~:.. .": X'pro~rij veat:ns.. tJ....~..'I! Concentrated loads produce e~mal she~ -' cantilever peam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce line3ri) :. span and loaJlng but also on cross· sectlonal sn3F~ 3'1d material.1i sim~~~u. .. Both fIXed· end and contlnuous !:>eams are Indetamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions.rW l. " ~~§Jn ordu tc aevelOp gr~~r rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple ~ms having similar spans and loading.L i. . dd1ected shape of a structure sul>ject to Pendlng can often ~ Inferred from the cantilever shape of its moment diagram. the projections for .. I! . :: : I : Concentr.: A¥3EIC:~torrott~~n.u pPPfted..:fitlons..f~~jj.s . se the ' r ~ . .nsfer !:>ending 's~s...... and moments are dependent not only or..res~l?nt. negativeshear . : ... shears._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~r----.. ' :..L.

.. The ~ofW3ter a~ Py.. The processprocess of forming prick l:>y molding ! scft-mud relatively wet clay havlng~re C$Ywt.. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated U.. narrow color rA ng~...ortk)n albwed In a facing ~rick unit. expressed I~ grams or ounces p minute.. ~-----=::: se t1~­ ~-~~ Jfi!e.... l i~iil~II~~~~~. -.. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weIght of ~". _... 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality.es Ukely to ~e. ··: AGT{£mUle of fire cl3y ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces. A clay used In the making of ~rucl&t.1ndstruck brick Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process wlt. _ _---=------~:::: if you nee dt \severe weatheri~.edryl/l1lt.... mingl1rict' Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall. Also C311ea building br/clt _...~·dIng to annual winter rainfall ana the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days..17a\:ir-3 . A !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to the ground or uSMon surfar. a~. . 1drrprcss process i The process of fonnlng prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~. color.. esp...~glg~ ana 5\Jrfau text-ure.. U I 3 weight of water absorPea ~.j~~SIIII~ . aria otHer objects exposed to high tempentlJres.clent..... . y FDA F._' partIally Immersed for croe minute.andm3XlmumSJturatlon kp A dr!s~tUtIon Indlcatlng the aura!7i11ty of a . maximum water lorici~' . producing dense surface. ~. --: j5. . . AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of iI~ iTl3S011f'y unit when ~. Indicating the ~ reslstJnce of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing.. - t. moderAte. j~~hin~'f f. Wct¢ry A material having the a17i1lty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures. u u I FB5 F...T1echanlcal pafectlon are rea.- .~ mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9... coefl'. A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~'-~~ ~~as when used as a 113Gb.. . ch Ippage• • "d dJst.. producing a matte'textured surf~ 3 1 prick_type! r waterstruck hick A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rI3tlon In size..l7ridcr· .. of 51 W under high pressure.Jt ~ . and high degree of l. "trrt-mud pro~ ! The process of fonnlng prick and structur. . claL Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time. rex F.lJJ.nd greater variation In size art' ~rmitted than for type FBX.. or dryl~ tlml:>er. often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~.S..!U£Ki Am3SOf1f)' unit of clay... :....ang I1ricl:: sulta171e for use where a !I'1inlmum V3tiatlon In size.ls dIv1ka In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures. 18 . color.. .~_c~ ~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorPed ~5bhiy Dille hf!fflersta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight aDsor\:1ed when ~ In rolh~ water.. ur his j5W ~ ... Briel: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 a smooth. Brick is pJd for use In each /'e9lon accoralng to ~ strength..e:q. cha !cuU . resulting in sbrpedged.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7le for use where p.serer!.moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e !:>rid: untt wfIen exposed to weathering.. smooth-surfacea pricks. or dryi~ .III~1 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~. Also calrea fa c't" In-Ick.il tile ~ extruding stiff l:>ut plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through a !~ ana cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing. A ImCk grade sutta~1e for exposure to-' .. l. I:1aklng. ana texture of the Individual units. 'ccmmott~~ Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re.rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng frotn lIOIIurJformlty In size. m=ks...as when In contact with ..gwr prism while plastic and lurdened Py drying in the sun or firi~inaUn...lSOlllj' unit when NW .. I"'.. .. and negllgll7le .. ~!y_. one for firing pottery. formed into • rectar. fumau or oven for Pumll1g.i al ori gin the t MW~ ~thl~. cop 1 b1n) l.ulred.cc.: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr.......cln~ kick sultJple for use where a wider color ~...5... ~ .~ permeated with water In subfreezl~ temperatures..-_ _--.'" orin Itfterlor ma son r y .. boo .

e i-. thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint.wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21. 5 COU. 4 coursts = 8 In.. (102x51 x 305 mm).3 courses = 8 in.~ Briel:: h3'.wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s. (102 x68 x203 111m) . . -.' dim ".5In.fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou. sb ook eed f i r thi seal' I -'i " stret:.--~------_e====~~~. Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in."'J ncminJI dimensions of 4x2x 12 in. ou n ht-J A !mel:: cut t.. ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons of 4x 4 x 5 in.wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21.. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .ikl vertically with the I1read faceex~. .' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her.d.cMr A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid eage~ A brd or tl... TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a certain s~ c-r sl1ape. (102 x 102 x 203 mm).-~. AI$O. r r Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the m3nubct~~e-.Ion I to A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the . ~l . (20."'5ts = 16 In.lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface.'3 x12 in. engineered brick AInicl: h. fc. (I02x81x203mm). .a....3Ying normal face 2In.(51I11m~ dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot..-.. .BRICK rnoml.. (102 x81 x 305 mm). .... (406 mm) F==ib=~=:. A 17rld: or other m3sonry u..119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) . (20.. -.'3 x3 in.3 mm) y Roman ~rick Brick h~''.. ''~r.! '! 1 • See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr. if y r r ~:.~J A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed ..3 mm) moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h.nlt /.~~J A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed.:s 19 . rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~ :·'·'·' . '. SCRurick .~~} r~k l. itorl .. cop ori gin al the pu rch ase • r r jumbo urick . -·r---· ·'h NormJn brick APricl: h..

. the conskuctlon. ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow dt A~ bon(i having alternatIng fJem~~~1 L ~da~ ---------. !F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c.otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers stretchers. cfO$Ure...~.. ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f J J f Ii clesa' . -. you nee headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~. offset to form a dta mona pattera.. ~acked I1ond.. br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : . Also.successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily.iI~...1nl1~..! I i I j pa.. lnaiCOlll'StS. --. ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor.iI regular.cner of a wall. ~tack~ond ').. usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of .. -.. Also. with each heac..t~:-:~~. j ". .. Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork..ourst:S n ~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded po ~~~~~i~~~~= ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls. tM art of bondin9 Prld:s effealvely.......BRI(K fbrickwcrij erfck~Ion. having a seq~ence of a header and thru stretchers In each course.A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP.e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks.flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as a heac. soldlerccur5e. .by half the length of a stretcher..... A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co. Also called al cop y 6 Flemish CtO~5 Pond A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ . '~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~.-Dutdt~1 ori Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the gin ~~~l ~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD ..ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses. if -..C\uun closure. reglbr !nicks..00..I...n~~/. : : .. Also.--··-·· . ki". ur forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng his boo kp cha ~ ~=~h::~.AlsocalW ..t ~~C=::J( .- - se Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically ODDDDDDDDC ... A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of OY~ stretchers..f'rieffi.. .. t= L L L f L J 20 ... esp. recognluble. ODDDDDDDDC ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[ Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO( .... closure. Also called 's~ron(U . .ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.t Also.

es. and the Cdumn. Wt Is ~ tMrJ. esp. the projection is calJtJ . Atal pest Is caned a PIer.Jose th~ 5pau WIthin. A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in.Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<).e4 Py . frieze.:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It.nd a Cdumn If It Is round.J/f~ the ~ ArchItr. cha se system A group of Interacting.tIIeJ .:twetn.arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e. the ori gin al cop y )1 . The principal member (J( a ccmice. &ornJce~the~A~ 3f1~ ~ ~bya sa-trJf c.1b1e 35.lfthe fYX!f extenJs b.aI. his boo . A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to. .?r1Unuou5 3rdI c.in Roof5 T/U'j b.. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15../ CiIp or.. f3e5kks ~ valu. is c.25 bng. If the rr..a .BUILDING Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use. ~ xt ~ for access.. The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c. construction.ve. or curved.i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip. If two rQ/Js m. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof.. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (.~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15 the~. ~ the chidptofthe load they urry. the 5h3ft. ! ~ uperstrLICture The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation..1 sh~IUr. a building ff!3y be In It6df.al/ed -William Robert Ware (he American Vignol. roof qf the ~ stcry b./ ComJce.. Abc¥~ fC.XIII form a G3t>1e at t..Jn5 and le.11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int. and wind.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs. the projection 15 called the &. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~. . the ItIcfJr. Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .. or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh. A low".l pier or c. by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details. Interrelated. The ~ the keres.3ch~. if The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 you cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude.alled wpftals. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t.er. Wans 3rC ger.d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley. ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa. fIrltIr the roof tit. me&t..fIeJ . If the ~ emtmy m. and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to ~ubstructure nee dt A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b.aIl:. JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI.ln«pendentJy of ft5~.: f!.3d rJfby a floor or reef.1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~.15 to get a better b. SUn. A ~s (J( which Is c.· the Frle:zt and Cornice.1t Is a/Joy~ them. a Ccrrke.alled The Wa( the PIer. IfIt project6 nJCh.at~ In5tt. If It Is 5qlI3~. WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t.iIboIrt.3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9.. :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who.:. .31 rlJge.Jvcks. ~C:Z::./ Corona. or EpiStyk. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m.:rs./ Y. If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r. COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb. the fL1t.it:.15 h35 been said. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed.Ro:7fs and waDs. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It. a reentulng angl~.lt ~ ~./ noble md delightful obJ~t. to serve a common purpose.7t rests upon them. Orcul.25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:. a~ns:r. and l The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other.:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~. Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c..~~~ sloping.dumn MJJ a tIr. door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95.ne ~ they meet In a hor/zorrt.l1ld w. kp ur thaT the Ole.

.. j A l1Uila~lt\3..J 1 .~"4 a contlnuous or nearly: :l the ~ I 1rR? ! i /\ /.1. esp. l. two. ma ssive structu reo or 1m posi~ appe:araru. I A II g J.6L--_ _ _ _ _ _--i gin I se continuous floor ana comprising the .. I _. ·.uently converted to residential OCCt..' al I l comparatively large numl1er of stories and eqUipped with elevators. or exh ii:>itlon ga l!eries..r->.uarters. .p3r.BUILDING I edifi~ j .1. \. I boo kp -~-' J J I H+l rF n~ his nr nr I I 4- i 1 n i f ~ - - jJ if you lk.. I nee dt ~ + III f. ori __ . as living a. or three stones.. : spa~ l>et.. ') "1111 i 1111111 ii II ( cha '~ .-J ". artists' studios..L l.a l1Uilding having one.. cop I -' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz..:-. I ._ _ _--d:f:bFfb--___~ L .L. OM of ~rge size. high-rise Descrll1lng a l1Uildlng having a LJ o I I1uildi~.nd usually 110 eleva te r.cy. u.ow fre'. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~. I loft ~ilding A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space. I I II I ( '( V I H B I - low-rise DescrlUiog .i .leen two 1acent levels..o~ arvision of a y \.•./'t I-f-- [] I ur ---~ . typlcal~ unpartltloned ana I I sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses. originally renUa out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r..---. . 1j I i L1 J r I.

.." An area In a Irolldlng hJvlng a clearance less than human height... --...• -.... _ f L -crawl space .. and light to a !7asement door or wIndow. a house.. the first floor IS tile floor ImmedIately above the ground floor.. havIng a number of rooms and .BUILDING L . extenalng horizontally throughout a : bulkltng.. nee dt his -B-- r.. esp.. luff eltory -../ A horizontal or Inclined door over a / cop -$-l ... you --..---------~ ...-.. for the storage of food. cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms.________________________~ [f l1ulkhe3d --.. y :'.ms.. ur cha se boo kp ! . air.v - . torna.... tsp..1r.... esp....ground floor : The floor of a Irolldlng at or neartstto ground level r k I ·"f fr--4... constftutlng one level In the strocture..... or hurrIcanes....fi~tfloor ! : if I The gl"O'Jna floor of a bu!k:flng. subbasement Arry story or floor l1elow the maIn l1asement of a l1uifding .... fuel.rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding.'" pasement : Astory of a l1ulldlng that Is wholly or part~· A I1elow ground level. or the like.~l__________~____s_ta_I~ ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_ts_s_to __ __ a_ce_"a_r_.-. ". mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a l1ulkllng. -. !rot accessll1le I1y crawhng.... areaway A sunken area affording access... -•. L L cellar __ J A room or set of rooms..--..-. -.•. al ori gin the I ~ . In 8rltaln and elsewhere.. -. such a space I1elow the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls... . one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with the story I1eneath It.floor A contlnuous supportIng surface ... usually hav~ng dormer wIndows for lighting. ".... Also called stann cell.. as cyclones. wholly or partly underground and usually l1e'neath a bulk/ing. A usal7le living space withIn a sloping roof... t.

BUILDING
l.;" .... ,~~
~

..

(.~

~~~~~~~~------.----.--- ---~~~
...

~~

" ",,_,
• -'-,

"',:r

The front ofa ~ulk:llng orany of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

fro nUspiece
A prtnc!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature a facade. often t~ as a separate elerT'l!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

eatment.

""
", """""

,Ii

OrT1a~ntation.

ase

:-- pavilion ~ Acerrtr31 or fIa r.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ subl~lvIslon~~ : of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d

the

ori

~"~~~==:S

gin

""""

al

cop

""""""",.,'

y

1j

1

!

rch

distinction of ~~r,e.

IfII

pu

'=5e~~~~~f1~~~H I

sb

~~==~~~~~~

ook

~~~!:!..SI~Q.,.,&:!..Q,,~"l=f~A=1~n~1

.

!

nlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

d

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31
ofa n.ve..
dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

u

pay
Ar'rJ of. 1\~mber of prlr.clpal dlvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports.
bll~r"f

ou n

eed

thi

if y

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

I7lind
Descr\bi:'~;;

I
recess In awall havi~
~alccny

U

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (PII r.d wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of
Je~n.

An eb7ted p13tfonn
projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of' p3rapet.

l~
i

l=,I

==

fenestration
The design. proportioning. and alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings

II

t.w

I

:

ana

of a ~ulldlng.
I

L

nnnn
24

L

BUILDING

I l

r-

l
~~~
~

~
r = r-

~

~

. f==

I-

,~

~

I::::

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps
$Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.
ofahou~.

:p6~1?:1

at the

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a
~ulldlng.

\

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

ur

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

cha

se

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i
0

~n

roof;J ~~d

the

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure.

ori

~

r

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

IcnrWer/

gin

al
e
lf05te~tq

cop
.'.<
-/.~
:
I

y
-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.
' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

kp boo his

::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _ .......... 2"fO~hert: •

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.~>;:

dt

ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . .
1

fJ \L")
(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

nee

I i

: ;

I

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r
~ng. --.-------.--~

if

you

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25

BUILDING

rotunda
A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

,!' piloti _:._ ..i
1

I_L
arove

A wIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing
Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a TId sul10rdlnate to auntral or main part. '

---- Any of a serIes of
columns supportIng a an open pulldl~ ground level

I

~

.>.

A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ..., respect to its length hetqht. ~

3na

JI

~

II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof
~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

cha

Ploc1:

se

the

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng.

atrium

Askiit. central court In a
buil.::li~~.

kp

h3v1~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of

ori

esp. a farge Interior one

gin

al

C
~"
, .

cop

~

._entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~~~a open to the sky and mostly or

·-'V
./ '

y

I

I~

ur

courtyard

galb'es.

A court adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

~~

~ccurt.

you

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -.................... -........... J

nee

dt

A cOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an

his

-

................. .

L.fi "
atrium An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

boo

patio
A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls. .

if

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the
~floor.

D
i •

corU!e .. ---- .......... -- ..... --- ...... . A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

L y
patuza
A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

L
i

L
I

26

.I---------~'" ~. double-cable structure . n . ------~- ~..' t I \. ~ v n~ .. bound2rycable Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' ..... I C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern.r j ~ CABLE STRUCTURE r- t ! sU5penslo~ structure r i A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads. thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter.-=~~~ ~.-.. pm.-. . ' .~~!~a~~~~~~~~. ~~ . I I 29 ... · ~. gin al Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cable- One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure. _ .--.c. A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres. cop r y douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different and often reverse curvatureS.. i ( i: ~ I if y r I I ou n eed r f [ f sb '-I ook pu rch ase i-----------. ' .' single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes. thi L ....~ primary cable i r r I ' i f stayed structure... This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with ~ .JCture.. .. . suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d. transve~guyca17les.e.I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends.ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter.~ r it~ . transferring the force to a ground foundation. ~ ~ ~ r . A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind.-.. .. cables In a suspenslon S"" I I..... uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables. component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d .ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles. - the ori secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter.. supportlng the sum of ~ vert... Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon....-_.. Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles.

orv. plafona .. or vault. (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of. 1 '.ult aOorred Mt. bcunar/ .1curur.. often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above. USUoiily square or octagonal panels in .i.alsscn. ceiling. y jcoffer One of a number of recessed. room. Also called c.h . al his nee dt you if character. A ceiling. ~. pattern of recessed p:onel$. o cop gin boo kp ur cha se the ori !?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showing ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling.. soffit.. Aflat or vaulted ceiling of decorative l 30 .

.-.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces.. usuar1y having a vaulted roof and lined with comrr...ith trees. i 3 L ] bWcewor1: Irrtmwlnea with cl1mln~ v1n_~~ . usually open on the sides..: cbim To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn._ folly A whimSical or extravagant Structure built to serve as a conversation piece..----. A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peilms and cr05s1119 raftus or trelliswork...... surrounded . -.merge To comlnr... Qesi9ned and situated to look out upon 3 pleasing scene. --.. or architectural feature of a 1lullJlng. . or to local conditions of sunlight.. -. affordl~ shade and rest In a garden or pari::. or com memoratea person or event. to points on the compass. se 941 lleria Aspaclo!J5 promenade..~ boo L An aro. Al7ultdlng.~n a pul7llc p!xe. if you ari?or _ .erci. or unite ~radually by stages so as to I1lur identity or distinctions.. used or 3 support for growing vines or plants I... -.--. '_ A shelta c. L r 'luadrangfe --. court.. y DO' 27 .y 3 bui!d1119 Or llultdlngs. _. !knd.3re or apen space In a city or town. gazebo i-_ Afreestanding roofed structure.....I useJfora stroH orwall:. to a sPeGlfiG place or feature.-.lllches or of nee dt French tern for a broad walk planteJ ". wln~ and :_.. r t .--. r f [ L I iL uellis 3S a screen A fume supportlng apen latticework.. '. e....I l _ r- BUILDING orientation The position of a ~uik:ling on a site In relation to true north... kp al Asquar~ or 'tU3arangular space or court cop pergola .f shruPs and 17r. or the work or art of such clipping.":.e. Also called quad. ~" ~ . ..' P . as on college CJmpus. . front To face In a specific direction or look out upon. or Indoor ::::::::=====rrrr=n:=T' r==rr:n==:rr===r ~Ivedere I[J[ If afd0Rf-H .esp. pavilion f L pL1Z3 A pul7llc 5qU. d flowers.--.ll establishments. (NU wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow.3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:.".lS for pleasu~ or dlsp!ay..often ornamental ~ulk:ling In a garden. .. lend Interest to a view. Asmall.. .. ~ ~_ I . the ori gin tapi3ry Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes._"' . pro~fUde J ur cha maR..--. his Jllee .

.••• al cop j i y ! funicuL1r structure u concentrated loads... as wire rope or ~'chaln.._-.' / \...... ..•.maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXrt3se.....-.•.ed.. --.-. -.-..\~:--... "" ------... Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load..~..•... -+-... cap~ A flexIple structural meml1er. . . having high tensile strength / Put offering no resl~ nee to com presslon Or~g..-..-' .• .-.'.. If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges...J ".•• ---..~-.. se l\ \ .... -. ur C3P\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload.-..' \\' .. \". --... the Inte. "....•...' sag Theyert~31 distance from the supports to the lowest point of 3 cable structure...~t '" /' the ..~~~.~·i~~:ki.• '" orsnbrelements are rtflufreJ ~ contJfn and ".i... •••.(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support.---" .:iLl Ii 11- cha ~":~:::.1rola .. ~~"" ........ _.. I i Ii ~ ! ! funicularslupe . structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given loading Vi either axial tension or compression....1on. if you nee I LJ thrusts../ ~ of a p3r..' .....• ..•••.' . ... 28 I I L A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualancea by the Inward pulls of a caple.• -... -..".... j The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng ori funicular polygon· .•. 8uttresses.here Is only ~ general funicular shape...m~'" his boo kp ~r. --...~~...• --•••• -... /<~. -.•..._ ...---.•... . gin C3P\e In direct to the magnitude ofresponse and location external forces.~·I~~·· ····-···1<'"... ... i ! ~ f~-- .. !. For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon._" ........ ..--... the cUrr'e approaches r...... resulting In no net lattral forces at the supports. ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" ~5tnJtS.-.o ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of ~. / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng n-----------.. For arry given loading condit. """ ~ ~mbl u m~re.....-•.... .. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S. -.•..... . bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure...----. dt uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne..

' .~: . ductwork.::. .~slucent PJr. - ~p!ine pu f 11I1i!!i..ea fau and contJlning a 5epante layer of sound· al1sortlng material r ori t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted tees supportin~ the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling . m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 memDer of the grid supportlng a suspendea ceinng system. "... : .unified whole.... usually a sheet· metal char..l·-~ ~.±i~~b~ii:l:t::::::i::j~~!:::±~...a . Agroo.:~..-& ...:':..":'.~n.. hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles..... :.~/ plenum / The space petween a suspenaea celilng and the floor structure apove.......ile= to ma~ a l>uttJolrTt between them. lighting fixtures.. ..o the eJges of an acoustlcal if y (j~r mebl uiling A suspended ce:1I"9 system of IIJrrow metal strips...·..::.rious sius anJ textiJres from a soft.:. '.1 J?~~' . .7.. :' ..els for diffUSing the light frc-r. one that serves as a recelvl"9 champerfor conditioned air to pe distributed to Inhapltecf spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central plant for processing. . Also._.1 ~~! ~:'... ~ 'S.nel or tee suspended by ha"9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure.: ': =... ~~ ~'. as corl mlnenf f1w. . \ metal pan _... .Jnto.\'. esp. A~ ~ ~ . !umlnaires mount. £Qmponents. '<: p~ A long.... r r 1 i al gin .:...~ ~ Integrated ceiling A suspended ceiling system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh...) ~::!'::':.g or auC1Jl!ori.'e cut In c. Also called slot diffuser.. louvered ceiling A suspended ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!dlng the nght sources mounted above ft..l~ .... or ~bss f1l>~. sound-a!?sorVlng m..ally a sheet·lretal tee carried by t~ main runn...ers. uS1J311y Incorpor.::::::::.ed above it.f alr-l13ndling ._.:==========:::::.2..~11<.T"1 ~:. kerf / ~rt1~qrid.•··. _--_.....II ou n eed thi sb ook tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tlles of 3 suspended ceiling. ase the ...) .crosstee A second3 ry me:./ ~ " lumino us ceiling c' A sus~nded ceiling of t~.... ":. y Ametal grid for supporting a suspended celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted r I ---.. CEILING dropceili~ suspended ceiling A ceill~ suspended from an overhead floor or roof structu re to provide space for pipes.:._ .'i(r '.. :<.J! '10. cop '~'g.! i \ r r j accu5wltik Tl~ made In v.' ~ •.tl~ modular tlghtl/l4 and alr-nanJn"9 compone:nts..~: ~ A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln.. ... :... ber of the grid su pportlng a suspended ceiling system.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr- rch A thin metalstr:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo s-ck:a I t..: '. narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system..:) . ·-~. usu. ""'!j.\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor aluminum p3n having a perforn...:Itertll.& linear diffunr ~ ~~ ~ ~..:~':.. acoustical ceiling A cellln!! of acoustical tile or other sou nQ' apsorblng material.' .. I j r r ~=========:::. or other service eqUIpment..i 1 i ~'S... ~ pconccal&:J grid ~ .' ....l ~ ..:~:ti::O::::::i+±::::::::::::::~z~:LZ!ti~ii::::.: .1. 31 .. :._ . dropp~ uili"i.9 •..- .. or to ~tter the proportions of a room. . ~ :...

vftreo~ nee ~". \ l~ I' t .. The structural portion of a ceramic ar--..\~.. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf.. as In tl'3nsparency. ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w. Also wiled china A translucent ceramic material. Ared ~. I1lsque· fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred atalowertemperature..... ~. andpc«cy... high temperature to near Yltrtflr. translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln.. luster.. porcelain A hard.. U I porcelain enamel An opaque...... . '-. I by fusing at a high temperature.. b if you 6· Earthenware or porcelain that h...:":..: \\}~\. as In"!d:..... opaque. -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of shghtly under 61. ur .. or pottery.s p~ flred once put not glazed.. fek:lspar...'"... vitrified cel'3mlc ware..\ue Reseml1llng glass.. stoneware Hlgh.' "'.. _. Also called china clay..atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength.. noncorrosive..<t: his ... J I y temperWJ reo kp flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W.. nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71.\~\. kaolin the ori gin al cop A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement.. vitreous.~.. Also called W&allt. . glaze-fired Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength.. bi.. cha o - se -------.lnittle.... and rl4tul'3lstone. L' I I I 32 ... \'" \... A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~... ': . .. and quartz...e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal. grassy coating ponded to ~~ ..body ) \ . vitreous enamel. l1rlttleness. <- / boo D b lurd·hrnea _...i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature..(EMMIC Any of VArious hard..~ it dt ~ / ·l1l~ue./ -----'. fired at a very high temperature. I or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln. . I t li cu.re. glass... ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'"...flred.. . ...\~:' -.... tile... as !nick. micware Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay earthenware low·flred.fired Fired to harden a clay Poay.~~A\~.~:~.. 5Oft·l7umed _._..•. opaque. nonvitreous ceramic ware........ / ~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~.i . or having low or no porosity.. .... hardness. usually opaque. / " . enamel A vitreous.I.

Alsa called promenade tile.. sand.t-- ana r. t. ~ndcorl 33 . ep<JY:i mortar.r- paver tile Unglazed ceramic floor tlle sImIlar In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker an. '132 to '/a In..or lr. ~. .8 to 32 mm) thld:.. and usually face.~'Nk~. rch I .lcl:-mcunted on sheets to fac~rtate handling and speed Installation. set process. water.rl .-_. ...L_LJ ! I I I i I j thlck-~et process A tllesettlng pr'OUSsln which ceramic tile thln-l7ed proce~ A tllesettlng process In which ceramic tlle Is bonded to a contInuous.• . latexportland cement mortar. portland cement mortar Afield mix of portland cement. floors.::. ook - ~ eed thi .~>~ I! . (0. Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar bea ¥It to 1Vzln.CERAMIC / ceramic tile Any of varlcus fired clay tHes used for surfacIng walls.• IEt. ..~.~ f--+I-r1.. used for levelIng or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· L t tile grout Acementltlous or resInous mIx for filling JoInts In ceramic tllewon:.t-r-r.r- sb t if y ou n pu r. and sometimes hydrated lime. ---------r . 1 r-r-: r-\-: r-rr-r-: r-r- : I I I I I : I I J J I· • o_ qU3rrytile / ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay DodJr..t-- al Unglazed Ur"3mlc floor tile having a I13tural cop cl4y body. stable backIng with 3 thin coat of dlj'-set mortar.:~. used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors . (19 to:3a mm) thld:..:~~ . I. / glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving a rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rtght... y ase I.L.:! lar~er In surface area. or ceystalltne glaze.~!1!!~. matte.. which allows for murate slopes and planes In the finished won:.. or an org3nlc adhesive.. glazed for surfacIng walls or unglaztd for use on roeh floors and walls. ~~. cauntertops.~ ..~!!1li . ori gin the I..~ U A thIn coat of mortJrfor rondlng ceramic tIle to a L>ading.

and strict sanitation requlremen ts.t. plsay.. plse de terre.ra..rJ-~rned.a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon.2 mm) or mo~ of stone. l j I " LeX l.(ERAMIC . hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as. slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh . used for architectural cop u I y . fired cby. Also calleJ plse. minimum variation In fau dimensions. prick.Infan. structura Ifacing tile Structural clay tile having a glazed surface.(.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. cotta·.a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres.Mlctur. FTX I Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9.3 nd medlum color· frost u .. . and narrow color range are desired. ~ ~rJlterr~ n. L 1 1 i ~ I . ~Iy ustd In countrieS with if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the little . .ln areas subject to heavy wear. and rammea~rth A stiff mixture of cf3y. used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. ~- al A n.o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m. ori gin ~s and ornaments. used for facing walls ana partitions. esp.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn. sand or other aggr~ate.1~o. ~ terr. glneJ or unglazed terra ccu. tl~ units.. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76. and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction..~ -. terra cotta.n ana stain resistance are required.B l. potttry..adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw.!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie. . --. or other mJsonry. moisture problems.rp1Io.

I' ! of Jesa:sChrist. the sacrament celeUr.. Also.:a!1y on the north side of the bema.-----...' Achapel In an E.... ~aptistfy.. separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or y An omamet!1:41 caner..... : i ..--.a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred...itea.arackrtzea by a long. ana I I L l prothesis ./ ... I I L -The bls~p's throne.llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of W3ter...-----...-. and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.----- Theta~leln aChristian church upon which the Eucharist.. -A scrun or partr..lon on which Icons are 1 placed.-.arthex ..-. Also.. Also C3 lied vestry. Also called ciporium. uSU311y vaulted and used esp.i-. am1?on.t. u5l.nYC::of~tk • .. Also cal~it'tal7~P5 The princlp31 or central part of a church. trivUMY .!! Chrl5t's Last Supper... cha I • se baptl5ttry A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered. as Christ or a saint or angel. -..\ ~lU-~j ~~ij L L L !i~~-:.. _ . I Tliefmurtof an early Christian church.. of stene or marbl.... usuafrj on the solIth side of the !Jenu. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church. ~. I ~ ~.rJ:5m A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity.-... --..I-CHURCH· Ch~nity The~. --. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res...... " the j ! : . a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end. Iconostas.lncluding the Catholic.. An e~Chri5tlan church.e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church.. -.. Also.. ori -I· __ l \1#~ ---~.. 35 ....... ~~. 5Uristy A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept.... Is ce!eUr.... The partied \. Alsa. the -"1I7emJ' nave and U!e3pseofan e... -.-. -·-.~~{ A coverea walk or outer narthex ur An InMr narthex when two are present.. Pro~t..... I L I dbco nIcon A sacristy In an e. ~ulkllng. Also.aste:m church.... L ! euara . of splritua I ~ner.-. Also. flanked or SumllJ nde& by. --.Jtlon.... . cop isfe=-4 tI'. A transverse open space separating... 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ • r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a P3SiJka ---:.' t~ ....---. bakla'luln.. as an atrtlln.... apSis. H I dt his boo situated before an Inner narthex..-- t..ffrtiCOes:f church In which the princlp31 altarls placed.ally of 5WIe. holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm.... symronc if you nee font A Pasin.~ . l-. . extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles. \' t..j--..' -' • L.... baldachino. .......astem Church where the Eucharistic e~ts are prepared... al longitudinal divisions of a church... rounded on the teachings A l?uiUling for public Christian worship........ - ~nu ...fifJ·-. -----. J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf. eson. / •...--.. /. --...l¥....-. A large apslaal extension of the Interior volume of a church. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church.. ----. gin piers. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica..... The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister.-.j • 4 __ • i13...~ . \_. Elther Of two raised mnas from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church..itlr.-... appropriated ta ~nftents. kp exonarthex /' C ~'...----. as that part of a . .Jrfy Chrlstlan or E. usu. ch. separating the bema from the nave of an E. ... baldachin / .---.. develcpi"4ln1. exhedra.: iconostas(.---.astern church./ The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn.rlyChrlsti3n church..() the transept of later cruciform churches. rectangular ptan. . esp.~ b'~. Iccn A represent3t1on of 3 sacred Christian Person..1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church..... tMJ or four lower side aisles.'it .. at the sanctuary or east end of a church.. Asac:ti-¥r~1y place.jnct@ L.

.. esp. dt wall of a Pulldlng. composed of cofumns. pf4lnk walls.••••. i A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or •.••.1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i.. ana few windows. "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church.. if you Interlacing arcade An arcade. AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e. at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~. cbrr. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside .••..-. a I1Iind one. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower.1 r~pond ___ . al cop p ~ I ori gin y f ur cha 6 t An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies..Iong the exterior 5~ve churchl L r I kp A anop\ed r~s for a ~ IIn3¥ or ICon.--. ~~tterY1 . esp.lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<... arcuauo.-----.. esp. havl"i a tlmllerfrarne. __ .. 15plr~--·-···· A tall. Also... crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir.. usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure.::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI.._ .---~. Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or arcak ---. stupty pitched roof...cJ st·l1...... I. .. I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration.ln 1(~r..om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple.• __ ••..~n?Upola ~y tower. . 36 I f ! . his II roofea promenade. arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S. arcU..:.. lJ A PuI17ous. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc uulldlng. used esp. nee IIoft·t han.elike roof te\1~ating onTondOlffil sharp point. Also called InUrsecth!g arcade. I ! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower..... _ A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel. a ~Iered. __ •. se the boo :.

.-------. slip.------. allure. ch4pter "..~ or~ired by h3v1ng p~. -.------. nee ~ .."--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church.--------.-.. g3l1lee porch. ----. .... #[.--------·----:·------------1' j An.----~~~._.. esp.~ ~..cor. :---..3S crucified... . A chapel dedicated to the VIrgin Mary. Also. p~Pyury dt t if you I t r t f !tHe arches anJ ~ ana corresponding to the 5f3U Petween the V"3U ttir. .. I I ch4p'Ur hoU5t: lnJrl. : . rood ~un ~-- p""h chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne med1eval E.e center.-chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of thefounders or of persons named by them . ~7r~.. onektween the transept and chapter house X a cathedral..../ A m3zel~ pattern the pavtment of a mcll"C:V'''. t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa human or animal esp.~ his t !:. -.lHURCH ~ crlnear21 f The principal church of a d~.. a large one set ..1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL 'I boo . f '... the tarJ surrourJl~ or beside a ~ral I . + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of a rreJ~vJI church. cop gin the ori se al ...ery sym met rica I ataoot t}. and dae... lady clupel ..'.ffi~~~Jff. ". usu311y of stained 913ss . meditation... choir The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir. c~ the An enclosed place.31 church.- The part of a church reserved for the offici3tl~ clergy.ct'~.._. ----------------.\ cha high 2tbr The main altar of a church.. one beneath the main floor of.ent5 blIW onto Its surface or by Iuvlr~ V. An assembly of the mon(s In a monastery. i chapel \ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for \ private prayer. .ter A covered walk having ..-Wfr.. 37 . Including the apse and ambulatory. garth _ . ~ . • '-"" ________ ··_4 chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral. or the rnemrers of a religious house or order. esp.51ype A covered passage.~. ..s5'c. ~--"----T . Also.'. • ---------- am~ulatory An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church..• cloi.-------7 i A crucrfb: symbolizlr14 the cross on which Christ ... usually located behirJ the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse...pr.----... OM with lin open mouth that serves 35 A spout arJ projects from a gutter to throw rainwaterciear of a ~uilJif\!..-. esp.. esp.J±::i1t=:::ctt=:O alure A walk or passage. Also called deambul3tory.fL_.! pbce...--.~.Jow. church. -. rood --.. Also. separating the c ha ~al or choir from the nave of a meaie-.. contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> : [ f L ~-. ur Acfrcub. ~~~.. i y -..:~ . usually part of the chanul lapyrinth ------ 1 ret roc hair A separate division behind the cholror high altar of a I3rge church.i chancel The space al10ut the a!tar of a church for the clergy and choir...---"- ASCru::1. -----. Also called cloister garth. -. -.lted ~ trn.n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard. often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng or screen . or small ".-. often etlborately adorned and ~~rlJ' $Urn1ounted by a rood.a the roof of an aisle.l~stmylnachurch. Acourtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister..n9l1sh churches. kp f I. ~win.....religious services. The pl3ce where the chapter of OJ cathedral or monastery meets. usually a !?ufld1~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery.. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle.~-.dow~ .. cntJrGh. lGt.

COLOR .. ,
A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.
spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors
produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

pale
Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

~rllli.ant

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

~;:-~;\,"

'r.~;:~t,'

.~f':

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

II

11

I
~-

.... hue
One of the three dimensions of color. the
property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

.J

.:IeepJ
Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

j s.aturation
I

al

cop

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

I
f •

I

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

y gin ori
I
r~

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

,"---.
. :.

the

r~color

,LJ
~.

I

ligh~!S

~

ur

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

se

f' . "j
,:,~~ . . ~~::~

cha

l

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

'. 1

The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

J
I

kp

boo

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

if you

Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

nee

~eJ~rption -:.

dt

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

his

11-.
C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

~.t·t{'?1

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved
color.

U

brightness
The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

yellow

transmitted..
~uVtractlve color

U

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing
The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L
L
J

38

COLOR
color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.
, \ .. r:Jlow _ -__ • / yellow-green'

L
L
I

f

w.rm
D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

yeHow-O~3f1ge

,.~

--- / - - -----.- ---------

