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A VISUAL

DICT-IONARY

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ARCH ·ITECTURE
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Digitally signed by Arch. Francis V. Fernandez DN: cn=Arch. Francis V. Fernandez, o=SpiralArchitect, ou=Architecture, email=archfrancisfernandez@y mail.com, c=PH Date: 2009.06.06 05:53:27 +08'00'

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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

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FRANCIS D.K. CHING
A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC
NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO

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This book is printed on acid·free paper. 8 CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.

Printed in ~e United S~ of America.
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U~ralj' of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data: ISBN 0-471-28451-3

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This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged In rende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, the services of a competent professional person should be oought.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arry form or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, without either the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon should be add~ to the f'enni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.

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VISION 264 WAll 266 WINDOW 271 WOOD 276 pu ook sb eed FIRE SAFETY 88 thi if y INDEX 285 ou n flOOR 92 rch ase MEASURE 166 MEMBRANE 168 METAL 16? MOISTURE CONTROL 176 ORDER 179 ORNAMENT 182 PAINT 187 PLASTER 188 . SITEWORK 221 SOIL 224 CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 CEILING 30 CERAMIC 32 CHURCH 35 COLOR 38 COLUMN 40 CONCRETE 42 CONSTRUCTION 48 ~ DOME 60 DOOR 62 DRAWING 66 ELECTRICITY 74 ELEVATOR 80 FASTENING 82 FIREPLACE 87 MATERIAL 161 the DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 - ori LOAD 151 gin LIGHT 142 al JOINERY 140 cop HOUSE 136 y SOLAR ENERGY 226 SOUND 228 STAIR 233 STONE 236 'STRUCTURE 238 SURVEY 246 TEMPLE 248 THEATER 256 TRUSS 259 VAULT 262.(ONTENTS PREFACE 7 ARCHITECTURE ARCH 12 BEAM 15 BRICI< 18 BUILDING 21 9 FORCE 96 FORTIFICATION 98 FOUNDATION 100 FRAME 104 GEOMETRY 108 GLASS 112 HARDWARE 114 HEAT 117 HISTORY 128 PLASTIC 192 PLATE 194 PLUMBING 196 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202 ROOF 208 ROOM 216 SHEll 219 .

history. most of the entries naturally lend _themselves to graphic representation. This is a book for the curious to browse as well as a desktop reference for the student of archltectuJe. Within each section... complex. dt al cop y 7 .he power of a solitary word or image.. and completes their meaning. The' compilation of words and definitions is not intended to be exhaustive.lf one trows the exact term and wants to find CiJt rts meaning. and multidimensional nature of architecture. =1~ __. r . however.PREFACE . words are placed in a visual context which further explains. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest. clarifies. If one does not Know the precise teim.. . if one encounters an entry or a word used in a definrtion that is unfamiliar. One can then refer to the appropriate section. Regardless of t. r~'r ~ "'. .. one C3'.-4-. Since architectcre is a visual art. a single word can conjure up in the mind's eye a thousand images.. the ori gin Included are fundamental terms relating to architectural deSign. RAther. and technology. ~ I J Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. While browsing. . ____ ttl . . the selection is designed to be comprehensive enough to reflect the rich." :. then one can lOOK up the ~eneral subject either in the table of contents or the Index. ' "')I if you nee One picture is worth a thousand words his boo kp ur I· r~ i i ~ I Just as a single image can be worth a thousand words. cha se The reader may use this dctionary in a number ofw3'js. the information is clustered around basic aspects of architecture as outlined in the table of contents.. each communicates meaning more effectively when brought together into a sfngle preserrtatlon.: .... . Some are more abstract but are included to help clarify related terms or to complete the treatment of a subject. look rt up in the index. and scan fer the terms. then one can 1001: it up in the index. brOn-5e the illustrations. Looki~ up one term will always present related terms arTa:1ged around one or more illust<ations. >+_. The symbiotic relationship between graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. l ~.

archttecture. convenience. safe area In a profane and cha se It evokes unmea5'Jral11e qualities. Arran~ Eur:.thmy.ure Is an 1rt for aU to !earn because an are concerned with It. This nmltatlon Is mostfrlghtenlngly manifested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonaldi34rams that chrnate. But gr. Thus the origins of archi~re are ~ understood If one ta~es a wider view ana considers sociocultural factors.. but of the three the only trust~or.i Iphcnomen. and engineering. for ordinary people. Is the ordering or organizing of the environment. All of these must Pc built with d~ reference to dUl'3billty.even appart11tly humPle dwcUl"4S.indsoon. smell. I l I j pe~uty. anddo the things It was Intended to do In the Pest way.' On the whole I think this Is true. -Steen Eiler R3slT'ussen L 8 .gonlstof . and vision. Propriety. materials. - dt his if physlcalexpreS$lon to kleas Is valuable. I shoukl "elievethe InJlldfngs. baslc cultlJ.ed. They arelnstlMlons. . and beauty. It Is Important to stress UutalllnJlJtenvlronments -~.and sculpture are callecl the flnearts. In any sltuatlon. -leCorpusler· Anyone entering on the studyofarchitecture must understand that even though a plan may have abstract peauty on paper. Is through the me3sura~le. therefore It should pe easily comprehensib~ to all. actlvIty: status. No single explanation wfllsufflu. ori ny you can get the ~u!ldtng Into being. that Its~k well. and ~ehavlor. which can De grasped and felt only through direct expmence. and the spirit of Its existence takes (J·m. They appeal to the eye as music does to thet3r.lt Is the Interplay of all th~ factors th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs. and architects sometlmescreate buildings which are not architecture..in!z. and please us by Its presence. BUildings affect all of the human senses.are I'IOrCthan materlalo~ects or structures.Arch~re. touch. to esta~nsh place: to create a hum. thAt Sp3ce which cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn.sound. Internal space. Sym metry. Butarchitut-ure Is not judged Pyvlsual appeal alone. You must follow tr.lfl had to say which W3S telling the truth arout society.:. and when Its members are In due proportion accordtng to correct principles of symmetry.ed of them. a spll('JCh bya ministerof' housing orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In his time.-Jng you nee l . the rookofthelrt!eeds. taste. -l.. and t. whatever It has to do or ~. when the lnJildlng Pecomes p3rt of living. -Bruno levi. Tograsp space. Not one of these ~ooks can I1e understood unless we rt3d the two others. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskin said: 'Great natlonswrlte their allto~raphles In thrumanuscrlpts. the pulldlng Itseff may turn out to Pe poor architecture.ls the J p"*. In the broadest sense. that It act well. Ideas help Penavior Dy remInding l- people of how to ~ how to !leh3ve. -John Ruskin • Archltuture also exists without necessary assistance from an architect. -John Ruskin· Archltect1Jre depends on Order. -Kenneth Cla~ • We requ/reofarry rulldlng. ana what Isexpec1'. -Forrest Wilson· It became apparent to us that architecture Is generally assumed to be a h~hly specialized system with a set of prescribed technical goals rather than a sensual soci31 art responsive to real human lay more stress on the 'luanttfla ble features ofbuJldlng organ1z3tion than on the polychromatlc and thr~-dlmensI011al I\ualJtlesofthewholearchltectural experience. roles. ~use InJlldlngs .l::. . that It look well. the only varioltS purposes: to shdter people and their activities ana possessions from the elements.e Is l. correct and magn iflcent play of maS6eSproughttDgetherln light. Is the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng. convtn1enu. -Vltruvlus • Architecture Is the masterly..ools Kahn • Built environments have the I\uantltles of ~rk. Encoding laeas makes them useful mnemonics. to stress social identity and Indicate status. time. But In the end. the four facades may seem weU. therefore.~. when the appeal'3nce of the work Is pleasing and In good taste. -Noryal White· Archfttcture Is proJuud \. to Pc more Im~"t than boo kp ur enemies. ~urabll. methods of construction. L L L the last. and landscapes - are one W<rJ of orJerlng the world by making ordering systems vlsMe. ~hnology. and when each class of building Is assigned to Its sultal1le ana approprlateexposure.l. -Kent Btoomer&Ch3r!es Moore • The only I'4'Jj'OU C3n 1nJ1ld. Pecplethlnk environments Veforc they ~lk:I them. and economy. the book of their words and the ~ook of ~Ir art. and Economy. and from supernatural powers. from human and anImal poten tsally dangerous !York.palntlng. when the amngement of the apartments Is faultless and presents no hindrance to use.y ordinary people. Thought orders space. to know how to see It. and S3y the things It was Intenaed to S3y In the Pest words.ty will lie assured when foundations are carrleJdown to the solId ground and ~Is wl~ and liberally selected.palanced and the total I'Olume wen-p~.e laws of nature and use gin al cop y desires and feel1ngs. The esstntIal step. Archftut.

I r I I r I I r' ARCHITEC The ART architecture The product or result of archit tural work: ~u~ldlngs. and CONSTRUCTING arch itectu re r r if you nee dt his boo BUILDINGS kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y 9 . collectively. and SCIENCE architecture of DESIGNING architecture The profession of designing Duildlngs and other ha~1 ~le environments.

and creative lm. financial. a plan for the fulflllment of these reqUirements. and furnishing of spaces within a proposed Of' exIstIng building. urean planning. often unspeGlfIal7!e property. involving an appraisal of the current conditions. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment.e ~utlon of archttecturallntulors. fittings. finishes. originality. or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an Il1<. and proposals for legal.Ilvldual u nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the ori gin al cop y environmental design The ordering of the physical environment by me3ns of archlt. and . aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with tJste. trutirfulness. L J I 10 . discernment. or profession of p13nnlng the design and supervising tr. inUrior design The art. city planning The actMtyor profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of 3 community. with a the nature of art. and constructional programs to Implement the plan. i J taste CriticalJudgment.l7tJslness. ana beauty The aggregate of qualities In a person or thing that gives Intense pleasure to the senses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind or spirit. and city planning. fumishi~s. sometimes architectural features. excellence of craft. view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art. or other. L L L if you L. design. space pIa nnjng The 3Spect of archItecture and Interior desIgn that deals with the planning. esthetics. e~lnurlng.ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. whether arising from harmony of fonn or color. url1an design The 3spectof architecture and city planning that de3ls with the design of urban structures and spaces. Also called town planning. 3 forecast of future requirements. harmonious. layout.1glnatk>n In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. or appreciatlon of what Is fitting.xture. includlng their color schemes. or of more than ordil'l3l)' slgnlflcanu. construction. beauty. Also. urban design. landscape architecture.

.. --~----------------~ ~~-0. The unifying structure or concept of an artlstlc work... society. and the environment. engineering The art ana science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design ana construction of structures....-~~:.. or modifying the features of a lanJscape for aesthetic or practical reasons._ . \.j< ' .~ '~rf/ ~ .. and their Interrelation with life. as salology ana anthropoiogy. the study of the o~ln.. . that sed: to discover genera I truths from theoDservation of human behavior In society. experimental Investigation.. gin anthropology al cop y . tectonics The science or art of shaping.J)i1fr-. ~cio(ogy ori social Institutions and relationships: sped.. . ..-~'N~ :r~J:~~~.. '.--.~~/:~~:-:: t~~"'''. or profession of designIng. physlc3l ana cultural development. equipment. .. The science of human The science of human beings: speclf. technology Applied science: the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials.:t:... or assembling materials In construction. __ -. structure. busIness. -a i 11 . . 'r t'\ architectonics r firmness The state or quality of uelng solidly con 5 tructed. se boo kp ur cha nee dt his if you the l1ehavioral science Arry of the Sciences. omamentlng. systematically arranged and showing the operation of generallal'ls. development. '-"-?~-'- ~~.. L ~-!~~~'cfitl. the study of the origins.-.~:::~~~..ARCHITECTURE science A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths olrtalned!1y direct observation.·~~~~~~~i~jl:'~tl~" . technics The SCience of an art or of the arts In general.''-''-'-''"''''"U . -: r:-'.:). ana environmental and soclal relations of humankind.. ana systems. arranging. )"..ape architecture The art.R.. and collective behavior of organized groups of human befngs.-- landsc. fu neticnlng. and methodical study.."'.

...h I ~enur!ng A temForal)' fl7lmework for supportln~ a ma son I)' arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself. "... VJu~. the sprlMIMtI line to the . - . I: dt I· his j boo ur L . Any of ~he wedge-sh2ped units In a ITI3sonl)' arch or vault. I ! I from the crown to the Impost.:. Also called folster.. ~voU$$Oir H--~_ __________---.. ~ An arch constructea of Individual stone or prick VOlJ ssolrs. I...1l)1per 51ip.._s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_'~~~~========================== __ Impost r l .-. II j ffilllI{ _ L L / _ 12 L .tARCHf A cUrYed structure for spanning an opening.ntraclos_ t J -----t5pn'. ~\----~-E:1 Tr.. Alsv :3i!ed barr ~--_ l..ndos of two adjoining arches.... • extrados The exterior curve.. Also CJi!ed cop y The triangular-shaped.f t M ! f ! .. f ! L L l L L '>.. archivolt Adecorat1ve molding or ba nd .g Acrosspleu connectlng the I". ..e uppermost part of an 4IPutrnent. j I . \~ \ \ \ \ \ ( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling of the arch..e pelcw. capfbl.:'.. when e3ch Dro1·~. havl~ side cuts converging ..!-~ .. '. Also calle4C. or dome rises from Its support. often embellished voussolr at the crown of an arch..~h.···r lJUVUrt.------.... ~_e.".t rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.1 It.... des~ned to support a vertlcal103d primar~y \:7y axial compression. as anarcn.the The first v'oussoir resting on ~- M='=a=na=rch==_==================~===±~ ______ ...h'e~htof~na_hfrom".' spandrel The point at which an arch.: 11d31')' of the visible face of an arch.~. or ~ ~~ left or right extrados of an arch .~ An archway having sides or Jam~s not at :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ .' one of the arch centers. i al vault. serving to lock the other voussolrs In place. from which OIn arch springs.:. often In the form of a kp !7Iock. or molding.J"'pCjond the o:'..I or~~l------------------~ ArrJ several concentric ring s of forming an arch.----------..-....~\'~~[~... you nee I.-.. _____ . Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~h Ill(. ~croWn . "he fau cf an arch follOWing the curve of t. _J 11 • formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ .es ornamented area 17etween the ~. r. Also~Sp2ndril. -The.. or . sometin-..l>s in 3 centering.r-->n\---:intrados-.rJ t. N50nty M-ch ~ keystone The wedge-shaped... esp..-U-l. cha se the t-~-~~------------~of an arch curving down ori LJ I u I if 1. - -. camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch..or~_ gin cormx ccnst:ructlon." . .highest J'"Ir1 or point of a . VII I 5pring 1springl~. surface.:.

pe for a c. thru-hinged arch A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an arched form. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. gin An tr.. two-hing~ if you nee . I f" .-.:.--.. steel.. r r . one keeping the lower ends of an arch or frame from spreading.. The setof·resultantsbf thrust and weight each part of an arch Imposes 0'1 the next lower one. ! --.~ line of thrust.rch shapeJ to develop only axial compression und~r a given loading.l ARCH I l r r . As with any funlcu13r structure. proportional to the total load cha i ur ana span...:. fu:ed arch A fhed frart'~ structure having an arched form. I . and Inversely proportional tcthe rise .af projection y se I . r--~-------+. or strut.oerW ~ry is t~ funlcul. the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.In ori arch C3tTjlng a vtrtlC3lload uniformly JI5triMd i1hng the lenqth of the arch axis..m::hed structure of timber.-.gan archeJ form. esp. constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses.L-.ble carrying a similar Ioadlng pattern. Su fr3rt1~ 5trvcture 13 .---------J-. A two-hlngeJ frame structure havir.-.. or relrrforc. ~ tie rOd An Iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie.ul concrete.--------------+-'arch action I The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway. vault.1rc_h I An .d C'ltritS horlzw. funicular arch Is subject to Pendlng ~ the loading pattern changes.. .~ abutments.~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure. a TIle p2r3rol1l$ the funicular sh3~ for an arch C2rT)fng a o.~----.4dt his boo kp arch -------~ ~Mment ~ The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch. i The thrust of an arched structure on Its ~~-#-r-------------t-I. f f .~. This sh3p<: may ~ found by Inverting the funicular sh.r 5hape for al Ithru5t. Junic~lar . tigid arch--·i An .:liI~~·::it-"Jrlft" cop the The outward force or pressure rertea I7y one part of a structure against another.r:rticz{ load uniformly di5trW.

nch. basket-handle .i~uations of the arctr0lt. A flat arch having voussolrs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center. : . '\i..! . e3Cn hJunch of which Is a double curve with t~ c..cncave side uppermost I L 14 .\"'...J/ .:Idll la~arcltt A pointed ~rch having two unters and radII greater than the span. ... 'A round arch rest'lng 011 two large corbels y . G~thl~'~Rh. ApoInted arch.. l~ ! o¥earch A pointed arch. I l.1rch Athree-centered 3rch having a crown with a radlus mUGh gre3ter than that of the outer pairofcurYes. se ur • skewPact -'. one havIng two centers and equal r. --~-------~ sti~darch ~ . /..':..:Idiating from ~ center ~w. esp._________ hor$eSMe arch An. . fL··J·~ An arch having onc Impost higher than the 1 ~\...~ tJ . I r. o stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening.A·· .-_ _ _ _--' A stone or course of masonry having a sloping f..'trefol1 arch An .~ .1rch having 3 cusped Intrados with three round or pointed foils. . <::<:. An arch having a horizontal Intrados with voussolrs r.~. ".:.ed. al cop '" 'to> fi) .. Also C31~1c ai-aI:'...i An arch strock from one or more the gin I cha centers ~Igw the springing line.ARCH ~ triangular arch' A primiUve form of arch consisting of t . / _l .. often puilt with a slight camPer to allow for settnng.' .Jceagainst which the: end of a segmental arch rests.-t-. but no arch action Is effe. \. Also cal1e£fMoorIsh arch. kp ·~·t··7-·. {j !PeUarch with cUrYed taus.. I A false arc~ cc:~s~ructed by corbeling courses from each slde of an opening until they meet at 3 midpoint where a ca pstone Is laid to comp!eU the won:. L i L I L i·t-~ : 'lU'pased arch An arcn havIng a ri~ of tess than half the span .. Alsocallefn~ de panic! \ if you nee dt his boo "---~_+ '---' I lJ polll'ted arch' An arch ~vlng a pointed crown. -L . a semicircular one.jJ rounded crown.'ed Intrados.c:. fUt.J I ~~~Iarc~··. . . An arch restir~ on imposts treated as downward ccn. ~t corbel arch ~ French arch .1rch .. i rampant. • ettuli~r3rarc&' equal to the span. . -3. Z r =' A pointed arch havIng two centers and r.:Idn. round arch' An arch having a continuously cuc.~ ":-:.:IdJl tess than the spar!.:ldos. \ ~ ~ . .. esp. The stepped reveals may be smoothed... • RolTL1n arch An arch having a semicircular i~tr. .. other.rch having an Intracios that Mdens I ori aPove the spri~lng Pefore 1I3rrowing to. . drop al'C" A pointed a rcll haying two centers arid r.

: __ ..BEAM A rigid structural member 5UPPOrtl"l! . - ' The extent of space l7etween two supports of a structure.. to designed W C3rry and transfer ~ ~1!1I~~!i~II~. fl1U31 to the a~ebralc sum of tnnsverse forces on one side of the .mpresslon ''-. ~ 15 . -. or ~..?'-"' An exta"Ttl1 monierrt~ndlng to C3'J5e fi3rt ~14 his ~. -----.-=---=--=--=----.. --.lM span.-.!...... and aecre3Slrlq ·. ~nt Into al>tam.e to a ~~ roment..neut.. C An ImagInary line passing through the cel!troid of the cross section of a beam or other rneml7er su~ject to !lendIng..---:\ vertical shearing stress.....ctty ofthe~L -===------------------~Iii =+ t f ±[f * -+ + [ distance l7etween the supports of il \ Ptnd~mcment -<..L.h 3fl1ncre:ase In the morr....:-"-------------4I -r..::.- section... ori gin \ . urJertransverseloadlrtg..~ ------. cross section of a structural mem~ to resist a transv~ force. ~ : : ~ .e sectbn Deing conslderecL ~ft.-----... i i r f under ?4nsverse loadlng...ul mOmerrt'ec{U31 and opposr-....i-alaxis ... having a maximum yalue at the surface furthest from the neutral axIs. A coml7inatlon of compressive and tension stresses developed at."ents. The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a ~eam to resist transverse shear.. --~ : to the vertlcal~h~~r:l~_~ *e:... .em~ ~tes from . havIng a ma"xtmum value at the neutral axIs and decreasIng nonlinearly toward the outer faces. al boo I cop y . a..alshearforu at il cross section of a beam or other member subj~ to Pendl~. 'U y .----. 1 ~~moment t------------------~-• An fnt:er..1te for an anticipated ~ ~--~-- r l i .::::+~...l.-----------~ Un5lon of a structJJ re to rotJte or ~end.-..oadsacross space r+---1-J-h __ 1span L..:. Also..IIIii!lIlIii!!illIlIlIlI!liI. generated by a fcru couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t<~. ea 031 to the al¢'r31c sum of the moments amt the neutnl axIs of the section U~&!­ co ns k:lerJtIo n.-__.. -: ~------ -An extern. I : : ___ . . -:-. ----..-.. ..J~ kp L ..lncre3sing with Ioad. rc\earspa~.1 true W1.-T'..J prevent slippage alang Iong!tudlnal planes of a ~m' .~'.----L. " " " " . --.... The dIstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of il span. :::::::::::::::::::::::::....--------... gIrder... alonq which no ~endirtg stresses occur.z<_~:..at that point AISO ca lIec90ngftudinaf s~1'in4 s~s.--- ur r f dt nee cha se . ~~h~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---1 .~\ ~ ....= i~=!r~~ler ! span..J.-- -----+--____-L____ 1'~ The snearlng stressdevetOped t.... the strocture so supported..ent of Inertl3 of the sectloo or the modulus of ei3~.!--------' ~~ulard1stance il spanr..---.. truss to if you ~sngfit' convex curvature Intentlot1311y r compellS..~ualatanypoint ~ ..--'---------"vz:-~:..__ .-~---.lII~IiIi~Ii~~tirjainiSViel~e. "'-. ~ ~ \?ending' 5tre55 .i~ If'.~------.. the ~~'..

BEAM fp f. secuon. At the txtreme surfaces of a bam..mpr-c5slvc str~5e5 resulting from l>alJ1nq. M C =MC{J)~-----where mamentoflnertia The sumOfthe products of each element of 2n 2rea 2nd the square of Its dlstance from a coplanar axis of rotation. " = Whk ~ 3 ~ span reduces th~ bending ~ ry 3 tJacre{ z. prevent torsion or twlstlng. _1- cha se al boo L kp J if t dt At th~ nelltra/axls of the section. I I ~- tension L L r I L J - 5hear ceo'Ur s~l~~gIfWfiICfi'i'?· T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f. the prlnctp.a 16 .25 inz = Area of section 11.a transverselOad'.!!e bending 5tres5eS by 3 factor of 4.of the mem~er a~out.mil compre55l¥e ~ses xtJn~ at 45" mgfe.s to the neutnl1Xl5. The tfflcfetlcy cf 3 Pe3m 15 lnCT'e3seJ by CQnflgurlng the CT'OS5 section to provfde the requireJ moment cf Inmb or section modulus with the 5maOe$t pos5M~ 3rea.e-s 3rt equivalent to the tensiJe and a. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ . only !>ending 5tr~ses &:xl5t and the prlnclp. Moment of Inertia Is a geometric property that Indicates how the cross-sectional area of a structural mem~er Is dlstrl~ted and does not reflect the Intrinsic physical properties ofa material.r'-ust pa'55 In orJe~ to Iongltudlnal axis.ect to botb be:nJlng x.tress trajectories lines depictIng the direction put not the magnitude of the principal stresses In a ~eam. section modulu. -. I = extmn~ firer stress In ~ndjng = bending n10mttTt = distJnc~ from neutnl/axis to th~ outermost surfJC~ in b~ndin9 If Yc = ®~-------then fp =MIS 'A~~r6pMy of a cross deflned as the moment of Inertia of the section divided l1y the dlsta nee from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.20 in 2 = Area of 5Xtion y cop 25OIn4 = I aPoutx-xaxis 3861n 4 = iaboutx-xaxis 5 52. you nee L ..1l stres:.J she3r 5tre55eS.( at the ~mitles where th~ maximum bending ~ occur. usua!1y by mating the section kep with most of the m3teri. I 1i 33.7in 3 = ori the ur gin principal stresses The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ' resulting from the Interaction of ~na1nf! and shea r stresses at a cross section of a beam. his For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5.61n' "" S 54. JouPling th~ depth reduces t.

f~~jj.-L-L..": X'pro~rij veat:ns..J. of.L..1i sim~~~u.~.."r:esutta .. span and loaJlng but also on cross· sectlonal sn3F~ 3'1d material..'.heard~g"m li'l:1 Illllllllll' III ! (III )..t:rt 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the 5f!41 As5l....!<L :.. quiIl3ie.s . whleh are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce.otlwfly detennlnate structure.. positive shear ... ~. 6' ~ J . I ..lted loads produce bending mom~ts Iouls and support condItions...r.I. ccrttinuou5 pe4m .. .II.e projection for wltfch the morrr~ oy~ the 5I.f a flxed·end or continuous beJ~. and ~uce Its maxlmum defIect1on. shears... L. A graphic 5imple beam A ~m restlC\3 0...~c. t r i ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~r----.. ! !.' y ori gin al his boo .:fitlons..~ ends. J. and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its cress· sectlonal shape and ma~31.~.~~ .: A¥3EIC:~torrott~~n..~J~.J.rfy between loads.. " ~~§Jn ordu tc aevelOp gr~~r rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple ~ms having similar spans and loading.BEAM l f r . hearforcesthatacts "e:rtIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left pol rt of the structUrl: l>elrig'c·onsl..E 1representation of the variation In magnitude of the external shears present In a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support con. . ...L 1. Also calW hu~-span..-L ~====~J====~l..-t...~~L...!:... se the ' r ~ .l. T -. shears..rW l.'~...t ..: : t' .. a~ on~one I momentdi.. The overhang rl:duces the positlve moment at mldspan while developing a n~atlve moment at the Inse of the cantllever over the support. if '=~'t. J. nee dt 5u'pended-5pan A sImple ~m supporW by the cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans with plnneJ constructlonJoints at polnts of· zero moment.. '~. .t. I..m.. tJ. The overall which vary hne.. .. negativeshear . the projections for . nt. I! .. and moments are dependent not only or.nlch the mommts om-the supports 3~ eqlJ3/ md oppo$'U to the momer.. IJf the sp:m.t 3t midsp71 .'I! Concentrated loads produce e~mal she~ -' cantilever peam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce line3ri) :.~!"'''"'tant.l. Uniformly distribrMd loads produce parabciJc311y var:lr. As with any st... . 17 .~~~ tr.L L.._. the values of an reactions. .. Both fIXed· end and contlnuous !:>eams are Indetamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. 3 uniformly distri/7r...ln: . ' :..u pPPfted. :: : I : Concentr. : ..LM I ' cha positive moment . dd1ected shape of a structure sul>ject to Pendlng can often ~ Inferred from the cantilever shape of its moment diagram.'''''.nsfer !:>ending 's~s.:lered.-:-7"-"-.. I Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW l03d.res~l?nt.LL. ~:. .!!e. .f-l-l.. shearforcesth3tacts r vertIca~ upW1ra~n the left part of the structure !:>efrig ccnsldere..1 A~. of.~* ~~~: . you ~ be3m exterJing~~t~~ih".ff£ljs at Dot...-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3 simp!] s~pportea 'eam.re approximately '/.L i.-l A !:>ending rT1<lment ~ proaiJce$a concave ClHYaturl: at a section of a structure.j. ·~~~tf~~~'~=:~~~~~==~~~~~~~ cop ~-:-:"rr.d.l ' i l t +111. effective length The dist3~ce l>etween Inflection points In the sp3~.....ifT1ir."'" overhanging l>eam Aslmple beam extending beyond one Its supports.:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr. ~i ur kp flIt...lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m..~ mcments.1gram _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~.'''~J'~. r r i fF :-~:~~!-W.. . I .P.

.. coefl'.i al ori gin the t MW~ ~thl~. l i~iil~II~~~~~. A clay used In the making of ~rucl&t...... or dryl~ tlml:>er. A brick grade sulta~1e for ~posure to jl!e9~'-~~ ~~as when used as a 113Gb...l7ridcr· . one for firing pottery.. ch Ippage• • "d dJst. -.. producing a matte'textured surf~ 3 1 prick_type! r waterstruck hick A des~ll3t1on Indicating the pennlssll7le ~rI3tlon In size. Also C311ea building br/clt _. ~'5 a percent3ge of the weIght of ~".. Indicating the ~ reslstJnce of the brick to the #etlan of freezl~ and thawing.. --: j5. Also calrea fa c't" In-Ick. . . cha !cuU . and negllgll7le .. The ~ofW3ter a~ Py..cln~ kick sultJple for use where a wider color ~. ur his j5W ~ .... 18 ..rtlcubr effects are desired resultlng frotn lIOIIurJformlty In size. y FDA F..: Plfing luiCk un~lterTl4tely with too much or too httle air to vary their face COlOr. A !nick grade suita~1e for exposure to the ground or uSMon surfar.. .5. U I 3 weight of water absorPea ~.serer!.. ..clent.. mingl1rict' Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall.. _. resulting in sbrpedged.. u u I FB5 F.ortk)n albwed In a facing ~rick unit.~ mold lined with sand to prevent stlckln9.S.. claL Immersed In either cold or boIIIn4 I'I7ter for a st3 ted length of time..17a\:ir-3 .e:q.!U£Ki Am3SOf1f)' unit of clay. . "trrt-mud pro~ ! The process of fonnlng prick and structur.. j~~hin~'f f. of 51 W under high pressure.1ndstruck brick Bricl: formed In the soft-mud process wlt.. ··: AGT{£mUle of fire cl3y ana used for IInln~ amaGtts and flreplaces. 1 A !nicI: or tlmb~ rejected as being ~ Infer':£r quality. rex F. ~-----=::: se t1~­ ~-~~ Jfi!e.andm3XlmumSJturatlon kp A dr!s~tUtIon Indlcatlng the aura!7i11ty of a . moderAte.III~1 mold lulnicated with water to prevent stlci:!~.~_c~ ~iI coefficient The rnlooft~ weight of water absorPed ~5bhiy Dille hf!fflersta In cotr IIt7ter to the weight aDsor\:1ed when ~ In rolh~ water.. _ _---=------~:::: if you nee dt \severe weatheri~. ..._' partIally Immersed for croe minute. expressed I~ grams or ounces p minute... boo . formed into • rectar.as when In contact with . :. Wct¢ry A material having the a17i1lty to ~taln Its physical shape ana cliemlCal WnE§' w~ suPjected to high temperatures. A ImCk grade sutta~1e for exposure to-' .. smooth-surfacea pricks. .- . 1drrprcss process i The process of fonnlng prick ~ motdlng relatively dry clay having a moisture co~.'" orin Itfterlor ma son r y .. ~ ... color.... often treate4 to produce the ~sJ~~.. ana texture of the Individual units.gwr prism while plastic and lurdened Py drying in the sun or firi~inaUn.. I"'.....~glg~ ana 5\Jrfau text-ure. producing dense surface.. esp....nd greater variation In size art' ~rmitted than for type FBX...~ permeated with water In subfreezl~ temperatures..-_ _--.j~~SIIII~ ..cc. Brick is pJd for use In each /'e9lon accoralng to ~ strength.. ~.moder'3te weatherl~ as when used ~e !:>rid: untt wfIen exposed to weathering.. Briel: formed In the soft-mud process with 3 a smooth.il tile ~ extruding stiff l:>ut plastic clay having a moisture content ofl2t to 151 through a !~ ana cuttlng the extrusion to length with w'res l:>efore firing.. a~.a~ I1ricl:: sulta\7le for use where p.. aria otHer objects exposed to high tempentlJres... 'ccmmott~~ Brict made for general Pulkllng purposes and :let s~1a11y treated for color and te~~re.ulred.ls dIv1ka In~ three weathering liiltn Wlltel Iii subfreezing temperatures. l.. ~!y_.. fumau or oven for Pumll1g...ang I1ricl:: sulta171e for use where a !I'1inlmum V3tiatlon In size. The processprocess of forming prick l:>y molding ! scft-mud relatively wet clay havlng~re C$Ywt..~·dIng to annual winter rainfall ana the 6n~1 number of freezing-cycle days..lSOlllj' unit when NW . or dryi~ . m=ks.edryl/l1lt... narrow color rA ng~. color. I:1aklng. AlsocalleJ mlt/al rau of iI~ iTl3S011f'y unit when ~. .es Ukely to ~e.. - t.T1echanlcal pafectlon are rea.. The grade on surfaces unlikely to l7e penneated U. maximum water lorici~' .lJJ. cop 1 b1n) l.Jt ~ . and high degree of l.

.. A 17rld: or other m3sonry u.d. ..:s 19 .~ Briel:: h3'.Ion I to A brlc~ dline~S'o()f1 Lvgerthan the actual dJ~s:cn account for the ..lid horlzonta ily 1(1 a wall with the shorter end ~ or parallel to the surface. sb ook eed f i r thi seal' I -'i " stret:.. (102 x 102 x 203 mm).wlng nominal dimensions of 4x3~/s. (20..' dim ". (I02x81x203mm).a. .119 nominal dimensions of 6 x 2113 x12 In.'3 x3 in. (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .wing nominal dimensions of 4 x 21."'J ncminJI dimensions of 4x2x 12 in. . (102 x81 x 305 mm). ~l . (102 x 68 x 305 mm) .--~------_e====~~~.3Ying normal face 2In. (20.~~J A I7rld: lakl horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed. (102x51 x 305 mm).. .. if y r r ~:.wing nominal dimensions at 4 x 21. 5 COU. AI$O. ecanomy Prick A modu~r vrick having nominal dimensIons of 4x 4 x 5 in.-~. .3 mm) moduL-lr brick A 17rld: h. Norwegian I1rick A 17M h3Vi~ nominal dimensions of 4 x 3'/s x 12 in...'3 x12 in.5In. thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Joint. rsversely so as to leave onetr1dw~ :·'·'·' .. cop ori gin al the pu rch ase • r r jumbo urick .....BRICK rnoml.ikl vertically with the I1read faceex~. -. (406 mm) F==ib=~=:.-. fc. -·r---· ·'h NormJn brick APricl: h. itorl .3 courses = 8 in.~~} r~k l.' 7shineri 'A brIck i3J h<:Jrizontally on the longer wge with the broad face exposed A!S] called pull str~her. 4 coursts = 8 In...fIy In a wall with the lo~er or parallel to tne$lJri:ou...! '! 1 • See mJSOnry for types of mortJrpr. engineered brick AInicl: h. SCRurick .nlt /.e i-.3 mm) y Roman ~rick Brick h~''. '. TaChipar rJC> stones or 1nicks to a certain s~ c-r sl1ape. ''~r..~J A I7rld: laid vertically with the longer face edge ~pqsed .cMr A l?rlcl: or other m3sonry untt laid eage~ A brd or tl. r r Any of "'3 r100J 5 C'1erslzed 17ricks h3vlng nomlnJl di~~S:Ons establJshed Dy the m3nubct~~e-."'5ts = 16 In.(51I11m~ dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot. -. (102 x68 x203 111m) . ou n ht-J A !mel:: cut t.

you nee headtrs and StretcMrs In e3Ch cou~..... .ourst:S n ~)~~~~~~~Ill: larden-wall Ponel F ~prlclilYOrHond for lightly loaded po ~~~~~i~~~~= ~~~~~i~~~g: rounaary walls.otllond 1 A lni:iwort bond having a course of headers stretchers.iI~.. usually OYerbp~ pattern to Increase the strength and enhance the appea r3 nce of .A rnodJfJed EnglJsh bond In which the heaa DD~D~~~ Jolnts!n the stretching courses are offSP. cfO$Ure. .. ODDDDDDDDC ODDDDDDDDC c=Jr::=:JDDc==J[ Dc=Jr==Jr==:JO( ..t Also. having a seq~ence of a header and thru stretchers In each course. recognluble.BRI(K fbrickwcrij erfck~Ion. soldlerccur5e.. if -..... Acontinuous ecurse of soldiers In brickwork.... lnaiCOlll'StS... -. tM art of bondin9 Prld:s effealvely.I.~... -. A lni:iwort or masonry bond composed of OY~ stretchers. closure.- - se Dc::=Jt=Jt=JDT ODDDDDDDDC c=J c:::Ic::Jc:=Jf the ~n untered on stretcMrs and the joints ~ stretchers nne up vertically ODDDDDDDDC .e or for spacing reg ilia r lmcks.. Also called al cop y 6 Flemish CtO~5 Pond A mod1f1ed flemish bona having courses of altel'Tl3te headers aM stretchers "ftem3tI~ with stretching cou~ . ~ ~ ~ng centered arore and Pelow dt A~ bon(i having alternatIng fJem~~~1 L ~da~ ---------. . reglbr !nicks.. '~ndt Anyofmblsamngements of masonry units ~... : : .1nl1~.... ~acked I1ond.ier ilelng centered over a header In alternate courses. .by half the length of a stretcher. ~'='==_::::!±:=::! A ~uarter Imci: fodlnlShlng a cor. Also.f'rieffi. br1ckwori: or masonry bond havin9 = : : > = = : . Also called 's~ron(U .... !F~~ 'A fonn~~nd In which the c.iI regular. Also.t ~~C=::J( . the conskuctlon.--··-·· . offset to form a dta mona pattera..00...cner of a wall.AlsocalW . with each heac.. --.... Also.. esp. A NSOnry unit specially formed or cut to fDsh " COU~ or complete the bond at ~ co. ur forroa"1~ng" course or for spacIng his boo kp cha ~ ~=~h::~..t~:-:~~.. ~tack~ond '). ~ ~flveor slxCQu~ P-f J J f Ii clesa' .C\uun closure.flare header A brick h3vlng a damr end exposed as a heac..-Dutdt~1 ori Alni:illlOrk laond having altemate courses of hakrs ~ lid stretchers In wh leh the gin ~~~l ~~~~~~~~~::=:K :Englishcros5 PondODD DCJDDD ..n~~/.successive courses of stretchers with all head Joints al1g ned vert lea Ily.. ki". j ". t= L L L f L J 20 .ier In pattemed brlcl:won:.! I i I j pa...