~~~m~;~~co!ors. as red. yellow. and
plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color ---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••
_'1

A color. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

cool •. _._j

f

_

Des~natlng 3 GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or Violet.

L

advancing color • __ . ____ . __ .. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an Illusion of space. rece.dingcplor •. _.. __ ._ ... __ •. _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.
/~-----

comptementarycolor
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

al se the ori gin ur cha kp his boo dt nee if you
---~

cop
------~

y
/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .. _._. ___ .-'- ___ .___ .______ ._______ 1on a color whee!.
coler scheme
An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole. , - - - - - - -.... triad A combination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

r 'plit compleme~ry
: J. combination of onecolor and the pair of colors adJolnlng Its complementary calor on i \ ... __ • ______ • __________ • ____________ • _....l acolor wheel.

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l

doul7lecompiementary
A comPlnatloo of two 3nalogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color

wheel.

~-Ir

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moncchroma~

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,

tint •.... _ •••. - - .•.. ". "'" ... - ... --~ A relatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

: Having only one coler or exhlPltlng varying ___ ._._ .. _ ..... __ .. _____ .. __ .__ .___.. _____ J Intensities and values of a single hue.

i polychromrt.lc
r

Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle
A triangular dl~l4Im developed by Faber 6 n-en to describe the relationship between 3 pure h~. white. 3nd PUck, which comblM to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prlrrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutlc pair of white and blacK. shade A rela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to It.

tone
An Intermediate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

L

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic
Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. plac!:. or gray.

39

COLUMN
A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural

memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends. pillar
An upright, relatively slender sh3ft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a buildIng support Or standing alone as a monument. post - ..... - .... ----- ............ . A stlff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlmberframlng.
I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslonallnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnw induced;y the action of acompressive 1ouJ. Bucknng can occur well before the yield stress of U1e material Is reached. l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes unst4ble.

cop gin
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Under; buct/ing Io~d. " cdumn C31lIICt gent:riiU the Int:enul forces ~ to
resto~ Its orlgln3llJr-.ar conJitIon. My

a-ushlng5tres5:f~=P/A

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kp

ur

cha

_____________ L__

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J, ifu rc.rt.Io n The critical point at which a column, carrying Its critical ~cl:llng load, may elther!?uckle or remaIn undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rium.

;ddltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In k.ntifll Most columns In p7ctJa art: ~ to both com~ and be:nJirI§ due to rnt;tIon in T1I3terlaI propcrtIe5.lnitJiII Cl'OIXtdr.zs In f3brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJon. ThIs benJln§ qfterr C3~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln the critlC3/ budJlng to.1.

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se
.

r·:······ .............. critic.al !nJckllng load

r"-· critical Duckling stress
"-.l"

.

dt

........;-.'":':.~

nee

his

,,:

The critical budllng load for a column divIded by the area of Its cross section.
..... '~:.:.::::...- f3ct()rofsafay

@IA

"-

..........

.... -.
"""-"""--

you

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~----------+----+-- ~Iende~~ ratSo The ratio of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. . •.••.••....• A thlcl: column su~ to failure Py crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The higher the sJenJemess mto. the Iowa-Is : F;illuN: occurs when the direct stress the crltJcilf5tres5 th;t 1+111 C3use INckllng. A • from <lit axial load exceeds the prlT1mj' objective In'the design of; cdumn 15 to compressive strength of the material redua Its slenJerne5s mto by minimizing Its ml!;it,.!e In the cross section. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the r;dlus of eccentnc load, however, can produce gyr7t1on of Its cross 5tCtIOfl. kndl~ and result In an uneven stress dlstrlMlon In the section.

i j

if

L. ... almbie buctfing stres::s:~?/7,~??JJ;~~~;~-~-;;-~-::L.
L 1f7\---.......... ~
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The maxImum axlalloul th"t cart theorttlcalfy~app~toa column without causing It to buckle. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerseiy proportional t<> the 5qU3 re of Its effective length, ana directly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I and to the rncment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon . Also C3lled Euler ~ &cW.

boo

b

• {f;; r =y 1/A

radiu5cfgyrmon The radial dls14nce from any axis to a point <It which the mass oh ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of lnertla of the body abcM th<lt axis. For a structural section, the raaJus of gyratlon Is equal to the 5qU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment of Inertia and the are4.

!-.............. --....................... ..
intermedlau cclumn
A column havIng a mode of failure between that of a short co/umn and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushing and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

long column f. slender column subject to failure by
buckHng rather than Py crushing.

-.~

The higher the I1tilus of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jetennlnlng the cro5s-sectlon41sil;pe M" column, the objective 15 to provide the ~ry rUlus ~

gyr;tIon about tM dfffermt iIXes. For ;n _.. . ...... 35}mmetrlC31 cross sa;t.Jon, buclJlng w:11 Cend

to occur ;bout the ~ ;l1s or In the
dlrutlon ~ the 1e35t dimension.

40

J

!

. t Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis .octlo... the~~coIumnfJl1s.... enas I I I I I I I I I I laurall7racing _ _. If) / his -l nee III 1-' I 1 I c:i dt " -oJ .J 1 \ I ·1 f fixed fixed if you ~ I I J pinned fixtJ l I I i k=O.. _ ~ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~... y .ectlon at any point.! ..-T..I ri COLUMN [~ eccentricity axis- = = ~ .: C boo kp c -l C\i II ur \ \ \ \ \ \ \ cha se the ~....ll'''' '"Y ho".... i' / .---.( : ' : / / .......g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1..mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e) ~ : : • [~- I . !.: of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section. __ ... i 1 k=I. II II I I /1 11 11 rot. / .1e section.. A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer.... . 1/ cop . ~ coml1i~c:l5tresses ~ -I I p·delta effect __ ..~. ori Irtflectlon points In. : I ... ~ k = 0... - i .~---... ___ I'· The uraclng of a column or other compression rr../ : . A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section..emPer to reduce Its effective Iength.d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4.~ rr. i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ .• _. .. 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column al 1• i effectlye ~gth r--@-. unl1racea length The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length 41 . acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum. __ . ~nston\l. ! 1 } L i ..:'''tr. _ . : t I ··"'·ir= ..cides.~ .The effective kmgth of a column detennir..---. t.0 4- l=2. '.es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load.5 p~)( . \ 9---+ \I ~. 1·_·1 ~.. Also called kern area....0 P&14 /1 I' effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr.:f J..7 . Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h. "~ The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of . gin ---.emPer dtfl. column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14.I.... ____ .The dlstance dlamaet' / 4 re-t~n ~ .. equal to the product of the load and tr.~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ ...13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane./ kern point of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area. ___ ...l ~I: '--t- ! .- .

h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt.....empmtiJres." blended. sHlca R.. oyster-sheDs.. .. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate. ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift one: quarter of ~ volume of ~ nd cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging . ' mortar mix ~ an... cop tnc./s""IfWI'JtopowJer m' ~._ . To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r.•. or oil silicate... or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time ase J"glcwnuOic& •. 5hz/e. causing It to cure mter and gain strength from low t.~-" -. fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of.~ ... .... Type IIA. where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging.uired for protection al Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f..lcium sirute ---.. the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo.. produces a hydraulic cement. A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of . e.he h. the l hlghe. . ! ! i .l rch ?:~~::' ~..d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar.x>rtland pu -..les of the other types.• ___ .9 Q It 0 . clay.. e .. II 0 A. . pcnuol3 na.. S3IIJ. as gl?ilty dams. -----1 hydraulic cement j i f ~ .. ~~.. ..--..~I~T!ral.co..rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr...\...ly a reac'tlon with water..f-: . tYF11y 0../ ~ ~ne.rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt.1 ..~ ook tricJlcium ..3 sollcHuel furnace.-.'/.or Type lilA.. .. clinker Qlcine Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal.o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction. A very-flnely ground portland cement n. when calclnea and ftnely pulverized. Intentionally ~ In a concrete or .04 In.il1 constructlon where reslstanr...1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme... sb ~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement.. The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly forco~ M i i portland cement ------~ TyPe I: narm..:' suffix A. as Type IA.". ---? .._.ed Py the entrained air Microscopic. ... ! TyPe II: moQerrt..-. .. as fly ash. England. Ahydraulic cement /I13de f..1 to 1.. Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to air-entraining pcrtl.lumffUt....... named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland.e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate... and tile grout. ...nln:g ag.. . IlLm \II G it.e~t~ : ~..lW mixture jlnto cemerrt dlnket-. j .::. C/lnkerlsgroundlnto .\:..--.AiL . . .1 Aportland cemelTt used for general construction...a. if y I?>wmzUrl.4 to 0. pozzoIona.CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which.._ . gin ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr.-.. -« . rea. -. catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-. ~ ... .i' white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw . 't~~~.... " :.a-----. ~ eo. •.nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate. r I~ 4l r ."" port/3nd cement.llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat. . that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement.. earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd... . . an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius.. ou n eed ~.• • ... (0. Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es.e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for.-. & ...e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging. named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll. stur. TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having... makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer.he construction of massive ~ structures. It A._. mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS. 1 r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r.tM\ g3ln in s~th of the U'II1erIt..~.. . Le.vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~.. siliceous Containing sillc.... Also.... _ ...0 mrrT) In ~metcr.. 1 . . a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred. Ii · t. • • J. t..ma t.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of thi TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced content of trlcalclum alumInate... . A calcJne.... as In y the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i T~1I1: or long.atiystrength ori I retaining walls.ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef.a .." .. 5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement II13'trIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli.eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide.at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In. .. ¥JJlronore.. . lessening the need for gypsum. L<_ .0Q.e. pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material..

o~ se acceleratcr An admixture that h3stens the sectlng and strength development of • concrete. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. thereby facllitatil1~ the wettl"9 and penetratlng actlc" of the wate... exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y.ose of the hardened product.c_JL&~.. • « •. and fru of clay. vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light.8 mm) sieve. concrete.. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated. . or plaster ~i.':~_. -- AggrC9ate having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading..mortar mix to alter tts properties or tr. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In. and be predominantly retained on a No. as perlite. Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tna 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals. as expanded sn31e or slate. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. mortar. dimensionally stable. Inert. having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1. concrete. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids ana surround the particles. Also ca lied perlite A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight. (6.: . The maximum size of coarse aggrC9ate In reinforced concrete Is IImtted by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars .1 .3 r mix. and fire· reslsta nce of the hardened cone rete. srlt. . I r r if which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2.400 Ko/ m3). (9. W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e.(JlfJllf1I~d.-·. Also called surfactant. admixture Any suvstance other than cement. Agg~te shoukI ~ hard. spherical particles. as sand and gravel. 'r'r"3ter. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation.(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n.. fix.( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. . the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. . tc produu lightweight Insulatln9 gin al cop uniform grading . and salts.. minerai materials.4 mm): speclf. particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material.4 mm): sptclf... mortar.4 (4.8 mm) sieve.840 k~1 m3) and compressive nee strength comparable to that of normal expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate. . added to a concre'". conc~ you m. or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure.-rx. of mixing water requlred for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~.e 0.. and In larger amcu~~5. cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting. Also ea ileJ addrtlve. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other aaattivesin eM mix. 4 (4.'t}§O •• ~'* A_. almost entirely through a No.Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl ConcrC"'"~ Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggr"e43te. or aggrC9ate. gravel. o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water to ~ concrete mix. Also. (6..: the ori Any of various hard.. 43 . made with lightweight aggregate. o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount I insu13tin9 concrete lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductlvtty.• . lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength.ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr. '~. or plaste:' r. o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control tts color. 200 (74~ sieve. expressed etther as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening. Also called expanded clay.• . particle-size distribution In which aggregate partlcles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes. and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar agg~ate graded aggregate . - dt his boo I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete structur41lllghtweigltt concrete expankd shale A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or shale.. y o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workabiltty. or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings.5 mm) sieve. ur cha kp o retarder An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. weight.. usee! as non structural lightweight aggregate and 3S loose·ftll thermal Insulation.362 to 1. wormlike threads. added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. . its properties are Important to the strength. ~ mixing W4ter The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix. pearlite. superpla stlclur.~"!~I .

Ij 51%-5/% I Jj consis~rn.5117... usually measu red Uy the2!l!!TI p~~ for cone re:U and ITy the~ .•.. _.te:st .:. of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone. __ . and watertightness of hardened ..1tlons. 112 117.- se slump concrete or mortar can Pc: handle4. A cynnder of concrete 6 In. and watertightness. and 50 kg In COIl ntrles using the metric system.ln Inches. cast from a representative batch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cona.~r m~E..' : . sack of cement.:...O'~·'.....~metal. _. JIj:!.. water. cop The relative a!7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow.. An open·~nJncated cone of mm}hlgh... and ~te to p~concrete or mortar r-...<: ~:'.::." .:. dura l7illty.. ~ : water air The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix... u5tcyUnder -. durability.-.y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In Chlca~.. 87. concrete or mortar mix... comp~ and finished.". used a top diameter 4 In..tCONCRETi! mix~lgn The n10St economlcalselecUon and proportIOning of cement.... --. usually ~ means of acore drill_ 1F~~-+------~~~~7-ccrete't j .. yIeld1~ a product that Is low In strength.. ~.~". :.....: . The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed I I lJ ur cha A mc-.... ... Conslsttncy depends Ia rgely on the 11 I al y proportion of~nt pasteto.... boo A measure of the conslstency and wori::al7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete.. _ .y 4 g3/1on5 of W3ter per 53ck of cement ori gin o -------~-~--~I IJ 5 6 7 i ~Iump~~ ... 16% .30% concrete.cement ccfTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf cement NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty..ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~.. :.~ . and testlng conditions.hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~ mea$lJ~ tke slump of a test speclmell.:. In the .. :.lgg~ate In a mix. ..21%··-.. . to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test...... and the cone Is lifted..::( . Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that....with sr.. preferably 1% -.:.[ water-ce~entratio 7% -15%·· .. . with given concrete /n4teri3ts... curing.. and W'~htness. preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as adecimal fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117.• : :.... : : : J ... wet mix 51umpcone -_ . _---. The watercement railieantrots the strength.: .3% expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix. v nee dt if you dry mix A concrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and h3v1ng little or no slump...... e •• " fine aggregate • 25% -. .t:~~l!X48ritaln.rqu.fpr i........ duralnllty... -A....water content The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix.....:.... ".1 workability the sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117. (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In.... using a hyd.. ~ mpre"lon test A test for ~lnlng the compressive s~ of aco~ "atch..•.. his /plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is readily mokled... a Va5"tiameter Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content 3nd runny consisten0'... A compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure..10 Canada. (~mm) high. expressed 35 the vertical setthng.. Iso cal~J \139. tamped In a prescrll7ed manner....t2J=:( In 203 mm) and mm}... Wori::al7ihty depends partly on the water· 6 kp cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix..... preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix... ...._--........ . Also C4!1ed stHf mix.. placed In fOr1T1W9rk....... W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (. 1 . strength.

. -. ran9er. _.... -. A \o11g ltucin..~ :'--": -.wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:..IrIous lI1. ~ II "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which Ji i I plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w....d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng..ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete. pi3st1c. as In formwori: or she--<>t piling.eyw"3'f ------... . \ s~r-resistlng conc~ key for newly placed yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete.. A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r. Also called partlni awnpound. used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings.-.' • ".~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood.-'" -.-- -.... : . /" concrete rt a constructloo Joint.uo..... "'_" boo f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_ kp ITt3M ofccm~. -.1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which altow it to also serve as a I:. Sonawbe . -.. .ing various vertical members.3..-. form work The kmpor.terlJls.. . Any of. -.... The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form ... • cfuir dt ~I A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete. concrete sur-fJu. varety of slotted d.--.CONCRETE form Uner --.... bulkhead ------.: form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly pi3ced concrete...1I forms.. lift ~.. bolsur .... if you conc~beamorsb!7.-----. Also called spacer...... -.. as ollar sillcoot. 'K.. -.. for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart..: TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form • _______ • _____ •• __ . ~ snaptie i A form tie having notches or crimps which i: II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the y I' concrete surface after stripping of the forms. . -'. ~ ~.-.. ori Aform tie ha.~~~~" ...---."?. -. waler. meta I. leaving a neatly finished depr"essloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed.-.t one tlme... steel./A • se r:::~~~~~~-I~'~. 'I . or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr.... ---"'Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form.. -. I "'....... slipform •. the water rods are remcved while th~ Inner rod remains In the concrek.:::~~!1· ...! : :..' ... Ii . .. '~' . ' the A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member...ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the ur "~ ~~=~1~.-'.l::nent. ! i to al - cha form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift. After stripping.lr...: ~ . or . A brau. .. sped..preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce. cop : i II ~I ru~tian 1====r=t1. ..... . . 45 .serted through the form and threaded ontotheenasofan inner rod.-' !.trongmk Avertlc31 support for aligning and relnfon:.11 ~roove or chan nel fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather '.rs in a concrete beam or slab... A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place timper... Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members.. re~$eagent form . proMlng a stlffitack.....A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a his flying form Alar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne.. nee high ciuir > . __ are ir. fa. '.. A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng.-. Also called metT1rer ~ has~..~. '-" -'-. COI'.--L __ . -.... or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng. Also called In-east Boarding or sheeting of wood. clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee.._ • _____ . ~ ... -.... i Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --.ePott strip gin : i ' .-..spreader ... _ . II spreader. resln'lmpregna~d paper.. and hardware.1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the ... -.:......lng wales. . \7raclng. .. -.•.... usually of wooJ... Arty of Y.