:yond the wall tJrzt suppa-ts It.. If two rQ/Js m. If It Is 5qlI3~.. Interrelated. me&t.: f!. his boo . Wt Is ~ tMrJ. esp. to serve a common purpose.fIeJ . A roo f with ~ slope Is C3iWa Lan-to. the ori gin al cop y )1 . :Jnd architects ~ bvilder5 who. Is akJ A r~ A short piece rJf "an .25 bng.alled wpftals.tIIeJ ./ Corona. If the ~ emtmy m.Hiy I1I3de Wfd~r}U5ta t the bottom 5<).1 sh~IUr. the 5h3ft.aI. Wans 3rC ger.at~ In5tt. frieze. construction. a building ff!3y be In It6df. &ornJce~the~A~ 3f1~ ~ ~bya sa-trJf c. .. or curved. a reentulng angl~.d ile of IrrtersectSon Is calfed a Valley. the ItIcfJr. If the rr.Ro:7fs and waDs. by gMnq a Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flroe details. The principal member (J( a ccmice.~~~ sloping.7t rests upon them. Orcul. a Ccrrke.al/ed -William Robert Ware (he American Vignol.~theprt~ It6 capanJb~15 the~.. cha se system A group of Interacting.in Roof5 T/U'j b.alled The Wa( the PIer./ Y. ~C:Z::.iIboIrt. f3e5kks ~ valu.. the fL1t. roof qf the ~ stcry b. is c. 3I1d WlndCW$ for ¥t.l1ld w.XIII form a G3t>1e at t./ ComJce.r JlQIJs C3rrf ca1Id or dcmlc31 roofs..a . the projection is calJtJ .nd a Cdumn If It Is round. ~ the architrave and the CCJmIa.er.l pier or c. if The spx:e ~ ~ paralfd wansl5 you cf columns Is C4i1eJa CcIontude.lt ~ ~.aIl:. the projection 15 called the &./ CiIp or.Jvcks.lfthe fYX!f extenJs b.1ils aJIJedJill ArchJtrav~.J/f~ the ~ ArchItr.:twetn.3ch~.it:. ..31 rlJge. WIth or irlt:hovt the pede5t. JIIhJch project5llf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15 the IQI.BUILDING Arelatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use. SUn. Atal pest Is caned a PIer. kp ur thaT the Ole. fIrltIr the roof tit.ne ~ they meet In a hor/zorrt. door5 and WIndows a~ ~ ~ fe3tures (J( buffdl"95.e4 Py .. ~ the chidptofthe load they urry. If thae Is m«e dwI tX7e 5tcry.Jose th~ 5pau WIthin. and the p-t ~ the C3p and the ba~. The M ~ marIber(J(3 C3pitaJ Is c. and l The underlying structurefor~g the foundation of a Duildlng or other.:. IfIt project6 nJCh./ noble md delightful obJ~t. tha'e Is generalfy a 11tti~ strip of wall (. If the W31al5o proj~cts to suppon the ~ (J(the roof.11I3i~ It rafU3&1e onl'tSl7Wnacccl(Int. or Interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unlfted whole.ve. and ~ Spandrds fcmI part cf the 1caJ rel3tJy~ to ~ubstructure nee dt A bam tit3t 5p311'5 the spxe Pmrun two pIerS or ccJumns or b..i~ aprojecting ang~ their rwfs ~ 1n3n It1cIiMJ lint called a fip. and by tm~ ""~tJfulIfl3tma15.dumn MJJ a tIr.:rs. .:comes the Floor (J( the stQry ~.es. Abc¥~ fC. The ~ the keres. ~ xt ~ for access. A similar ~ at the tq7 Is calJed.ln«pendentJy of ft5~. COr7'StItu te th~ chief ~memb. A ~s (J( which Is c. A low".1b1e 35.?r1Unuou5 3rdI c. or EpiStyk. Wp5 (J( pierS xtI cdumns xt c.1t Is a/Joy~ them.15 h35 been said. This mpIks a~ and Waifs wsupport It.25/t Is thIct 15 calida rcs:.· the Frle:zt and Cornice..Jn5 and le.3IIrIlflt~5<JfT1ethI"9. ! ~ uperstrLICture The vertical extension of a l7ulldlng or other construction aDove the foundation. The 5p3US ~ pierS or coVnns ~ sometimes 5p3m. Mar~ SUpporting members ~i3tJVe to wh.. and the Cdumn..arlng on the ground T1r5 projectItXr Is the Ba5e.15 to get a better b. A ~ Is A sheltb' from r3in. a~ns:r.3d rJfby a floor or reef. When two ~ roofs ~ upa! p3r. and wind..

I loft ~ilding A \?tJ:!dlng haVing several floors with large areas of unobstructed space. or exh ii:>itlon ga l!eries. 1j I i L1 J r I.p3r..J 1 . : spa~ l>et. as living a..o~ arvision of a y \. \.r->.---. high-rise Descrll1lng a l1Uildlng having a LJ o I I1uildi~.6L--_ _ _ _ _ _--i gin I se continuous floor ana comprising the .L..~"4 a contlnuous or nearly: :l the ~ I 1rR? ! i /\ /. One of the upper floors of a warehouse or fa~.L l..leen two 1acent levels. originally renUa out for ~ht Industrial purposes and r.i . j A l1Uila~lt\3. esp.-J ". l...ow fre'.uarters..1.a l1Uilding having one... typlcal~ unpartltloned ana I I sometJmes converted or adapted to other uses. or three stones. I . . two..BUILDING I edifi~ j . I I II I ( '( V I H B I - low-rise DescrlUiog ..cy.. ma ssive structu reo or 1m posi~ appe:araru. ') "1111 i 1111111 ii II ( cha '~ ._ _ _--d:f:bFfb--___~ L . I A II g J. ·. OM of ~rge size.•../'t I-f-- [] I ur ---~ . I boo kp -~-' J J I H+l rF n~ his nr nr I I 4- i 1 n i f ~ - - jJ if you lk. . cop I -' story f 1 Acomp~ koriz. artists' studios. I _. u.uently converted to residential OCCt.nd usually 110 eleva te r.' al I l comparatively large numl1er of stories and eqUipped with elevators.1. .:-. ori __ . I nee dt ~ + III f.

subbasement Arry story or floor l1elow the maIn l1asement of a l1uifding ./ A horizontal or Inclined door over a / cop -$-l . al ori gin the I ~ . torna.ms... L L cellar __ J A room or set of rooms........ luff eltory -..'" pasement : Astory of a l1ulldlng that Is wholly or part~· A I1elow ground level.fi~tfloor ! : if I The gl"O'Jna floor of a bu!k:flng.rttic Aroom or space directly under the roof of a Pullding.. the first floor IS tile floor ImmedIately above the ground floor. fuel..... Also called stann cell.....v - .• -.." An area In a Irolldlng hJvlng a clearance less than human height.. or hurrIcanes... air. t.________________________~ [f l1ulkhe3d --. -. tsp....1r. nee dt his -B-- r.-. you --.~l__________~____s_ta_I~ ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_ts_s_to __ __ a_ce_"a_r_........ esp.. mezzanine A low or partial story Wtween two main : stories of a l1ulkllng. extenalng horizontally throughout a : bulkltng....... as cyclones.•.... y :'..ground floor : The floor of a Irolldlng at or neartstto ground level r k I ·"f fr--4. cyclone cellar A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms.. esp.---------~ . constftutlng one level In the strocture.. -•.. wholly or partly underground and usually l1e'neath a bulk/ing. a house. ". ".. areaway A sunken area affording access... In 8rltaln and elsewhere.. ur cha se boo kp ! .. -. and light to a !7asement door or wIndow.-... -. such a space I1elow the flrst floor tha t Is enclosed by foundation walls. _ f L -crawl space ...-.. for the storage of food. havIng a number of rooms and .BUILDING L .--. usually hav~ng dormer wIndows for lighting....floor A contlnuous supportIng surface .. . !rot accessll1le I1y crawhng. A usal7le living space withIn a sloping roof. --. one that projects i as a blcony and forms a composltion with the story I1eneath It.. or the like...

BUILDING
l.;" .... ,~~
~

..

(.~

~~~~~~~~------.----.--- ---~~~
...

~~

" ",,_,
• -'-,

"',:r

The front ofa ~ulk:llng orany of Its skies facl~ a pu~hc wtrj or space. esp. one dlsUngulshui by Its architectural

fro nUspiece
A prtnc!p31 fac3de. or a part or feature a facade. often t~ as a separate elerT'l!rTt of tl-.e des~n 3nd highlighted by

eatment.

""
", """""

,Ii

OrT1a~ntation.

ase

:-- pavilion ~ Acerrtr31 or fIa r.l:i:-..g ?ro}xt~ subl~lvIslon~~ : of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more elabor3t.e decon<;:cn or gre3W hel9ht a~.d

the

ori

~"~~~==:S

gin

""""

al

cop

""""""",.,'

y

1j

1

!

rch

distinction of ~~r,e.

IfII

pu

'=5e~~~~~f1~~~H I

sb

~~==~~~~~~

ook

~~~!:!..SI~Q.,.,&:!..Q,,~"l=f~A=1~n~1

.

!

nlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the size or lmp:lrtance of a ~Ildlng.

d

stcr"f A major ho"';.zontal archlt.ectur31
ofa n.ve..
dlvlslon.• 5 of 3 fac3de or the w.ii

u

pay
Ar'rJ of. 1\~mber of prlr.clpal dlvls\o(l5 of • wall roof. or other part of;; ~Ji1d1~ rnarl:~ off by vertical or tr;;nsve~ supports.
bll~r"f

ou n

eed

thi

if y

A ft'Ia]or horizontal dMslon of a w;; il havl~ no m.erlor windows.

I7lind
Descr\bi:'~;;

I
recess In awall havi~
~alccny

U

the appe4 r3 nee of a wlndow (PII r.d wlMcw) or Joer (Plln4 door). Inserted to c.omp~ a serles of wlnOows or r.o provide symme-try of
Je~n.

An eb7ted p13tfonn
projectl~ from the wall of a ~~ and enclosea by a ram~ Of' p3rapet.

l~
i

l=,I

==

fenestration
The design. proportioning. and alsposltlon of windows other exterior openings

II

t.w

I

:

ana

of a ~ulldlng.
I

L

nnnn
24

L

BUILDING

I l

r-

l
~~~
~

~
r = r-

~

~

. f==

I-

,~

~

I::::

\#lfJ A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;;;heJ by steps
$Oft1etl~ having a nxrf.
ofahou~.

:p6~1?:1

at the

An ~r appendage to a i1ulldlng. forml"4 Ii covered approach or vestlpule to a doorway.

r-~I1i£g,J Aporch having a roof supported by . columns. often leading ta the entrance of a
~ulldlng.

\

used 4IS a livI~rOOm.

ur

t~,;1. esp. a fully fuml:shd

cha

se

usualti pt1y enclosed. 25 by a raUir:g. often ~1"4 across the front and sldes of a ~. A!so.;erandab. i
0

~n

roof;J ~~d

the

supportIng an er:tJNture and usually one sIde of a roof structure.

ori

~

r

series Of re~u13."'Y spaced columns

IcnrWer/

gin

al
e
lf05te~tq

cop
.'.<
-/.~
:
I

y
-A prfvateorside entrance. as 011(: for peaestrians next ta a porte-cochere.
' " A porch roof proJdtlng over a driveway at the entrance ta a lnJlldlng and shelterjA!tfho~ gettlng In or out of

kp boo his

::~:;:.; r--- ---. - ----- -.- ,-_._._ ... _ .......... 2"fO~hert: •

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.~>;:

dt

ve.bIcles·;A1So calleatarrt.ue porch. f· ..~. . . .
1

fJ \L")
(#:;::::::r::::.:::::::~)

nee

I i

: ;

I

t~A An open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fl"Ol1 a hou~ or ~r
~ng. --.-------.--~

if

you

portal,

.

A doorway. ga):e. or entrance. esp. an ImposIng one emphasIzed by size and

stately archltp;tural treatment.

25

BUILDING

rotunda
A rC1Jnd. domed pullding. or a large and b~h clrcularspau In such a puJldlng. esp. or..! surmounted l'Ya dome.

,!' piloti _:._ ..i
1

I_L
arove

A wIng at right angles to the length of a pUllding. Also. ef.

wing
Apart of a buildIng projectl~ from a TId sul10rdlnate to auntral or main part. '

---- Any of a serIes of
columns supportIng a an open pulldl~ ground level

I

~

.>.

A ~..anqu"r ~Ji!dlng h3V!r-qlittle width ..., respect to its length hetqht. ~

3na

JI

~

II ~rge buildIng divided Into a numberof
~me a~rtments. offices. or shops.

cha

Ploc1:

se

the

A P-.lltalng or structure hIgh In proportlon to Its lateral dImensions. . ~ standing alone orformir.g part of a lo rgtr I7ulldlng.

atrium

Askiit. central court In a
buil.::li~~.

kp

h3v1~ a glass roof and surrc~ -Jed by sevml Stories of

ori

esp. a farge Interior one

gin

al

C
~"
, .

cop

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._entlrely surrounclea by walls or I7ulldlngs.

~~~a open to the sky and mostly or

·-'V
./ '

y

I

I~

ur

courtyard

galb'es.

A court adjacent to or wlthfn a building. esp. one enclosed on all four sIdes.

~~

~ccurt.

you

rUM no17i1e

_ ... -.................... -........... J

nee

dt

A cOOnnakd or arcaded space within the body of a ~ng !lut open to the air on one ~?ften at'an upper story overlooking an

his

-

................. .

L.fi "
atrium An open. skylit court around which a house or bultdlng Is ~ullt.

boo

patio
A courtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by low I1Ulldlngs. arcades. or walls. .

if

The prir.clpaf story of a large ~ulldlng. as a pal3ce or villa. wtth formal reception and din~ rooms. u5~1ly one fltqht a!love the
~floor.

D
i •

corU!e .. ---- .......... -- ..... --- ...... . A br~ or principal courtyard of an Italian

palma.

L y
patuza
A large. Imposing puplic ~JM'~ ~ priV3':.e residence. esp. In It31y'

L
i

L
I

26

e.ical force components In the primary aM gfl'J caPles.... suspension 17ridge A Imdge having a d..~~!~a~~~~~~~~.~ r it~ .JCture.. bound2rycable Acable for ~nchorlng a set of secondJr)' .. .. .. ~ ~ ~ r ... · ~. pm.ensloned by tles or compresslon struts to make the system more rlgk:l2nd reslst3nt to flutter. _ . This lia17i1ity can l7e reduced by Increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary ca17les to the ground with ~ .c....~ primary cable i r r I ' i f stayed structure. A suspension s~re having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvattlres. I C3ule-stayed structure A structure h3Vln~ vertical or Inclined masts from which cables extend to suppcrt horizontally spannIng members arranged irI a parallel or radial pattern. gin al Avertical or inclined compression rneml7er In a suspenslon or cable- One of the pretenslooed cables directly supportlng the load on 3 suspension structure.. uS1J311y having a cumture oppo$fte to tha t of the primary cables.. .. ~~ .. cop r y douule-curvature structure Asuspension structure composed of a field of crossed C41l>leS of different and often reverse curvatureS.-.-_..' single-curvature structure A suspension structure utlllzl~ a parallel series of ca17les to support surface-forming l7eams or pl3tes.' t I \.-.. Each set of caufes h3s a different natu:"31 ~rIod ofvlur3tlon. thus form log a selfdam~nln~ system that Is more resistant to flutter.I---------~'" ~. double-cable structure . ' . .... Incnning the mast enal:ks It to pIcl: up some of the hortzootal cal:>le thrust and reduces the foru In ~ guyca!rles. i ( i: ~ I if y r I I ou n eed r f [ f sb '-I ook pu rch ase i-----------. transve~guyca17les. I I 29 . ' ..r j ~ CABLE STRUCTURE r- t ! sU5penslo~ structure r i A structure of cal7ies suspended and prestressed !letween compression meml7ers to directly support applied loads. transferring the force to a ground foundation. A si~le-cul'V3ture structure Is susuptlule to flutter Induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind.--.... ------~- ~.I: suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends... component of thrust In a suspension or ~ cal:>le-stayed structure a n d .-=~~~ ~.. thi L .. - the ori secondary cable 011e of the pretensloned cables used for stal:rillzln a 5uspenslof'l5tructlire against flutter.. ~ v n~ . n .-. cables In a suspenslon S"" I I. supportlng the sum of ~ vert.

1 '.h . often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above. bcunar/ . ~.. or vault. Also called c. al his nee dt you if character.. USUoiily square or octagonal panels in . plafona . orv. pattern of recessed p:onel$. y jcoffer One of a number of recessed. (ElLING The overhead interior surface or Iini"4 of.. soffit.ult aOorred Mt.1curur. o cop gin boo kp ur cha se the ori !?eam ceiling The unac:rslde of a ftoor showing ~ supporting I1eams arid finished to form a ceiling.. room.i. ceiling. Aflat or vaulted ceiling of decorative l 30 .alsscn. A ceiling.