A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon.~'.. . or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site. shrink-mixed concrete .~ •• 1'1 -. . vibration ----. agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site.°. -. '.:r 1" •• \:~--!.. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement. ! " .. or crane l1ucl:et. Also calleJ waUr' g.--. .-----.lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete. ~....... •••0 . stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te .------.·:/1". An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed ~ L L I concrete.::'i~3detIke tool.. aggregate.. .:: •• 0.. 9 . ook chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y pu rch nose t1 ase ..Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and i I ..~.4 ~ • ~ 0 -4'. --. • transportlng heavy materials.. ... cured.. 4' 'padi~ ~ . . concr'eU.. -. ~ ~. oVenYon:lng of the mix.ed. <l :. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '.~ ::'''''..l~·t·~ :.-'!r'" "--:J '-II . :. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure.. often motor-driven...ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top.. resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix.lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~. ~ a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site.. L I laitance A milky depOSit containing cement .: '~ : "'S. I .C:ONCRETE ~st-jn-pbce concrete .. ~uggy. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass._ ... cop ... '.. .-.. ---. for snort distances at a construction site. concrete. 4. :: ~_~. .... or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed. 'l . 46 . etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying.... 415 freshly mixed concrete...1 'V'"Q • • 0 ..$ piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden.. truck mixer.: .o. •• "'l. A· • .d air within newfy placed concrete and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~... ~.. ---.. ~'... free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute...:. •. . slurry... often motor-drIven.. or Improper flnishln1..~ if y ou n t ~ ~:. I ori II ! the GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement... .. .'... drop chuu: .ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site.. vi~rator Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete..~ Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod.Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site... ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water.4.. fonr. . 4 0" qf·:0 . •~"t. ..: ~ !. sa nd or crushed slag. ill I! f':~ ... for mixIng cement. -.-~ .~.~ tn. Concrete partially mfxea at a lr.. and water.. I . Also called shotcrete.: 4::·~· 4 -i... : I ~'-:':: 0 ~~ : .1>':110..j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator. '0 -. . . Also called ~st-fn-sltu I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr. :/1. -. and water to produce gin al direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer... J Ccncrete &eposItcd.. ~. buggy A cart.. "4 Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I ...../ time of haul The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a..1ln. consolwt1on The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne.\."'* transit-mixed concrete Concrete dry !latched at . pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached. ~ 0t1 • ilL 1:1 b.~ ::.. for y pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete. ..• 0. ...~ • eed thi sb ~ravity._~'.. concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum.-" . • 5tr. ..

.. ".... as during the setting and curing of a concrete ml)(. -----------. or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate.. ' :':T::I. p13s:er. ur . finish Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface with a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated.-.' il·ill:I!::::!. or stucco surfau with a wood fl.-... serrated... concrete..-0 .el-mounted.. Also called 5(.. mortar. shrink3ge A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set. ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~.Pf... ---. sand. ~pa!ling » lI To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement.lITPf...at ~-----. or smoothing plaStlc material. his &et ~... p\asw.----.-~'~1 - - crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage. The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk.j"\"'I.. peten brut Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed.. ori powertrowd ~ ..-. dry-shake finish A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement.1te about a • ..---------------- A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab. esp. ana fasteners of a !?oard form.:':.. L_. forming.:t.. won:lng. or plaster caused by a loss of moisture. or glue due to a cure ---------.-..aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on vert1c41 shaft to smooth.--Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir...' :11. smoothing. pl3ster. --.q 3 fresh CO!1crete.. as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water. I.i.-. joints. ' .---.a slllc. as concrete. or toothed face.---..i. bu~hhammered gin .lmmedlately after screealng.. screed ----------------------------. _ cha se kp the radlalarm5 that rot.. mortar..: A port.. honeycom17 The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge.j'I. ~etting hydration The process In whk.:~...:' architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials. .~--- dar+J A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing ..----------------.·iil'i'i' "I'. .W.1I':'I':I.. ----------. -.c:::~. l~~'-':{'. Of' caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy insufficient consolidation. and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce.. --- trowdfinlsh· --------Adense. placing. "-' . .on-carbiJe or diamond !n.ll:" t i l "':.'kl\ii) ill.'1 .arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \. flc. ... I £JDDDDCJO- ! i Vvlas on a formed concrete surface. l:[. ------------ ---------------------.. and ~ boo p7f'ement ... c III:i:j! . 1 1.-. ----.. . castlng.--..e surface. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/.--------------. A deccr3tlve flnlsh produced ry sand!:T!astlng.h a substance combines chemlGally with water. and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.--.!!i l::: 'i . -. A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete.>.-. . proom finish --. :. when the concrete surface refleGts the texture... Spreadl"9. --.. 5GreeJ .'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: "...___ ~:%O'o"/..at A float havll1{1 a large...-. _____ ----\ .:l:dl'"I . compact.. l7ullflo.:'. float finish . and cop trowel -----. ''-I.. --------.cI"9 salts. Arry of v... and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir.. .---.1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD.:.~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set..-A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level.atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon.hlng The process of leveling."'3".aw A whe.~~>~. etching with an acid.--. and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float..atlon of de'. j 1 II'" "I : :11·illlll:I·!!.a fresh concrete surface .. .-.. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening. flat blade attached to a long handle.:}:. mortar. rotary power saw eqUipped with.. hut of hydr. al appJ:t!ng. overlappi~ matlon.3l/ng.-..-.. jl._.. stucco. exposed agg~ finish y if you nee dt ~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete..g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated..---.'~&±. .. or plaster surface. ... smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel. 47 .. compacting. caused by hydration of the cement paste.CONCRETE finl. .

. I L..--..------ Iicen5ea L~allycerUflecl bya governmental or other constItuted authority to engage In a !rosIness or professIon. professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of various ~ranches of engineering.-~---. The art. .xt's f'/--c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent.-.CONSTRUCTION ofbu~ai~... I . l .--. . : I : contracts wfth a general contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon project. providing the I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~ t pot. '---t lib co ntracto r A person ororganlutlon that ! Insurance The Insurl~ of property. -.ma~ent.ctrlcal engineerIng. Iii T I : I I r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM I I I r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : p~Ject. usually a ccmll"erclal !1. as structural mechanIcal.----.J1e.----.J.J 10 or res. --. I j: 1 Inves~ In and develops the I I contractor Aperson or arga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials H and perform the wort for a construction project at a speclfled time and rate.. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons set forth In a contract are fulfllled.--~ .. . as acoustics or IIghtlng.t architect Aperson who engages In the profession of architecture. 48 . science.!I general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage ana supervIse a construction project.Il5~thearchlt.-.. for a y ! construction manager A person ororganlut\ol1 that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect.--------------------1 I : .. --. -1 ownu A person orarg:anlutlon twlr. life. skilled.-.. registered.. r--------:. gin al cop ~-tefm fI~I~. Iendil19 institution T~ institution..--. or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved. or e!e. from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng.---. usually trained and experienced in the desIgn and construction of vulldlngs. ! H Aperson traIned. I I . or e~ineer ~ .-.ni:... Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design constnJGt a ~lldIng or project.g the ~al right or title to a piece of ~ ~.. -. Also. _________________ . JI L I speculnwe ~ui1kr I turn-leey Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy.enttalltles of real esta~ esp. the ori II I ur cha n I se 1 kp \ boo dt \ \ )' \~~U~ --~-- I \ U his / you ~ t I nee b if design-l1uiIJ I I I I I r I _________ IL _________ . ..J ______________________ I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to I . Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors.. I) ~Ion project. Architect ana Subcontractor Subcontractor Subcontractor I ~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : I ____________________ for suPsequent S31e or lease.----. I ~~ projectsfaroWMership. and construction phases of the project.. award. -. :. or l1usiness - ~---------.

usually In written form...... fe.. you buildi"9 offICial A person designated Uy a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster ancl enforce the provisions of a building code......lssued Uy the local... and managing a project.._----....../ ~I CPM Critical Path Method........ and finishing operations..ea to determine theflnanclal.. and fastening of materials or parts....... gin I I al conalJCf'....-...:ns have been flied and reviewed.. a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall ... and permltUng occupancy for Its designated ~.. p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical... .-....... combining all relevant Information Into a flow chart.. I I I L... :........----_....lwlngs and speciflcatlons. functional and I1ehavlonl aspects of a completed l7ultdlng In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for tuwre programming and design activities._... Also called staging... ofa~ltdlngprojectoverlaptocompre5s the total time required for completion.~.•.......-oceeJ wtth construction of a building project In accordance with approved clr. Occupancy· ... the relative significance of each event.........•••. ..•..... A written communication Issued Uy an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establ1shlng the date of commencement of the work.ulldl~ official certffylng that all or a designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding co~. fittlng together. government agency havlngJurisdlGtion after p!..••...i> ..1 contract for a specH'ied sum.J 49 ...... ~ falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is not yet capable of supporting ttseff.... certificate ofoccupanq A c:Iocument Issued Uy a j........ Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities..... a method for punnIng...ll his perform the wan: described In .. .. ... ....•. scheduling. se the ori technical or other advIsaDllity of a proposed construction project.• -~ . between ~ or more parties to do or not to do something specified..l To construct boy the raising.) Of or pertaining to project scheduling In if l7uilding permit A written author!zatlan to p....... positioning.......J I: Construction phase 2 6c=---------...... ""-" . from site preparation through erection.CONSTRUCTION The process of pUilding..... j ... top out To Install the highest structural member In .....1swility study ur cha .. j ..e compt:Utlve process of offering boo tv ccntnct A ~ally enforuable agtUment....... kp notice to procee.. Design ~ Q ~ ~ ~ fast-track .... ~ ....... . +....•.. which the design and construction phases : : : : J I I Ar-------::---""'T I _ _ _ _ _ _ _---' ' : COnstructlonphase4U ................... assembly. and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________. scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building.... I I Construction phase 1 0 I'--________..... --..... dt L~I nee award A fOnTl3l auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS...... A detailed InvestIgAtion and analysis I~I erect cop y i1iddin9 l"l..

. / Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent. wnen cured. prefal1ricm fabricate r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and usually standardized parts.\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material.ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor.r:. I: j I ana we.t ground b-ef and.-.oor. flllng of technical data and product literature. U D/rI5lon 11 Oil'f5ion 12 D/risJon 13 EqUipment Furnishings dt his 5ped31 ConstroctJon Ccrweyfn.(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered. .. . -. frequently \nt..r~n Doors & Windows Finishes kp Otl'f51on9 Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes ".. Also called Masterionnat.. then tilting them up Into their flnal position. --.=:-. and const<uction cost acccuntlng. . Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref. . The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of 1.l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng. orfunalon..tff~ size. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding.. ur modul.. panel Ii ! I .. tilt-up construction A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete --wall panels on site In a horizontal position. Oivision 1 Otl'f51on2 OIrlslon 3 OIrlsJon4 OirlsJotl5 Oirlslon G Olvlslon 7 OIrislOf'l~ lj I y facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers. ---. roof. modifications. construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth In detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project.e:n~ untts of. c:f~rjptlve 'pe-cification ~ I A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct qU3ntltles quahtles of rroterlals to be how they are to De asseml>led fumlshed In a construction..ysttm.. Also called Industrialized Puitding.lct...lncludlng the ownercontractor agreement..mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St .ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection.. The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls.. Including all addenda.d loads. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl..IbJect to ~.. .:iwich p~ . .mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent. ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness-toweight ratio. .. ----.uirement5 ~ 1j i gin al ~ ~ry ori 1i the Met. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect. A pref. contract documents The Ieq... are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks._. work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract. conditions of the contr3ct.am~ construction.. i cop ccnc. Gene. standards.. 5y-s-U~ nee . and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included.-Arty In a ~ of standard1zea. trade.. lift-... cein"40 or roof. ~Y. ana ana L . .erchange./ Req..beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses. Cornbtl~ the dimensions of a structure and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents. . Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc. . or function. esp.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute memw I..atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products. wall.-. " .. or WAil Dendlng. if you {)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf Otrislon 16 Bec-tnc41 perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results.. reference ~pecification A specification that refers to a st<lndard spectfic..n. boo f'lwr.. L f I . {)(YisJon 14 modularcooraiutiYn _. assemlkd. ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module.. L • I..I documents comprising a construction contr.. ! l~ 50 . --- .entrne. orvarie module --. r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand. quality of execution of the .Llb co~ion A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In . systems..il~ components used In ass.5ed-5kin pand -----~~:::::. 3S fr. or processes without prOVision for substitution. 'peciflCaticn. -. Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ uniform ~y~um Afo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. used as $\.1s Wooa' & P135tJcs ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:.. t proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products.. 3M united into J whole.n cha b I se ~U:Se.

unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and ) .:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers.'.ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities. ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~. r \ 51 .l .s.1 AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. r. ~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI).U. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US. . Also called mill construction.rl and western us.nd welfare.wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities.wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er. protected ordinary construction -'" .lnc. . they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction. 2S to restrict the height. and walls. r~ecoven. Also called construction cl3ss..rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped .. J:Id use of Dulkllng s.d Ordlnarj' construction h. and tr.nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31. . .. or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code. l?ul. ~ BOCA N.nt A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It. -. V41rUllCe unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts. 1992. r ) no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'....._ .lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable. constructlon. noncmrfONR~ I light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon.ab!ed. - Of or pertaln~ to a material. the ori unpl'Otected ordinary construction gin al cop y I ~. and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons.. Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of prlmrt. as pari. professlona I socletSes. . kp A lrull. roofs.~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au. and used primarily In the ~heastern u... .: . type of co nstrllCt 100. floors and cellin~s. hea~ ....--~ Ordln2rj' construction h... ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame. 00.closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts.. ~ and enforced by a local go.~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts.nd decking of specified minimum sizes. specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. : . and the prorisIcn of.. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act boo f l-I -r the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs. construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities.alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~./ ~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design. : ' nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls.. protected light wood frame \ construction .-~ t. esp. and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M).In t&ecentr.~.by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance.thorlt~S.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s..emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials. protected noncombustIble CONSTRUCT.lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons. if you zoning ordinance nee dt . Interior Pearlng walls.1 ! An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt... his AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In cha se ~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-.. . type and Intended occupancy. as an agreement. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). comuustible construction Any construction th3t aoes not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan. ener~code 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities.:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and ur An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones. Also called zonln§ co. estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and reqt.'ltel1ent.

apart from Its color or form. resemPbnce... .J Characterized or produced by addtUOn.....' . \ .. '?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·'''''''·''''''''''''' ~--------------------~ se !~.. resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry... @ \ . Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having nee their Intrinsic lines........... ... part or portion without destroying ...g a meaning and used In puce of a word or .. apart from its. ':1~0::j~{. and relatlonshlp to one another. derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs. ··. shape suggests an outnne w...h appear to gin :. . !textiirt " ... .shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure. .DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art . '''~\~:%~~~:\l'.#Iine /' \ L_'~_-->. ·_ . and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other.··:..pparent texture of. . often resuftinq in a new Identity. I' ~~~~ I Something th3t st..a nds for or represents sornethlr.. 5ulrtractive ~ .~-'t-_ _ _ _ ----JI I. t addi1::i~e I A metf1CJOflhanr... dcnsfty. '-'. and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume. boo kp Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which i~j~ ur ~ ... ·· . cc-.... cofors. .~~naI...--:.:' / f~~~~~~:~ "'---."~\~'\I '~. . ..... . -...g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon.... ....h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass... surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values...' ... resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals.. or ~n..... color or form.. . ~ cha AIso. accumulation. --. . ~~~ al cop The.. The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of a surface. tactile '\uallty of a surface.ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion.. ~se of the whole. -.. i tactile texture .. distinct. one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of 7.. The edge or wntdllr of a shape.. or uniting. 52 .-" .. Characterized or produced by remmi cf.. flgu:-t h3v!r. '7 visual ttXture .. y -----/-+ [!] ~[RJ syntPo..er of jointing that mJtes the united parts cIQr.> ~! the ori Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic.. . " ~.~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects.I fOriit-i The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or materl3l . ~ solely on dt an Intellectual and affective content --+X • • his if ~----. esp...-. ~nvenUof13! \ ~~f!1f::d you A unified compostlon of two-dimensional w~ht. While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole. The visual and esp.....~rg... artJcubtio n shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes.........'GJ">. and Pul.

:..~rBrl. that outlines.iffikJn of e~ments or p3-. 'L_____ _ ___________ _ 53 .~DESIGN form: The manner of arm-.. I I -\ a' the parts. orga~~tiorJ 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~ ~i An InaiV1dual. COrn' .:g3. represented b] a dlagram.11 • Th~a-. . nee dt his diagr.ent.3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a compcsition 50 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e. eXf-'ins. or cl3rtftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole.wm : . f4l>Mc . minute.S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole. and prcportlons se The c~ractaistlc structure given to . boo kp ur . of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr.I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit. A drawl~.fr~t e Jlrrang n~ parts Or eIe me'lts fr. cne h<lYing .II al cop ~I y . ~rranqement.. the ----------------------~ j tature ori i . I( III l1li •• II • gin " ". . structure < 01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design.a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze. or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole.o VI proper proportion or relation 50 as t.'lrlly represent3tlol13l. if you pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design.J form a unified whole. cha s!up~. esp. nat neceS5.

-=-::..U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms. ... 1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye..: : : := _-=.. r~ L I I· ~ I ~ A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon. as a nne. __ -------. 11[.. A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept.. or lc.' I u I Ne3rT1es~ln place..e'mof eiements r.-=·-=. or relatIOn proximity '. ""' . often causing anxiety or excttement. essential pa rt. cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed. al gin ~- ur The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted.. ...:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or lnU.... pleasing. [>f _ . A syst. U I kmrchy l to importance or s~nlf\canu.. .ity.... anomaly.--' '<t " >'.. unity' The state or quanty of Peing combined into one. homogeneeu ' ~~~::l ~~~~~====~I I \ : I I tJ I cop y canUnuity .:Jically Inwngruous.~":'=d his nee . ~ ... . order. or eha rae terlsties..= . ai~~ U Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged.~-/~ ~.lntricate.~ to a stialqht nne.~ DOD DDD DDD The stateOrquanty of being Identical.e. ~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n.. or arrangement.~... and organfud one 3DOYt: another.: 1---~. . elasslf.". ju$~ ~>/ I I. .. or dlrectlon.stopermtt ·. or satlent feature ofa narrative or 'nt DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD ~QnUrpolnt . hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS.. caJlage the boo The stJte or 'l...... :. or Interconnected prts...0 L. turmony The orderly. Inconsistent. Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM. L.= . dt Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast..!S. . .. 'j 1I~_.astheorJerl~ofelements In an Ii I[ 'caherent lc... -. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its purpose. • I 54 ! r .. ~e...: . P ~ P J ! I A~Ion from the normal or expected form. : .... ... cha se campJexity . or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an arUstle wno Ie.grated to afford comprehension cr arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness I recognition.. inoNIy' 0 §DDODD ODD DOD ~ 1 0 ~ I!14Jor idea... ~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5. II. L of effect. concept.~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.. ~====~==~~====~==~~I========~ . .. -. or regular.. The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi..-.. wo. you ~ ~~~ I~= : =. brder ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious... ' ' . types..."..n of Delng placed close ~r()('s~byskk..!..:. or coonterpolnt.. ~======~ r rl~lR ··m II kp r-------. Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi. corresponJlng posltlons from an \ntervenlngspaceor<*ject.alient Prominent or conspicuous. order.lnKea.so. The state or poSm. I! -/.d... acwrdin~ U i if l~~:~i opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and proGuce a more dynamic expres5iveness. ori ~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety. I I ! I .. t comparlsonorcontnst.

radiatIng parts a~ut a center point or central axis.-. body. rdJUonshlp. '-I y 55 ..-. i. gin '~ilf The au ·_-----_·_--t ~~!/j The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_ ~k:>r-3 which rr. measurement or symmetry.d..I )PESIGN-' .:. are referred for pu rch I ase the U L+J-.:. equipoise ... An e<lUJI distribution of weig. or o li o .lstlng ~~.y.Jn~lanclng weIght -I orfw~ "'-I I L.~~ .--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar.-.ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe It ts di recu..s cr opposing forces.:. or composltlon Is elements In <I compositlon symmetrical. j if y :-/ ou n eed i thi sb ook i ." al ¥~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual successive stJges.. ~ contr. A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a ~ure. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn or composItIon_ fcxus..i50h~metryi... '--I tI "-.tC:::5E=n:~lliJlllllU~-liabnce '1 Pa. -----.::S:~~! ori . I -I 11 A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance ~~ri4m Itc=:. cop concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events.r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~. ~cc~~-$ ACO.

. oraegree. 1. V2.. 13...hich form an arithmetic progression.. .618 to 1.----~..-..... Also called ~cd ~uance.. . or ase the ori gin al B cop y _ . 5/ 8.---~--------- '" if y ou n The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r..--. and each succeeding term Is the sum of the.. visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze. -_\'t_-. . ._e. eurythml Ha rmony of proportlOif fro~..mm~lately preceding.... 2. 21.... The unending sequence of numbers where the first two terms are 1and 1..." 3/ 5. ~. The COlny...- ..000... j I .. or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole ". proper. 3.proportlca.....' .... ~ harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of ".. In which the ratio of the smaller to the I. golden~llj I I ! j A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression..... two l.ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human .c:ntor space. PE$I~N : .. I 1 . 8...--=-':Io.. or an article of flnlture.. AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne.... -..... rel. 5.r\ . - 56 I r- . "... 1...... : %=9 \ ~ 1...L . quantity.. LJ 1J I A B degree. VI... .. -. II certain prof'OftIonate size....lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0.\---?'<::- eed thi 1tutIu" ~ale sb ook St3ndard or point of reference.........1Ut respea to In'gnltuae. or mOvement....3. Also c.~.. .---------. '1.0 mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement. 8113 ..I The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third Fibonacci se~ . divideJ Py tile fOIl rth.lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ ' .. extent. . uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ~... 2.... pu rch ~Ie '... I harmonCC~' ~..

"etrent k. and facntt:es fully accessiple and usap!e by all ~1e.J ~. _ ! cop " y t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position. ~ : a.'~'" f ...1nclud1~ the physically dt "{~..f To 3sc'rlbil humin furm orcharacterlstics to nonhuman things or I1elngs.·.-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement.. ffunctioM&imell5ion ".) ~". Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch..r..----..Also. f gin !. > ------" pe~11315pace ~ The vatia!7le and su~lectlve dlstance at which OM person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her. /~~ r I ]r. i territoriality The pat tern of ~havior associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or domain r .i.. f: !I:'J ..!J~..< presence and movement ana the size... ·····. and proportion of a space. Ptllk:Il~s.. ----.ns.. · · .' tendons. or mo.· ! j f' ······1· a~r~~I11~ I l .. nee his boo P~r...a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL kp ~.. : r.... 35 reach.fDESJGN I l ~gonomiG5 r ~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO.~esi5.. jVa~ Of or ~ini~ to spaces. 11 .-' . -.. ~)13ptJc i .'.-.." . sha pe.J.·-...rp~~ ... . i' \: . enter.. Also called~! distance."''' .. · .". mlt The correspondence II""··..- 57 . .i~~i?'~ i: " '~ f j /~V . alld how the n3ture and kgru of this sp3ttal arrangement relJtes toenvlronrnental and cultural factors...~ if you h:mdlc3ppd fl . petween the sensory experk:nce of podily al ori the se cha ur '~.. or clea ranu.! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 I and In~al sltuat.softhe tiuman body a nd It 5 p-art5.. The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody..-.. .1ved chiefly from stlmu/. ~~ia. Also called ~uman engCnurin4. --. .. k1na~$lai i presence.-.. t olfutory' ReI.. or permission to approach.:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely. or use. stride." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom.~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re. I I I Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the cha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an.. ana Jolnts.atlon of nerve endl~s in muscles. It Ra~ropoll10.

or ~ lli:e by writing. An . J refine. IteraUv~ process comprising the following phases. esp...rasu!1jtct a system or process to such condItions or operations as will lead to a critical evaluatlon of a!71 lit!e 5 or p~rform3nce subsequent acceptance or rejection. to show the appearance ~~n' .. fJ~tifying .oi T'lie mental lIPility to perceive distinctions.esp. f 0 conulve. To expre5S. y Astandard. ". worth. or realIZe the : capaPtlJttes or posslp!litles of so 3S to ~rlng 1 gradually to a fuller or more adva ncea or effective state. ~.. 5~parattng iph.---. requirements.~~. or qu.Also.ading or directed to a partlcu~rc:ti PfO~S .-. or teaching. f"OPO''' The off~ of II pia n for consideration..:::~:::~::M~OO' des~n project wtthln a specified tlme. buJlt accurately to scale for study. .Creases comfort.tharttte. ~ model : . .-. comprehend relationships. or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other constru~ contrivefoform In an artistic or Ingenious manner. acceptance.--".. A'iT._. fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth ln~ antlclpa~ for testln~ and evaluatbn. A~nd.:.. 58 L .~ inflectio n ' boo To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means of a definite pbn or procedure..--. ~ .i .ss~~... speaking. . or exists.rnfitu~ represent3tlon. or distinguish alternatlves.. lr--n. esp.angle. t~rifty. Ina way that Is clearly ana readily understood. as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations.. ~ meons of which a changeofrelatJor. testing.1. ~P~~I\ ! feeduack his ..:i traMformatlcn-' The process Oftha~glng In form or nee if you ~l&iitJon Slmulztlng. convenience...._ . usua ny ~ullt to scale.· ~ deve~ .. expand.-J3-'-tlO-'n--":::"~:l:..1 DESIGN .. I CO"""~ .. J dmltll. L L L L L @@ L L L L dt se gin fo asceruln or assess the slgnlflcance. . growth. th~ cycncal.'Ilng a prol7lem.. or pleasure. ...: To wolt but. testing. ~! fo chooSe from a numl?er of a~matlves ~ fitness or preference..) ~in~ € The pattern of change. r •. function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is designed. CI'iterU.Ie.. L develop. in problem .._ ~refut.h~ls J Comulnirig of separate. socia/' economic. or used. / .. econorny . or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end. or Interchange Ideas..... or prinCIple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ue ~ased. .':"..: I.. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols. ...-----~. f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more flne or precise.. EVaIu3tlve Information auout an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for a~ratlon or correction. character. a future preferrea state.orslmilarchange:n the shape of" configuration. .. cop ~ ~ / _'\ . ~igll" /. made.. and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources.U5t Arty feature that provides or l!). or otherwise determlnea bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions made.~.ina i . and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project. ~nd mod..lltyof. .:.sI1lp to some context or condItion Is lodlcate..'e.. /~~. Jesfgn f~'·./ al ... given. ~ judgment ~ : . A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into applications of existing Ideas or prinCiples.tnodifyl the ~icwttd 3n impIem~ solution In use ~ tk-specifieJ gozls and ori ~! fochange the form. analysis of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements. II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le. Infonnatloll.canvey. I l. J~meniFY.nJ Its. usuarly by careful appraisal and study. ~purpo~ ... used. •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or }~~"lfor so.. ' -? I '..--:_ _ _ _ _--. ~[gJ elnt~: concept.{y(ng structure through a series of alscw~ permutatlons and manlpulatlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity Of' ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria... coof. ..' jmoclc~up: AfuH-s!ziJ model of a Uulkllng or structure..~~ .i$e.rio.f • The reason for which something exists or Is done. kp n o ur g cha ~ . and physical ~xt. or action.J conditions. . often dlve~ pa rts • or elements so as to form a single or t whole.. or ~~yn. .. ···········-···········t~#············~:··~'···-·-··-.. as a statement~ forth the context. or construction of something...