._"' .esp. A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of Peilms and cr05s1119 raftus or trelliswork. Also called quad.~n a pul7llc p!xe.e. r f [ L I iL uellis 3S a screen A fume supportlng apen latticework.I useJfora stroH orwall:.... L r 'luadrangfe --. as on college CJmpus.. _.. or unite ~radually by stages so as to I1lur identity or distinctions. wln~ and :_.....lS for pleasu~ or dlsp!ay... affordl~ shade and rest In a garden or pari::.merge To comlnr...' P .~ boo L An aro...-. usuar1y having a vaulted roof and lined with comrr. used or 3 support for growing vines or plants I... ..--.. y DO' 27 . or architectural feature of a 1lullJlng. pro~fUde J ur cha maR.3JiJ r p3 ttem of open spaces..----. '_ A shelta c... !knd. -._ folly A whimSical or extravagant Structure built to serve as a conversation piece. se 941 lleria Aspaclo!J5 promenade.ith trees....--. . his Jllee . or the work or art of such clipping. Al7ultdlng.. to a sPeGlfiG place or feature.3re or apen space In a city or town. '.--.often ornamental ~ulk:ling In a garden. ~" ~ .":. . ~ ~_ I . d flowers. the ori gin tapi3ry Clipped or trimmed Into ornamental arlO fantastic shapes.lllches or of nee dt French tern for a broad walk planteJ ". e.. lend Interest to a view. to points on the compass.I l _ r- BUILDING orientation The position of a ~uik:ling on a site In relation to true north.ll establishments.erci. gazebo i-_ Afreestanding roofed structure. or com memoratea person or event. (NU wHich cllml1lng plants are trained to grow. surrounded . i 3 L ] bWcewor1: Irrtmwlnea with cl1mln~ v1n_~~ . r t ... --. or to local conditions of sunlight.... Asmall. -.. .. front To face In a specific direction or look out upon..: cbim To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or possesstcn. if you ari?or _ . or Indoor ::::::::=====rrrr=n:=T' r==rr:n==:rr===r ~Ivedere I[J[ If afd0Rf-H ..-. kp al Asquar~ or 'tU3arangular space or court cop pergola . pavilion f L pL1Z3 A pul7llc 5qU.3ttice A Structure of crossulstrlps arranged to form a rt:. court. -..--.f shruPs and 17r. usually open on the sides.y 3 bui!d1119 Or llultdlngs. Qesi9ned and situated to look out upon 3 pleasing scene.".

.~~. Acaple alw-ays adapts Its sh3pe so that It 15 In pure tension under the action of an applled load.(ABLE STRUCTURE A structural system utilizing the caHe as the principal means of support..•.---.•.• .....1on...' . .---" . cap~ A flexIple structural meml1er. -..••• al cop j i y ! funicuL1r structure u concentrated loads....... the Inte....\~:--. -.•. --. """ ~ ~mbl u m~re. -.. .. As the 5Jg of 3 CJb{e incre35t:S...maJ forces dtvtloped in the uble dXrt3se. .J ". structure sha pea to ca rry or support a given loading Vi either axial tension or compression._-..•..'.. ... _..-... dt uniform cal7lesuspendeafreely from two polnt6 not In the same vertlcall1ne. ur C3P\elndlrectresponsetoa uniformly J"tStrIbuteaload.. as wire rope or ~'chaln. If the L:ndlng pattern ella nges... I i Ii ~ ! ! funicularslupe ...----.-.~·i~~:ki... -. --. ~thehOitz0nt3IC1)mponentsqfthe~/lIe "'" ~5tnJtS.....~-..' / \....• . For arry given loading condit.i. ~~"" ..-.' \\' ...•••. .. bendl~ Is iruJuud In the structure. -+-....~.. "" ------.~~~.o ~ In direct I'tSf'On5e to a set of ~. the cUrr'e approaches r. --..•.. / The wpe assumed Vi a freely cleformlng n-----------...•• ---...~·I~~·· ····-···1<'". "....".•.. se l\ \ .......m~'" his boo kp ~r... . gin C3P\e In direct to the magnitude ofresponse and location external forces..ed..... -. 8uttresses.here Is only ~ general funicular shape. ..• --•••• -..-. j The shape assumed Vi a fruly cleformlng ori funicular polygon· ._ . having high tensile strength / Put offering no resl~ nee to com presslon Or~g...~t '" /' the ...... resulting In no net lattral forces at the supports.-.. !...._" ....... if you nee I LJ thrusts.•../ ~ of a p3r...:iLl Ii 11- cha ~":~:::.. For a load that Is uniformly distrluutea In a ~I prqectlon..--.• -.-. 28 I I L A lens·shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch ualancea by the Inward pulls of a caple......•.....-' .... \".. i ! ~ f~-- ..• '" orsnbrelements are rtflufreJ ~ contJfn and ". ..-•....' ..' sag Theyert~31 distance from the supports to the lowest point of 3 cable structure..1rola ... /<~...-... •••.. .

els for diffUSing the light frc-r..l~ . or ~bss f1l>~._.. ·-~.... .\'..:==========:::::. one that serves as a recelvl"9 champerfor conditioned air to pe distributed to Inhapltecf spaces odor return air to pe conveyed pack to a central plant for processing...::::::::...g or auC1Jl!ori.•··.~ ~ Integrated ceiling A suspended ceiling system Incorporating ~~§~~ 1igh. ~ 'S. as corl mlnenf f1w. narrow dlffuserdeslgned to disperse air through slots l>etween the panels of an Integrated ceiling system...) ~::!'::':. usu.. ~ :...unified whole.~/ plenum / The space petween a suspenaea celilng and the floor structure apove..2._.T"1 ~:. - ~p!ine pu f 11I1i!!i.'i(r '.7.....:) .ea fau and contJlning a 5epante layer of sound· al1sortlng material r ori t exposed grid 1 A metal grid of Inverted tees supportin~ the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling .. usually a sheet· metal char. ber of the grid su pportlng a suspended ceiling system. 31 . :<. or to ~tter the proportions of a room. sound-a!?sorVlng m..: .. cop '~'g..ed above it..:Itertll... m3in rtJnnu A prlllClp31 memDer of the grid supportlng a suspendea ceinng system. A~ ~ ~ . : ..J! '10.o the eJges of an acoustlcal if y (j~r mebl uiling A suspended ce:1I"9 system of IIJrrow metal strips. ""'!j... £Qmponents.' ~ •.: ': =.±i~~b~ii:l:t::::::i::j~~!:::±~.._ .:':..~: ~ A ~ry cel~ formed to provlde space fer plpln..:.. Also. I j r r ~=========:::.. \ metal pan _.1 ~~! ~:'...:~..·. !umlnaires mount. :.f alr-l13ndling ...9 •..~slucent PJr.- . ":.1... kerf / ~rt1~qrid... dropp~ uili"i.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIWrr- rch A thin metalstr:p Inserted InCO the edges of two acoo s-ck:a I t.) ...... ..::.l·-~ ~./ ~ " lumino us ceiling c' A sus~nded ceiling of t~..' . Also called slot diffuser.. esp.. y Ametal grid for supporting a suspended celhng of acoustical tiles haVing rapl:>eted r I ---.. .. lighting fixtures. :' . .. hldcfen within kerfs cut Into the edges of the tiles.'e cut In c.a ..ile= to ma~ a l>uttJolrTt between them. r r 1 i al gin ... .:.... '...":'. CEILING dropceili~ suspended ceiling A ceill~ suspended from an overhead floor or roof structu re to provide space for pipes.\ An~stlcaltl~cons~ofasteelor aluminum p3n having a perforn. acoustical ceiling A cellln!! of acoustical tile or other sou nQ' apsorblng material.:~:ti::O::::::i+±::::::::::::::~z~:LZ!ti~ii::::.& linear diffunr ~ ~~ ~ ~.l ~ . louvered ceiling A suspended ceiling of multlceUular louvers for shle!dlng the nght sources mounted above ft. _--_. '<: p~ A long. :. :.~n.i 1 i ~'S. ductwork..1 J?~~' . .~: ..... ".. ~ pconccal&:J grid ~ ..: '. Agroo. .:. uS1J311y Incorpor.! i \ r r j accu5wltik Tl~ made In v.::...rious sius anJ textiJres from a soft.' .. or other service eqUIpment... .. ~~ ~'..ally a sheet·lretal tee carried by t~ main runn.' .II ou n eed thi sb ook tlle to rteelve a spline or T-shaped m~~r A metal grid suppOrting the acolJstl~1 tlles of 3 suspended ceiling. ase the ..crosstee A second3 ry me:...tl~ modular tlghtl/l4 and alr-nanJn"9 compone:nts....nel or tee suspended by ha"9er wires from the O'>'erhead structure...._ .:~':..Jnto.-& .~11<.ers.

~. I t li cu...body ) \ .: \\}~\.. as In tl'3nsparency..re..s p~ flred once put not glazed.. enamel A vitreous..~~A\~. kaolin the ori gin al cop A fine white clay used In the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement.\~\. .flred.....' "'.. fek:lspar... tile.. . and rl4tul'3lstone...~. opaque. . ': .. hardness. U I porcelain enamel An opaque...e Ingredients Intc\glazes or enamels. noncorrosive..\~. J I y temperWJ reo kp flri"i The process of hardening or glazing ceramic W. / ~!~~aymaterlalormlxturefrom ~..:":..... glass. as !nick.. or pottery. porcelain A hard... . translucent cel'3mlc material consisting essentially of Kaolln...(EMMIC Any of VArious hard. as In"!d:. ur ..... L' I I I 32 .. vitreous enamel.. vftreo~ nee ~". usually opaque.. . l1rlttleness.....fired Fired to harden a clay Poay. I by fusing at a high temperature. andpc«cy.i re by hating In • kiln to a speclfled vitrify To make a clay body vitreous Pyflrlng ata specifled temperature.... I1lsque· fired at a high temperature and glaze·flred atalowertemperature.. I or similar NttrI3ls In a kiln...atlon and having relatively low apsorptlon and high compressive strength..../ -----'. \ l~ I' t .....I.\~:' -. decoratlve or protective coating appl1ea Py fusk)n to the surface of metal...'".......~ it dt ~ / ·l1l~ue..i ... The structural portion of a ceramic ar--. Ared ~.•. stoneware Hlgh. _. ceramic bond " A thermochemical rond I1etwun I!13w.. and quartz... -: semlvftreous Having a rnodel'3te wattr al1sorptlon of shghtly under 61.. cha o - se -------. .~:~.. Also called W&allt.. .. luster.. high temperature to near Yltrtflr._. bi. 5Oft·l7umed _. vitrified cel'3mlc ware. ls '" resulting from exposure to tempetAt~ approaching the fusion point of the mtx-'".<t: his ..... opaque.. <- / boo D b lurd·hrnea _... \'" \. b if you 6· Earthenware or porcelain that h..\ue Reseml1llng glass. grassy coating ponded to ~~ . '-. / " . nonvitreous ceramic ware. and ~UGtlve II'I4ttrbls formed by the k?nlc rondng of a metal and 3 nonmetaf. A fused or partially fused material that ts ground to Introduce a solulile or unsta~. micware Arty ofnrlous products made by firing clay earthenware low·flred. nonvitreous Having a water al1sorptlon greater than 71. fired at a very high temperature..... Also called china clay. glaze-fired Fired ~ • low ttmperature and having relatively h~h 3Vsorptlon and low compressNe strength.lnittle. or having low or no porosity.. vitreous. Also wiled china A translucent ceramic material.

rch I ..::.• . ori gin the I.or lr.. glazed for surfacIng walls or unglaztd for use on roeh floors and walls. y ase I. which allows for murate slopes and planes In the finished won:. / glazed wall tHe Ceramic tHe h3ving a rfonvltreous Pody and a I1rtght.. Is apphed OVer' a portland cement mortar bea ¥It to 1Vzln. used for surfacin~ Interior walls and IIght·duty floors ... ~ndcorl 33 . ep<JY:i mortar. matte.. set process. 1 r-r-: r-\-: r-rr-r-: r-r- : I I I I I : I I J J I· • o_ qU3rrytile / ceramic mosaic tile Small ceramic tile haVing a porcelain or natural clay DodJr. cauntertops. t.:~~ . stable backIng with 3 thin coat of dlj'-set mortar. '132 to '/a In..lcl:-mcunted on sheets to fac~rtate handling and speed Installation.:! lar~er In surface area. and sometimes hydrated lime.. .L_LJ ! I I I i I j thlck-~et process A tllesettlng pr'OUSsln which ceramic tile thln-l7ed proce~ A tllesettlng process In which ceramic tlle Is bonded to a contInuous.~. (19 to:3a mm) thld:.~!!1li . water.. latexportland cement mortar. . used for levelIng or setting ceramic tlle In the thlc~· L t tile grout Acementltlous or resInous mIx for filling JoInts In ceramic tllewon:. portland cement mortar Afield mix of portland cement.~ f--+I-r1.:~.L. floors..8 to 32 mm) thld:. I.~>~ I! . sand. ---------r .. and usually face. or ceystalltne glaze. or an org3nlc adhesive....r- sb t if y ou n pu r.t-- al Unglazed Ur"3mlc floor tile having a I13tural cop cl4y body. (0.rl . ~. Alsa called promenade tile. ook - ~ eed thi .• IEt. ~~.-_..~!1!!~.CERAMIC / ceramic tile Any of varlcus fired clay tHes used for surfacIng walls.r- paver tile Unglazed ceramic floor tlle sImIlar In composition to ceramic mosaic tlkl M thicker an.~ .~ U A thIn coat of mortJrfor rondlng ceramic tIle to a L>ading.~'Nk~.t-- ana r.t-r-r. ..

. L 1 1 i ~ I . minimum variation In fau dimensions. ori gin ~s and ornaments. plse de terre. l j I " LeX l. esp. glneJ or unglazed terra ccu.~ -. plsay. ~ ~rJlterr~ n. reddlsh-prown In color whell unglaztJ. Also calleJ plse. FTX I Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and Interior masonry W3l1s and partitions where low aJ??9. sand or other aggr~ate. used In lnJitdlng walls ana ~s. . and narrow color range are desired. tl~ units. hand-molded or machine-extruded to or~ as.ra. used for architectural cop u I y .Infan.a1 clay tile A I-clIow tl~ of ftreJ clay having parallel cells or ceres.2 mm) or mo~ of stone.. and strict sanitation requlremen ts.(ERAMIC . ~- al A n..t.B l.rp1Io.. moisture problems.(. slight va~~f~~dlroenslaJJs~ mlnor_ 3efects In surface flnlsh .. used for facing walls ana partitions.a cer2m1c veneer-for wans or for ~ntatlon. terra cotta. structura Ifacing tile Structural clay tile having a glazed surface. or In exposecJ masonry where protected by a facing of 31n_ (76.!ng~ ~re ~~~a~ie.Mlctur.a sonry walls not exposed to frost xtbn.1~o. and water compressed ana dried within forms as II wall construction. and rammea~rth A stiff mixture of cf3y. ~Iy ustd In countrieS with if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the little .n ana stain resistance are required.adck'"'J Sun-dried urick made of clay and straw.o3d-~rlng structural cf3y tile sultal1le for IT13sonry waMs exposed to weathering or frS Structural facing tile suitable for e:xposecl exterior and InterIor masonry walls ana partitions where moderate absorption. cotta·.3 nd medlum color· frost u . ~ terr.o3J-~ring structural clay tile sult3l1le for m. --. prick.ln areas subject to heavy wear. potttry.. and where a high degree of mechanical perfection. fired cby. . or other mJsonry.rJ-~rned. .

The ~d w3~ of an 3trlum or cloister...-.. apSis.---..rlyChrlsti3n church. a semlci"cul3r ~ at the end... appropriated ta ~nftents..... Also cal~it'tal7~P5 The princlp31 or central part of a church... bakla'luln.--. rounded on the teachings A l?uiUling for public Christian worship. Pro~t....-.' -' • L.---.....-.. J ~h coIonnad~ nave lit I1y a cferestofy and coverea I1y a timbered gable n:lOf.... baldachino. 5Uristy A room In a church where the sacrea vessels vestments are kept. Also.. al longitudinal divisions of a church. ana I I L l prothesis . am1?on..-.. 35 . Also.t.. In the tradition of the Eas tern Church.-- t. usuafrj on the solIth side of the !Jenu.. / •.. Also. the sacrament celeUr... The partied \.I-CHURCH· Ch~nity The~. .. ..' t~ . ch..... of splritua I ~ner.... Also called ciporium. Also C3 lied vestry. kp exonarthex /' C ~'.... Also.. .~~{ A coverea walk or outer narthex ur An InMr narthex when two are present.. Alsa. ~ulkllng...~ b'~.nYC::of~tk • . I Tliefmurtof an early Christian church.: iconostas(./ ..-.Jrfy Chrlstlan or E... Is ce!eUr.() the transept of later cruciform churches. symronc if you nee font A Pasin.-. A transverse open space separating./ The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr of an ~stem churcn.. eson. exhedra. A large apslaal extension of the Interior volume of a church...... extending from the narthex to the choIr or chancel and uSU3llyflanl:ed by aIsles..fifJ·-.1efore the nave of an early Chrlstl3n or f\yz3rrt1ne church.jnct@ L.. /...lon on which Icons are 1 placed.Jtlon...... -.l¥..\ ~lU-~j ~~ij L L L !i~~-:. uSU311y vaulted and used esp. as Christ or a saint or angel. 3nJ ~tern Orthodox chu~ • r*'~f A se-ll1lclrcutar or polygonal projection of a P3SiJka ---:. .arthex ...'it .~ . Iconostas.. ~lcally palntea on a wood $(J rf.----- Theta~leln aChristian church upon which the Eucharist.lncluding the Catholic.ffrtiCOes:f church In which the princlp31 altarls placed..:a!1y on the north side of the bema. -----.. An e~Chri5tlan church.j--. usu.' Achapel In an E...j • 4 __ • i13.. ----... the -"1I7emJ' nave and U!e3pseofan e. a 113~3tIJ often other fea tu res..itea. ~~..... -·-. cha I • se baptl5ttry A partof a church or 3 sepa rate ~ In which I7aptlsm Is administered... _ ..e permanently placed (Ntr the altar In a church.!! Chrl5t's Last Supper.a ce 31Id Itself vener3 ted as De 1 ng sacred. : i ..ally of 5WIe.. I ~ ~....-----. Asac:ti-¥r~1y place... ori -I· __ l \1#~ ---~. u5l. " the j ! : ..i-.... gin piers. Iccn A represent3t1on of 3 sacred Christian Person.. --. -A scrun or partr. L ! euara . as that part of a ... rectangular ptan. Also.----.arackrtzea by a long...... \_. -...astern church...---. Elther Of two raised mnas from i'rhlchthe Gospels or Epistles wer~ read or ch3nted 1n 3n early Chrlstl3l1 church. --. --.--. I' ! of Jesa:sChrist... ...-.aste:m church... - ~nu . ~aptistfy.~ . I L I dbco nIcon A sacristy In an e. holding the water IISed In Va ptlSm. ~.-. -.. occuPYing a recess or apse In an e3r1y Christian church..astem Church where the Eucharistic e~ts are prepared.. ~asit~tor ~ rttU31 cleansing wIth water In the atrltJm of 3n early Christian basilica. H I dt his boo situated before an Inner narthex..... l-.-. ..... \' t.. separa~ from the nave by 3 rowofcolumns or y An omamet!1:41 caner.-----.rJ:5m A ~ntofinltbtlon Inta Christianity. as an atrtlln.. tMJ or four lower side aisles.. I I L -The bls~p's throne.... esp.. baldachin / ..... --. separating the bema from the nave of an E.llUrUd by a ceremonial immersion or "Ppl1c4t1on of W3ter. flanked or SumllJ nde& by.... of stene or marbl. develcpi"4ln1. cop isfe=-4 tI'. trivUMY .. and small semlca'cutar 3pse5 terminating the aIsles.itlr. at the sanctuary or east end of a church..