/ irrt. ~..'l . '. plans. or ~~ The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be... am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation.. resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence.: irrt3~in3ticn : The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell' --. asd1stll19ulshed from theory. ana characteristically removed from re4nty.. ap~~ ur ~vfn9 ot>~e.. kp ... j he~: al gin --'~(_-l. .A... ._ . structure.~ ! explaining.. them.e creation of something.>stance. -e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \ I crutivity .-.. vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something." cop ori the se M object.' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai.. and Independent ros~.. \.1cter.. I boo I ! : ~hl~.e . .' '" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S mind. An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident..c-tu3r~nu or application of principles.... ~pnctU .. esp. arc~-·····--·-·-···· .... --. -.~r)'. ·-····-·-····· .. 1'e<11 ... or Interpretations.er construction.iDESIGN .ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5... The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas.n \ --. Jlld. : . i . as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals. .a.. -. .. 0 ) o-----~) ~ . Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance. The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char. asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded.. or characteristic anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ. ~ ~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group ~ t model ' An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr. patterns.dd~. esp. or distinction.. . . of 2Ctlon.. to pe developed In detail In later studies.~: The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality. .. To a'ir~theefforts or attention of.. ~ph!J.. " To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr. ! fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns are summoned.. mentallnventC1s that are whimsical.. "... _ .rtfuple... esp.en61 representation of / sorr.. 4-..r. 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or cha . A fortUitous circumstance.8 h~~ some fmn of o~tlve ~Irty outside of the ~~Inthesolutlonofa' \. or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas. or thinking In orderiy. ve.acUvtty.. The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring.. ! I 59 .---~Efl------. >>A rr. or other drawings.::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern or structure for a des41n. forms.~.. des~n conceyt r 1 ~ ~a. '. . ~~pt ~~~} ~~~ 10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a ~rtk:ular fom. qUJl1ty.l'ltlonJl way.:t yro~. A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr. qU3!ity.irtlcuur Instance..~ IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031 . . proia. represented graphically Py diagrams.eatlve processes.. -. I Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea.~. ' procedure. _. r r t f' if fI I • A nu.'- ..... Aconcept for tl1eform. or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness ~rWeen y ~~ I .wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p.._.. tnJth.. _ ~ .~i . an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances. I tBDJ]w w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference.s. a-nltogy ( . dt Rri~neJP~ A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar.:.V.. To rorintmental plctvre of a. f5~~. ~tf.. sul. or amngement..\ / / / .n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased. you -~I char.. understanding._ . An un.1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts.-••• - \ I .origiral~i The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner.. playful. ~ e LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng ~renJiFity ~klent. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a% or principles used in analyzing. ""'_' _______ \ \ IJ ~~ •..l4~" .~_ .. his T =~ c ~ /lY'~ .••• -~Q/. A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5 Hlusory..:' r . :. future possibility.lCterls1lc. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or nee Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr. • '-.. or predicting phenorr~. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-.. o }.

I rings at various heights.. - meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface.. spnere.Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon ./ roo . and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation....g the acme surface Into. perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces... always kp ---4-J::':"'---.. A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure. -./ .~ . gin ~ucerdcme al cop 11 11 11 great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere.. ---....ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop .: ur i the l7ase of il acme tc ....ema Iloaa.. ! .Ir+- if you nee dt his boo ! .. .lI'ftlIItS. ."" . A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface. ......cent.... meridianal force ~ . so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns..er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~. ....---..... radl.-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a hemlsp~re..-' forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load conditJons. 5chwedler dome A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude.. and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles. hoop nne I .(").----...eridIonai forces.aldome A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn¥d In 3 raalalll". A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae. geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr..e~~io~~~ng the rr.IT" ! conb!n the outward components of cha .. -.... ... compressive underfull vertical loadIng. whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome._~ ...DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of. -. thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell se the Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~.l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles.. 60 ori y .. ~ttiudome .. t. rr.. In 3 concrete dome.---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome structure. Hoop forces.e . hoop forc. 3rt compressive In the upper / zone ana ~sife In the lower zone....---""'....

..... -_ . cupou A light structure on a dome or roof. ~ gin . cul-de-four .:--. as around the springing of a aome. An area In the pLone of a wall framed by an arch or vault... . \ I if y 'l ou n eed l thi sb ook ~l i . O'IU an apse or A semldome or'quarter. ..DOME :.. 3S nlc he. An arch or cOrl:>eltng pullt across the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octa~onal structure./ . A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure.. ~ oculu't a dome.-----------------------.lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola. A strap. . y cop ~ pendentive ~ '\ }-1~3rne 1 " A dormer window In a roof or spire.. 61 .~cl andalr.1 J. paintIng.. Asuperstructure crownIng a roof or dome havln~ open or windowed walls to let In light semiaome... space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or vault In which low sounds produced at any of certain poInts are clearly audIble at certaIn other dIstant pu \L.1antern. al ~'L ~Ulrn.. one at the crown of -I : : r·-tb.age .lunette i .. esp... ··~·--llrrterdome ... . ---------- .:.. /.._ .{ A dlrc~iaropenlng. band. It. Whispering gallei'y\ rch ~) the ori ase ....... H3ff a dome formed by a vertical sectIon.. ring.. Or belvedere..... A spherical dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentIves anel sits on " square pLon... The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome. or sculpture...rt~) . serving 35 a l:>elfry. '. . containIn~ a wIndow.-. \ pe~tttive dome ~ .sphere vault. --: --_..... orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together... as (Ner a semicIrcular apse.

..DOOR A hinged. sw~ing door A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled....{l exclude drafts.. ./ / / :.....J i kp A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding b3ck In the manner of an accordion.LiI. l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT". pivoteQ door AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot.. .1binet.- / .'''- ~ . .. / ./ !i .-. usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door. air curtain A stream ofcompresseJ air dlrec~ downward across" doorway so as ~ form a shield t.J.. ./ \ .. ..Ine door pivot.jjii. or folding Darner of wooa.. ur 1. -:.. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertical pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:..erir.. ..-. r-----Y---~...Ilancea for easier opening and \ . or c. sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••. hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter. nolse... asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal. _ _ _ .. the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer I~af pl... A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe. door opener A mech3nism that automatically opens a door .oted ~t the jamb.I." \.oft. wall.~::s I I I that permit It to I swing In one direction only. active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached... 62 . .rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ .......g:~~~i~.. double doors I.' "' ' .. jill ir j A folding door that divides Into two parts. I.' his i I I boo r I 51iJin9 door A door ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on. II ( I i .. double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position.I... electric eye.. sliding.lr of double doors. room. astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light.. ":'-""-Ieaf 1! I A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter.. -~ wIng One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.. allU)m. . A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile..... it-'-"Tl I : : I I dt I I I ('f"'-"'" : 'I I if you I 1: I : ~ nee I 1 I I I I __ . ~ i overhead door A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves. cha . .. J : ... Also called standing leaf.. usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to.IJ.. mullion A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p. / . . DDD .... j_ .. Inactive leaf The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f.: :... or smoke../ .. . ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe.' ~' . ~ ~.._ . / Y the foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when ~ se .revolving door An entr3nce aoar for excluding dr.. ... Also called openIng leaf.JJJj.. ~ ucordlon door ori -r+--"'i'~'-'-"" - l:rifolddoor gin al cop y ..~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~ ---~. or other device.. ~l or glass for opening . . -.-_-U.s from the Interior of a i7ullding. - c1051 rtg.. tnGt.' :'../ / . DOD DDD DOD Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold Pack In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied. sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door.. ! ... opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng...~i:..nd closing an tntranu to a building..... . r ... providing a'legal passageway on roth sides of. . -~ ..

.-.. Either of the two sidepieces of a . if I A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it./ .I i I • •1 63 ..g weather protection at an exterior door...---..---.... ':1 doorstop. r 1 711 do<xway.~..s opening finished with trlmworl:.~j r-"--"". ' . Also calle."~-4 I :':: '. se r r I ! --'------------ur kp dt the doorcle4r311U ------. you nee sectlan of woodwori: directly above a his boo . pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me. -. Also called door \1ud. sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening. often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng... AlSo callej '::1 stop :. ~~\.':1 pmb Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway.::1 The uppermost mem~erof a doorframe or wi ndow frame. ·. _--- \~_t~~ ::' .".. i i I A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame. (32 mm) for each 2 In..~-----W~------------------ .. ·. casing ________ . . -. The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes.-. to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding when oper. --.J I r uan~cmwindow -----. or window opening.. ·· ..... ~e:=~~·I·~I~~~. - th~hold The sill of a o.~.. splay 5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall.K...-----. -.-...c~--:-7::::7:~ DOOR doorframe Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y.~-' doorjamb .::. . ~ --------_ . --· Maml . The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II --.' . Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window.u..1 .~~~. rauueteJ stop I. • ~ \ A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another. Also calW transom.-. tr~n50m Il~ht. scunch~n I~ . '~------------~. doorles. nor prepared to receive hardware.----..fanlight Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window.-c-~-7:'..--. 1 r:·~·:~~~~~y . allowing the door to swing free of the door frame....\. I· t· I ----. the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s. '. __ .. -. -··· .-..saddle . __ . . I " .. rough opening ---------.1 ' -=U'=== Veneti3n door A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window.----------- r .. cop al gin ori cha y '-~- j r ~~~?i.___ L __ <.cased opening ':J. subca. doorway. ~---+-+-.-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway. ~: the fau of the loci: stile.:1. '.i/19 A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'! opening.::! wfnglight reYe411 ------------------. The finished. ' .. ua"~m ----------. --- The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame. Also. .i ">.-......: <j "l- doorframe. (51rnm) of door thickness.. -- ~kleli9ht A window at the side of a door or another Window. consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted. Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay... esp."---.~ ..ed.--. rough puck.·~··· .oorH'3y.--.' \. esconson.::=. __ . buc~ blankpmb Adoorjamb having no stops. covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr.~-...---. usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In.head :0. as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\.

aht In the upper portlon cf. L . and often hung In pairs.' . used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_ Dutchaoor A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately. --D i Also callea shlltting stile.5 In a system of paneling.. f. or I Li al cop y severe we3tr..t ~~ or dlvlskln of a wall c. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude in~s..ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr. ana ~ lI1untlns. for protecting an erTtr. L D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass. ase ori L gin ccmpi~n door An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea.itter.'lnting. usua!1y glazed.. a paneb:l door. filled with panels of a . Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_ louver --------~ An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl..elll~.""'~=". _ _ _ _ _ // . louvre.-niL>te when cbsed. or a ches~ vf drawers. door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~.ming panels.-=-==d locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar.~g. Ii j. rails.. Alsccalltd hangIng stile...l~'-3 i u vision light Asmallli... storm door .. ~ --. hi"¥stile The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung.y of various:: ?right memDers fr. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl". driving /din. window The uppermost r3il connectJng the stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It. as in a system of panenng. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits.-----... Or~ of the a!nJtt.1. ico.11 outer or supplemeir'. ook l..stile Ar. Also.-.• p3nel A distinc. recessed r3a ::~~c~~~~~~~:_~ Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels. a pane!ed door.s and diagonal Dracing. or door. Iuminum sU!es ana r. IocIcrail ---------------------------.onn sash for winter..DOOR paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes. Also.. of a doo. gl1:7 door.that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~ i1ottom rail -------------. window sash. Jip door A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat..h Inlla' 1113 teriJt . louvered door A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air. --. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st.-' IU L below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame..3'j door.=. pu rch o thi sb ou n eed if y the screen door A. L i L 64 .lils that hold a wire or pI3S'.lfts. muting stile ~_J stiles In.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisce.tun door A door const~..er.------The . pair of dou Die doors.----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow sa$lt. I.. fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy.lnce :XNr from dr.l:: :nesh to . french door A door having rectangular gl3ss pares extenang throughout its length.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or ..e of the opening.

y of var'. hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips.:. or medium density overlay. cha se the ori cop ur hollowmetalfr. : ! t i. docrskin Asurface veneer of plywood.::! sides. ~r.anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door.t' an.we!de..es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware .. crossl1and. 65 'i . i I aM casl~ ~m. sclkJ-ccre door Awood flush door having a solid core of staved lum!1er. \""" A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance. The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface. stop. at the !1a~ of a doorfrarT1(:. Also. aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core. prehung docr Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr.-' gin t.J.krIockdownfume A met3! doorirame composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe . cutQff :..a'l~ pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !. A protect!ve lining. acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening if you .. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om.:f frame i anchor Ar.. hardboard.. Alsacalled hospital stop. al backbend/. as In a daor. cor-e. partlck: Doard.____ _ A ma. ....dfnme A met31 doorfralT1e th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory.' nee ~ dt his kp k3~mein door hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame. y flu5hfraIM r----L. usually of stainless scul. forming a lIacklng for face veneers. core Awooden construction.rase of a doorframe to the f. -- flush door A door havl~ smooth-surfaced faces.. _. ~:m:t:HS1~. bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door.DOOR 1 I l i _... !lpat ~ . cro5s(. Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer.. galvanized sheet metal.llne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan.1 c:Ioorfr. reinforced wtth channels.. ~sketed ~ . double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS. or a minerai composition.ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal. sanitary drywall frame A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall partition Is finished.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure. p13stlc 13mll13te..-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line a 45° or 90° angle. throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe.. groute..lang ~ boo Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with ~ ~ .oor. s :netal devices for orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher.

DRAWING The art. '. or proportlon. or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface. mu/tJdlrectlonallines. f. ~5h. cop ori ook thi sb pu rch trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Il'asurerr. stippling . Sh3dlng by means of dots... small spots. continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~ surface with a pencil. gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the pa rts.'?s distinguished from sha ai~ or eolor:\ ~-------lZ-' \ ~ - I . ••~ sculpture.. or " c:motlon. profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side. scene. arm.. L . Pe:'!.1ow. rn. represent light arJ s-ha.st. . process.. 01' give the effect of color. or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject. had.n In close proxlmlty.(' line A thin. process. as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls.ttching ShadIng composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes. or dr3wing. Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs am. . body th3t expresses an Idea. centour The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng ~es of II three-dlmenslonal form. I I I Il ~ DRAWING _. A representation of the form or : appearance of something. ~k visible In '.express a~. A1r'CI'e:m. or movement ase The effect or Illusion of moUon conveyed by the rel3tlonshlp of structural elements in a (I.. key The dominant tonal value of a drawing or palntlng.=. for the representatlon of perceptions or the vlsualiz3tlon of Ideas. ph~raph.:'.gnrrent. F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG "'f'o.ttching eed if y h. y gin al reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or. without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.::::. depth. centour drawing The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject.-. . modeling The technique of rendering the illUSion of volume. image freehana drawing The art. technique A method or procedure for accompllshlng a deslrea aim or tas~. movement. or brush. high-key Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr.3 tic painting in shades of gray to produce 3 three·dlmenslonal effect.::::::::. SC3le. ~~~ng Shadlng by means of a netwon: of random.ent.Ice.~ of the b na. f\j ure 01' object.{' \.'::. 66 .~~-deslgn or composition. or solidity on a two· dlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading. esp. gesture drawing The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume. grisaille MonoehrolT'. \- outline A line describing the outer bounaary of'a. or short strol: es. opinion.~~~:.J~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality. or technique of drawing ~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices. "g~ ?t~=F==i~a:5.. In contrast to contour drawing. low-key H3Vlng en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast.-"". the ou n sluding The r:ndering of light and dark V4lluesln ~ dr.oss. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface.:.

~U3S\ort I rI r L if you nee dt his boo kp I • intu\ol" space.'. ~~~~~~~ '\\ ~ ~~~. exploration. r:sp.. . shade. es-quis5e A s.( y $I:} r. lI1OS. to ~ :.1wing. 67 . or detail of a work. M~ ?fE.DRAWING design drawing .ents. Any of the drawings made to aid In the visualization. tfom~roeil A drawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile a-j spatial qU3rtt ies An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade.~ /' /~ 1. epure AflJrt-SQIe.\:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'. • J . +. ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr.ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils. the cartoon ori gin al mass A unlf'.. with respect to Its qualities of executlcn.x a fresco. a pers~ive. from which are ~ the pattans forvarlous Dulldlng elar.orother~sumce.toInsferred In preparation f. ort3~try. and evaluation of a concept In the design process. surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of Important details and some1:imes a pia nor section of the facade. Of made to record ol7servatlons. t I ' ~'. sway r A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise.6 ~~ -'1 )?)~ 'I /? :P / V' passage An area.-. esp. one subject to revision. s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n.Oic.oI ~rl3Is. conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist. of a building cha se A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n. section. fbao. esp. or color that deflnes shape or form In general outhne rather than In detail. draft A prelimlna!).ed area of l'9ht. analyti~ue ". shades 3nJ shJdows: usua Ify done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and Of'" ur r I renderi~ Adnwing. often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study./Ah_ vignette A drawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper 50 as to leave no definite line at the border.. .. ~ drawing done Of1a wall. cop . productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:.

nne. and along which measurements are $Galea and Indicated. 17re3kline A I1roi:en line conSisting of relatIVely long segmentsJoined by short zigzag strokes. or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the state: wMre the work Is to ~ perfonTltJ. L. tUshed line AIn-oken nne conslstl~ of short. wori:fng I ori A Im*en nne conslstlng of relatIVely long segments separated by SIn!J1e dashes or dots. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition.ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point. Also C311ed COfTt. scales. to which a dlmenslon hne Is drawn. to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view. dlmenslon5. engineer. sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. leader A short line leading the r. or dots. plan. sometimes used In place of a dashed line.J~ closefy spaced Oots. ana o grid A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating and re1uiJtlng the elements of a o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject.the apex of which Is a reference point. ! if exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI"!J from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~.. ---------1==3====i=r--t---t-:tt=IT--If¥=--ir--t"ff9· dotUd line ----------1H+-tr1+==---~l---{ Hf--~ A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of 11i:z'i\::nmb1~mt~~mt0~~c:. 68 . ~I An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a licensed architect. snort sl3shes.. esp. . triangles. for the compasses. unUrline 'l I gin the ur cha se al cop dr. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt.. Also called muhanlcaf drawing.. crowfoot A V-shaped mark.iwi"4 s .truction drawings The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn. '.lccatlon. used to cut off a portion of a drawing. closely spaced strokes. or area. y co". dime~lon line j A flne terminated l1y arrows.DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares.nct drawings. used esp. Indicating the extent or mag nltude of a part or the whole. kp ( you nee dt his boo /~~ ~-'. - .

elements.3ne.. e!MtIon represented by l e.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left. the form of Its roof.. map.!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1d1cul. I I I I floor ptan A plan of 3 rOOm. 1 69 . The tl1rory of Mlng project1ons of threedlmtrl. and doors. ~a!e y A plan showing the form..lr or roof of ~ bulldlng.3r to a plctu re pl. I __I area plJn A plan showing the principal elements of a design project In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~ent.lon remOr'ea. either parallel or converging. typlc. 1- ApI.ontc~I~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~ rocfpL1n A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng. and other soflds of a l:tulldl~ that are cut !n a floor pl3n or section drawlng.bce...ontcurline --------~---: An 1~lnary h~.. lnd1caw.. and conu. _ .ztlon 011. n of a room as seen from aw. columns.locatlon . topographic pun or The d!ffmnu I. orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a threedimet1slonal '*.Jolnlng points of equal eM tIon 00 a s. plJn -. -" gin ori if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the " al poche The walls.. '~'_ _ '. !andSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot. uSU311y 111Gludlng tl1e dImensions. _ _ ~'~. to a picture plane. DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry projection The process or technique of representlng a thru-dlmenslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh"t nnes. esp.ch contour /1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or ~p. Also called orthogonal proJection. " . Also C31bI ~ cef1l~ plln.: An orthographic projection of the top or section of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane. or entlre floor of a uuilding as sun from above after a horlzootal section ls Clft and the upper port. usually drawn to scale. _ _'l. narth arrow A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the direction of north. windows.re hit hZffng its celhllf Sijrf3ces and elements proj«ted dowr. Also calleJ plan view.... I r 1 ~ '"' I !"I 11===fF -< - ~j~1 ".·. usl~ a system of symrols and drafting nnewon.Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys.. AI50 called plot plan. suite.:il1y shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls. mmi~pUn A pUn showing the pattern.ll frame for a fu. or Its rep~rrt...ct1ons of die: structur. graphicecale --------~ 1 ! Agraduated hnear Uar Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a represetlt3tlon and that which It represents . A proportlol1 determining the relationship of 3 represen"tatlCn to that ~lch It represents. .J USl!311y In ulack or by hatching. c. c..and orientation of a l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on a site.~- " Xi ----'-~1in9 '-. contours. gradi~ p~n A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ finish con tours and emtlon s cf the groo nd surface of a conWuctlon sI~ cop ~iU pL1n ~I ~dplaa ----~ -.

_..hogr#phlc projection Of an object or dt SC3~ his struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of Its sides..I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon Is to be viewea.11 cclor cop nee \.... to conv~ li9ht. used to IndIcate where .. shades ana shaaows kp \g)~ ur cha \00 relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast.. In orthogr3phlc views. cai1ea mns. esp.. The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~U~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light 5O\IrGe..s it \... _. ~ opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object. t~. and depth..... at right angles to the ~ axis of an object...... surface. y U Lj 70 ! I: .. Also " III section line) Acerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow. boo e:b7tWn . would a~r In white tlght... form...I DRAWING &tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure ... 5Q~ It Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of. usually drawn to The casting and rendering of shades ..erse section. gin al r-·IcC.Ind shadows... crt3tlng Illusion of three dimensions... An ort. if you shadow AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from a theoretical light source. S<':ction An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely. esp..lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration. lu Ii i .. cros.e se the ori shade _ ... The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject .. I It usually drawn to L.l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject.

oPliqLle A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc.r p.1line drawi~ Arry ofv.!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes .1.l. view.. • ~ntPJrt.l~ or .en ase the trimetric projection ori An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two.ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings .1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made y dimetric projection isametric is-ometrk: projection An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M..":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa.hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.lMne draw'.atlonships to each other and to the whole. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion .~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots. :~:f an oblique proJection.1r. A par."ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to ook c~~ pu rch f- An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'.. haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_ opli'tue projection A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect.r.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1. c3Pinet drawing A paranne dra . phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr. 3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection.1xonometrlc projecticn The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal axes are foreshortened. having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale.~ cf an Isometric prdp:. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. r r r J perspective. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n cavalier drawing A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection.ls. Also calW ~naed if y ou n eed thi dispby tM ~ior. 1 r tn!1S~renttv permlt gin al reprtSelTt~ of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew.. h1vi~4 . h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale.e scale. sb A dr. cop ph.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane. 71 . exploded new A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ.e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le.tlon. and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j. used to represent a property IIne.311 converging ~ In linear r1 il DRAWING ..

as being closer. ..d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture pl3nt: by straight lines converging at an ~rlly flxed point represerTtl ng the eye of the viewer.. _. ~hnlque for representlng depth or dist. denneatea by a thlder fine or by a sharp COf1trast In value or texture.. .....•. A point rtpresentlngthe Inte~ of the centl'2l axis of vision and the plcture pbne In hne.1xf~ of vf~ion The si9htl1ne lnalcatlM4 the dIrection In which the viewer Is Iookl~ In linear pl3~e. on whk... .. -----+ .. tone. . In Nnear perspective.ct Is projected. coexlsttnt wft:h the drawing surface..rious ~hnlques for representlng t. The cone of vision serves as a guide In tktermlnlng ~t ~n ~ drawn In hne.. ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as recedJng from the plcture·pl3ne. 1ac3 teJ at the point where 3 slghtllne parallel tcthe set of fines Intersects the picture plane.al~tIc~ ... contlnuity of pictorialspau ~ rn...h the lm3ge of a three-dimensional o!7je.. boo A flxt.DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2.. ~ I al i P kp point . ..ar perspective... ~'btion gin ori r . The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means. Also called atmospheric A ~hnlque for representlng depth or dlstance !rt placing dist.ance by reducing the size of objects perulved as receding from the picture pl3ne...' _____ '- - 1-....vanishing point A p?lnt toward which nudlng parallel lines appear tcconve:rge In llnedr perspectlve. linear perspective A mathematical system for representlng three·dlmenslonal oDjects and spatial relationships on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau loy means of perspective projectlon.ru-Jlmenslonal objects and ~tl31 rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau as they might appear to the eye.•....d point III spuc representlng a sing ~ eye of the viewer In nnea r horizon line A nne representlng the intersection of the picture p13ne and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective.. perptlndlcular to the picture 72 . ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which 3 three· cop y the dlrnenslonalobject Is rep~nte. nee you I if ~ ground line Ahorizontallfne represent1~ the I~fon of tne ground pbne and the pIcture pl3ne In linear perspect~tl. as aer!at perspective.. _ o". usually the ~ane .. arty fine or plane colnck:ltnt with the picture p13nec3n ~ drawn to exact scale.ground pl~ne Ahorizontal pl3ne of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve.. supporting the object deplcU:d or on which the viewer stands..Xhnlque for representln~ depth or dlstance by emphastzlng the contlnulty of tne contour of a shape perceived as l:Ieln~ In front and conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It. i.. X ----->-- continuity of outline A f.. dt his perspectlve..--! n-r~~·~ -: I I It perspective.. Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by gradU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore plane.. _. perspectlve.. ' . .. unterofvision ~ ..n..... central.... size perspective ..a1 of space. ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve.. sprtUl edge An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r...nt objects higher In the picture pl3ne than otjects ~ed . deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the untral axis of vlslon. ~I perspective vertlc~llocn:lon A~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance by muting the hue. - ....picture pl4ne j I I ur cha se ! An Imaginary transparent p13ne.lr perspective wfthout the appearance of dIstortion... Also called "'&alinl!! .

characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!.. r diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point.. --.d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine..l ... three-point ptr5pectlve A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M.c. -.. ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space..- I j .-.--. Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not mea. "'If Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also. / or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane. '----'\ pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t.nlshlng polrtt 3S they P"rallellines perpenJicul. measurements In "nea.lonate parts or multiplying" '.u-allel t<J the picturt pl. -. so that vertlc3lllnes parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l. V3n~hlng trace . 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right. I 1 1 . as the ground line.--..' Par. IlOrI3dpcen't angl.urlng line .. ---.lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line.0 the picture pl3M.. so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir..~rs~~.. used .~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne. peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene. -.o.. dt me3. diJg<'naf •.. conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space.-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective. his boo kp horizon line ur cha graphiC Of or relating to pictorial representation.ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr... View 3t" shallow angle from this point 73 ..es of a rectangle.--...-. 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into ..'W mirror. 50 th3t vertical nn~ ~phalor f I l.----.~. propor. parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points." ... . A straight line connectlng two ...-horizon line one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect ... horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal. DRAWING towara "cammon v..3 morpho. to canverge at the center of vision.. usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth.. esp.1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision. isocephalic cop ori gin al se the a n.. distance pOint.. ~-------1 Pmllel lines p. y lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique . that which depfcts In a clear and effective 1T13nnu. .. .~~ horizon /in~...'1 I t.1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge.· "I ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines reude... .• foreshortening wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane. ..- --~-. and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r .~ points...uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive..~! if you nee fd. ' which can Pc used to take ...

. property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1.. AI:1Vr....: kWh 74 ..... y ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the aulfltyof a sul>st. Also called electric cell. phenomena..easured in couloml:1s... ApPr. t:quivalent to a flow of one coulom~ per second or to the steady currelTt produced \:1y one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm. ADPr. Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges repel each oU1er.r·· . measured In amperes....... cop resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stance with aunit cross·sectlon. leW I P lei !ow...: A Ohm's law ..ance to conduct electric current....... wrtt The 51 unit 0{ po-""er...... AI:1!?r.::~~~~n~eaaa:~~:~e point.... gin I al !.. kilowatt A tIf1itofpower. or motor. the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component.:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng... the power required to o~ an electrical device or appliance. you In an atternatln§ current circuit.::::~'~""' ::::~:ves a nun metallic medium.rrangementofcomponents 1n.. positive...... '. electromotive force The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical.....: C potential / (... j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current... ~··-··---······l \ 1-'" ...... power 15 eqUJI to t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage..... y ....an~. t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patenU31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere..: W ~e neg3tlve one..__ . / ..ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existena and interaction of electric charges. current •. generator. A~. t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across 3 woauctor loy a current of one ampere In one second...000 watts.. defined as the dlfferenu of M...i& reslst.. the effectlve Cll!'Tent. APlir.... causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into heat and usually measure4ln ohms. / w= VxA his power .. equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance. ~:~~atlvet.. ~agt!iof cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy.:R ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance. equal to 1.l The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"eI1t Itt J direct·current circuit. se the j ori f... when the power dissipated Petween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt.al area.. eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ Vy a CutT'e11t of 0IIe ampere flowing across a potential ctfferenu of one volt. volt The $I unIt of potential difference and e1ecWmotlve force. ~j I t_ _ _ i--_ _ _o-__ --<)O--'~-~-_f 1111.11 + -. J :":::~:::":::... mechanical.. In a conversion device as a ba ttery. ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a boo ---r- kp ur cha resist. ana the cosine of the p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage... expressed In watts..ow: curnnt parallel •.... An amount of power... Also called specific conductance...rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy. electric wrge The IntrinsW./ f'otenU31 difference or electromotive force expressed In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow. circuit energy. The basic 51 unit of electric current. storage Pattery. or vIce versa.... An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/1 negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor. The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance..... I ' I electrolyte A nonmetallic conducting medium In which coulomp The 51 unit of electric charge.tric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constai1t curren't of one ampere... or other form of energy llIto electrical energy..ermll14lofaprimaryCeHor n storage Pattery.. . ·. .... voltaic cell. galvanic cen... voltage .. ThIs convention Is 5tlf1 used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn. ...-... Abk V The complete path of an electric U I current. Ii I I I two or more cells connected together to produce electric current. I =VIR amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow. Abk. Also called spec.. usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes In an electrolyte.. " ........ including the source of electric series •.1nce ~ .It ~s 3S5UI1JeJ th3ta JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI oil positive point ~ a nee dt circuit per unit time. .... '. An ... potential difference The voltage difference l:1etween two poInts that represents the wort Involvea In the transfer of a unit charge from one pollTt to theo'ther. equal to the energy transferred or expenkd \:1y one kilowatt In one hour: acommon unit of electric power GOnSIJmptlon.: Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current Is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current. Symbol: 0 if am~e from neg3tiY~ r....: emf •... ... occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative algebraic ~ns and rr.l5 fuDy ~. ~~~:Ive terminal of a primary celf or L . esp. More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w. _ ..

... ""1. _-.l. serving to transform high line drop The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a numl7er of electric circuits. A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng.. powered by. Al:rbr._ .. ~ulred or demanded by the pu~\c. metering. _._.. - I : .. ___ 1_ .: VA l I ·······r L---------_________J r- I : An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more J . ovucurrent devices. _ ur cha -I r. a stq1-down transformer.1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne.... ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 : dlrectly to the outside air. and circuit breakers. ~ ~ ~. 5e"". as water....--------------------l rI5wft(.=:::~7nhd~~d.. " I arl113ture ----_.:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line..-1 __1 . equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems... I I I I I lI=*====::c unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch. ~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection ... Induction co!1. or where voltage Is s"'. L _ L _J whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core...?r. -::.InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng... measured at the point of use. __ . •.......: DC electric motor _ _ _ _ _ _---'j~ A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches. ..1--' I I I I I I I I I I I The equipment r. The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a .. --. coil _________ .-=.. .. uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply. gas...____ . and ~~Ity. cop voltage.or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a boo kp entranuconductor _...==--. Abbr. -t-. switch!?-oard One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches.. Abbr. as from DC to AC.. A mass of Iron or other ferrous materIal In an electromagnet..lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne. usually cause.:-_------:!.-::. A meter for rne..J }--. step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary.rteral The un.-. _ .. I l I I ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or gen era t.. alttrtutor A generator for producing alternating current.transformer I I Aunit of electric measurement. l k.. senlng to transform low voltage to high gin ori the --. __ . having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner.ELECTRICITY ¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J. ~rviu l. 5el"lice drop bulkllng... time only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly. : I -1 L ___________________ : I ---------------~- if you i rr-=-=::::----=--- nee r 'tIf<iItt-hour meter -. I I L ______________________ ~ 75 ... dt his buikflng.: AC 3 I I ----. __ -::. or transformer. . _ . metering Instruments. 5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary..i core ----. fuses.. The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a r--------------------l : .._.~ The portlon of 3 servu conducr. 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current In a surrounding coil. _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to Introduce Inductance Into a circuit.~·~~-----------J ...l . .....:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--. __ :=:-=-=::.. f~der ~l"Ilce equipment i standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage... ______ . usually located on '-rl'J. (/~1 / al ~rviu electrical current Is converted. I The supplyi~ of uUlitles..epped up or down.de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to. 5ervice CO nd uctor Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building..ecessary for controlling.----.. or / transmitting high voltage. Also called swiUhgear.. se line volt.. __ .. A ~ or carron conductor serving l1r~h I L~ ___ ~~.... ____ ~. alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~ at regularly recurring Intervals. step-up transformer ill y high-voltage Operated on. equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere.------.. _ . wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit...... bulkllng. and SWitchgear for a num!lu of electric circuits. -.. and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng. I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. voltaqe to low voltage..hg~r room ! tr.~' I vott-ampere I r------------------. Also c:J11ed emergency generator.

! . se tuPe."y conductor.. .. rnwlem~1 .~ --~. as a metal ground rod. resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit.. i ~ \ ~?~ 1 1 ground --.-':r.ed m an Insulating fiber cha f~si~e alloy.. ~ single-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized • Ir! I~"" ~ .~oJ electric ! : L____ J e r3 conductor.~ 1-..---------r----------r---------- h :1 L~:==~:::~=~:~:~~=::~-:...l nJet3ll7lade at each end for IT14klng contact with the i fusll7le fInk within. u ~" ~ cartrWge fu5e " "'...__ . -. fuses.. or In the functlonlng of An .r. .··'-·fr-· i Aheao. { ~ '~n electrical system.b". and d\stc1ht1ng large eltctric '"""".-_ .. -..-T' ~r] ~ . "7 120V 208V 208 V 120 V 120V fault A 001 failure In the Insulatlon or continuity of a conductor....:rt velow :3000 F (:'7C). l I L . ".. __ L_...-.. us1J311y acclkntal..I.'l boo front only..lnstalled In a protectlng a numver of similar l!: : dt P-rea~ersforcontroUingAnd Ii his I: ~~ 'I i A fuse that klays opening to allow..: §til .. Also.t:~J of va rious . kp : ___ knife-!1lak fuse .. cop _ I r Auud I7:t exuss y plug~ . grounded conductor -... A circuit In-eaker I13Y Pc rec'~ And reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components..Alscc3rlid ~f"oundlng ground wire ~.-j in various safety ~4'~... ---. three-phase _.'::: :-.lea metallrase. ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle thro~h which tlme has adv. time-deL1y~ ur u ~a=rd on which are mounted the swftches...~ CIl""Cuitm. measured from a speclflea reference point and often expressed as an angle.. hot..device contJinlng a strip C'" shock The muscular spasms caused I7:t an electric current passing through the body.. ground fault Amoment.. melts under the heat gin the i!.. and circuit F= -. used I~ I! you Ii pandl7~rd. nee ~nclt clrcults. : r .. ..cTUptlng the circuit..:I:-------------..-._J Of or pertaining to acoml-rinatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I7:t one third of a cycleorl20~ short circuit An abnormal. --:.. .. =. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or voltages differing In phase ~ OM r'-:' quarter of a cycle or 9O~ f.-='====-·=:":"·. ground plate. :-~ 1 live Electrically connected to a scuru of voltage. -=========1==~ll I.:)V dead Not electrically conr.. . or electrlc~11y chJrged SO.~~~ lr.. I'Iire of fusible metal al c. --. usually In the form of a soIkI copper p. 76 . equlpmerlt or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~. ---\ A conducting connectlon ~tween an etectrlc circuit or device and the earth i 1C...-Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system Intentionally connected to a ground connection... ! 2::'.n occur... Aconductor connect.ed wfth a thre3. carrying.. 3S when starting a motor.....f~:.7.. groundlng of a conductlng wire. 120V 120Y p. A fuse havlng a ont-Ume or renewable fuslvle I1nl: encJos..i nced.ry. AI". _--. tI: ~"----. _.ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch tlut automatlcally Internl~ an :1 ~_-_-1_ . -.--..._. J 1..")'sluvlngarr~ ..rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current I /l if fr. . ground-fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M SC1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults And Instantaneously shuts off ~r ~ damage or InJury c... _ .. .Al7!:>r. result1ng In a flow of excess current.ected to . damagIng apparaws In the circuit or for collecting.1IeJ I>u. n ". used as solder .i short· term ovedcaa to pass.. flrmly em~dded In the earth to est3l7l1sh a ground ccnnectlon..=--=-._ .-_____ ... ~ -~ u .J source of voltage..--.... li. Aisocalled caPlnetand ACCesslP!e from the "us ._~:!______________ Ii d . or ccld·water pl~.-. -_ .----+:j ~ causIng ~ fire..../S to luve A potential different from thJt of ~rth.. Also called ~Ur. Not electrically char~ed. us~11y accidental condition of ~w by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differIng ~ 180°. p....j--·-r----------· ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor...-..[.neutrAl or other point of zero potentlal one Ie .Alsccaned ori metal Afuse hooJsI~ • fuSl'c!e link In 3 porcelain cupfltt. 11 '.. Also called short...:' :1 ~./ AC3~ fuse having . _.

.e lighting fixtures.Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load may be applled at any time..~..re.--------" \. protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit.... '-I distriMlon panel A pa nd for als.ac:fflctor L ori gin 1 ! al g!ner.. Io. 5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval of time.. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device.---.ilr Unnin3 L ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously. Tl .i struct.-I t1...---. heating and cooling systems. dCrosS whlch. I y appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces. .ectrodes. Also called .. Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at the top of . .--.-.inJ grounded to \ load . using span: gaps to carry the current to the ¥Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device.. nee dt his boo kp [9]1 ur cha se l the cop I Li Dr3nch circuit The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn.II L-.ol overcu rrent device The I'3tlo of the average load on an electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period.uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment.al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and appll3nces. and rerr.o'. Low·vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect. . Indlvk:hul cirr..rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads. \. ~-I c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole...i discharge of electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ c:femana fKtor The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system. t law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage. I ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod . used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls. used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr.. -----. ~.. if I you I ______ .-----. \ The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer. voltage. maximum demand lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh- -/ voltage currents. dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure.. Intercoms.ve raceway.

down. or duct for enclosln~ and protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le. _. hammerir~.. to provide an opening Into the Interior. nee used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment. l ... 78 . An enclosed runway for housing conductors you Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure.e undesired flow of current.ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s... shielded caple gin al cop An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern. -.>. A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity. ori se the cha f ( l!{() grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in . ...a£. ex cutting.. often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power. !:>ody. . "... pipe." .. y I ... usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-.. sou nd. 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic. helically wound metal wrapping. nonmebllk. u conduit A ~Pe....-. _._____--_--J~ ur He3'fj'-wafled." Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed. lJ u 11 coawlcaple A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency telephone./ multi-outlet assemply _.. or device th3t ev"nduct5 heat.~ conduct. as by punching.. Cj')""./ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry. ~reakdown l~ mineral-insulated caple Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed.. . digital.1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr. tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C. Also called Pu5way.Knockout ..tteeway designed to house the elect. Also called Grunfleld dt ~!~~!I~.. I....." ../ &urface raceway . flameretardant she3th. noncorrosN~ locations.>red!. 1>0<. .1 electric or magnetic ftelds.. Also called 6X caiJle. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one P"""' "CO".. dielectric A nonconducting substance. junction box An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits... EMf his boo compression or setscrew coo p/lngs.. or electric Ity. signal. Also called Romex c.. ri9id metal conduit ~- ... Asu rface· mounted r.:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1u.. orcal7les.. conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core. Pu~duct . L underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor. insulator ..?r A substance. and telephone ou~!ets.{e.--. or television signals.rlcal wires for a circuit and a J if series of receptacles.. cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors. .s per unit of thlcl:ness......I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole.. nonhazardous. wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands.. / . racewJy Achannel expressly designed to hold and . often Insulated with a dlelectrlc materlaland used as a conductor of electricity../ protect ~ wires and cal7les. moisture-resistant.lnsulatlng refractory mineral voltage The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator UreaKS down and permits current to pass. rmored caple Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible. _. dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !..:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ conduit.. Al7k: kp =~..

flexl!ne. ..".:'-~-'- three-way switch A Single-pole.1nd-tu~ wiring gin J al outlet A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus. facIlitate connectlng an electric device or I rheostat Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances. ____ .------------..--I . ~-~J--------------r!8:>~ ~ :.-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~. ~.:i. "" swiU:h A device for making.wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by --. plug A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a receptacle. .. Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way.. wire n\It Aplas>J. threaud metal ftWr. ---. I : ~ ! 'I I I kncl7-. or dlrectlng an electric current... .q for 5C~""ing onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t . grounding plug connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors '..ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'.Iass t. \ I!Jl -~ polarized A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground J. the 5ln. moving through a snnallarc. causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit./ / : four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from three locations.~i~~i~::~.)+--Fe--l d -" ___ . nonmetallic. :!: ..ed on porcd. ".outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U.g~.l.ctin.~._.u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts..i:. spatl31 dlstributlon.. doulne-throw switch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations.. . ook thi "''--' __ ' --.. ~~ taggle switch A switch In which a lever or knob. .. ~i: ~! ! r electric Ilght without appreciably affe.:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice @ . An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of ase r f Iccm A flexible..c connec" 'Vcontainln~ 3 ._ _ _ _+-!..-.. '. -. float switch fuatl~ A switch controlled by a conductor In a liquid mercury switch opens .. An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne.--_.ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air. Also called socket. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port. ':--' bceplate \..----.l circuit. convenience outlet _~ sb An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances.~-. i U I I ""&-+------------H: r .Oor more CCflductors. knife switch .. ----:~1+-1:..---. /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:. outlet or light swi"~h...lln knobs ana tubes.ctlon.I statlor..c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to grounding outlet A snna~l.. . II form of air swftch In which a hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed betwxh two co~tact cnps.ma clcses anelectric An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that circuit by shifting a sealed !:..#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle. key. .sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS.. urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr. A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\.--+. . r= 79 . receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug. connection. another or to:. Drcaklng. if y ou n eed leu! A flexl~ In~ted conductor for ekctr. p~n A short.. fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring. ori cop ----.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon.. Also called dimmer switch. : ! rch y pu receptacle to a wiring system.

---.tric hoisting m-.n. no 1"11141 fly closed except when an elM tor car Is stoppea. driving sheave.--_.mother weight.e3Y)'cargo.------- h~kest larJings oft'" holstway..----.------------t-~I--.I4Inding ._-----------------. An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r. i The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n eIemor holstway..after A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food.evator c. hrake.. e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls. 011 whleh t. Uul1dln~ controlled cne or more elevators. speed governor.. ----...and an elevator landing. al .. Also called elevatcr shaft. ~~!--_".-.-_'_:_I~ Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ by. i. drive shaft..-------. A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system. as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtteri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an if you elevator WI r.r3ctJon elevrtcr. travel. and Mven byeb..-. \ hoi5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car. Also called deflector she3ve_ lu I~ machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator..l'~r elct'rlor penthou~ pulkhe3d Aroxllke structure on a roof providing access to .----. huttons.-. has passed a given point..rryir.. Qr ~. ori gin .tw.. pan~ . AI~ his boo Q/bltnvd- kp The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by . . idle 5heave A vertlcal enclosed space for the travel of hol.at the landing..--. used as a pulley for hoisting. or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of .arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading the freight are permftttJ to ride. il One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht.. rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator.. IL. p.ay ----. traction machine.-------. and other equipment for regulating electrical devices... duml>w. dishes.--.1 driving .r to the nearest overhead obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing.a common operating S'jSt.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extendIng from the fevel of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~ buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of l>ottom carck. nee dt IlA counterweight A weight halancl"9 .. . consisting of a motorgenerator set. usea for the receJvlng ! y cop guider. ur t. .--------.-----. stalrwen or an elevator shaft_ A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .-----. hulk/lng.1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers. 80 .em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton. Also called t.----------.ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c.a UullJlng.------. An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S. cha se the I' I~ hoi$tW3)' door ----------.~ operator . as an elevator car. ~ .r-r-~-\o~' " ana gears.----. hoisting machinery The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car. elevator pit ---.1rance The vertical distance from the top of an el.an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the ~r ~rsafety ..--------------------------A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and stopping an elevator ~r In the event of actuated by a ousslve ~ or free governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action."'. top car cle..::hlnery.traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to 3 flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway.--.--. If used.g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu.-----.and discharge of passengers or freight.n • limit 5witch A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It. -.heave A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim.----.---------------A door ~ween ~ holstway . supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les. fre~ht elct'ator ~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel A panel contain 1"4 SWitches.

ising ana Ioweri"'3 an ~C3r. Also cal!ed gJ~ contact. -'-. and door or 93 teo ! ---. c. platform. M~ht • cnetal enclosure.. I . --4-.~ people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~.upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte-r.i el~. sb An elevator system COI1s!stlrtg of a car supported by . cop gin the ori ase c of floor landings.! . that signals the apprcJcn of:. _. annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 y machine room Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'.:·:--~-r '. control equlpmcmt. used for raising or lowering. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles. gulde shoes. usd ..'1e i i..ltlon of an elevate-r car unless its a." newel ~ . k\'\. 1'4 f'~ [Thehor!zontalsectionofrai!ingJtt~e . door cont." CO m17plate The toothed portion of the th res hold plate at roth eMS of an escJlator or mGVIng wall::. continuously moving surf3C'e.. -'. slmllJr to a conveyor belt.. ook eed thi r o •• J1 ... . -. consisting of a car frame.• elevator. _ . .carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor. door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an elevator C3r unle:s$ the hcistway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ position. '.1. piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure.e oper.. hoisting ca~les..311 17uttcn ~ al pu rch hydraulic elevator A push l7uttan for requesting a..:.• .tor A power-driven stairway conSisting of steps attached to a continuously Circulating Pelt.\. mOYirl. designed to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway.x1" or gate Is fully cl~. ~ ~~:':sually .ELEVATOR r L elevater car The !oacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y.r carrying pedestrians horizontally c-r akJq low Inclines. and contrcl eqUipment. person or goods along a stairway..rt.1ct Asaf~ device for prevenU"9 t~. over the entranu to an elevator on each floor of a multistory ~ullding. Alsocal!ed stair A power-driYen.3 stairway. and $haves for . u$tJ for movl"9 passengers up and dcr'ln Petween fars.. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congested urban 3reas J lift.c-r. L . Also caned moving staircase.J if y : ou n / .~. ~at. moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor. eleVl/torcar safety.~'~·~~'.

I . anJ a ~monJ point... ~hankrun ~u A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power.. .rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe 3S In ..e Si1I1e le:n§th. st..::... six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long......1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends. used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res.. . U 1 '. cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel 0 n spike wire un A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire.. ur .1<Jso QlbInu SON')' IU iI. i currug.' . as of steel or concrete. 1 . Also called driftpin...1I1. "lIh"d ~ ~ -....'. ~Iso called saewnai1. ori C '.. AM4I fast. as by d. pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e. I • sharpeneJ. _. driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together.... Symbol: d l. doub(c-~ded na iI A113. pin....H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members.-p round point An acute. or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d...._ •• _ ••• ~=. _. End-na lling flooring na n A oUorfllstenlng floor roards. . be driven at opposite anqles to prcl't'lde IncreaseJ holdIng power. and a !Iluntdbmond point. thre3ded. ~!i:ure a nail or screw In position bY hammerln~ down the protrudlnq point..... between the head 3nd the pOint. Alwnate nails mil)' if A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank ana a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry.. driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:..~:!lok' 511. driven Into a surface Ul secure sheet material or to hold a hasp.. ~uiI ~th4n a common 0 il -U~~________________~~ Artad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more nail of the same til"" ~~lUa gin ..xure • .tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener.toen. s.. I7y nalll~ In such a way that To nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::. or Dy 4J 6J 8d 10J 12d 16d 20J .Ii!ht.W roofing nan ~~--====== P ~~ii~... r." L I ••• u ••• u ..' kp fictshing nan A l13.=~~··. L I ~. 5tr. face-nail To fas-:.... al ~ the A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an. namng strip A strip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface. conical point on a nail or Spi(e b I se ~ ~. I ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank. : ~ .. .... ~~ ~~ end-nait To fasten I7y ru\ll~ Into the end of a board..-:-~ ~-.. .~""''''''''' "'wlthaca.....naI con~1 ~a. nail set. '~'. . his boo Pnd c RUllI!!! ~. so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall. b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener. c·_- .h'~l<lowth""". ' eightpenny nail A nail21f2 Inches (64 mm) long.... drW$Crt. face of the wo~. slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other 3{Jmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm shank The straight.. a flat hea..4to Min. dt 'I II '~1~'~~'f«! _ ..'1.... suffold nan... -. A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two rut lnclin--"A slaes meetln£! at a sharp angk:... (102 to 356 mm) long a~.. Also carted wiggle nail l.:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of Q-.d.: .... n. ....-.. narrow part of a nail or bolt..• penny IV2' 2' 2Vz' 3' 4' The deslqnateJ length of a nail. ..)1 .... J ... as scaffolding and formworc..... . Also called form nee roo . welding or 5OIderi~.1i1 .. ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk cha 0"'1111 ~ ··' · arm cop y .....d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail ! l•... a miterJoint. mae ~ P!1I1!1 A heavy nail for fastening together he3vy tlm!ler5. f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like..3 diamond point An acute. parallel to the grain of the wood..Jn .ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver. chi~lpoint A ~flnlshlng rui!.. a mechanically defOl111ed shant.. ry ronding with an adhesive.. I L L 82 I f I . cc~lUii you ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng.. or bolt.tn I7y nailing perpendicular Ul thP. To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~einqJoIned.. havl~ a s. for unltlng two pieces of wood. used In finish won: In whlGh the head mzy remain vlslb1e. with . 0' A~ having a 1rari1ed. from twopenny to slxtypenny..

setscrew Ascrew.--.~" ~ ~ -. or bolt_ ---1 ~<C..A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface. threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with a screwdriver. tap To cut screw threads Into an opening. ------------- security head A screW head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver.--. "'-------.-. haVing a straight. countersink .---. ~~ ~~ ~'\.:'~?l.---.--.-. pitch . .~ pitothole ~--------------------­ lag screw A heavy.The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw.The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw. threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative -. as with a screwdriver. nut. thread ----. r I pan head .-----. machine screw A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole. p~lehead Allen head Ascrew head having an axial hexagonal recess. often without a head. nut. Phillips head Ascrew head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. having a straight.-----------------------~~ . sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver. threaded shank held by threads tapped In the hote Into wh1ch It is screwed. strip To tear or darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru. helically threaded shank and a slotted had.: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface.------------A screw head having a flat upper surface movement.----~a _ i self-tapping screw Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven. used In areas Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally lang bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully.-. thum\:1screw Ascrew having a flattened.-. A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder. and a conical bearing surface_ e OV31 head . coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench.J FASTENING. --. or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver. ~ I futl~ad ~ KIIII e se the gin ur kp his boo dt you nee al if "'. knur.---. Also called coach screw. A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii". screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head. -. o 1 ' r I slotted he3d A screw head having a single slat. Also called tapping screw. --.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger..---------i I A screw head ha"llng 3 shallow. lag "oIt. cop ori cha y cap screw Ametal fastener for machine pa~. nllisterhead ----.e the bdl of a bugle. spherical shape with a conlcall1earing surface. -----. .--------. designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning.-.-. screw A metal fastener having a tapered. . ------. Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw.--------. or ~t_ wood screw A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver. 83 . driven by an Allen wrench.

prevent IeJI:"':le. :t<~:::WU'M. ...lon 170 It An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of... "fi) m? ~ 0---. and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation. hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete.~re<o.. cop al ori @~ A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose. -'--' ---.oll!li~~~~'~" .. Also cal~d expansion Iewi5 ~It An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured '. -····........ap !?etwe. ~ I __ exp.d of 3 screw. >_.. _~ The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe. .. : i ~~ locl:nut ~.. __ . __ h2v1~ .jJ ~:~t~:. :.-. _ •• _ .-----. togglel1olt·· ..-JC.s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-. "'" """ ""'" ~ .. usually h3vlng . -. y ~.'--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It.. Also called thumlmut.. I ~ i I two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger... ~~ Fi--I _ O ~Uli-.an.lslori ill the lockwashu the r I gin I . -'. ~-.erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he. -. sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so th. An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c..\. kp ur r row spacing dt The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts... A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1.ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt. Dott. ··-····· __ ··-···.om nut.~ &W A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd ..l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of .e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te.lon 'hiekf -."d.: ~ ~ . cha se ! ccun+.~... neck Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head.-"'-'-. end distanu + r if you his boo . © ~ .dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr. fox~lt sleeve.lnd of expansion bolt spilt. Melly . used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure.eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc.:h a threadd r. a flat beJring surface. nut .a Pr. II -$.iIW~'m. esp.l: pm'or.. exp. A thre3ded metal pin or rod.. ···· -~ An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through. machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh. ! I l l.~~~ted dis( of metal rubt>er..... or piJstlc.__ • ~__ ..:. 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened. hollow wan..I n . or rerle1e friction..I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall. Also called ac.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~ rraaeman: for... '" . ____________ .11 FASTENING" ~It square head A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench.~_----"=.: Asqum~orr. used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng..1 head at one end. c .ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je Ii carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head... " db \l:J/ :~:stle nut. nee I + .id or nut cf a Dolt or screw. the.... when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'" ." "..an...en tr.lted wr.t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥...... Ats-J IL.e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole. edge d15tan.. _. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut. ~ hex head A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench.0 hoW It.