om the tr"aPe3ted archltectur~of "" Egyptian hypost~ hall or Greek Doric /:emple. i A serles of arches supporte« Oil plus or •. arches resting on 31tema~ supports ana overlapping In series where they CI"05S.---~. crossln~ the main axis at a ~ ht :lingle lletweenthe n3Ve and choir.. 15plr~--·-···· A tall.. stupty pitched roof. cbrr. composed of cofumns..••. se the boo :. used esp. his II roofea promenade.. . AI50 ailed arc3UIl'e.elike roof te\1~ating onTondOlffil sharp point. __ . a I1Iind one. usually enalng In a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other pupllc uulldlng. ~~tterY1 .ln 1(~r. Also. Also called InUrsecth!g arcade. usually one near put not attached to th~ rody of a lneepltj II tan oma menta I structure.. lJ A PuI17ous... _ A pier or pilaster projtctl"9 from a wan as a support for an arch or lintel. dt wall of a Pulldlng.. 36 I f ! ..~n?Upola ~y tower.1U Curved or arched hke a Pow: a t"~rm used In descr1P~ the arched orv3u 1i. one ~tendlng Inslae or outside . ... ana few windows. havl"i a tlmllerfrarne..lcture of 41 Romanesque church or Cothlc C3tnear3l:lis distlngulsht<. esp.-..::II~ OrtbAM'J{ church arch~ure to CIJoI..Iong the exterior 5~ve churchl L r I kp A anop\ed r~s for a ~ IIn3¥ or ICon..cJ st·l1. al cop p ~ I ori gin y f ur cha 6 t An Ina~noo5 ~ndlnavl3n church of the 12th ana 13th Unturies. arcuauo. pf4lnk walls. acutely tapering pY1'3mldal structure SUnTlountlng a steeple or tower...--..• __ ••. nee IIoft·t han. __ •. I7lindarcade A series of arc~s superimposed on 3 waH for decoration. I ! ~pjiu1c:'i-··--··-----·-·-·---·--------J A Pel! tower.1 r~pond ___ .. arcU.. I. a ~Iered. esp...-----...:. esp.... Ag2'11e1)' or upper level In a church or arcak ---. if you Interlacing arcade An arcade..••••. at the tenTIlnatlon of an arcade or coIonna~.._ ..••. "'itra~~ Th~ maJortklnSVer5e p3rtcf a cruciform church.

n arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard.--. OM with lin open mouth that serves 35 A spout arJ projects from a gutter to throw rainwaterciear of a ~uilJif\!..~..a the roof of an aisle..fL_. ----------------... one beneath the main floor of. t ~~~lycarvedftqureofa human or animal esp. ur Acfrcub. -.-------.-Wfr.. Also called cloister garth. Acourtya rd or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister.. #[.. separating the c ha ~al or choir from the nave of a meaie-. nee ~ . ~~~.ter A covered walk having . -. kp f I. slip. choir The part of a church occupied by the slnqers of a choir.. • '-"" ________ ··_4 chevet The rounded east end of a Gothic cathedral.._.'. • ---------- am~ulatory An aisle enCircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church. esp. and dae. Also.ct'~. esp.. : . often elevated aDove the nave and separated from It by a ralhng or screen . cop gin the ori se al . ~--"----T .. g3l1lee porch.cor.~ his t !:...~ or~ired by h3v1ng p~. rood ~un ~-- p""h chapel for penitents at the west end of sorne med1eval E.\ cha high 2tbr The main altar of a church.. usually located behirJ the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse.. usually a !?ufld1~g attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery. A chapel dedicated to the VIrgin Mary. 37 ._.----~~~.dow~ ..! pbce. meditation.-. . church.. ~7r~. i y -....------.. lGt. p~Pyury dt t if you I t r t f !tHe arches anJ ~ ana corresponding to the 5f3U Petween the V"3U ttir. -.31 church. I I ch4p'Ur hoU5t: lnJrl.. ----....~-. garth _ .lHURCH ~ crlnear21 f The principal church of a d~. -..i chancel The space al10ut the a!tar of a church for the clergy and choir.Jow.ent5 blIW onto Its surface or by Iuvlr~ V....l~stmylnachurch. usually part of the chanul lapyrinth ------ 1 ret roc hair A separate division behind the cholror high altar of a I3rge church.------. the tarJ surrourJl~ or beside a ~ral I .. The pl3ce where the chapter of OJ cathedral or monastery meets. esp. often etlborately adorned and ~~rlJ' $Urn1ounted by a rood. ~ . a large one set ... esp.lted ~ trn.pr. allure./ A m3zel~ pattern the pavtment of a mcll"C:V'''. or the rnemrers of a religious house or order. lady clupel ... f '..n9l1sh churches. + Oirove ~ entrance to the choir or chancel of a rreJ~vJI church.3S crucified. Also.. as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle..--------.-. i chapel \ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a chu rch for \ private prayer. or small ".~ ~.. usu311y of stained 913ss . .1rious ~1I1c oxldes fused Into It whik: lt1 J Il'1Often statL 'I boo . onektween the transept and chapter house X a cathedral. -.e center.. Also called deambul3tory. Also.. Including the apse and ambulatory.... ch4pter ".~..ffi~~~Jff.J±::i1t=:::ctt=:O alure A walk or passage.. .-chantry A chapel enclowed for the saying of Masses and prayers for the souls of thefounders or of persons named by them .. -----.s5'c..---"- ASCru::1. c~ the An enclosed place."--paradise An atrium or cloister Dc:skJe a church. ". An assembly of the mon(s In a monastery..----..:~ . rood --..- The part of a church reserved for the offici3tl~ clergy.• cloi.-.ery sym met rica I ataoot t}.-------7 i A crucrfb: symbolizlr14 the cross on which Christ .--------·----:·------------1' j An..'. contalnlny the l1ishop's throne called thl catf1eJra> : [ f L ~-... ... :---. ~win. cntJrGh.51ype A covered passage.religious services. ..

COLOR .. ,
A phenomenon of light and visu.al perctptlon that m.ay ~e described in turns of an indivldU.arS perctption of hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for objects, and hut, s.aturation, and In-ightness for light sources.
spectrum The distribution of energy emitted by 3 r3dlant source, arT3~ed In order of wavelengths, esp. the pand of colors
produced when sunlight Is refracted and dispersed Py a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green,plue,lndlga, and violet.

pale
Deslgnatir..g a color having h~h ~htnts5 and low sa';;Jratlon.

~rllli.ant

Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.

~;:-~;\,"

'r.~;:~t,'

.~f':

Munsell System A system for specifying colors arr.l nged Inf three orderly scales of uniform vlsual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed In 189817:7 Alpert H. MunselL Hue extends In a rotary dlrectlon about a central axis through a spectrum of flve major and five secondary hues. Value extends vertically direction from black at the ~ottom through a series of gr?ys to white at the top. Chroma extends r3dla fly from the central axis at which saturatIon Is zero, out to the strongest saturation attalnaple for edcn color's hue andV3lue.

II

11

I
~-

.... hue
One of the three dimensions of color. the
property of light Pywhlch the color of an apJect Is classlfled as pelng yellow, green, or blue, or an Intermedl3te /;>etween any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

rea,

d.ark

.J

.:IeepJ
Des~natlng a color having low lightness and strong saturation.

j s.aturation
I

al

cop

Dt5Ignatl~..g • color h.ivfng low i<qhtlless arJ law satura~n, and rtfIectlng~!:i a smafl fr3ctlon of i.-.ciknt tIght.

I
f •

I

One of the three dimensions of color. tne purity or vividness of a hue. Also called Inunsity.

y gin ori
I
r~

~ chroma

The degree Py which a color differs from a gray of the same l~htne'5S or lnightness, corresponding to saturation of the

perceived color.

,"---.
. :.

the

r~color

,LJ
~.

I

ligh~!S

~

ur

The perceived color of an oPJect, k ...mnlrled I1y the wavelengths of the light ~~ted from Its surface after selective a~tIon of otMr wavelengths of the lne~ light.

se

f' . "j
,:,~~ . . ~~::~

cha

l

~-------------- .~ :".~'.::-- value

'. 1

The dimension of color Py which an ol:>,Jut appears to rt&ct more or less of the Inck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white for surface colors and from plack to colorless for transpa rent volume colors.

J
I

kp

boo

gray SQle .... sc.1e of achrornatk;

if you

Thea~ofcerbln wavelengths of t..'e 5ght \tIc1dent on a coIore<I surbce. the retr..alnlng portion pelng ~ or

nee

~eJ~rption -:.

dt

colors h.ivfng several. usua~ ten, equal: graa..'"tlons ranging ~.., from ..mite to pl.1ck.

his

11-.
C'j.'y.;·'i,' :" ':j

~.t·t{'?1

The degree l1y which a color appears to reflect more or less of the Incident ~ht, corresponding to lightness of the perulved
color.

U

brightness
The dimenSion of a color which Is correia ted with luminance ana by which visual stimuli are ordered continuously from 'Iery dim to very plight. Pure white has the maxlmu m Prlghtness. and pure I1!acl: the mlnlmu m Lnightness.

!

u

!

j

yellow

transmitted..
~uVtractlve color

U

A cclor produced by mixing cyan. yeflow. 2nd rnagent.a pigments. each of which a~rbs cer'bln wavelengths. A Pa fa need mlxtu re of these coIora~ or su~e primaries theomlcally yields I1IacI: ~ !t2~ 2n wav~~~ <?f~Sl~ !Jg.1!:t.<-

~itNecolor

A color produced Py combining lights of ~,_ green, and Irlue wavelengths. These light or addltlve primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a ~ss or~!te light:

optIcal mixing
The merging of Juxt3posed dots or strokes of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ince to produce a hue cften more luminous than that avallaple from a premixed plg~nt.

L L
L
J

38

COLOR
color wheel A circular scale of the colors of the spectrum. showing complementary colors opposite each other, Also called color circle.
, \ .. r:Jlow _ -__ • / yellow-green'

L
L
I

f

w.rm
D~s~natlng a calor Inclined toward or dominated by red. orange. or yello::,?'

yeHow-O~3f1ge

,.~

--- / - - -----.- ---------

~~~m~;~~co!ors. as red. yellow. and
plue. r~arded as generating all other colors.

--- - -- ••. ~-.------- secondary color ---->f.i.-~--,_ .- ••
_'1

A color. as Ol"ange. green, or violet. produced by mixing two primary colors. tertiary color A color. as prown. produced by mlx!ng two secondary colors. or a secondary color with one of Its constituent primaries.

cool •. _._j

f

_

Des~natlng 3 GOOrlnclined toward or dominated by green.l7lue. or Violet.

L

advancing color • __ . ____ . __ .. __ A warm color that appears to move toward an obserter. giving an Illusion of space. rece.dingcplor •. _.. __ ._ ... __ •. _. A cool color that appears to move 3WTj from an o~er. gMng an ftluslan of space.
/~-----

comptementarycolor
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completl"9 or enha nclng each other.

al se the ori gin ur cha kp his boo dt nee if you
---~

cop
------~

y
/

r .analogous color ; One of two or three closely related colors

\~_ .... _. _. __ .. _._. ___ .-'- ___ .___ .______ ._______ 1on a color whee!.
coler scheme
An 3rra~ement or pattem of colors conceived of as forming an Integrated whole. , - - - - - - -.... triad A combination of three colors forming an equilateral trol19le on a color wheeL

r 'plit compleme~ry
: J. combination of onecolor and the pair of colors adJolnlng Its complementary calor on i \ ... __ • ______ • __________ • ____________ • _....l acolor wheel.

Lr

l

doul7lecompiementary
A comPlnatloo of two 3nalogous colors and their com p\ementary cokJrs on a color

wheel.

~-Ir

r

moncchroma~

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,

tint •.... _ •••. - - .•.. ". "'" ... - ... --~ A relatively I~ht value ofa colqr, produced by adding white to It.

: Having only one coler or exhlPltlng varying ___ ._._ .. _ ..... __ .. _____ .. __ .__ .___.. _____ J Intensities and values of a single hue.

i polychromrt.lc
r

Having or exhlpltlng avariety of colors.

cowr triJngle
A triangular dl~l4Im developed by Faber 6 n-en to describe the relationship between 3 pure h~. white. 3nd PUck, which comblM to y1etd second31) tints, tones, shades, and 9rays. All colors IUY be su\:1jectlvely ccnulved as a mixture of the PSJ'Chologlcal prlrrurles - red. yellow. green. and plueplus the achronutlc pair of white and blacK. shade A rela tlvely dark va lue of a color. produud by adding black to It.

tone
An Intermediate value of a color between a tint ana a shade.

L

• gray An achromatic color between white and black.

achromatic
Having no saturation ana therefore no hue. as white. plac!:. or gray.

39

COLUMN
A rigid. reL1tNely slender structural

memper designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the memper ends. pillar
An upright, relatively slender sh3ft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a buildIng support Or standing alone as a monument. post - ..... - .... ----- ............ . A stlff vertical support, esp. a wooden column In tlmberframlng.
I'

\7uckling The sudden lateral ortorslonallnstJbillty of a slender structl.Jral metnw induced;y the action of acompressive 1ouJ. Bucknng can occur well before the yield stress of U1e material Is reached. l7uckling load The axial load at which a column ~ins to deflect laterally ana becomes unst4ble.

cop gin
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Under; buct/ing Io~d. " cdumn C31lIICt gent:riiU the Int:enul forces ~ to
resto~ Its orlgln3llJr-.ar conJitIon. My

a-ushlng5tres5:f~=P/A

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kp

ur

cha

_____________ L__

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J, ifu rc.rt.Io n The critical point at which a column, carrying Its critical ~cl:llng load, may elther!?uckle or remaIn undeflected. The column Is therefore In a state of neutral equffi!?rium.

;ddltJonaJ loading f+'O!Jid C3U5e the c.?lvmn to kflect further untJ cdapse oca;rs In k.ntifll Most columns In p7ctJa art: ~ to both com~ and be:nJirI§ due to rnt;tIon in T1I3terlaI propcrtIe5.lnitJiII Cl'OIXtdr.zs In f3brlC3~ or sense eccentricity if 10M ;ppllatJon. ThIs benJln§ qfterr C3~ tile 3Ctu41 bucl:Ilng ItnJ to ~ slightly bwa- tIt.ln the critlC3/ budJlng to.1.

i~

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se
.

r·:······ .............. critic.al !nJckllng load

r"-· critical Duckling stress
"-.l"

.

dt

........;-.'":':.~

nee

his

,,:

The critical budllng load for a column divIded by the area of Its cross section.
..... '~:.:.::::...- f3ct()rofsafay

@IA

"-

..........

.... -.
"""-"""--

you

I

~----------+----+-- ~Iende~~ ratSo The ratio of the effective length of a column 5fIort",lumn to Its te.st radius of gyration. . •.••.••....• A thlcl: column su~ to failure Py crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The higher the sJenJemess mto. the Iowa-Is : F;illuN: occurs when the direct stress the crltJcilf5tres5 th;t 1+111 C3use INckllng. A • from <lit axial load exceeds the prlT1mj' objective In'the design of; cdumn 15 to compressive strength of the material redua Its slenJerne5s mto by minimizing Its ml!;it,.!e In the cross section. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the r;dlus of eccentnc load, however, can produce gyr7t1on of Its cross 5tCtIOfl. kndl~ and result In an uneven stress dlstrlMlon In the section.

i j

if

L. ... almbie buctfing stres::s:~?/7,~??JJ;~~~;~-~-;;-~-::L.
L 1f7\---.......... ~
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:

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The maxImum axlalloul th"t cart theorttlcalfy~app~toa column without causing It to buckle. The critical b-.rlllng Io3d for a column Is Jrwerseiy proportional t<> the 5qU3 re of Its effective length, ana directly proportIOruIl to the modulus of elasticity of the ~I and to the rncment of Inertia of the cro:ss sectlon . Also C3lled Euler ~ &cW.

boo

b

• {f;; r =y 1/A

radiu5cfgyrmon The radial dls14nce from any axis to a point <It which the mass oh ~ cculd ~ concentrated without altering the moment of lnertla of the body abcM th<lt axis. For a structural section, the raaJus of gyratlon Is equal to the 5qU3re I'OO't of the ~t of the moment of Inertia and the are4.

!-.............. --....................... ..
intermedlau cclumn
A column havIng a mode of failure between that of a short co/umn and a lOng column. often partly Inelastic by crushing and partly ei3stlc by buckling.

long column f. slender column subject to failure by
buckHng rather than Py crushing.

-.~

The higher the I1tilus of~ of3 stnJctural section, the ~ resJst.;nt the ~on 15 to buckling. ;, Jetennlnlng the cro5s-sectlon41sil;pe M" column, the objective 15 to provide the ~ry rUlus ~

gyr;tIon about tM dfffermt iIXes. For ;n _.. . ...... 35}mmetrlC31 cross sa;t.Jon, buclJlng w:11 Cend

to occur ;bout the ~ ;l1s or In the
dlrutlon ~ the 1e35t dimension.

40

J

!

.1e section.J 1 \ I ·1 f fixed fixed if you ~ I I J pinned fixtJ l I I i k=O./ : . t Apoint on either side of the untroldal axis ... : t I ··"'·ir= .. y . __ . ____ . ~nston\l. II II I I /1 11 11 rot.octlo. _ ...I. !..:f J..mount t>y which an axis deviates from a~er pml!el moment = load (P) x eccentricity (e) ~ : : • [~- I ...- ..: C boo kp c -l C\i II ur \ \ \ \ \ \ \ cha se the ~. A set of tensile ana compressive stresses resulting from the superpos1t!on ofaxlal and benalng stresses at a cross section of a structural metT1uer... ! 1 } L i .emPer dtfl.---.. t.The dlstance dlamaet' / 4 re-t~n ~ .~.( : ' : / / .~ . ___ I'· The uraclng of a column or other compression rr...g to Its end ccMtlons In order to determine Its of a 1of1~ effxtive Iengt!1.. : I . i'~ a horizontal sec':1o!1 of a cofumn or wall to prevent tensile stres~ from developing In ~ ... / .... gin ---..0 P&14 /1 I' effective length DcU:lr Acufflclent ~ modifying t~ actual ~ of a column acccrdlr.... equal to the product of the load and tr.: of of a calumn or wall within which the resufta~ of all compressive loads must P3SS If only compressive stresses are to be present In the section. column su17ject to l?uci:Ill14.ll'''' '"Y ho".! ..~---.es Its crttlc31 ~d!Jng load. ori Irtflectlon points In..d increases rts load-carT)ing capacity by 3 8ctor of 4.. acting In the same direction and equal it arry point to their 3lgel7ralc sum. the~~coIumnfJl1s.. 1·_·1 ~....l ~I: '--t- ! .. unl1racea length The distance uetween the points at which 3 structural memper Is!n-aud against uudling In a direction normal to Its length 41 .. __ . A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop In the section.... ~ k = 0.:'''tr..---. 'rV'~~ this port!oo of a column al 1• i effectlye ~gth r--@-.cides...~ rr.-T.../ kern point of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area. If) / his -l nee III 1-' I 1 I c:i dt " -oJ .ectlon at any point..• _. i' / .7 . i 1 k=I..~ ___ m~·thirc:l MJle ______ . .0 4- l=2... 1/ cop .. _ ~ An aJdltlol13l moment ~ In a stroctural mem~ as Its ~ltudll13l axis dev13tes from *~ nne of actlon of a compresslv~ fOf"'"~. ___ . Also called kern area. Fixing column reduces Its effe<:tN~ length t>y h.. .. '.emPer to reduce Its effective Iength.The effective kmgth of a column detennir. enas I I I I I I I I I I laurall7racing _ _.. \ 9---+ \I ~.5 p~)( .I ri COLUMN [~ eccentricity axis- = = ~ . ~ coml1i~c:l5tresses ~ -I I p·delta effect __ . - i ..... "~ The proposition th3t a compressiv~ load shc1Jta ~ locaW wlthln th~ middle third of .13teral uraclng Is most effective when the braCing pattern occurs In more than c~e plane..

4 to 0. Ahydraulic cement /I13de f....e Aportland cement having a reduced contelTtof trlc3lcium aluminate. as In y the constroctlon of brge piers ana ht4"7i T~1I1: or long... Ii · t. ."...1 Aportland cemelTt used for general construction. sb ~ ana responslUle for the Initial settl~ r:J die cement.• • ......~.0Q.. an ancient Roman tawn near Vesuvius..1nd cement AType l Type It or Type III portland ceme.-. pozzoIona.ly ~urnlng a mixture of clay and limestone In a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker Into a very fine powdef.. ~~.. causing It to cure mter and gain strength from low t. tYF11y 0. siliceous Containing sillc.empmtiJres...e to rnode~ sulfite action Is ~ulred or where heat l?ulk:lup can ~ damaging..." blended. lessening the need for gypsum...a. The term Is rnquently used Incorrectly forco~ M i i portland cement ------~ TyPe I: narm. .::...._ .. if y I?>wmzUrl..at of hydmlon than normal portbnd cement: used In.. e . makln~ It more resistant to su~ and causing It to ~ less ~ of hydl4itlon: usea In geMer.0 mrrT) In ~metcr.atiystrength ori I retaining walls. ¥JJlronore.. that reacts chemically with slaked lime In the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement./s""IfWI'JtopowJer m' ~. r I~ 4l r .tM\ g3ln in s~th of the U'II1erIt. . ·······t A~ WlStltutlng aDoift one: quarter of ~ volume of ~ nd cement ana rtSpOMSl\7Ie for the aging .il1 constructlon where reslstanr.rrt to which a sman qU3ntlty of an airentr..'/.. ou n eed ~..~ .l rch ?:~~::' ~. TyPe IV: low ht3t A portland cement having.. II 0 A.co.. Gypsum Is added to cflnk~ to air-entraining pcrtl. earlier than nonnal portland cement: uS&i when the early reI!1O'r'3/ of fonnworl: Is tksIrtd...~-" -.. mineral ~tts with sufficient water tc cause the cement to set ana pinel the entire ITI3SS..CONCRETE Art 2rtffici2lstcnelike building material nude l7y mixlrl~ cement ana various rutural cement A naturally occurring clayey nmesUlne which. 1 r 8urnlng In ~ rot~ ki1n chAnges r.1 to 1. gin ACO~constltutlng3rout half the voilr.. e. England..--.._. . . -« .:' suffix A.\:." . produces a hydraulic cement.. fly ash Flne particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of.. ...llnlng agent has ~een Intergrouna during manufacture: deslgnat.i' white portland cement Aportbnd cement produced from raw . sHlca R.~ ook tricJlcium . ~ . j .-.AiL .. -----1 hydraulic cement j i f ~ .lW mixture jlnto cemerrt dlnket-.• ___ . or In coId-~ther construction to redL'Ce the time ase J"glcwnuOic& •... 5hz/e. _ . catl$lll! it to genmte less ht-. ~ eo.or Type lilA.ly a reac'tlon with water. .les of the other types. Intentionally ~ In a concrete or .f-: .. ' mortar mix ~ an.9 Q It 0 .. Spherlc31 air lnI!1V!es. t. . where a large lnIildup In heat can ~ damaging. as Type IA. A calcJne. pcnuol3 na. . named after a natural cement frcm Pozzuoll..lumffUt.uired for protection al Cement capa~1e of settlng and hardening f._.a .. ... ! TyPe II: moQerrt. • • J..he h..-. IlLm \II G it. " :.. .. reduced content of triGalclum sltlc::ate. ...vIng an Incl"e35eJ content of trlc3lclum sl~.o «ive off volatile matter or to cause~ ~ reduction....e~t~ : ~. named for Its resem~lance to a limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland... . (0.\. -. clay. To hea~a SGPstance to a high temperatare M without melting or fusl/14 r.nln:g ag.nd an Increased content of d1calclum Silicate...x>rtland pu -.. A~ constituting arout onetenth of t¥ volume of .. A very-flnely ground portland cement n.--..... as gl?ilty dams.3w m2terla/s ccn5l~ of coml1inations of thi TyPe V: 5ulfate ~5ting Aportland cement having a reduced content of trlcalclum alumInate. pczzoL-in A sll1ceous material... stur. Also.. & .. ---? . . .ma t._ . h3v1n~ none of the distinguishing qualJt. 1 .. cop tnc. •... .e of pa1tind c:eme1Tt and ~for. 't~~~. . oyster-sheDs.a-----..•.ed Py the entrained air Microscopic.eria 15 low In Iron oxJae and mangan~ oxide. or oil silicate. rea... and tile grout..1 .04 In...... S3IIJ. Type IIA.-... 5uIbU actlon An expanslve rt3CtIon occurri/14 when the cement II13'trIx of concrete or ~r CO!T1eS In contact wtth sutf~ dissolved In grouna water or In soli..~I~T!ral.. ..rdenlng or early pin ill ~th of the cemelTt.he construction of massive ~ structures...... . a sulfate normally addea to cement to retard its setting t!lr~ used where reslst4nce to severe sulfate action Is ~ulred...lcium sirute ---. ../ ~ ~ne.. the su~stances that give concrete Its gl4iy color: uS&i In precast concrete work and In the 1T1J1:1~g of temzzo.. C/lnkerlsgroundlnto . Le. when calclnea and ftnely pulverized. as fly ash...e.d II'1lxtu re of clay ana I~ filely pulverized and used as an Ing~ In concrete and mortar. L<_ . ! ! i ."" port/3nd cement.3 sollcHuel furnace. clinker Qlcine Afused mass of Incomlnlstll7le /I13tttr resultIng from heating In a kiln or the InImlng of coal. .. It A. the l hlghe.

as sand and gravel. pearlite. exclusive of any abs~ Dy the aggregate and free of such h3rmfulsubstances as O1"~pnic materol cl3y.8 mm) sieve. Since agg~ate represents from 601 to 50% of the concrete volume. and be predominantly retained on a No.e 0. conc~ you m.c_JL&~. mortar. the portion of aggregate that 1'1111 pass through a 3/& In. The maximum size of coarse aggrC9ate In reinforced concrete Is IImtted by the size of the section ana the spacing of the reinforcing ~ars . or with a foaming agent or gas·formlng chemical that Infuses the mix with a homogeneous cellular structure.5 mm) sieve. Inert. and In larger amcu~~5. Graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids ana surround the particles. (9. lowering the water-cement rat~ In this manner generally results In Increased strength. .ose of the hardened product. cemertt p~5~ A mlxtlJre of cement and water forCC3~ setting. having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf (1. Improve resistance of the cured proa'_ct to the cracking Induced by free-tna 1'1 c)ldes or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals. weight.1 .'t}§O •• ~'* A_. concrete. 43 .: .ade wt?I ~regJte of low $p'X!& gr. spherical particles. as perlite.. o~ se acceleratcr An admixture that h3stens the sectlng and strength development of • concrete.. ur cha kp o retarder An admixture that slows the setting of a concrete. Also ea ileJ addrtlve.. superpla stlclur. Also ca lied perlite A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight. . particle-size distribution In which aggregate partlcles vary uniformly from fine to coarse wtthout a preponkrance of anyone size or group of sizes. (6. thereby facllitatil1~ the wettl"9 and penetratlng actlc" of the wate. 4 (4. . - dt his boo I~ htweiglrt CO ncrete structur41lllghtweigltt concrete expankd shale A stron~ lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of clay or shale. o water-reducing ~ent An admixture for reducing the amount I insu13tin9 concrete lightweight concrete h3vlng a unit weight of less than 60 pef (960 kg! m3) and low thermal conductlvtty. -- AggrC9ate having a partlcle-slze distribution ch3raGterized by uniform grading. . Also called expanded clay. (6. or aggrC9ate. W3Wfrt for drinking Is genenHy 3CCepta~1e. y o air-entraining agent An admixture that dlsperses entrained air In a concrete or mortar mix to Increase workabiltty. wormlike threads.4 (4. made with lightweight aggregate. srlt. or as the percentage by weight of the partlcles that range between speclfled sieve openings. . minerai materials. or plaster ~i. 200 (74~ sieve.3 r mix.8 mm) sieve.~"!~I .-·.. as expanded sn31e or slate.. added to a concre'". admixture Any suvstance other than cement. . expressed etther as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a speGlfled sieve opening..Mty and ~hlng less th3n nonTIJl ConcrC"'"~ Concrete II13de with strong lightweight aggr"e43te. or I1last-fumace slag having a particle size larger than 1f4In..400 Ko/ m3). • « •.• .4 mm): sptclf.( In order to allow more time for pl3c:ng and working the mix. exfolLrtion The sphttlng or swel/lng of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate wnen heated. and fru of clay.4 mm): speclf.(JlfJllf1I~d. its properties are Important to the strength.• ..362 to 1.mortar mix to alter tts properties or tr. tc produu lightweight Insulatln9 gin al cop uniform grading . and ~1nd1ng t:he~pm!cles ~1er!n a concrete or mortar agg~ate graded aggregate . particle-size distribution The range of particle sizes In a granular material. or aiding-In the emulsifying and dispersion of other aaattivesin eM mix.. ana organic matter which can prevent the cementlng matrix from binding the particles together. and fire· reslsta nce of the hardened cone rete.. ~ mixing W4ter The W3~r used In a concrete or rnortJr mix. almost entirely through a No. added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. coarse aggregate Aggregate consisting of crushed stone. or plaste:' r... '~. o surface-active agent An admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water to ~ concrete mix. 'r'r"3ter.: the ori Any of various hard. Also.. usee! as non structural lightweight aggregate and 3S loose·ftll thermal Insulation.-rx. Agg~te shoukI ~ hard. fix. vermiculite Mica expanded by heat Into very light. o coloring agent A pig ment or dye added to a cone re te mix to alter or control tts color. of mixing water requlred for the de sired workabmty of a concrete or m~. the portion of aggregate th3t Is retained on a No. Also called surfactant. gravel.840 k~1 m3) and compressive nee strength comparable to that of normal expanded 51a~ A strong lightweight aggregate oUtalned by the exfoliation of slate.. used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-flll thermal Insulation.(ONCRETE fine aggregate Aggregate consisting of sand haVing a particle size smaller than 1f41n. and salts. dimensionally stable. mortar. concrete.':~_. I r r if which !us a unit weight of about t:o pcf (2.