: _ .. y ou n A fIr.--.--..Jolst.--------------_. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth. rch A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1. used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther.-.pct. ase ~j .r I tull¥' A.---. The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces. Also called hurricane tle . ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~ . or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for eed ~piU grlJ thi A $-~-rret. Soi.---------------.. rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon..'li pbte punched to produce .~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for FASTENING .-' . ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt. Also called a.:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger.----.. Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections. flush with the face of a tlm!1er. 1 5~r p~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove. ---..jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces. the ori gin C"p.:!-.. consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon.:. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves..r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam. haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces. hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces.frtwood~ al Ir. held III piau Py a :. ... uid ~ lateral Ioods. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for / / joining light wood framing members.l>ut load transfer t. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed.---------...''"''!l~ Pdt.prUlg or to them._----------- tim\7er connector A metal ring.e s~ member Is through shear b '. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring. or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection. cop if y ~~ havytwt~. using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal.----. or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II.--.floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall. purlin.-----. .. and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt. . t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture sb ook ~pbte pu dcwdpirt. or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess.:. plate. ". --.

:f by a ~n~et of granular metal that n-./ .. f ---'''.... arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii. Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u.. havlng 3n explosive. used for uniting two or more plates IIy passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head.. explosive rivet Arivet for ajoint 3CCe5slble from or-e side only. at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't). -"-..JoIned. c!rcuit or between two electrodes.:f IIytM corrtlnuOlls flow of an Inert gas from an external source. boo A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being ..~~~""'_. dolly Atool for receiving and holding the head of 3 rivet while the other end 15 I7elng headed.nd the addition of an Interme-diate or flib. " i the .<:-:-i arc welding Any of a9roup of welJ1ng processes utinzlng the heat of an arc Detwee-n 3 n electrode 3nd ~he base metal. !lrazlng.elts to form...~e met3ls to few together.1 nee welding Any of. . as acety\el1e. haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or l ':--~~!ot-""'~''<'r''---<.toe o A wire or rod of filler Iretal used in gas-welding and mzing processes. This shield protects the weld are<! from oxygen aM nitrogen In the iilr that would C3use ra pld oxid3tlon of the flquld metal L1 welding rod '. dt I '~" his ----.~. .. -groove weld A weld made In 3 preformed IndentaUon Petween two alMtl"4 pleces of IT'<:t.. . rivet~ A tool fOf' shaping the second head of • rivet... usually a copper-zInc alloy.th pressure .arc weldi"9 A method of arc welding In wh~n the weklarea Is shle!de. ur l-.::. "'~ " <D3. g3S solders. PJrtial'pen~atlon weld ~. applied to.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consumable dectrode or by a separate weldl~ rod. the filler metal Deing $lJpprled by a consult13lne metal electrode or Dy a sep-a ra te weIJ1 ng rod.-=-/- throat A sulistance. tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or polts. '-./ // gin A wek:I ~..inert-gas shielded .. solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton. JI flux 1-.. shield around the arc.rr.t.o.flLlX'cc~ arc weldi"9 Amethod of arc welding usi"4 a tutrular stu! electrode conta Inlng • core of vaporlzlng flux that forms a ga~s shlelJ around the weld area I Y submergea arc welding A method of arc welding In which the se weld area Is shie!de.e edge Is of each ab-vttlng !leveled from both s!des.---'-'- kp full'penetratio nweld A ~tt I~d having a depth puddle weld A weld made I1y truml~ a hole In a piece of sheet metal and filling with..:. wetaing Any of. -----------------1-'-\1 cha I lj1 h~_o:.~J The princIpal met31 to lie welded...filleJ shank th. . sometimes y. remove oxldes from . _ al lap weld --.----- -----. soldered.ea~.e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole.l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced D:i the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas.ise metal. . Also called drlftp!n. or soldering process. memw rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end.<.?. .et .l'Id prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'. shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of arc welding using a consurnaDIe metal electrode that " relases an Inert gas to form. .! re-si.:. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the el~ does not rJmish the filler metal . ~:I::hatofth' mota I. equal to the thickness of th~ slt13ller of the two mempers Delng joined. weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t.. slt13li pool of molten rretal. pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with 3 """t set to form the second head of a rivet.it A groove weldin which the edge of one abutting memller 15 !?eveled from path sides.!loy../-' The distance from the root of a weiGl to the f3ce of the I7ase metal ori _ _ _.~{1.-_ _ _ _ _ _----"'~~-=-=-c»--->"""". Also called electric arc.. root The point at which the I7acl: or rottom of a weld !nUts cop y Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl. I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1Per Is ~ from one side.1 surfaces to I7e joIned ~ wek:I1ng..----<~". Also called weld ~d."~~_.. "'\1ead A continuous deposit of fused metal.lt Is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr.FASTENING $O'kr To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous braze To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders.--------.jJ group of welding processes utlr!zlT'g the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe passage of a e!ectnc current. or soldering.. Dr3Zed..----<.11ong the seams of two overlapplng plet:es of metal tM Ir. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't).h P-. double·l1evel we14 if you nee l5ingle-vu weld A groove weldin which the edge of each abutting mem~ Is !?eve1ed from the same side.et31.o\i:t:::::::::. fusi~.~ fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle. aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt. as rosin.. or cut.-:. doul1le-vu weld Agroove weld In whk. as distinguished from filler metal. \1ase metal .. drift A rouM.=. USU311y a~In-~ . Imzing."... filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding. 86 ..'.

I I I 'I' . -===============:!==++================. usually of brlcl: anQln theform of haff of a segmental arch. ashpit aoor i~lenook A comer or nooI: nar aurge. flreplace. hood ---. pack hearth ! _ trimmer arch An arch. often extending a short distance Into a room.c.. nee throzt The narrow openl"9 ~ a flreplace and Its flue smoke chamPer..----draft.. ur sm(ike cha mper An enlarged area Petween the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney. the masonry arch used In place of such a lintel. parget. !~~. 87 . Or furnace. or stove.. 1J5u311y provlded .3 flrepbce and usu.Imin4 the Apart of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall. fire screen flue pargeting f opening of.e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening. .. or a chimney m~st al cop A screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room..r. .311y coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner.mney pot --- . " . gin 1Tt4nt. cha supporting the bre. esp..::S:~·~-~~~~i~~'-"-'-~' or ~ lixe. chimney.. so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimney. chimney./ . open flr~pIJce.········~velitliJtor.lst. -. assemUlea from factory- r ITt3de parts.-----------. often carrying smoke with It. d. used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flrepiJce or chimney. contained within the flreplace Itself.. Also called outuhearth. dt i " his chimney cheek The sides of a fireplace opening supportlng the mantel.~. used for lining the flue of a chimney. tile. stove. smoke aome ---------------------The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal flrepiJce unt!o downdraft A downward current of air In a chimney or flue. Also called camper par.. .mOkA''''· An IncombustIble passage or y A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pia s ter for a chimney flue. ori A~stnJCtlon fr. !1etween 3 chimney and 3 header In a floor structure to support a hearth.FIREPLACE Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce. or to. Aisc. rectanguur.h a damper. if you or hearth The floor of a fireplace. or oval sectlon. AcurretTt of air In any enclosed space.. se chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening. tumlng par.. or stone.--~flue lining A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit flre cuy or nghtwelght concrete. ~ /1 \\ ~\ i I . --. Also called m. .. or J cowL hood. drili A devrce for regulating the current of alrln a stov~ or fireplace."- fPiiiiiiiii~~ . often closed wtr. Also called Inner hearth.-. usually of brick.lncomUustlb!e structure contaIning aflue through which the smoke and gases of a fire or fumace are carried off to the outside and by means of which a draft Is created. lth se3ting 1\lso called chimney corner A ca5t·I/"()(l door pr(Nlding access to an ashpit for removing ashes./"'-(--_________ chl.. fitted on top of a chImney to ..lchimney par I I I I boo /r. ashpit A receptacle in the bottom of J fireplace or flreDax for the collection and rem(N31 of ashes.../t metal. i / I /7--". i I prefa~ricrted flue . Ame~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equIpment.. r.. firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a fireplace. kp smoke shelf Aledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer.-( I I ~ ! .-. ___ / j Increase draft and disperse smoke. usually Inside a Uulkllng.e1 m..l chimney fer removing SCOG. A steel lintel for carrying the rna sonry above tM flrepl3Cc opening.mteltree Astor.___ ---. h3vln!l a ~uare.. b front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room.~~s. --- smokesta<:k A pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion.. caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure. chimney Avertl<:al..--------"\'. damper A movable piJte for reguiJtlng the draft In a fireplace. / A raised cover for a chimney. l The part of the hearth 15 --.------------------------A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe.:-"'~"'-_-~"". or ventiLJtcr. as In a room.. or wInd cap to Increase Aframed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire. usually In the form of asia b or cornIce. . A cylindrical pipe of earthenware or .Ctfoc.1nUIplece. the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_ / ~chimneycap ~~~ii.

including limiting fire loads and hazards.: .. combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng. : . I r L 88 I ~ ..• : . used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire.. gypsum. Materials having a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~ aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside InJlldlngs. when exposed to the heat of a fire. ~... fud-GcntriPutlan rating A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c.. : I ~" - . -~ ...... fire hazard Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire. Also called 5Ulner tunnel test.. } time ~nition point flash point The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame. '.-=-. fire-nslstlve.' :'...----+----=----i----.': ..... . flame-spread rating Arating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 while a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O.. '.._-_ . l~ukJ-filled column I ~ I A hollow structural·steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance.....ayfrom the fire... swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread and comvustlon... r '. ::. I 'pray-on fireproofing A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder. and 15 replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main. as concrete. 01' minerai flber... [LJ '.:. :~. L• . :..:-:":... 1000 controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen. se kp /'.. of a flammable material.. metal lath and plaster ~ ..7": ••. .... ". .' : ............ I fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng.. ~ -..: ...'-----i y ~ .aterial can produce when It 1nJrns.- ~ I ..or finish IT'.nt r " nee ~ J 'f "':~. reslstanu rating required by Its tunnelu5t 1200 j ~!--i--~~-7---7--... Q. determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve.. . 2 time. If exposeJ Ul flame.:.- : . ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures. :~ .. I on the slde aw. [ZID . measured In pounds per square foot of floor area... assemL>!y..--~--~~--~--r--7--~~ contrl!nIte to a fire.:.... his f:?·~+~:· . ... _.. i I t.. 01' construction having a flreAlso..:~ ..."=.. IJ ~ fireproofing Any of various materials.. : .... >:~ . the water aPsorVs heat.::.. ... ----~-~-~~--. I U I boo dt . rises by convection to remove the heat.....:. ..~ .... ~ ~ []I " .. _. the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems..f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire. J .. :..-...- : ' .----T---7--: Atest measuring the time It takes for" use...-.hou" 6 8 I~_ii/l u I _ if you -. thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre. _. "'-".. smoke-developed rati~ A rating of the amount of sm'*e 3n InW.. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment. -_..... The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrul! hea t.sn 200~.•...~.."'"-.. __ ...... : " ....' ~ L I .]c. 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature ~ 8oo~1~~----~--~--~--~---+--~~~ ~e.. fumeret3rdant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire... applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre... ur o o --L-.. the establishment of adequate firefighting services. -"-- al ori the ~ i cop d ! ~ 600 (!)!+---.r FIRE SAFElY The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire.. ' . _. intumescent paint A coating that. confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon. and t..- cha - ~ I •.~~-~-~--~--~--+--+-~ gin r------: 1. '..... fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material.---~--..- . . flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing...i:• •• : . developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot ~ases. . -.

. occupancy separation _. or roof-ceiling construction having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire.3tlc·closlng fire assemDIy."" cau~s a fire door. '···0'" ...._ III >" fire wi I'Idcw ~:::.anchorag~ frarntS labeled Of or pertaining to a l1ulidlng materlal or assemu\y having aflre·reslstance rating certtfled by Underwriters' La roratorles.. cha ~ ~ ~ se the ori gin al fire door A door ~l>ly. anchorage. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~... extending from the foundaticx1 to a parapet above the roof and having 3n openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected by a self·closlng or autcrr. Inc.. fire area An area of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire. or the exterior wall of an adjacent i1IIlldlng.. ". The assemDly of 3 fire door...... __ . wall. A ftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "'.......uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng.atlon of Underwriters' LaPora-torles...... An open sp.. A laDe! affixed to lIi111lidlng material..IncIud1ng all requ~ hardw3re..rtk-c105i~ fi~ a5~mbly . flr/! d3rnpe~. -1 firewall A wallll3vfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of ftre from one part of a D<Jltaing to <lnather. or other fire sep3r3~n..-.. anch0r3g~ frames and sills.I". -... ur A fire <lsseml7lythat may remain In an ~ posltlon and wiU clese ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by . or roofor fire damper.. or devlce wlth the authorlz.._•. Exh portlon of a building separated Dy one or mere fire walls rruy ~ COIlsklered a separ3te uulldl~ when calculating the floor area and height allowed Dy a i1IIlla'lr~ code'l L drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction.. frames. ._ ..ed shaft.. the nn~ mel:s .•. fire window. the center hne of an adjacent street or public space.. . .. _.sem'-lu __ ... boo l l .lI .• . or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor . with a fire assemlily having the ~1f-c1o. flre·r3t. ~E~~~=~~~:· Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct autcrnat!cJlly In the event of fire to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e.' _ / fu5ilk finK A hr...... and (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination service of UL if you nee cop y maae ~_~ :}~. ..arove. -....s. ~ fire assembly irl· ~ dt his UL laPel _. or other tests for safety. -~""'. l. .•.1L[t()m.I '.. reqUired flre·reslstance r3tlng for ''". Inc. required whae a duct penetrates a fire wan.'~ a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equipped with ~ <In a.arJ latchl~ a&r havfng Peen opened for use..~d:~~~"....•.. "firetUmpu W AM~~b~.. or other recognized testing la~aratory. ex a n area of a city to another.... . r ! I! tfit\ ___.k rr3~ of iI fusible metal.... cr the Ii~e to close... -~--- kp 4Smo(e~..~I~I~'" required hardware•.p~ device to Insure closll19 . (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y exJmlnatlon to ~ from Nterials and by ~ses essentf3rly taerrtlc31 to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre.• protected opening _ .' FIRE SAFETY firezofl('! A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone. Ind'.. havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and tJ5<l.. ~ .J having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of fire from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng. distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a uulidlng and a property nne. " II ..3.. ========= . electrlcal hazard.......~~r ~ ~. component. and Sills....catfng that the product (a) has a ratlng vased on performance tests of such product. I '.11W fire .I I 89 . fire~reak fire separation Arry floor. all measured at right angles to the exterior wall. An opening In a wall.. floor.lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardwart...-------~. When exposed ~ the heat of a fire...=========~ A vertical or horizontal construction \l.."J "Its location and use.. [.

Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials. stlrinkler head A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. -----. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance.must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors. wets~ndpipe wet·plpesystem "'1 r I ----. connected to a suitable water supply. fire-~n symm Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm. building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly maintained sprinkler system.-. . automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire.ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing.. I the I ori se /-'fire pump used v. I I I r gin nee dt his siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building. preactlon system A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads.. tkttctlon system. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs. .FIRE SAFElY flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a firesprinkler . dry5tlndpfpe --------------. A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_ I y cha I I i I I A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate.ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building. 011 and grease. . classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish. orflame-senslng devlce. --- truct:. -.--. dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire. as wood. allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle. heat·al:>sortnng extinguishing medium. which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ " ~I cop al boo A pump th3t provides the rea. 35 gasoline. which rt<tulres a nonreactive..---.llrt or pu mper " ''1I I I . 5tandpi~ A w. providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system. cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr. ur cbs..... 5moke deUctor An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke. through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-.. __ .lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor. L fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment. I . L f L I I 90 . I 'i I r I I ... and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature.6fire waUrmafrl j A fire Involving flammap\e liquids.--.elts at a predetermined temperature.J if you kp .---. usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr. whlch. c\a. smoke-.-.. as magneSium or sodium.t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr.etals. sprinklered Of or pertaining to. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire. pa ~ :md cloth. 3 preselectM I'3lue.-------..

having no openings other than required e:dts .. -': exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire. BUlkling codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required. and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approximately the same level In aapGerrt bUltdIng. and venul3ted by natural or mechanical means to nmrt the penetration of smoke and he3t. al gin ori se the exit ~rrUlor .neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ his 91 ... i t L r occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. boo kp • -< exterior exft An exit cIoor opening directly to an exIt court or public way. extending vertically th the floors of a ~uilding.. ngh t.-' A j13ssageway serving as. accessl~ by ii well A shaft for .a! number of persons that may . an /:Xft court. '-.ilrJ enclosed by flre-resls'tJve constnlctlon as reqUired for the walls. An exit stairway down an outsfa/: wall of a !7ulla'lng. by a smo~proof enclosure.1. ~ __ . exit door A door providing access to a means of egress. BUilding codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 b<J'Id!ng. protectea by an ~~ . travel exterior exit balcony Alanding or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJl1dlng and sm-Ing as. or an vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. s wing 1"9 In the direction of exit travel and usually e<:tulppea with a panic cha ur Par.. stairs. exitacce55 That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit. -. 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors.l re<:tulred means of egress. and ceiling of the building served. fjre~pe required exit.om3tic-closing fire door. nee dt o exit passageway A means of egress cor.1 ntumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a y enclosed by walls of fire-resistive coostroctlon. enclosed by fire-reslstlve construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the direction of exit cop exit light . emerger. (I) occupant leola The wr. 'constructed to the same sta:ubras as an interior exit stairway. fuors. exit 5t.ir.. smo keproof enclosure The enclosing of anexit sta Irway by wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction.airway A stairway leading to an exit passageway. Bulkling codes usually reqUire on/: or more of the exit stairways for a high-rise !7ulldlng ~ protected elevator. leading from an exit access to an exit discharge. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use by the square feet per occupant permitted In that use. or pupllc way.cy lighting A hghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for 5Jfe /:91"es5 from a !lulldlng In the event of a pcwer failure.I required &. if you /:Xft Of' exit court with a public way.FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In a bUIL::I1ng to the outside at ground level. he riUlITtJ I exit A passage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation.

.. / // studs..e of .. Also called ~U~~~"'.-.~~~~~. esp. i i l f~r:. jo~t the header . or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other.--. or 17fters... solid I1rtaglng fixed Bridging consisting of short vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.. sulrlloor.--:. ~ilpiece ------- .. or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe.rimJolst AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the . Atrj of . or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme. USU. cetnngs._ . ---The wearing SUmc. . studs.-------. A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls... so as . floor framil\9 The act.':. or manna. ori '>----:::--1~..'.:::~~::::~·:~'::-·.. Also.joI5t.d to the floor joists.col : ! : ! iI ! ~ I 1 l....: y flni5h floor .. -_ .="~=~~:·~-_~~._ . .:::=~l-::-':':=T~-:::·: c. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng . .. I l F~. floor..._.- A rela-tl\le!y short ~am..Afram~member~andsupportlng ! ~ ~-:o..-:":'_~~~~"':==~"'.~"--'-"-[~===jlliililii!~ -. -----Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement..=~'. . y al perimeter of a wood-framed fuor.:/.. ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors.. gin ~3rds... ..FLOOR The level. Also c...' '--~---". floor.. _..•. or rafters.----. se cop y LA I the eMs ofjoists./ .. -..~~~~U. Also called stringer.. (.illled he3aer. ~Jnc:I fWor.ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.-:: I if you __ nee dt his boo kp ur cha --. A~m./'OUfh flM-....: totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts..HIy bid (Net ..::>. plywood.joIst... :7 I.. proc:ess. or flat roofs.. when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6... roaras cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists. fWshtd &01"..~-fu. trimmer ~----.of constructing the structural frame eX .

forming a series of raceways fo!.. . whe~ It enters a masonry r------------. kp form duking composiU decking . for flIllng the sp~ t.-r. ori -'.as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern. JOists. or concrete capable of spanning beams. 93 . allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th. se cha I the ~I dectlng servl~ as permanent und ~ stlb C3n support Itself.. The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations.• Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut. I ..and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit. -'" gin al shear stud I.:-_____7-'-'-_::>"7 cop .1cou~tk duking cellular decking . --/ . Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete... ~ ________ _ _. or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing./ ..metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW·rolilng a series of rips or flutes Into It... ---..he topftange of a steel ream or girder . AIso.a reinforced concrete sla b Metal deckl~ servlng.bles.l:>e3m filling.----. • . and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance.-----./ ur --------------. steel pin welded to t. Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm. decking Self-supporting units of wood.. if you nee dt his boo fonnworl: for.. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling.~:O. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:. stiffening the memrers. y -------- floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath. electrical wires and c.:>r. rafters. ------- An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam wall.. beam pccket---·------------... metal.. Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng.FlOOR i1e31T1 fig deck The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied.awtenJolsts or Peams In or on top of a m3S011ry wall._____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam..

al se Aflooring plod m~e \. o Achemical sul1stance appnea to a ~~ st. sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials.-.. L I L 94 J ( .l. A flooring ~Iod made \. ~~ndwhendty.. -. resInous matrix " '..!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive. as ~ rdwood... separated from the subfloor \. .~~~~~~~~~...dl=tly umentltlous or resinous matrix over a sound wood. cha cop you monollthicternz:zo- ~ WJ y Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD.----..awrd terrazzo -_ . bondingagent ~------------. ..' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps..:'. Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical !. :Ii. memDrane and a thin layer of sand.1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \.:-:·. usu~lti side· and end· matched..!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '. •• 1" his boo kp ur P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'.:. flooring composed of~.'~~h.~..c -. -. ..... -. consisting of a terr. . par'luetly Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting..' A latex.~.. narrow wood s~'ips.~cl-~r~·~~.!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern. mrul... temz:zo. ~~~ consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~.' .lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is .. • rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert. ptlnks....1n temzzo . -.!i.------------ --- Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring. strip floorin9 ...crete sb P. ...FLOOR fin~h floori~ M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr.ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected. terrazzo topping Is applied.. .-. solid plock flooring ------....·'~I::=="PPI'.. polyester.eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab. een..'~:il' D . thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~J·m3tched. ~.. . ipal"l\uet Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m.: . or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.-. -..tntltlous or resinous matrix and otr. ~een It and a succeeding layer.311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $.~'.~ ~:. .!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise.-.ck laminated plock the ori gin slatl7lock Aflooring U10ck made \.·-·····"·"'·~..4-' . i l ~ sleeper ... bf'.. -_ .-. usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting. '.~~ . ~~~5...ise on which a •••. '" . Palladi... with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t .!/f) .~.4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t..~~I~~. or floor We..~ ~~._ ..------. or ~s.' 6 ". Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~..~ ~ substrate to create a Pond nee stone chips. !B'lI .. and a subfloor.-.. r·"I:\. IIIIJ unit bfc..:-. set In a :narble or cen-. ~~~~11. :./. rustic terrazzo A ur..• 4 Veneti... woodfloori~ Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips. ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally. ='" ..•• ~ !.__ . ': underbed ----.'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface. ... ••••••/:•..---. if .. . hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface. .p. ~~~. or concrete sulrl'loor.. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips.. wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween..!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units. '. ~ .' ~ .:.--..~ :. The mortar Ir.::or or cor..... -...t.: • " <..er :t ~~':'~4f!l~ dt ='''''"p".rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~'.1n..u--_ _ _ ~....iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips. I'<-hich are not ground...:~ .-. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting.

~nlttec. strength.ru!llI. -. or foam !:rackIng.. ur yarnsonaloont _----.. §it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the cut pile r 1 if I width of. available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment.. esp. A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers.10op pi'1e y his knit~C3rpet ·········-.. . tufted or knitted ~rpet. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth. or other nonstructural flooring. vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp. . expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch. __ .. or protective coating.-~ . -... dense velvets. ---. -. linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade.:=--. needle-tufted. used to cover a fleer. the gauge .. and pile yarns with three sets of needles.IO Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials. t ~ al cha se ana pile ~ . producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short.. -._____ . f1uW carpet --····-..---..iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile.__ --~ carpetpad I. uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness. underl3yment A material.FLOOR A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated rosln. .---.-. and a fiber.~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric. iiiit-·- tile carpet A flooring tile made of carpeting material. -=.. '. Also called carpet cushion.l!lll!!. Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng.-. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade.A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= .. and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns.::-------= ~ A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair. stated In ounces per cubic yard. stitching.. fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-. -. r combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and p4Jments. neealepunched carpet . \ . p~ment. ~rpet made by looping the backing. . Improve dltr3blltty.. lInseeJ oil powdered con:. Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant. -------IrmiWl·· . as plywood or hardboard. you ~ ~ nee I dt r r ill The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet.-.----..--------. _______ . corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers. ori ! I gin In a Interweaving the backing 1. -. A carpet texture created by weaving.. vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In I . linoltum resilie nt flooring Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed. I ~. boo kp p~~ity tufUa carpet •. Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing. loops. anJ dimensional stability. even base for resilient flooring. st3ted In oonus per 5qU3t"e yard. A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam. -.s. ana floor covering Material... fett.gDB~ . finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride. orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ". adhesive. carpet. cop carpet Aheavy WCNen. --~ -~ ...BHill~ ~~.. ana reduce Impact sound transmission._____ . ru1?1?erti1e I l!~~r!~!!t!~~!!~~!!~!!~~~!!!!!!!~!J~~~~!!!!~~!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!! pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet.f.----.-.. 95 . tufting. Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat. '...lUL_. --. or felted fabric forccverlng a floor. CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience..

...:J~ wnuntratea so forctS.hat o~ In a Single plane.. or. .. -. ~ ~ an arrow whose length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •...•... -... -.. For conven fenu In structural anafysls.. .. extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of .. 96 . Forces "3"...~.... Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of " line of actio1I ... boo moment'Mft ~...h~ last yector... vector ...a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs. ---. ~ctlng ak:lr. the l>ody remains In rot..q the same Nne of actlon..-. wncurrent forces Forces h.....1f SlJ~ ai....• •···• . ..~. . Aforce SYSt.. '~ .. these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU....--- y A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors. or two-dlmenslonal flgure. ")I wpl. u I 1 u ..FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape ormovem~..... center of rtU" --~-.... Aiso calleJ force arm..malle!. A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent. -.. untrold The cem:a..?r that represents the result3 nt force.a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect.. --.-.. Also caf1ed resultant. the ori The tendency of a furc.. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann .."....-----. the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt. and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector gin if you nee : al dt his r' that ~nt5 the result3nt force..:.. the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces.. . nonca ncurrent force. ..e to produce rotation of a body a~.-. and whose orientation In space represents the direction. Oi. vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon. tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law. Aforce whose nne of action p.of...mmal effectofthefo~.....ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e descri1>ed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent slJes which represent th~ two force L vectors ~I~ addea.-.a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium..er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field. ~ -.ltlonJl equJllDrlum. component6ofJforce •.-... . couple -.. j parallelforc~s '-: ••• - Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 that the II"IOmtnt a Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such rout any line through the Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action.. " actbn.. . •...-. ~..and acting In a clockwIse or counterclockwise alrectlol!. _... ..~ ~ '-.. ....1I polnts In the Agure Is zero...twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment... The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c.... ---~ M. "'. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus.. 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ ... -.1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point.-. aDout which the sum of the displacements of. mornentcenter -.. '--..av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt..•.. with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It. ..--. cop moment ---.p..1nar forus Forces .".. ~Is point.m""" f. kp ur cha se The poInt . para lief forces : ~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to produce rota1lon Put not translation.um ~.•.a poIrrt or nne. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon...1"9 Ie method A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p.• tri... L L ..... Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without . ~... ' ... ---....:==:b======~ Two or II'IOre COII(. {11111l ~J __ m " " . ---.. . ..21 of 'twO equal..... altering ther..--... -----. 1--_ _ _ _ _ ..Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force.... _ _ _ _ _ _--1 point Is zero..

iJ element that pivots about a fulcn. TheforcerequlreatobrI~asetof.. ~ujlil1rant roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody about an axis. -.~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn. gin ur llllllllll+ \ ~lunic31 ad~ntage al cha se 1 F r> fulcrum .d to a ~hanlsm. wttnaut rot:3tlon or angular dlsplaument.-.. ~uilil1rium a ~ht at a seconJ polnt by a force appr~ at a third. comprised of st.(7:t3) + (Ix 0) ... two conditions are necessaij.. -. the yector sum of all forces acting on It must ~ual zero. -..F) ! r r-···- FORCE 1 Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remaIns at rest or In motion wIth a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY. --. the afgel7ralc sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must equal zero. equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action. . -...! ..= 0.h of mechanics that deals with '..lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I) I I mechanics The !:>r..~ '''")1 .' . y 3 : r . : inertia The tendency of a \7ody at rest to rert13ln at rest or of a body In motion to retain Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon Dy an external force.. i : ~ . For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium.-----.iInch of physics that 0&1 Is WIth ~ effects of forces on podles or rrt4terbl systems..AlsocalleJlawoflnerUa.lppljed force An external force actlng directly on a Pody.ic n ~ tmiforin motion of a I10dy In a strai9ht line.letlan and r!actlon. "" ··tsl--. First.~ if I· you nee m....~ concurrent forces Into ~ulflllrIUri1. with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces.1tlc 5 and dyn3 mIcs_ ~wton'. ensuring translational equlltlnium: l:Fx = a. the I70dy exerts a force having equal magnitude ana the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force.':1/ his boo kp ~wton's'~orullawatmotion The physical law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody Is equal to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acceleration produced Py the force. Second. 1 ...-.• ! f f .-------------. l:Fz = o. fIj ~ lever •.m to e:xert.1lsysums under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus. 97 .-. dt force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( l@et"3tion{l) r ~ I .:·1 ori The mlo of output force to the Input force app/1e..-A ri.. Also caneJ the law of .. " ..qulllDrlum of bod:es or m3~rl. reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody 011 another. third law of motion The pnyslcal law that for every force actlng on a Poay..! ~ ._.l:F). Q I .-----. • tn n5Lrt.--.. ~mics The h~-ch of mech.. . stlUc5 The ~n.lwtc =px Q.l pressure Of sustain Lh. statically equivalent HayIng the same translational and rotatIonal effect on a body.uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motion and e.-------The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a b'ert<Jrns..~1 systems.(Ix 0) 0 A state of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces. ensuring rotatlonal equlfllnium: :EM =o. it i the ... I .g ~ulljbrium among bodies or m. = cop m LM...

:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldiers Into the most line of fire . _. circumvallate Surrounded Py or as If Py a rampart.FORTIFICATION A defensive military work coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position..• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted. motU .•---\. parapet . -.. --"-'--'-'--'-'~:" ~unterscarp cha T'~ Inner slope or wall of the dltch se eSClrp the A V-5ha~ outwork outside the main dltch of a fortress.: /. outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position esbDl1sr. .en.-. The part of a Dastlon that extends from the curtain to thefau. /-------. i13vlng embrasures for artllkry.-../ Asteep mound of earth surrounded Py aditch and sunnounted by a t:lm~r stocbJe and tower..Jtlol'l ~ r dt J . slmllarotItwon_ " .:!:.1~ _ _ .----------.ch surroundlng a rampart.palfsade Afence of pales set fll"l!1ly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense.• -. motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'Ituries.. Also C4i1ed scarp. emate A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart.lstlons...p::::. f..au gin al cop Thean~1e ~een the f3ccand t:hefunl: of I worts ~ two Ir. y ---.. curtain L .--. consIsting of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey_ ------ _. AprojectJlI4 part of a rampart or other fort!&atlon._ _ --. typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir. shculder ./ A ~ateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 t.--------.ea ~nd a In3ln fort~ ~ ur SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart./----. ..:.1 5 \ j bastion -------·----·-----·--·---________ LI. -.t. his A slope ex-'".-.sally port .lr.Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of...Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevaUon of ea rtn or stone prot. • 98 . nee / if you 1 :r:= L--_____ -.J ~ moat of a forth'\c.. covering the ori l'2Velin Either of ~ two outer s!des that form tM sal1ent angle of a pastlol'l ___ . l1alley The outer ~II of a castle or the courtyard enclosed by It.• ~:J:~~ln.. rr~ exterior slope or wall of the d"r-.lse to the main ------. ----. -. .. C.'--------.• gorge The rear ~ss./ ..'~.1geway Into a Dastlon or wort.-.rge number of tmJps w move npla'1y from the pesleged position 3na attacl:: the Deslegers.\.-::: i boo kp ~bc~ I r r "rect cardon AproJecUng course of stones belcw the parapetofa rampart.. '. An enclosing wall connutlng two Dastions or towers.ectlng so!d1ers from enemy flre...*ment of ~rth ra!sea as a fortlflcatlon around a place and usaa/ly surmounted Dy a pal"3pet_ .::.--.. pale A pointed stlck or s't3l:~...Istlon.

.all o.l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I. rt.. -----. chapel Asubordinate or private place of worship or prayer within a larger A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times.__ 1.. A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'. The privy of. ~. One of the solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlemerrt. \ \ portculli~ dungeon A d. l7artrun A sm." 99 ..!. -- -----... l1arilacan. Also called / -. oubliette -----..b~. ·~ donjen. ::. ward Power A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle. or drawbridge." battlement A parapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels.. frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te'./ :' .'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower. esp. 35 In. ~um An open space within or between the walls of a castle..Ln¥OO having an opallr":J CJr1".------.. his i IT + l An opening.( c he min-de.. dr~~ridge A lnidge that can ~ raised. Also... or the place so gardero::'e. complex.ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---: al se cha '~.rYI'"!'--t:". ' przttU _.cl'eMI Any of the open spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement.or door or glte to a fart arcast~. omet. ._.I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of nee mlsslles. ______ .barbican An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil.en undergrour. fortress.qy. gin ori the ~. I machicolatWn ur supported by corVeled arches and having openings In the floor through which stones. y .. usually filled with water. citadel A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city. necessarium .. through whlGh missiles may De dlscharged.. HavIng battlements_ embr~~ure :. .c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. Also called castle turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e. '-----.Tted . --. Also CJf1eJ tourdk.. -: '.I dt A snt311 or lI3rrow openl~ In . In times of siege. ---.---.. enclosed. surrounding the rampart of a fortified town. siege.FORTI FICATI ON keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval cast~. ineJIev-31 castle..----.=2:::::::':'::'::':":'::===< --. or castle as protection against assault.. ~ . merlen ~ . !n theuiOng. cop ~-. loophole . used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege. aye/te.-----A ~~ . ---. _____ . ---.. esp._~!'_.htch priSCf'trS were drOFPed A strong gr.. Also.. crenel. deep ditch. originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif. molten Ie3d.. . boo A pro~ng gallery or par. '~drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to Jfe{mlt passage Dene3th it.. a watchtower at the gate A slTl3I1 re..a prison or cell. you eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa .ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (NU the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage... erected at the top of a lfJlI during:....lpet at the top of a CJstle wall. used as a place of residence. 3S. Also called eml1attlement.-------..--. through .l loophole or crenel. or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy ~neath. moat ' A Droad... letdown."11 if medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie. enceinte A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town. kp I ..

..wt01. A reduction In volume of 1I soli mass under the action of..-t the -----_....ent d the Internal structure of the soil In3SS after ~t of the load has Peen trlInsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlson&s. designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth._ .... .5'1 ''\ ) softenlng of soil resulting from the thawl" of f". i soU pressure The actual pressure tleveloped between a footlng and the supporting soli mass._... "'''''T''' 1-. nsf"ofst.. passive e. AISiJ C3lbi .Jly on a supporting soil mass.~~ f·-·····--·-······~l~' i ...Jre through the solL '" 5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings ..and 41 tr3nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli solids. Aliowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 soil classiflc3'tlons are conservative values permitted ~ lIulld1ng codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon testing of the sot!.1lsat!ement The relitlve movement of different parts of a structure caused IIy uneven settlement or failure of Its fou..ndsot1 gin al that a soil ~S5 exerts on a vertical retal n1 ng stroct. cop 4IlIowa~1e be. DDDDD __ .1cfty....abk ~ pressure.a sus~lned load._. frost heave An upltft In scl C3used tr.. ..ol15OlldrtIon boo A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~ ~1~(q}=P/A if diffuent. P'" 10~. due chiefly to lIt!ustr. less ylekilng or restrained parts of the mass.a soil mass to adjoining. 02'1 / .nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by Utml forces shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of a su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ soillly v~1 pressure...line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost penetntes the ground.. fro$t ~on 2rching Tho t .. allc .a squeal~ out of water from the voids I't"ftIIln the IlUSS. cha se J..1Ied ~ry compression..u re. nee dt his pf'im3 ry c. __ . partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground._-."f"""'y"IJI"'J of.~Jj\ I~ 0. Also 5eCCrWry~n you c..... Areductlon In vvlurne of a soli mass under the action ~..a ~lned load..i.... due chiefly to.FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on.. __ .1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vert~lstnJCt..<oJ. ioo 9-. equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<.. ..~t'i~~~ i r" frost. r _ ~....1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure ~ The gr.Y the freezing of Internal moisture.1llowal7le l1ealing kp ur ana cap..~ ._...I3l Su~lJ1ng of a structure as the soli ~ Its fOUrWtlon consolldates urJerWdin~ ccnso IWtion The graau:.od-. .l nsmftted and the area ori y permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter..-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is utive e. / 100 . I ! i i I I i I ::::::::.l reductlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the application of a ~~!ned Io4d ~nd an Increase In ~5ttes5.

~ ..' ./ ....t ....c. l:r41~COUrse ~ . designed as a nut or raft foonaatloo... Also C3ltld~~~o. ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lraSlment wails SlT">'. ~ It. ~ ". having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th.' nee !:>y a tie beam to .. dt his ~~~w~..._.... -~. ik. des~ to support and anchor the I· "".. ur cha se kp .'e or below the sial:>.alled su!lstrate. ' .. . _: 5 Ub-str3tucn ~-'-:----M ...1t A th~. ..... ~ -..~~.-. ___ . iI:SlJ311y reinforced with welded wirefJ!1rIc en grid of relnforclng lrars to sp~d footing Aconcrete footing extended I...d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or an entire !:>u11d1~.J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r rI rl r ! concentrated leads. tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun. · · · .. I I control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~.~~parate or Integral f~s art required for heavy or ..=<::. ____ .. or piles..·tii./r~..pillary rise of moisture toa concrete ground sial:>.3t providing a footing on yielding soil usually for an entire ~ulkllng.:. A rr.' :r~' Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s.. 101 ..1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil./ y . FOUNDATION ~. __ ''' __ .- _...M the wdght of the construction s-upported <:t:""~r.~{p.mother footln~ In order to balance an asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load.'co~f~ng~~:: .:t......••...-_ . Also called strap foothtg.. placeJ so that the we~htofthe displaced soli exceeds the weight of the construction.~~ .. ArelrrforcelconGrete ream SUP~1I9 a superstructure at or neargrouna level arid tnnsfem~ the 9~~1rel' the pic:rs....- r I' r I I superstro<:1:lrre..t ~U"" grak..~. --] ! A layer of caarse granular ~rlals placed and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ c.Unded to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J..... .. A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y a gfJ of .. critJc. N:so called slab on grade. ~ ...·.. ·r·····.. To ... __ . foundation wall Th..~-.. L .:~.~. ribs abc>.. A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns.~ as a mat foundation.. A refnforUa COncrete footing connected AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o.. .. _tonti~uotijf~.. the sla I:> must t. _ ...I ! r..!':.wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n boo P""f'CrlJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn if you raft m./ r ..'. ~~~~~s~pre3d footing of a ~ifo()tig: Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon. as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~. sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce. Also called grid. .~.....i grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas. Over prol1lem soils. "" .@ ~~ ..~ff~=------ ground sl# A concrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground. Also c.:. flcatlng founJ.inchlng she3r ~ ' " ___ ' .r"~' ... -.v' cop al gin ori r- . .... np17ta mat r" <.btlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the al1ow3tr1e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not exceeded. ______ .1 F.

• " A precast.a static load test. ~wn~ ---------~~ A pile dep<:Ung prillGlpally 011 the fric1Jon31 resl:stance of surroundlng ~ rth for SIip'f'<rt . ccmpo. J pile A~ slena:r column of wood.t cOncrete pile \.l. often fltted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering. A machine for driving piles.Jm.//·~t·¥~tE?~~.:-'-~:.. as from a single or numUeroff~tlon plies.~ r ' . or ."en••mltea by the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOlI 111355. Alsocalltd drive &hoe..' . sometimes ellGasea In concrete to a point I:>elow the water table to prevent corrosion. ~frictSon An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln. pi1efourWtion A system ofpks.1 pile from Its pIa n wUoo the vertQl. cushion A cap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 "' driving operation.. '::::':..A zone In a loaded soli mass by an ! arbitrarily selected Isobar of stress.:.. you nee A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete. Also called cushion 17loGk.. polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli..a~ ~ st.on~ Is not suitable for the direct Pe3~of~s. '. ~"I ~~:~=:. and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer.:(.ciV3"tlon I:>efore i7elng fliled with COllGrete. I.~~:~ "" continuously for . . shoe /- ~~.eJ on a pile.:".' «/~~f~j~~~:i ~f. rounaea tt::~J ~~~i:.1 ~~~~~~«. :. boo arm kp ur cha The NXlnII'I axb! 3nd bteralloads pennfU. steel.1U pj~ A pile constructed of two materia Is. The gin ~ l1eml>a.Jullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate Uearing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure. An openeMed pipe pile ~ulres Inspection and ex. anvil The component of a pile hammer. f I..--.lift frictiHI The frY..' '" .11 specified period of tlme.~. drM~..::/ . The ~tIoI of. which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soli.. that transfers the driving force to the pile head. The hard. pipe plfe . s-tuare.:' j: : :~ I~ ~·-·' · · ·/· ~ "Kf.obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure. as c:feterml~ by a ~all1lc plefonnub.~ !~. having a round. ---:--------. I L I if dt . H-sectlons can I:>e wekb:/ ~ether In the driving process to form 3fT'j length of pile. A steel H-sectlon driven as a pile. 3 drM~ hammer.. or reinforuJ QlftCrete. . ~<:. and tie l7eams fer transferrfftg !. point of refusal .. \ yield point The point at wn!ch 3n 11lGre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement. y . '---. phed i.- pile ~ity -. usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for lifting 3 pile In position !7efo".:. " . y cop f.!.:-.. ~ . as 3 tlmver pile having a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile al70ve the water tavle from deterloratl~.. ":~' : .~. resultlng In 3 reductkrl of Its allowable load. _ .t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of a pie and the soH Into which the pile Is .. i <~ ~\ '.'x~:. pile C3pS. located just I:>elow the ra m.. Also called plfe ring.. I 102 L .'. A~mofsonorrockon whleh a footll14 ~ or to wIlleh a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson.: .'" the e!'\ se V H ori point-!>~ pile. ..echnlcal Investigation of .tem t:hJt extends do. ~!low3LoIe pt'1e Ioa~ the fourW1lon soil .I:::~aa:~~~ : .--- H-pile. cushion head.Julkllng loads dewn to a sult.. preca. often prestressed concrete cclumn.----.r a .~ ..e p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile from the v~ for which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred. or polygonal section and sometimes an open core.: ~t:~. drivpl Into the earth by a pile driver until it meets the requlrea resistance. drive l1and A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of a tlml:>er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven. 1- his pile to lmrIce fr. .w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer !.t. when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c. Also calleJ al SUITlXl~ soil mass ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long timber pile A log driven usually 3S a friction pite.a"-9 pile -------~~ Ap~ ~g principally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath Its b:it for support.'.-'..... " .:' "..1 load requlr~ to reach a ylelJ point. used esp. j ":.. driven or h3mmered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of a foundation system. end-~e. i. a point of reslstanu.~~~· .. :. I f J ~ring stntum ____ J pile driver l1atterpile A pile driven at a specified angle to the vertical In order to provlJe resistance agaInst lateral forces.m.FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn Afou~sy.

...pile cap -------..• ped~1 pile A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression....t.--. when the roring Is 2 ft.. A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section............. i I f J pier . sometimes ~ or taperea for Incre:asea s ~s. Jalnl~ A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to.... .FOUNDATION· .... -....:r. _--_. -... ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS . 1<: .. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile. y ori ...on. Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground --. .o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-..... ' ...I cclumn or grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr. .a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression.. -----_ ....-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing m~n. I ~I~~n .~Cai5~n his ..... if you r nee dt ~(.cme pl~ Ir.+ .. --.e piles...ina then ftlnng It with concrete. c .- //' ur 103 .g cancw~ L.' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce.:hwn.J-nd along wit.-...•.!....... . .-..1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other pile caps orfootlngs. -. .. $eI')'(: f: A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process..... --... formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil .drel ..distribute the load from ... A s..o the gro'. .. o 0 c~5t·ln·place co~rete pile A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground.-.3~ Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'... --....... un-tll It meets the required resistance gin the i cas....... boo pile rocl:~i5~n kp A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled.. ' The \.......o -~ In o ° t::3 0 tiep~m oli}O Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont.Ithln 3 c..1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area.1 A pler..• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar... bdl17ucket ~I An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft.. (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom.. cop al cha se I .. . esp.. 1 Unc... ~II ... --... --.... -...'...x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon c-=~ "..-..tr'lir.. -.ed pile -. and then r..d ~ driving 3 c.. _...:n:. and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing. . -' ..-.. --: .....~I"9 -.... A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete.

. foundation. if • A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on .ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM r• y cop f1 gin ori the al contractlon.ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ.Ise. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr..ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane. you A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u".~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or otJ1er construction. The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure.lf dlsplacement produced In a r'.. I "raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4 pL1stic hinge A vlrtu.1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr.ectea at theirjoints. fixed frame A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints. the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie.. While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame.FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf. Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr.. . temperature. ~'1 .1 I -1 rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr. and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In nee dt his hinged frame boo kp se L1 three-hi~ fume A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints.. Appllea loads produr. Arigid fr.ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member..e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely. In aaaltion.. 104 .1me.frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements. J. s Ides way The later.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~ ur cha I.

.r' ""'! FRAME knee Thejur. multi. ~rrt&ver~ statlcally ~1n:.lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t. and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints InkUrmil'\.:cally determinate structure.. Also called slngte-l1ay frame. r petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'.l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate ori \ gin \ 1=== I I i al ase the p<lrt..1I~ cop mme I I y I I' ~ eed ~ DODD DDDD DDDD tran. ~ dlfferenu 105 .tstory frame . 10000000-0 0101010101001011 .le for solur:cn... A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true ..llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~./ redund.1'U deUrmllJrte degreeoffr~m if y A Ir1ethod for J!t:. Also called V1~ ~lrder. resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ.e WJ<-'"tUI"e. connection. portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a .aUons for solution. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt.. The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm. or supports needed for staDil1ty.s at the Jolnt. and that the acts :.. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate. corm~tlons.-t:.un pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:.d 3t e.:lulred for the statrillty of a st.~' r. f'" 1 j stnlCture. ..ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent. Imaginary pin joints c.'ah.. V-terenJ~1 ~5 A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte.ream defining a Single bay.il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c. supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns. transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame.d ~ shear rackIng.d to parallel top and ~ chords.l5Surnes th. The C3rTtllever method :. d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics.o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level.ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s..15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te. A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld . .lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:.toryf""".. A strvctural member. frames.1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a thi sb ook pu A method for a~lyzlng a mutt. ."... .iIt. DOt] ou n rch •.-fergiraer ~-.Jncy •.SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces.q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of 1 r members.... IO]DID]ODlDiDiol ~-. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame. degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re. Nkl~ ~ ~:.:ry ~ proportlonal.lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute. and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st.ll shar:. .. moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure. ~!M4 ry pin .clumn.. Of or perta In Ir.ch point of Inflectlon.ter.iIo'1Iter:.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU.

. j ! I I 1 1 .r_ ... AIso. \ ..FRAME froilmlng The ut. .. pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction.... or enclose.. J r"'"'' terttary !?eam Any beam that transmits Its load to a al ur cha se the ori kp dt his boo gin cop \ y seconml)' ~eam... -./ . stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water. often s~nder p~ of .. cylindrical. pole A long. proceS5. / ...ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists..am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam. ...... wood or metal... Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \.d points along its length. ...Ieams to support wood planks or decking.rte. arc~te Of or pert3lnlng to a sys~ of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns.....1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon . -. ... l light frame constructlcn A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng. define. skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation.tt&i if you nee I i poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly embedded In the ground asa pier foundation. .me fIoorfr3minq platform fr3me roof fr3minq I froilmeworic Askeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to¥ther In order to support....• principal !?eam Any large !leam In a structur. J L J .girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io. Also called primal)' ~m.. arcu. or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure.../ .. secondary !?e. 106 .~ balloon fr.Ids at IsoI.

.... "... _ .. . if thJtch _.. -. ntern or turret on the roof of a rnealCal !lulldlng having slatted a~. ~... rv~... . queen post -.... _.. Also.. cop tr3Ye _ .....'. _. his boo Ioll'r'tr _.rer an Also called Ureast beam. ...... the m'mbee' '" ...Jres for the eSC3pe of smoke and admission of air. dropped girt y half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster. _. ....-~ i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It 5U pPOrts.... Also.. ..... fastened to....3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut:. "m!>e..... __ ... _..... or palm leaves.-.... -.. principal ~fter _..I 11111 107 ..... ~hrn9... _ . \ str3ining plect _.... 17if\der --... as straw...girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo. 'fll-...... ... sum mer -'" . a noggedpanel of haft-timber construction........ -.. . and reeds. ""'" .t1on.re the ground floor...ren with thin branches. A form of wall construction....~P... "'--.......raiseagirt crossbea ms.... _ .... .'T1er supporting a wan o..tnal foreaverlng a roof..-....FRAME praced fra me A building frame employl~ a he3Yj1............1m...·-·...... halftimbered......... kp ur cha se the ori gin al --. _ . .--------------- "no~ One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaft-timbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli..-i A crossbeam or a bay formed by A girt parallel to ana level with the floor joists._ . fca m.1 wattle and aaul1 ~ I'·......\\....... -. AprI"clpal ream supporting the ends of t:io-o sets of floor Joists. .... wattle and dau..... consisting of wattles COIered ana plastered with clay or mud.':..ln-acea framework of solid girts mortlsea Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame....II.. ---.. A heJ...........".. "-_ .. . esp.. ---" . Alsa called flush girt...--. ""\...... twigs. -post ..i ope~:ng...--..... At:. WIth studs one story high filling the interstices..~~~. A mr......... _ ._.....)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder.. --------......... used In the construction of walls and fences.. Also...... Alsa Cd lied t>indin~ P-e. .\ you nee dt open-timl1ered pan A major vertical division of a wall. Also called full frame. wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo... ... Also ' C3 Hed summert:ru. . _. A SW11.......5tiJd Ineastsummer _ . !>etw... Also.

polar angle The angle fortned !1y the polar axis and a radius vector In a polar coordinate system.. / /1 1/ l. or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea. or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point.. The 60th part of a minute of angular measure. as the In~rsectIon of two hnes. measurement.right angle l .-.._ . eq!Jldlstant at all pOints..GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties.. _. l"'4 . esp.d1nates or y. point A dImensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon. -" ---.i~1 to the y-axis... and solids.' T}. radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed origin of a polar coordinate system.-"-'. The 3x1s along which o.-.. mea sured In radla ns or In degrees.... 108 1 _ . ur Extending In the same direction. polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system.es~n caordinate ! y-axis ..aJ1:. Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines.:.-"'--~-. --: ... spau.mon point.. ver".". Also calLed axis of . A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm.. if you --. degree A unit of angular measure. ~ccnd -+----.e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure.tlr~ boo Ina plane line para lie! t.___f __ polar coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane !1y Its radius vector and polar angle.vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't..ordinate . minute The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure.. angles..... ---. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line.... and neverconverglng or diverging.-.. horizonbl o 0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com. 57:3°. i cha se kp skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting. system. minutes. The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m.j . '\ z-coordinate A coordlnzte determl AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes... radiln angle A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx.. .. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum. V3lues are ~sured In a CartesIan coordln4U system..-. A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness. -. -...1in assumed properties of _.' a17scissa A coordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis. or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes.. caordinate AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt.lines... J I I !1y ~surlng parallel to thez·axls.:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate cop y al paralld . o~u!Je Jngle An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°.. deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt... .. c. 5U rf3ce.... '/: \ Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the postulates of Eucnd.r.. 3Cute JnSIe An angle ltss than oo~ '... z-axis _. and seconas.. _ .. Also called axi s ofordfuUs. or of the circUMferenCe of a circle. ... The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another.. the ori gin rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordlnzte planes x-axis --_. and relationships of points. __ . . .. "--.o the horizon. are perpendlcuJ.--+----+-!c--+---f Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal.. -..ical f~~iartot:he p!3neof~ horizon... Also called x-coordlnau.-. nee dt his faralleltoorope.1~ssas.