..y 4 g3/1on5 of W3ter per 53ck of cement ori gin o -------~-~--~I IJ 5 6 7 i ~Iump~~ . W compressive strength of concrete Is UTrerseIy propot1lo1ul to the ratio of water to ument: developeJ (.. cop The relative a!7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow....- se slump concrete or mortar can Pc: handle4. durability....".•... and 50 kg In COIl ntrles using the metric system.. and watertightness.. _ .te:st .. In the .21%··-.. tamped In a prescrll7ed manner.:.O'~·'... ~ mpre"lon test A test for ~lnlng the compressive s~ of aco~ "atch. using a hyd.. u5tcyUnder -.~".. used a top diameter 4 In..: .. and testlng conditions....cement ccfTtent The quantity of cement per unit volume cf cement NviI1g the required properties of worbl7lllty... A cynnder of concrete 6 In.......ut1c press to mc:asurethe maximum load 3test cylinder can support In axial compression ~ore fracturl~. An open·~nJncated cone of mm}hlgh.... concrete or mortar mix..::.. :. The watercement railieantrots the strength.. --... Wori::al7ihty depends partly on the water· 6 kp cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate In a mix.:. curing." .10 Canada. a Va5"tiameter Aconcrete or mort3r mix having a relatlvely high water content 3nd runny consisten0'.::( . 112 117. 16% . _---.. preferal7ly expressed ITy weight as adecimal fraction l7ut often stated In gallons of water per 94-117.....lgg~ate In a mix.... . Iso cal~J \139.. and the cone Is lifted.......... A compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure.rqu. duralnllty. preferably expressed In pounds per cubic yard put often st3ted In saus of cement per cubic yard of mix. water.:.~r m~E...• : :.. wet mix 51umpcone -_ . dura l7illty.: . usually measu red Uy the2!l!!TI p~~ for cone re:U and ITy the~ .. v nee dt if you dry mix A concrete or mortar mix containing little water or too moch ~g~ In relation to the other components and h3v1ng little or no slump. Also C4!1ed stHf mix.with sr. ...5117... . ~...1tlons. of a specimen after It has I7een placed In a slur!1p cone..... sack of cement. yIeld1~ a product that Is low In strength... .. .•.y DA Al7rams In 1919 from experiments at lewis Institute In Chlca~. "...... __ .. to maY a speclrnenor freshly mlxeJ concrtte for the slump test. :....~metal.. JIj:!. comp~ and finished.. strength. Ij 51%-5/% I Jj consis~rn. -A.. 87..~ . 1 . (152 mm) In diameter and 12 In. :.:.:. _...30% concrete. ~ : water air The ratio of mlxl"!! water to cement In a unit volume of concrete or mort3r mix..... boo A measure of the conslstency and wori::al7l1lty of freshly mixed concrete. usually ~ means of acore drill_ 1F~~-+------~~~~7-ccrete't j .ln Inches...fpr i.-. (~mm) high...water content The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix.. expressed 35 the vertical setthng.. cast from a representative batch and cured In a laPof'atoryor In the field under controlled cona. _.. Conslsttncy depends Ia rgely on the 11 I al y proportion of~nt pasteto.._--...1 workability the sack Ameasure of portland cement: 94 117. and ~te to p~concrete or mortar r-.... Aham'5law A ~w postulatl~ that.....' : ..t:~~l!X48ritaln... : : : J ...[ water-ce~entratio 7% -15%·· . preferably 1% -.tCONCRETi! mix~lgn The n10St economlcalselecUon and proportIOning of cement.<: ~:'...3% expressed In pounds per cubic yard but often stated In gallons per cubic ya rd of mix. .. placed In fOr1T1W9rk. The relatlve e35e with which freshly mixed I I lJ ur cha A mc-.. and W'~htness......t2J=:( In 203 mm) and mm}. his /plastJc mix Aconcrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and Is readily mokled. with given concrete /n4teri3ts. e •• " fine aggregate • 25% -.:. and watertightness of hardened . ......hod for determining the consistency and wortability of freshly mixed concrete ~ mea$lJ~ tke slump of a test speclmell...

usually of wooJ.. ... ....-....-'..... After stripping... A brau..serted through the form and threaded ontotheenasofan inner rod... -. A \o11g ltucin.-----.lr.:. for spacing and k~plng wall or footing forms apart..ilry structure ~ulreJ to support newly pl4ced concrete...l::nent. waler..---...3..-.ing various vertical members.._ • _____ .~. . clim~"ifurm A form that can ~ r31-sed vertically for succee. sped.. re~$eagent form ... Arty of Y. varety of slotted d.~~~~" ... form work The kmpor. I "'. \7raclng.. -. /" concrete rt a constructloo Joint. -. ori Aform tie ha. Also called In-east Boarding or sheeting of wood.-'" -..•.t one tlme... as ollar sillcoot......A ~n cgrorsupportlng top ~rs In a his flying form Alar¥ form that can be moved by 3 Cr3ne..: form tie A metal t!e for I:eep:ng wall forms from spreading underthefluicl pressure of newly pi3ced concrete. -. leaving a neatly finished depr"essloo In tM concrete surface to ~ filled or!rlt exposed.. pi3st1c...ovlces for tightening formwori: ana transferring the ur "~ ~~=~1~.terlJls. __ are ir.uo..... COI'.. 45 .. or for retaining earth at the edge of an emlr.. used In constructing the concre~ floors and roofs of multiStcry Duildings.lng wales. ran9er.. "'_" boo f01Ulnaform~tothew3les_ kp ITt3M ofccm~. -.-.. fa. The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete placed In a form . '-" -'-."?... as In formwori: or she--<>t piling.preventl~ the bonding of concretetc a surf3ce. Also called partlni awnpound...wale A horizontal timber or steel beam for relnfon:.-... A ~ chairforsupportlng and spacing rottom!r.: TraJernart for a ~nd of cyllndrlc3l column form • _______ • _____ •• __ . bulkhead ------. ... -.~ ~S:ll trul1C3tea cone of wood. -. lift ~.ePott strip gin : i ' . -. ... . ~ .... cop : i II ~I ru~tian 1====r=t1... -.:::~~!1· .. '. Including th~ forms and an necessary supportl~ members.d~ lifts of concrete during the constructlon of a multistory bulk/lng. slipform •. II spreader..! : :. A partltbl closJng the end of a form or pr~en~ the passage of newly place timper. ..trongmk Avertlc31 support for aligning and relnfon:.eyw"3'f ------. ~ II "--r""" ~'::~conslStir9 of waler rods which Ji i I plastlG attached to a form tie to sp2ce and spread w..-' !.--L __ ... -'. bolsur .... ~ snaptie i A form tie having notches or crimps which i: II allow its end5 to ~ snapped off below the y I' concrete surface after stripping of the forms. '~' .--.. Also called metT1rer ~ has~. the water rods are remcved while th~ Inner rod remains In the concrek. if you conc~beamorsb!7.. and hardware.... Sonawbe .spreader ... 'K. _ . i Ji~:~'~'~~"lli ' --T-' --.1!y selecttd to Impa rt a slTlOOth or p«erned finish to the ..-- -.. ---"'Mata-bl for Iln~ the Inside face of a form.. -.' .. nee high ciuir > .-. ' the A strip of wood or other material attached to the Inside face of a form to produce a groove In the surface of a concrete member.IrIous lI1.11 ~roove or chan nel fonnea Ia a coocrete fOOUng or ather '. A form th4t can be moved slowly and contlnuously as concrete Is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement Of" DuJtdlng.. ....rs in a concrete beam or slab.1I forms.. steel../A • se r:::~~~~~~-I~'~.' • ". or . . -.. Also called spacer....1ng cones at each end Insicle the forms which altow it to also serve as a I:. -. resln'lmpregna~d paper. Ii .. or ftberglass for ccntalning and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self·supportlng..CONCRETE form Uner --.. proMlng a stlffitack... \ s~r-resistlng conc~ key for newly placed yoke A cl4m~ device for keeping column fDm1s or the tops of wall forms from spre3di~ Ilf1kr the fluid pressure of newly pbce& concrete. ! i to al - cha form to Indicate the top of a ccncrete lift. • cfuir dt ~I A device fur supporting and holding steel reinfOfUllleTTt In proper posrtion before and duri~ the: pladng of concrete. . ... -. _... meta I...~ :'--": -.-. 'I . ~ ~......: ~ . Any of... concrete sur-fJu. : .

.. • 5tr..... ~'.. . J Ccncrete &eposItcd. :. Also called ~st-fn-sltu I ready-mixed concrete Concrete mixed at alr. ..: '~ : "'S. etther In a plastic state for depositing In place or for spraying.. An electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed ~ L L I concrete.Pateh plant and mIxed In a trud mIxer en route to a constructlon site.. ~ 0t1 • ilL 1:1 b.4. ! " . cured.• 0. . for snort distances at a construction site...::'i~3detIke tool. 4' 'padi~ ~ .. '0 -. "4 Consorldatlon of newly placed concrete!1y d I . ---.1>':110.-....lteh plant and then mixed more completely In a truck mixer en rouu to a construction sl~... '. orfrcm evervlmtlon after placement... concrete mixer A machine havl"!! a revolving drum.. --.. .ltch plant for delivery by an ~Itatortruck to a construction site.: ~ !. the repeated Insertions and with rawa s of '. often motor-drIven. ook chute An IncSned trough or tube for conveying free·fIowing materials to a lower level !1y pu rch nose t1 ase . . .: .C:ONCRETE ~st-jn-pbce concrete . 415 freshly mixed concrete. or Ina dry state wtth wak< aaaed at the nozzle from which It 15 sprayed.~ ::'''''. concrete... Concrete partially mfxea at a lr... -.°.ed.~ if y ou n t ~ ~:. ~. Also called shotcrete. :: ~_~. shrink-mixed concrete ..'. caused Dy settlement of solids within the mass. concr'eU.. ~ a separate water tank for mlxl"!! concrete en route to a construction site. and water. stl9regation The separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other I"!! red1ents of freshly mixed cone re-te . ill I! f':~ . ~uggy.. A· • .lrd aggregate flnes on the surface of new concrete.. I ori II ! the GuniU: A I~ntwelght concrete construction consIsting of a mixture of cement. agitator iruclc A truck eqUipped with a rotating drum to prevent 5egrt9t1on or loss of plasticity of the ready·mlxed concrete !icIng delivered to a construction site. resuftlrlg from excessive horlzont31 movement or free fall of the mix. •~"t.d air within newfy placed concrete and ensurinf close conbct of the concrete with fonn surfaces and eml1edded relnf~.·:/1". ..... . L I laitance A milky depOSit containing cement . •• "'l. -.------.:: •• 0.."'* transit-mixed concrete Concrete dry !latched at ....:. buggy A cart.1ln..4 ~ • ~ 0 -4'. consolwt1on The process of eIImlna~ voids other than entralne. often motor-driven.. I . .. 4. . I . ca used?j the !lleedlng of exuss mIxing water. truck mixer.. • transportlng heavy materials.~ ::. •./ time of haul The period from first contact Petwun mixing water and cement to completlon of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a. -. -.. ..-" ..A chute for co~lnlng and dlrectlri~ a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete SO 3S not to cause segr~tIon. •••0 .-~ . vibration ----.. 'l ...:r 1" •• \:~--!. ~.. pumped thro~h 3 and sprayed at high velocIty OV~ reinforcement until the desired thIdness Is reached.. . sa nd or crushed slag.~.~ • eed thi sb ~ravity.. .1 'V'"Q • • 0 . and water to produce gin al direct pl3cement The a'rsch3rglng-of freshly mixed concrete dIrectly Into a fann from a concrete mixer.~'.~.. free fait The descent of freshly mixed concrete Into a for:n ~t the aid of a drop chute.. or Improper flnishln1..j Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately hIgh·frequency oscillations of a vlprator.. ---.. cop .\.... : I ~'-:':: 0 ~~ : .. .._~'. drop chuu: . '..~ •• 1'1 -.. . . Also calleJ waUr' g. vi~rator Illuding The emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete.... ~.--.-'!r'" "--:J '-II .Jclcmiur Atruck eqUipped with a rotating drum and i I .. or crane l1ucl:et...~ Consolidation of newly placed concrete!1y the repe3ted Insertion's and Withdrawals of a rod. for y pneunutic placement The ddlvery of concrete... :/1.ttlfication The separation of an excessively wet or evervl!lrated concrete mix Into horizontal layers with Incre3slngly lighter material migrating toward the top..o. <l :... 9 ._ . or plaster by a pIpeline or hose to the point of placernerrt on 3 COMstnJct1on site.... ~ ~. and flnlshed In Its flnal position as part of a structure.. oVenYon:lng of the mix. for mixIng cement. . aggregate..: 4::·~· 4 -i.l~·t·~ :.-----.~ tn. 4 0" qf·:0 ...... . slurry...$ piau me nt : The process of deposltl~ and consolidatIng • fi-eshly mixed concrete In a form or In the • final position where It Is to harden. fonr.. 46 .

arlous fut-bWed hand tools for \..Pf. A deccr3tlve flnlsh produced ry sand!:T!astlng.'~&±.--------------.a fresh concrete surface .el-mounted. mortar.at A float havll1{1 a large.~~>~.-....'kl\ii) ill.1I':'I':I.lmmedlately after screealng.:'... _____ ----\ .-~'~1 - - crazing Numerous hairline cracks occurring In the surface of a newly ha rdened COllcrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage.:~. --. smoothing.. mortar.g screedlng and after any free water has evaporated.___ ~:%O'o"/. shrink3ge A reduction In volume of concrete prior to Its final set.--.' il·ill:I!::::!.---. or smoothing plaStlc material..a slllc."'3".-. won:lng. and then won:lng the mixture Into the surface with a float.aw A whe.. exposed agg~ finish y if you nee dt ~wirl finish A textured fini$-' given to a fresh plaster or ccr~rete surface by troweling with a clrcui3~. _ cha se kp the radlalarm5 that rot.-. "-' . concrete. or stucco surfau with a wood fl..q 3 fresh CO!1crete. The chlppl"9 or scaling of a hardened CC11crete or masonry surface caused ry freeze·thaw cycles or the applk.c:::~..-.. screed ----------------------------. smooth finish obtained 7j wor(l~ • fresh concrete or plaster surface /lith 3 steel trowel. --- trowdfinlsh· --------Adense. ----------.. serrated.aPle machine having steel trowels moun~ on vert1c41 shaft to smooth. castlng.. ''-I. flat blade attached to a long handle.. drying shrinkage A reduction In volume of concrete.--.. ana fasteners of a !?oard form.---. overlappi~ matlon.... as during the setting and curing of a concrete ml)(..1te about a • .-. peten brut Concrete left In Its natural state after formwork Is removed..h a substance combines chemlGally with water..on-carbiJe or diamond !n...hlng The process of leveling.----------------.:t. bu~hhammered gin .----. -. Spreadl"9.-0 ... when the concrete surface refleGts the texture..... .ll:" t i l "':.. compacting. ~pa!ling » lI To maintain ntwly plaua concrete or rnortJr at the required temperature and humidity fur the first seven days following placement. -. . l7ullflo. flc.~f~---<~ roondlngthe~sofafreshconcreteslaD 3Slt ~Ins to set. esp.:' architectural concrete Ex~ concrete won: requiring special care In the selection of materials. ------------ ---------------------..atlon of de'._. honeycom17 The assumption of ~ ~ld or hard state by phys1c41 or chemical ch~nge.. as concrete. al appJ:t!ng.. . p13s:er. ' .-. sand.. stucco.:':. or scrul7t:>lng a COllGrete surface after the Inrtl:al set In order to remove the outer layer of cement paste ana expose the aggregate..W... and ~ boo p7f'ement . as that occurring when cement Is mixtd rllth water.... float finish .--. placing. I. ~etting hydration The process In whk. ur . .j"\"'I.:l:dl'"I ..-. and a pyment on a fresh concrete surface follcwir. ori powertrowd ~ ... . or plaster caused by a loss of moisture. 1:lid:il!d!i1il/. his &et ~. ----. . Of' caused ry segregaUon during placement Dy insufficient consolidation.. 1 1.atlon The heat ~enerateJ by the process of hydr3tlon... dry-shake finish A colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement.3l/ng. and cop trowel -----. compact. c III:i:j! .---. or toothed face. :. pl3ster.i.!!i l::: 'i . --.' :11...>.:.1Je for cutting a control JOint In a hardened concrete SIaD. joints. 47 . . forming..-. A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothing a fresh concrete..'" r'i:· ~l:i ill!: ". mortar.:}:. 5GreeJ . .CONCRETE finl. ' :':T::I.... and tre3tlng a newly placed concrete surface to produce the desired texture and appe3r3nce.. or plaster surface. Also called 5(... jl.-A wooaen or metalstr3lghtedge drawn a over <I newly placed concrete sl3 b to bring it to proper level. . ---..cI"9 salts.. Arry of v. L_...lITPf.at ~-----..-. . l:[.·iil'i'i' "I'. --------... ! A striated flnlsh obtained by stroking a Dr~"'m or strff ttrJsh over a freshly troweled co~cr~.-.-... proom finish --. . rotary power saw eqUipped with.. finish Acoarse·textured finish o17talned by fr3cturlng a concrete or stone surface with a power·drlven hammer having a rectangular head with a colTIJgated. -----------. or glue due to a cure ---------..'1 .. and flnlshlng to acquire the desired appearance.. etching with an acid. or finishing to ensure satisfactory hyaratlon of the cementltious materials ana proper hardening.j'I.i.--Aflne'~ured flnlsh obtained by smoothir. p\asw. caused by hydration of the cement paste. hut of hydr. l~~'-':{'.e surface. I £JDDDDCJO- ! i Vvlas on a formed concrete surface.: A port.. j 1 II'" "I : :11·illlll:I·!!..---.~--- dar+J A long wooden or metalstraightedqe for smoothing .---------------- A firmly esta!7lished grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making 3 true \eve/surface on a newly placed concrete slab. "..

xt's f'/--c!lent and pa~ to the ownerarch~t agrmnent. :.-.J1e. -. --..g the ~al right or title to a piece of ~ ~..J ______________________ I consultant I Aperson or organlutlon hIred to I . Of or pertaInIng to an amngement under which a person or organlutlon contracts dIrectly with an owner to design constnJGt a ~lldIng or project. or l1usiness - ~---------.ni:. -1 ownu A person orarg:anlutlon twlr. Including the won: performed I7y su l>contractors. . . -.-..J. -.. the ori II I ur cha n I se 1 kp \ boo dt \ \ )' \~~U~ --~-- I \ U his / you ~ t I nee b if design-l1uiIJ I I I I I r I _________ IL _________ . Iii T I : I I r~p~--~---------l 1 Apersooor0f9nlz2t1onM I I I r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l rtgJrdlng a speclflc aspect of a : p~Ject. I) ~Ion project.t architect Aperson who engages In the profession of architecture.. I j: 1 Inves~ In and develops the I I contractor Aperson or arga nlz2tlon that contracts to provlde the materials H and perform the wort for a construction project at a speclfled time and rate. I L. professlo!1311y enga~ed In any of various ~ranches of engineering. gin al cop ~-tefm fI~I~. life. The art. '---t lib co ntracto r A person ororganlutlon that ! Insurance The Insurl~ of property.. bonded H3v1ng a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that ail o~llgatlons set forth In a contract are fulfllled... I .---. Architect ana Subcontractor Subcontractor Subcontractor I ~ A ~ ororganlz3tlon that : kv~ and constructs Dui!di~gs : I ____________________ for suPsequent S31e or lease... or e!e. .enttalltles of real esta~ esp..J 10 or res. providing the I by Wtlatlng ana Implementl~ t pot. as structural mechanIcal. award. usually a ccmll"erclal !1. usually trained and experienced in the desIgn and construction of vulldlngs. I I . --. registered. I ~~ projectsfaroWMership.-..-~---. as acoustics or IIghtlng.CONSTRUCTION ofbu~ai~.--.--.ctrlcal engineerIng. l . JI L I speculnwe ~ui1kr I turn-leey Of or pertaining to an amngement under which a person or organlz3tlon designs and constructs a lnJlldlng for sale or lease when ready for occupancy.-. or one's person against loss or harm arising In speclf\ed contlngencles In consIderation of a payment proportionate to the rlsI:: Involved...--~ .!I general contraGtor A person or organization that contracts directly with an owner to manage ana supervIse a construction project.. . and construction phases of the project.----. 48 . : I : contracts wfth a general contractor to provide a portion of the won: on a constructIon project. from evaluatIng the constructlon cost and feasl~lity of design decisions to managing the ~ng.. or e~ineer ~ . Also.ma~ent.--------------------1 I : . _________________ . ! H Aperson traIned.----.----. for a y ! construction manager A person ororganlut\ol1 that contracts with anowner to advise on and coordinate all pha~ of a ltuik:ll~ prqect. Iendil19 institution T~ institution.Il5~thearchlt. r--------:.. science.------ Iicen5ea L~allycerUflecl bya governmental or other constItuted authority to engage In a !rosIness or professIon.. skilled.--.

. . ~ falsework The tempora ry fra mewon: for supporting a structure under construction that Is not yet capable of supporting ttseff.....lssued Uy the local.e compt:Utlve process of offering boo tv ccntnct A ~ally enforuable agtUment.......... between ~ or more parties to do or not to do something specified.. the relative significance of each event.. gin I I al conalJCf'... government agency havlngJurisdlGtion after p!... and managing a project.. Also called staging....J 49 .... you buildi"9 offICial A person designated Uy a governmental authorlty to adm Inlster ancl enforce the provisions of a building code...) Of or pertaining to project scheduling In if l7uilding permit A written author!zatlan to p.. kp notice to procee. A written communication Issued Uy an owner authorizing 3 contractor to proceed with the won: and establ1shlng the date of commencement of the work... --..CONSTRUCTION The process of pUilding.......lwlngs and speciflcatlons.. j .. dt L~I nee award A fOnTl3l auevtance of a Did or a negotla ted prof1QS.......ulldl~ official certffylng that all or a designated portion of a building compiles wtth the provisions of the bUilding co~.. . ........••. Occupancy· .1swility study ur cha ........J I: Construction phase 2 6c=---------.......... assembly.. a construction or complete the uppermost course In a masonry wall .._----... :..-oceeJ wtth construction of a building project In accordance with approved clr..•.. scheduling.. +..~.. certificate ofoccupanq A c:Iocument Issued Uy a j. ....... I I I L. which the design and construction phases : : : : J I I Ar-------::---""'T I _ _ _ _ _ _ _---' ' : COnstructlonphase4U ./ ~I CPM Critical Path Method....•...... ""-" ........ ofa~ltdlngprojectoverlaptocompre5s the total time required for completion... combining all relevant Information Into a flow chart. scaffold A temporary structure or platform for supporting workers and materials at a height aDove the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building.... se the ori technical or other advIsaDllity of a proposed construction project....-. usually In written form...l To construct boy the raising.... Including the optimum sequence and duration of activities.........:ns have been flied and reviewed.ll his perform the wan: described In .. and permltUng occupancy for Its designated ~.. positioning.. ~ .. A detailed InvestIgAtion and analysis I~I erect cop y i1iddin9 l"l....1 contract for a specH'ied sum... a method for punnIng.........-.----_...... . fe.... Design ~ Q ~ ~ ~ fast-track .... and the coordination required for timely completion cf the prOject Constr~tion phase 3 OC--========_________.. from site preparation through erection....•••...........•... and fastening of materials or parts. j .. I I Construction phase 1 0 I'--________.• -~ .i> .. and finishing operations..............•. top out To Install the highest structural member In .... . p05U1ccupancy tnluation The process of d~noslng the technical..... functional and I1ehavlonl aspects of a completed l7ultdlng In or~er to accumulate Informatlon for tuwre programming and design activities...........ea to determine theflnanclal..._.... fittlng together...