-.... The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex.. -. from which .rlc functions.. straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point.. n :.. .. 1'3~ The the ~"""lOmetrlc regular . C' Ci 2 I b-: . polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides. straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface. and of their ."" altitude .. if The ~rr.... . "..'-. . .3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.. esp. ... -..1-... The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~.\_. rectilinear Forming.. parallel side.. ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _..../ ...'-.3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~.. / I···· _. .uadribteral Apolygon having four sides and four angles.. "'-.... -. ~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" ... octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles...... ...~--------l.....JL ori $U~rI~ gin al The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides.·'"t. The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand. "'-. I ~1eM -...' ........ -H.....i the sIde opposite a given angle:..rtuse angle.: :....... "'-... such that..C. as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than 150~ --'•. rectangle ! ----"'~~ side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side.. -..:. rectangular Having edges... . as sine or coslM. :.._ ."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".r.. ~carrt "---. as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe.•• .. CoInc~ 3t all points when cant ... I 1 I part.. ... Composed only of acute angles.An ol7l1que hne or surface. acuU .~ trapezoid dt his trapezium parallel Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides tangent The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle.e.....cf!$.. ~~ triangle Apolygon having three sides and three angles.... of unequaller!gths.. Is opposIte the right an~le.... or characterized l1y stralght lines. angles e:q-..'.... vertex \.---... surfaces. CO"9/"tlCft _ •. ---.exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I An outward projecting angle or "-. - n.. function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl. past!: .an altitude ~n pe C011Str1... ~jmibr cha se .3ppfk7'.. Lsalient obtuse --.-.:r.. ......... plane A surface generated l1y.... Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --.:. polyhedron.'---: side adj3cent to the angie T~ ~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides... plane geometry The pranch of geometry th. ........ ..j---..espondlng II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. 109 . The side of a right tri3ngle that ... Extent ex distance upward from • glven level to. aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~ A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel...e s~ of a~ht triangle. u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie.... GEOMETRY he~ht :...."'-.../ The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle.... the ..... the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter......: :.etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~.. -----.. -. ~ q.... &iN! kp A triangle having a right angle. Having ~ite unequalsk:les......o¥.tde3ls WIth pl3ne~ures... -..... ~-+--:""~+----t' c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use... interior a"9le ... .. v cop y coincideJTt .. pentagon A polygon having flve sides and flve angles. .../ ...41 and cor... square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles....... -.. reentrant Reentering or pointing Inward. ... . ... Havlng.. ..d.' -...... . one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent angles or vertlces of... you G nee Q _..3 polygon or r-:.--= '-t:-.... hexagon Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU.• dIagonal right angles... 1:.1.- figure A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape. \...' _. fIxtd point... The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure.e.. aspect ratlc In any rectangularconflguratlon. Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr) - cot. ~ 35 the ratio of tr...... . or parallel surface.. ur u-Ig~etry ri9ht tria ng Ie boo '::'" hypoUnuse / . C05eCarrt A polygon having six sides and six· angles..J~ tr'..-.. formed l1y.. - .. or faces that meet at right angles.:'. Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length. r- Occu~ tM same place In spaceort:~...

.. __ . you spiral •.arc . \ .1 Aplane curve ~t3tea by. asymptote A stralglr.... without ~../ / .~ ... kp ." .. -.....---....centerline figure.' ./ ... cycloId A curve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line. _ . point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:.14159+....p3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle.! Includ... or the point within 3 regular polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices... (f ~ \ An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a... ../: :' r-'''''--'' Any .. . another curve.... esp....~ b"dl" II"". . numrered counterclockwise from the upper right... helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a cylinder or cone Py the rota'tIon of'a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle.' ....__ .GEOMETRY circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve. eng.. ___ . plane .. One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular dls~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero.-.-. --.. / I . - An Imaginary line that plsects... concentric Having a common center...~?'~~:slng through the tn'ofocl of an ori i \. spheres. .-.. --. the fOCi.. '..~rant cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer.------ boo ! I i i ur rouchlng at a single point. .. Is cha I . meet. the perimeter-of a circle. as clrc~s or ..t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~.'.. . _. .::t or surf. . the ~...minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular A closed pbne cUrYe generated by a point to the :T"-3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant ~ In such a W7"j th.ne curve 9tnerated ty a point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the plane remains constant... .inflection Achange of curvature from convex to y al se ' colIC3Ve or vice vel'S3.. -'... .ice. ....... cusp A point where two pranches of curve and are tangent. ----=-._ .....t the sums of Its from the foci. --.. hyper~ol..d arc of a Circle... .. his dt . pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter...... . . A p!._.. . or the envelope of the nortTUts te. ~ ~llw< . __. ---... "'>'" " The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve. . ellipse.---.. --. as a straight line In relation to a curve..~.."O".nces from tl'lC flxed points. .... circumference _.--. if "---...Involute Acurve traced by a point on a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder. q. cop cherd -'---'" .---.. evolute rhe locus of the centers of curvature of.-.. ~': '.... .. dlst.. convex Curved or rounded outward 11I:e the exterlorof a circle or sphere.....A .s the curve Is extended to Infinity..._.. 110 .na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb end. .. eccentric Not having the same center Or center line...... a constant.._. raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere te the circumference or Pound1n..........I '-" e{Jj~ ---. off-center Not centered or attne center point. L .... _-.."oJ from or appl'03c:hl11g It. -.. or In contact along a $lngle hn!:.g surface. concave Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere..J The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear ·flgure.. gin :. angles...e. a ccnstolrrt equ~ te 3... __ .g-----+----r-~. --. sector A ptar.. as a pl3ne with a tangent cylinder. nee .:::=--..../ I -. _ . ---. _...®I /-.-. ------.. _ ......uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines.di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere. .. ..

_... 111 .. surface Arry figure having only two dimensions...·· ..tum Havl"9 the apex. with. left aftercuttlng offtM top :... _ .. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid. paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone. _.--r.. and generatrlx... uuncmJ .s <lna sides that are parallelograms. cuP-e Asor. esp. cha A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau.. cop al gin - y '. the ur cone ... co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne. 3S an ellipsoid._.. poly41ron AsoIkI ge. _ .. A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el.. ' Pl..rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls.I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone..- -~ tet.nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us.-_. vertex...a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces.......mth are ell1pses. -A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides..edrcn havln9 a polygonallr.hex..1e flve re.e .g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~ _. Also called the ori generator -... pri~m / . r~ular H.GEOMETRY &pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to.... esp. the gentra0". -----_ A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet.raheaml..:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-. --~ oct... ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of ... A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone.. prolate sphuoid Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener.. Of' Ic054 heel ron. boo directnx. Asoild ger. ---.....iU1nic so~ One of t.. cyiinkr -_ . dt right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its his center . nee legs.'lvir. ':.... '...a sphere....cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces.. A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt. ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer selid Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength. Eklngated along the po~r diameter..erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter.. ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus.ed by a straight line..etrlc fi9ure... ...directrix . prramid A po~t. .. a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon. ed... dodec3 hearon.fru. kp moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve. •· ...g. octahedr:... .". ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with . whose ~rface Is at all points ~. hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us. _.-_ . se An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'.. the vertex. or end \. hyperbob .. hex3hedron. .. t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac. by one parallel to the base...n...etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau. and thickness... .'. _. _ . .::Istra~ht line and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes...... The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane... you if vuux .ex. \---.. pl3ne parallel to the :.. measured In cubic units._ . A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe. equidistant from the center.. Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces. Also called l7ody. _ ....a~ron A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces.t fates being 3 ri9ht angle. passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt..d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks.1 ~ do<b.. prolate oblate Flattened at the poles. A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its skies.lse and t.. sphere major axis.base. volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies. _....l:Ireadth..gul3r polyhedrons: te. selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'. congruent polygor..-_ .'.....

. ~ refleaIng the longer ~sofradla". Also called .". AIS<? called ~~:egUlar ou n fl§ured I~SS.iI~ eX solar heat tr. scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa ~rlcattd Py drawing the InOIten glass from a fumK. 'h~di~ ~lent ~V:j~~i~~I~ ~j. . _.1t I1re3ks Into relatlvely h3rmless particles. translucent met. Tempered glass has three toflve times the reslstanu of annealed glass to Impact and thermal I na J stresses ~ut canM Ue altered afte. heat. 112 ..--. Iron oxide gives the !lass a pale ~....a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwled slowly to reHeve Internal stresses. or pattemed faus.......-' -. Heat·strengthened glass h:. dcuble-st._ .. ~~.he sealed spaceoflnsula~ng glass.1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn... __ . _u . . "_. hermetlc -_ ._ . produud Dy ~ a Iow-emlsslvltyccatlng -. or Pyformlng a cylinder.. "either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In t. shutgbss A flat. J .lass. When fracturea..lniWe. anne..le Ight tlut strike It.i'~~g~~~ laminated gl3ss havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength. An o~~ glass ·f~ ccnceanrig the structural elements In curtain wan construction.against a ~fack ~ at the ~me temperature. MUe airtlght by fusing or Staling.. .< I GLASS A lurd. __ .:~ y ! I r~u~lgb" laminated or InsiJi3tlng glass used for SOU nd control ! i I 1 \Wire9ra. * em~ The reb-tNe alIdlty of a surface to emit I'3di3nt ~t... i i cop I . sometimes having an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission..~ thi ill J +.5... The flrepolished surf.~ T 1 I vlsa. NllIbctured by pouring molten glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly.lves together with a partla I vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings.. -r1 i -t- ase '~i~~~ A glass unltCOi1Ststlng of two or the .. and futtenl"! It (cyffnder .'~ : 1 = Flat or pattemed glass having a so.~Il.-l' . ~.. rsat~!!.insmlsslon thro~h:l particular glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss. Imp3ct'reslstant glass plock unit.lI1easured :... produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without c!. ~'~~~$j :~~~Wt~:.. Circular dis£: wIth a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod.uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded withIn It to prevent shattering In the event: of ~bge or excesslv~ heat.. Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while -.l T 1 1 . _u.-.e «<aMI glass)..~~_ ~t.~!~l~~· . A tf.as about twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness... hUt-~Rf . crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Py ~lowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into 2 fbt.:..nts If the gl3ss is mien. si~~strength gla55 S~ glass h3-. _. (2. textured.-.lnstucent.. plate 5laS5 A fut. Glass biii'g'a thin. -··~~·-::~~=ll-j ~.Ices are not perfe.1. -"- ".. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Pondea under he3t and pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resIn.----.s '" extremc:!y smooth ..ren¢l glass Sf-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In. I' Annealed glass thJt is reheated to just l>elow the softening point a then 1'3 pldly cooled to Induce compressive streS~ In the surfa~s and edges of the glass and tensile stresses in the Interior.~~.nd nearly dJ.?o~~j~ if y Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or ~nd!llas~ to wscu revlslon.lass)... hoilow The r. tJIvIdIng It lengthwise... Float glass is the successor to plate glas5 and account5 for the 1113jorIty of fl4it-g lass proJuct1on. made Py fusing two h.5~. faPrlcatlon. ht3t~enqthenedgl1~$ Annealed glass thJt is partl311y tempered Py a proctss of reheatlng:.~ i pu I I ook sb '"~t. Also called~t~~·.~k ~son. ori gin al . __ . ~tem~red gtas..and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl l1utyl'3l resin that retains tM fr39!?!t.ctly pm/lel resultln41n some distortion of vision. Wlre gi3ss Is WI1sldereJ a safety glazing m.ana sudden cooling..4mm).~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture to aVsorV aportion of the I'3d~nt heat and LL '.. == bfoc~ of glass wIth clear.. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy roinng molten glass Into a plate (rotled glass) that IssuPse'luently ground and ponshed ~coonng.~"::!~~fl3t9IaSSDoncWUnder I I I I I float glass .). II IL eed SlJrface pattern formed In the roOing process to obscure vlslon or to diffuse fight.staIJizJtion.. __ . A fut. produced by fusing a ~ramlc frlt to the Interior surfa~ of tempered or heat-strengthened glass.. usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance.':' rch more sheets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-st3ied alrsp3U5..sterl4l sdenkm Infuses a~ tlnt Also C4f1ed __ .:. soda·h~sllicJ glass that J. ££~It ~~lmpartsa~h.. heat :. lIIe ~ toondeJ to the exterior or Interor sUf"bce kI reflea J portion of the JIg ht and radiant heat th3t strike It. r~ I 1.stortlonfree.. (32 mm).

glHS stu .---~-"'m----r .----. stJbil1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass.... " "" if '..--.mount of OYeNp between the edge of. . ------. spaur. putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil..----. cr Icd-strip gasket. I glazier's point ---------. curing to form anairtlg ht sea I.--. : An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead....----_ glazing ~d heel pe3d .. I: The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on . -.. arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II rJb~ pl3ced l7etween sating block . The size of a glass pane or unit required for gLnlng 3n opening. formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age.-. cop al ori gin cha se the ur his boo kp . Iockstrip gasket --. --\--------_.a:zrng size. The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame.--.~zing .lce c!elr~n.structural Se3lant The .. -----.. =:'O~5~af~. ---.. or mirrors..--------. l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supporteJ at the head and sill In a conventional manner..anu bet~ the edge of a glass p-ane or unit and.- fra me" stop. ".glazing tape : ..l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates ..-----.. . -----.----.. s~. ~-..--... --. -.. -.~ • .. hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points.-. ------The dlst.. .eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass C<lmpression ga~ket A preformed strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol...-"" t '. doars. --. patching woodwork defects. A high-strength SIlIGoM Sailant capable of adherlng glass to a supportIng frame. \....I The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing tape or a hquid sealant. ---. ~sured n~31 to th~ plane of t~ glass." y dry glazing . .azJng Urad. flush glazing Aglazlr. -- .. I'i l wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant... malntJln a uniform width of Sailant... A thin layer of putty or glazing compound lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng.___. -----~....---------.. -: . as In windows..------. -.. with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions... -..en aglJss pane or unit and a Window frame to form a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass. stop. gl. -----. the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant. Also called gl.1 frame to unter It. ancl Joined by. Also called gl.' ~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons or thermal expansion One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or dt or contraction. Iii \ .. secur!l1g windowpare5 or. glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me.. used In '-.ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening.::. --..Jcegluing doul:Jle gl3zing The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound. of doug hfl:e consistency when fresh. the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i. eageck. pM or unit.---.. Apreformed ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use. held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket.. ~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps. IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass._ synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower edge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame..GLASS t.. unit'.. The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames. you "'- nee f.cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame.g system In which the framing members are setentlrely behind the glass panes or units to form aflush ~ surfau.----. wi11dowframe.------------------. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass pa~orun!tandtheneares-tfaceoftts r".las5_P'. 113 .dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened.-' .1rance -------------..----.-.. ~e p~ck --. -. measured In tnches. Also calIea centerrng shim. and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound. curing to fonn a watertlglrt seal. One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c --_ ..--. -.. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus. Also called cap l:>ead. A preformed gaske-t of synthetic ru. fAce putty .. Also catted glazing stop. A wood molding or meta! section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place.4 In glazing to form a watertlglrt seall7etween glass and frame.-... A Sm3n. l:Jite ~.. -----. glazir~ compound An adh~sNe compound used as putty.-----.ce _....

cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3.... ~ ~- y . door chain Ashort chain with a remov:. -. as the other accessories for lod:s..eilas a utilitarian purpose. .. hinges...--.-. -/. often i'fith a hinged closer. Also calledJudas hole.-.--. as a wedge ex...!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me.. kp ur cha se the "...... In terms of right OIna left. and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed doorclo~r overhead conce.... A hlngej ring..... kick pL:rte ---..1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door.at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission./ .. .. . fastenings.·... doers..--. Also called letter slo1:.. ' .--. d"" .1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads... and fittings usea in construction...heclc. L L 114 . nee dt ~ .3 ttd cfcser c.. when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to which t.. .---:::--. or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng. you L _________ . I J .A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~..e . pad.small weight..... Ii -.. !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name.l i. Dar..--.' door. .i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell. . nails. - ... floor closer --:.-.s.--.. ana knocl:er -..-... _ ..-. as In an entr...".. A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming.. --. judas I door pull ~ . if left-hand Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which the doorway leads.. L/ L right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads. gin A Ir.ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ . ········-·'·········:~I. .-.!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the Inside of .-. -... ~ac~~ck finish hardware Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as.--. .'~ doo~p boo .. -' A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of ....... A pt:t:Fho!e. ------i I hand The position of the hinges of a door. ..!"" door closer for sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened. used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass. ' door h. ... screws.•..HARDWARE The metal tools.. gU3rd.. --.... A ~~!e for opening a door.. A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches.. Also called AcIocrcloserconu.---. 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:..../.. .J house or room.ed.ie doorwIIY leads. -.l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor.. Bor".... door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more than a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed. Also C31~ architectural hardware.... ~h hardware ... al cop pun par _..·1-- ori man slot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war..•. l1umper A~~ rim.. push plate ..----------. through which mail Is denve. windows. or the IlI::e.. the house Or apartment num~..automatic door Pottom his A horlzonta IIr.. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the floor. I Fl~) ---- rlght-hana Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads.onstructlon. A device for hotdlng • door open.... _. ___ -.-.---._..--. doorptrt..._/ AtlevIu In a hydra!.... _.

. sliding.l num!7er of flat plates rotatIng about a central pin. _r----.rTt.rolt on which something turns.(£5 '--------4-r-----.-.HARDWARE hinge mortise hi~ doojamb_ ~----------------------­ A Pun hin¥ I10rtLsed Into the . A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surface". hinge ~---------------- _---. usually conslstlng of two leaves . ® pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re 0 0 0 ® slightly when opened .' --------.d on ana the other the doorfra me.turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-..~ Thecylinarical. - A hl~e M3vlng a nonremovaule pin.. ~ :!) olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having 3n MI-shapea knuckle. al .-.es. with shoulders mortlse.-.cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hl"¥ with tM crosspiece 3S th~ 5t4tlonary 1!1emPa. -~- 10 ·Y·~ aou17te-acti"!'l hl"¥ A hinge permlttlng a door to swing In either direction. rI~lng hinge AgravIty hinge causing 3 door to riSt 0 ® 0 piano hinge II long. leaf Ahinged.-.urface li.¥o 1a"e5_ rch pu ~ ase ------. parliament hinge An H-shaped hln¥ hJvfng a protrua'1ng knuckle SO that. Also c31led concealeJ hlf14t:. .llIle hi"¥ A hinge consisting of. 1 115 .--. ~ ~"I .--II pin cw.. ------.-----------. fun-surface hinge.on A socl:et for the pintle of a hinge.¥ .lting the t. knuckle .es of a door ana docrlrame.____________ '. single.. door can stana .JoIned together lJy a pin.-J gin ori the .d Into the door edge and doorframe SO 3S to concealed when cloSea.----. wlth the upper haff remo. or tabletop.I~. ~ from the pln_ Also called sb ook gudge.lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon. \. on which a door.~~:oh~"6t . -'----.las of a door and A jointed device..- _.------. if y ou n pintle -----------------. _. templ1te hinge ~-.----.Mtln~ sur-f. ----3S tI-~ gudqeon of a hinge.-. htthinge A hInge com posed of two pf3tes secu red to the auuttlng surfaces of a door ana doo1amu. --- pau~"e A hinge havIng .. ~ gravity hinge A hln~ that closes autcmatlcally by means of gravity. liftcff nl~e_ eed thi A hinge hJving a knudle formecl from half of each bf..-. 17afl-~Jring -. A hin. A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<. narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its .I door can be unhuf11 P:i separ. hinge.. ~ from the wall when My ~ Ioc~joint hinge ------.d~~~ ------I ---\\ th~ tdge of ~ door 5 urf~. y ® . Also called T-h1"9t:. usually fitted with sprln gs to Uring the doof to a cIosea poslt1cn after opening.je hJvi~ one leaf mortised Into the doorframeana the other surface"--..--------. _. Ioc~pin hinge ------------------..dovetail hinge A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than at ~ei. ------------.. flap bi"ge ------------------. ---... ~ . bst-pin hiO¥ (±) cop ~ A hir-¥ equipped with!r. mounteJ to tile adjacent fa<. Also called l7acl:fup hl"¥. ~ah~. plvatl~joi.and the long stem loeing tM mavaD!e lat. -mounted on the fau of the door.moofTk.. Or moves.strap hinge o A hInge havIng two long !eaves for securing to the adJ3cent faces of A door and doorjamu. r'-'-invi. Also called sInkIng.~~~ ..-------. A h~e Mavlng. or shutter swings.\j ~l I tlpring hinge ~------------------------A hinge co~ J coiled spring In Its u-arrel for closing 3 door automatically. ga~.l reroovable pin 50 thilt ..----. . turns. gain A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hinge.~.='==-t~==~ ha~-. or otherwise mevable part of a door.. .proJectlngjolntofa hInge through whIch the pin passes. Also called Putt.'.~~ ~. Also cafled ollvt: hinge..atherextremltles.

. Afut meta! tUmDler having a pivoting motion actuated !r. ~ . the turning Is of 3 ~nob or key rather than ry spring action.e:rtal plate. or lid il posftloll when closed.l ~nc.i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the &mit~~' -.s. -_..:f 1- bevel The cplique end of a latch bolt th.... -_ .fX comDlnatlonAn asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up 3 complete locking system... .1!-~ with the face or edge of a aoor._____ _ ~~wtUtil two ~Ies specL.~.. -. \..1 ~ 1 HARDWARE lock A ~ for securing a door. cam· . 'a for hoidlng 3 door c~.---. boo .. -'sc~ecn'1 face of a eek through . .. '~'=--==:-".ich the bolt passes to the ~dJM of se turni~ propelled or withdrawn.::-.. cOQJ~i~!C_~.~---. leaf of a pair of doors Is permItted to close before the active leaf. hen the door is closed.'". of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door..-::::::~ . if you ron ~. movea \~.--... Also called stn~ piaU:.--"'.1f.. .. .~--:-:.1 doorpml1 having a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t wMn the door Is closed.-.t hits a strl~ plate.---. "'. -. one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---. Thef. //". the turning of a key.~..o~. Of locI: cylinder.'~iQift..o fit Int.of an emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the uteh when pressure Is 3pplled..f. t.. or bolt of alocl:. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.~ The'!iOrlZontal d1star..br The prC¥Ctlng ulge or rim of a strike. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm. drawer pulL '_ or r'9ht swluh.--' --~--" A metal plate 0. ___ doortoob.ng a ~ey. _} 'i. roreJ at right angles to euh other.- (eyer'til. ~.-'_7'.---.L L L L L f "~ -y.o a lad and :r"".ng a !leveled head \ v~~~ Ioc~..... -. ~.d for installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door. . ~}t.. • .. . ~~~ A~ll1arorrodlnthe mechanism of a lock that Is gin pas~..-:. .... The sIde of a lock facing In the same direction as the !level at the tTl aof the I3tchrolt. Imh Ade.":.ry leads..-~. ~. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key..'.. sliding Into a socket In the head or striKe . _pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ One cf *~ projecUn~ bl. : A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lock or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding war-If:.rt spans the Intero..mM An o~tructlng part In a lock that prevents a Dolt from relng propelled or withdrawn unUilt Is movea by the action of a Key. Also. .gage with ana actuate elU-~::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock. Mnr M:·-----------.J ~ jA ~. ..I I A' kd f3~~ to the f3a of a door...-.. 116 L I .lncfuair<.. POX aoor..ental pl3te surrourJ1ng the sh. edge of a door.. opern:ed ~h3 nisin. drawer. Alsocall&t~f!1~ al ~ ~e plate or surface throo~h which the Pelt of a lock cop reyel'5ible lock A led having a latchbolt th3t can be rev~rse.. panic h3rdware. .i .avlni1 a ~uare heat.• --. reverse bevel The Devtl of a Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the Pulld1~ or room to which the doorw3'j leads... regu~r nee dt his Or shift that C3nies the knmand actuates tM I3tch •. Also callea panic bolt.y~ A slOt In a Iod: for receiving and guk:llnga~.. the . pani... _ kp Ont4 :r.._ .. of 3 b:.---'.~..hapeahandle ry which a door 15 o~orc~eJ "(fOcdiUilt -------..'t) J l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into cha a doer ~ so ~ the led mecha nlsm Is ~ on ~oths~.(fl~sh'boit&iei...~b:. ori An ont4rr. _-..~Jdtt"~ i~~" A~~eor ~'f~~.:!y c~ t. '. :.-___ ~~ ~---:.. ~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that the Inactive A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lad bo!: ..:1omB~ II K:>&~ h.. as arO'J rJ a keyhole..~ __ l ~~:.mbJer. ccnsistlng essent13l~ cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the Dolt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have Deen pushed out of Its way.~ that falls or $ilks Int. ----... ---.~ .'e its ~. .l that into posltlon !r. ~'-t~ . Also called~..' The l1evel of a or lock on a door opening 1nU> the L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw.~.nto a mortise In a the silL A horiz""tal~3r th. Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu lar form that rotates or sl4les U> lmpa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the bolt of a Into position l1y a that Is spring exupt when retracted ry a doorknol7. A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-. keyhc~. notch.u irem the the knob stem. '\..·..'.·--··--··-··-··-········-~·­ lip ..o A ~roove or hole. as Dy a ~nob or key..3~ cut to.u.'.GjW-. or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed.~ ur rrcrea y ·>.• b>evd ..

a l?solute zero The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete absence of heat.ospnere..- ori ~. .16°C or -459. first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit. 117 . cha When you know deqrees Fahm:heit. g3seous. ur deg~Cdslus.. capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection.l6 of the tr:ple point of v. ~!7s0lute ~are cop I I y I Atemperature SC3le In Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees. .-. ~ \ f }j)J . at a pressure of one aUr. al : : which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under of -273./..-.3. Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature.latent hut "'*~~_=...eat required to r.iijbrlum . -·· . equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles. 5ym~oI: I( triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid.67"F."ttem~tureaMpressure.alorle. AQl.: c.. r · ..lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(.:. 1: ~ const. . -' . Also called ~ntlgrade scale. equal to -27.------I1 The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·. Also caW gram standard atmospheric pressure. calorie . conduction.. ..lArge c. .HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules.7ter..r .r.~---__I1--~""r_--------___. Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo.c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase. gin A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4. ruse.~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea I l tlm~ -. _.. or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o. 1 hatC3pacity ----------. ..186 joIJtes.al. In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure.16°e. ----.by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ". _. 'r<A j 1 epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F.a!ork:...------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~.al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale.. se When you know degrees boo ..alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree.-e untlgr'3M.-- Fahrenh~itSC3le Celslu5~le kp A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n". if IC<J you 125lI I r------r-------------' nee dt his the ki10cJ lerie }: . A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade degrees.-. Abw. expand: or evaporate... snt311 C3lcrle. kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm.: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~. fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find Celsius.. ~ulv3tent to 4.

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