r:. --- . L f I ... Oivision 1 Otl'f51on2 OIrlslon 3 OIrlsJon4 OirlsJotl5 Oirlslon G Olvlslon 7 OIrislOf'l~ lj I y facings gl~ to lum!ler stringers.am~ construction. / Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of rebUvei)' ~ mterial ent.erchange.... are raised Into position Vy hydraullc Jacks. or processes without prOVision for substitution. Including all addenda. flllng of technical data and product literature. . or WAil Dendlng.uirement5 ~ 1j i gin al ~ ~ry ori 1i the Met. work to ~e pbced ul'lJer contract.ln standardized units or components for qUid assem171y and erection.. r0 fabricate or manufacture 17eforehand. wall.beams with the plywood resisting ~~ all of the M1dlng stresses. orfunalon. esp..-Arty In a ~ of standard1zea. The plywood bclngs and stringers act as a ~rb of 1..atlon to Indicate the properties desired In <I ~terlal or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products...(ONSTRUcnON The manner in whIch IUterials are ordered.-. standards.:iwich p~ ./ Req.oor.ysttm.. Cornbtl~ the dimensions of a structure and PIe unit sizes ~ Its cocnponents. construction documents The ccnstructlon drawings and speciflcatlons setting forth In detail the I't<\uirements for the constroctlonof a project... i cop ccnc. trade. frequently \nt. 3S fr. panel Ii ! I .ll7riciW sectlon ~ a floor. t proprietary 'pecification A specification that stlpul3tes the use of specific products. -. organized Into 16 divisions l7ased on an Interrelationship of materiJl. ~rally re5lIltlng In a high stlffness-toweight ratio.. modifications.. lift-. 5y-s-U~ nee . roof.lct. .IbJect to ~. Pui1di~ A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a high d~ree of pref.. -. then tilting them up Into their flnal position. cein"40 or roof. Gene. . ~Y. if you {)(rlsJon 15 1kcJunJaf Otrislon 16 Bec-tnc41 perlormanu 'pecification A speclflcatlon that Stipulates how a particular component or system must perform without gMng the means to be employed to achieve the results.edto support the edges of the skin and to Idp distribute memw I..l!nic4tlon In t1Ie nunufacture of standardlztd units or components to speed a-s~m171y and /:rectlon of alnJlldlng.5ed-5kin pand -----~~:::::. ---.. . orvarie module --.. 'peciflCaticn.lncludlng the ownercontractor agreement.il~ components used In ass. wnen cured. quality of execution of the ... U D/rI5lon 11 Oil'f5ion 12 D/risJon 13 EqUipment Furnishings dt his 5ped31 ConstroctJon Ccrweyfn. ..t ground b-ef and._.r~n Doors & Windows Finishes kp Otl'f51on9 Oirls/on 10 Speci3/tJes ". Also called Industrialized Puitding. .. systems. 3M united into J whole. and the construction drawings and s~iflcatlons for the proJect.mng al'lJ design at! ~1Zing prefa lnic3teJ Il"()(lyles or rroaubrcoordlnatlon for ea~ of ~ flexJbleam"¥f11ent. prefal1ricm fabricate r0 construct l7y assembling diverse and usually standardized parts. A pref.. ana ana L . --. Cross l7r3c~ rruy ~pUc.I documents comprising a construction contr. or function... Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ uniform ~y~um Afo/'lT13t developed Py the Constructlon Specifications Institute for coordinating spectficatlons. used as $\. and any ather Items stipulated as being specifically Included. The partof the contract documents consisting of a ~11ed description of the technical nature of the materl4ls. .-.. assemlkd. conditions of the contr3ct.. ----. " . ! l~ 50 .tff~ size..Llb co~ion A technlq~ of constr~lng multiStory !7ulldings In . {)(YisJon 14 modularcooraiutiYn _.n.e:n~ untts of.. and const<uction cost acccuntlng.. I: j I ana we. reference ~pecification A specification that refers to a st<lndard spectfic. ur modul. tilt-up construction A method ofcastlng relnforua concrete --wall panels on site In a horizontal position.\osed Petween two sheru ~ a h~h-st~ material. ... contract documents The Ieq. . Also called Masterionnat.d loads... ~ with ~ alJ of a planning grid l7ased on a +Jnch or1OO-lI'II1cu~1 module. h4nkJ as a single unit In the assem~ and erectlon of a pullding.n cha b I se ~U:Se.. boo f'lwr..1s Wooa' & P135tJcs ThmTLl/ & Moisture ProUctJ:. c:f~rjptlve 'pe-cification ~ I A spectftcatlon that Stipulates the ex3ct qU3ntltles quahtles of rroterlals to be how they are to De asseml>led fumlshed In a construction.. L • I.mich aA horizontal stabs are C3St . .=:-.entrne.

_ . construction Noncombustible construction having a structure ana major components with fire· resistance ratings at ieastequal to those speclfled by the appropriate authorities. type of co nstrllCt 100. .ny 2nc ilia ry faeilities. Interior Pearlng walls. J:Id use of Dulkllng s. his AIl ~ of Con¥ess that Decame 13w In cha se ~ V)'-ti mlrer co nstructio n A CO!1structlon type havl~ noncombustible e-.~a prlncip2llnstrument In the Im~ of a master plan..U. specifications for s~anJfirtszfety. ON construction type A classtflcatlon of a lrul!dln~'s construction accordln~ to the ftre resistance of Its major components: structural frame.sforalll7ulidlngs except sl~mlly residences to ensure their ~Ilty by the physlC311y J1s. and enclosures of ftre exits and vertical shafts. -. ordinary construction A CO!1structlon type having noncombustible roenor walls and an Interior structure wholly or partly of light wood framln~. and walls.. and various tecJrnJca/ societies and trade 3550cbtlons. estaDlisllln~ design stand3rds and reqt. : ' nwdefcc&e A 17u~ cod!: developeJ I1y an organlutlon of states.ab!ed.by Dulld1~ In a 'InY or for a purpose normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance.:Ang coJethat sets minimum sbndards for energy conservation and ur An orcllgnce regulaUn~ the dMslon of 13 nd llTto zones.l .. comuustible construction Any construction th3t aoes not fuffill the requirements for noncombustible constrJctlan.. unprotected noncomuustiule construction Nancombusti17le construction havln~ no f1re·reslstance requirements except far f1re walls and enclosures offtre exits and ) . and other ~!mftents Wstd on the trpe 0 f const:ructJon ad the occupancy 0 f a budJ~oftm rsIng st3nJards ~blisheJ by the klerbI Socletyfqr T~ and M~ (AS1M).--~ Ordln2rj' construction h. (BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the n~US. esp. hea~ ..emnent~ncyto protect the pu17llc mety.nd published by the 6u11dl~Offlclals and Code Administrators Intematlon31. . . and used primarily In the ~heastern u. professlona I socletSes.wlng a structure and major components with ftre-reslstance ratings at !east e<tual to those specified by tM appropriate authorities.wlng no fireresistance requirements for the Interior structure except for fire wa lls and er./ ~ui1dmg code A code regubtln~ the design.lnc.1 AbuilJ~ UJJe generally ~5t3b1ishes mfrrirrtUlf stmbrds for materials and methcJs ofCMStroction. they all limit the area and height of a 17ullJ1n~ according to construction.:terior walls and an Interior structure of tlmPers. kp A lrull. Standard 5ut1ding Code A!ruMng caJe developeJ and published bytheSouthem Building Code Corrfereru (s6cc). and tr.. exterior Pearlng and nonrearlng walls.'ltel1ent. 2S to restrict the height.nd welfare. Also called zonln§ co. if you zoning ordinance nee dt . r.lae associations for adoytlCC'll1y local communities. constructlon..~ light wood frame construction having a structure and m3Jorcomponents with flreresistance raUn~ at least equal to those speclfted I1y the appropriate au. and the prorisIcn of.. noncmrfONR~ I light wood frame construction Aconstruction type having a framework of wood rnert1!1ers not meeting the requirements for he3vy-timi:>er constructlon... or occupancy or use no t comp~ with the requirements set forth il'l a l7uKdlnq code. ener~code 6~ OffIcbIs (ICSO~ and use. r ) no ncc mbustiUle construction Construction haVing a structure of steel concrete or masonrj'. ~ BOCA N.'.d Ordlnarj' construction h. While each of the model codes differs In the detailed requirements for each construction type. roofs. . the ori unpl'Otected ordinary construction gin al cop y I ~..-~ t.. ~ and enforced by a local go.closures offlre exits ana vertIcal shafts.~. ~ American Ni1tIonal St3nJzJs ~ (ANSI).thorlt~S.: .. .In t&ecentr. Unifonn Buiidi"9 Code A Iru~ coJedeveloped and published by the lIrte~al Conference of prlmrt. Also called mill construction. V41rUllCe unprotected 1i9ht wood frame construction LIght wood frame construction having no flre'reslstance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts. ~n' 'With D~auilitie-s Act boo f l-I -r the ercgy-efficlent design of Dulldlngs. as pari. - Of or pertaln~ to a material. Also called construction cl3ss. protected light wood frame \ construction .rl and western us.lIOflg property owners s~ the use to which a property can l7e put: raGbl and religious restrictions are legally unenforceable. ..lllyfo~n by rt:9ulatlons. floors and a roof of noncom17ustl17!e materials..rtiottal Building Code A l7uI\dlng coJedeveloped . 00. .alteratlon •• nd repair of l>u~. type and Intended occupancy.s. protected noncombustIble CONSTRUCT. floors and cellin~s. l?ul. protected ordinary construction -'" .. r~ecoven.. : .. r \ 51 . 1992...1 ! An offlctll pemt to do somethlnq nornt.nt A CO'r'eItInt IriUI a cl3use that restricts the ~ of Wi party to It..nd decking of specified minimum sizes. as an agreement..

. Characterized or produced by remmi cf. '''~\~:%~~~:\l'.. ... 5ulrtractive ~ ....~rg.-" ... t addi1::i~e I A metf1CJOflhanr. cofors. .. and Pul... While form wsU311y refers to the principle that gives uni~y to 3 whole... apart from its. resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectilinear or cu~r dements of geometry. " ~. y -----/-+ [!] ~[RJ syntPo.... . ~nvenUof13! \ ~~f!1f::d you A unified compostlon of two-dimensional w~ht.pparent texture of... distinct..#Iine /' \ L_'~_-->.~-'t-_ _ _ _ ----JI I..er of jointing that mJtes the united parts cIQr.. one 1:hat ftls or sffi the Impression of 7. ~ cha AIso. The phY$lc3l dlmenslonal structure of a surface.. The edge or wntdllr of a shape.shape' The outline or surface conflgurauon of • partlcularform or figure. Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms having nee their Intrinsic lines.DESIGN The cre3tWn and organization of formal elements in a won: of art ... resemPbnce..... ··... .~~naI... .. and relatlonshlp to one another.....g a meaning and used In puce of a word or . and often Inclllks a sense of :rt355 or volume... \ . . and pr~ise In relation to e3Ch other.. i tactile texture .. ·· .-.'GJ">. or uniting.h appear to gin :. . flgu:-t h3v!r.... The visual and esp. --..J Characterized or produced by addtUOn.I fOriit-i The ~pe and structure of something as dlstlngulsWfrom Its Silbstaru or materl3l . accumulation... I' ~~~~ I Something th3t st.. dcnsfty.a nds for or represents sornethlr. esp..··:..... .. derivl~ Its meaning chiefly from the structure In which ltappe3rs.. color or form. . boo kp Of or perblnlng to shapes and forms which i~j~ ur ~ . ..... resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or animals.. artJcubtio n shapes or Rtru-dlrnenslonal volumes.. apart from Its color or form. surface resulting from the comuinatloo and interrelation of colors and tonal values. '7 visual ttXture ....' . tactile '\uallty of a surface. 52 .. ~se of the whole.. -.~ Of or pertaining to shapes and forms not ~ng natural or actual oujects. '?a~··-·'"·''''·'·'''·'''''''·''''''''''''' ~--------------------~ se !~.:' / f~~~~~~:~ "'---. ~~~ al cop The.."~\~'\I '~....> ~! the ori Oforpertalnlrlg to shapes and forms having 1~l3r contcurs wflic..--:. ... . !textiirt " . often resuftinq in a new Identity. '-'..g e~ Dy 3ssoclatlon. ':1~0::j~{.. cc-.... @ \ . ·_ ......h some emphasis onttle ellclased are3 ~ mass. or ~n. shape suggests an outnne w. .. ~ solely on dt an Intellectual and affective content --+X • • his if ~----..' ..ph~se to exprtss 3 complex notion... -.. part or portion without destroying . ...

~DESIGN form: The manner of arm-.ent.II al cop ~I y . eXf-'ins.I cruracterlstlc arran~ement and considered as a unit.wm : . the ----------------------~ j tature ori i . represented b] a dlagram. boo kp ur .S In a complex system as dominated ~ tee general eha raeter of the whole. minute. if you pattern ' An ~rtlstlc or decorative design.~rBrl. .. of whkh an Ide3 can be given by a fragrr.fr~t e Jlrrang n~ parts Or eIe me'lts fr. f4l>Mc . or subordinate p3rt of ~ whole. nee dt his diagr. cha s!up~. cne h<lYing ..3in~ and coorana tlng the parts of a compcsition 50 3S as kJ produce a coherent im~e. nat neceS5.o VI proper proportion or relation 50 as t. esp. I I -\ a' the parts. ~rranqement. orga~~tiorJ 1l1i system3tlc arranqing of Interdependent or coordinated parts Into a coherent unity or functioning who~ ~i An InaiV1dual.11 • Th~a-.J form a unified whole.'lrlly represent3tlol13l. A drawl~. I( III l1li •• II • gin " ". COrn' .iffikJn of e~ments or p3-. and prcportlons se The c~ractaistlc structure given to .a surfJCe or 5u~tance ~ the stze.. structure < 01 :parti: :j The lias1c scheme Or ccncept for an architectural design. . 'L_____ _ ___________ _ 53 . or cl3rtftes the arrangement and relatlci1s of the pa rts of a whole.:.:g3. that outlines.

. [>f _ . -. ~e. unity' The state or quanty of Peing combined into one.so. or CO!1gruent arrangement of the elements or p3~S ill an arUstle wno Ie. or Interconnected prts. II.. The state or poSm.. L of effect.e.= . • I 54 ! r ....0 L. Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi.". : . Inconsistent. . ~====~==~~====~==~~I========~ .:Jically Inwngruous. 'j 1I~_..". ~ . ai~~ U Uniformly or evenly formed or arranged...ity. ""' .: 1---~. or relatIOn proximity '... . hOlT'lOgtl1tlOUS.... acwrdin~ U i if l~~:~i opposttIon orJuxtapos{tlon of dlssinlbr ~ In a won: of art to intensify each eb1ent's properties and proGuce a more dynamic expres5iveness..:. The state or quality of belnq contlnuoi. cha se campJexity .. t comparlsonorcontnst..~ to a stialqht nne. al gin ~- ur The state or quality of reing a whole composed ofcomp'bted....~":'=d his nee .. pleasing..grated to afford comprehension cr arUstle lI'OIi: tIut coostItutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness I recognition. ju$~ ~>/ I I.--' '<t " >'. wo. 11[. I! -/..-=·-=.... as a nne.~ DOD DDD DDD The stateOrquanty of being Identical.~-/~ ~. or comprehensible ma~ement In which each element of agroup Is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to Its purpose. you ~ ~~~ I~= : =. or satlent feature ofa narrative or 'nt DDITTIDD DDDDDDO D_ i OUOD ~QnUrpolnt . order.lntricate. . often causing anxiety or excttement... caJlage the boo The stJte or 'l.. anomaly.:3ic311y or 3esthet~311y ordered or lnU. U I kmrchy l to importance or s~nlf\canu.lnKea. or eha rae terlsties. . .n of Delng placed close ~r()('s~byskk. or lc.. P ~ P J ! I A~Ion from the normal or expected form.!. ~iDric~ A tenuous Valance malntalneJ In an artistic m retween opposl~ forces orele~t5.. types.alient Prominent or conspicuous.....e'mof eiements r... order.... . L. or dlrectlon. A syst. -..stopermtt ·. and organfud one 3DOYt: another. I I ! I . essential pa rt.d.. concept.. or regular. :.astheorJerl~ofelements In an Ii I[ 'caherent lc. . ~======~ r rl~lR ··m II kp r-------.~. dt Stress or prominence given to an elcma1t of a CO«1posltlon by means of contrast..!S... r~ L I I· ~ I ~ A 5~3te Of utw disorder or CDnfUSlon. ori ~ motOtony The state or ~U411ity of lacKing variety.... turmony The orderly... or coonterpolnt.. homogeneeu ' ~~~::l ~~~~~====~I I \ : I I tJ I cop y canUnuity . ..-=-::. corresponJlng posltlons from an \ntervenlngspaceor<*ject.-. cantndlctlon The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed. ' ' . . elasslf. __ -------.: .. 1'epCS6 : ~rmony In the arrangement of parts IX' colors that Is restful to the t:ye. inoNIy' 0 §DDODD ODD DOD ~ 1 0 ~ I!14Jor idea. A parallel M contrasting element or theme in a narT3tlve or concept..~ ~~ft prfncfvle: A fundarrental and CDtnprehenslve concept of visual ~ptIon for structuring an aesthetic CDmposltlon.. or arrangement.. ~ An artistic ccmpositlon of often dlverse ele:na1ts In ~n ti1:tly or unexpected Juxta positb n.U41nty of having varied or alV~ forms.= . brder ACDnditlon of ~ic3l harmonious...' I u I Ne3rT1es~ln place. Unlfonn In strtJcRlre throughout or composed of parts that are all of the sa me ~ture or kIM.: : : := _-=..... ...

-.:.tC:::5E=n:~lliJlllllU~-liabnce '1 Pa.:.::S:~~! ori .-. A straIght hne to WhIch I' An 1'"391I13ry hne al>Out which a ~ure.--------Symmetry resultIng from the arrangemen ~ of similar... or composltlon Is elements In <I compositlon symmetrical. ~cc~~-$ ACO.ovi~~~or~c ref~tothe It ts di recu.-..lstlng ~~.. equipoise .s cr opposing forces. cop concmnatioll Aseries of linked or Interconnected things or events. j if y :-/ ou n eed i thi sb ook i . rdJUonshlp." al ¥~~ A prOcessor change ta~lng place by kgm:s orthroogh <I series of gradual successive stJges. i. body.:. -----.. are referred for pu rch I ase the U L+J-. I -I 11 A 5tJ~cfrestor!:ra!ance ~~ri4m Itc=:.i50h~metryi. '-I y 55 .r r3(1bl5ymmetryj~.. radiatIng parts a~ut a center point or central axis. the-pleaSing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements In a desIgn or composItIon_ fcxus. measurement or symmetry.I )PESIGN-' .Jn~lanclng weIght -I orfw~ "'-I I L. An e<lUJI distribution of weig..~~ .. '--I tI "-. or o li o . gin '~ilf The au ·_-----_·_--t ~~!/j The act or prOcess of repeating formal elements or motifs In a desIgn_ ~k:>r-3 which rr.d.y.. ~ contr.

13.. Also called ~cd ~uance.. I harmonCC~' ~. oraegree... 5. quantity. - 56 I r- .... 1.. ".. . or h3rmonlous rel3tlon of DI" part to another or to the whole ". The unending sequence of numbers where the first two terms are 1and 1. proper. ~ harmonic 'p rog res 5 !on Asequence of numbers the reciprocals of ". ~..._e..c:ntor space. 2.---~--------- '" if y ou n The size or proportion of a I7ullding e\c:r. In which the ratio of the smaller to the I.. 3..- ..000.ltlve to the structural or fllllCtlonal dimensions of the human ..lrger Is the same as the ratio of the la rger to the wholc:J ratio of approximately 0. 8...lbf gpklerJ ~~{~ ' .. -. . or mOvement.. -_\'t_-.... and each succeeding term Is the sum of the.mm~lately preceding.. AprO~~n the two dimensions of a pl3ne figure or the two divisions of a nne...0 mechanical scale The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement.....r\ ..-. j I . visUJI scale The size or proportton a ~ulfdlng element appears to have relative to other elements or components of ~nown or assumed sIze.." 3/ 5... Also c.--..hich form an arithmetic progression.. II certain prof'OftIonate size.. . 1. The COlny... 2.\---?'<::- eed thi 1tutIu" ~ale sb ook St3ndard or point of reference. -...618 to 1........ extent..----~...1Ut respea to In'gnltuae... uSlQly l~ed In relation to some ~. pu rch ~Ie '. .. divideJ Py tile fOIl rth. LJ 1J I A B degree..---------..... V2... . 5/ 8.... I 1 .. rel... two l.' ..--=-':Io.proportlca. or an article of flnlture.... eurythml Ha rmony of proportlOif fro~.....I The equality retwun two ratios In ' which the first of the four terms divldea Py ~ second equals the third Fibonacci se~ . or ase the ori gin al B cop y _ .L ... .... golden~llj I I ! j A series In which the terms are In harmonic progression. : %=9 \ ~ 1... PE$I~N : ... VI.. 8113 ... 21. . '1..3...~.

. f gin !.!J~.. : r.1nclud1~ the physically dt "{~.. . I I I Art applledsclei1ce concerned with the cha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pc: consIdered In the design of devices 3 nJ systems In order that people an.- 57 .·. petween the sensory experk:nce of podily al ori the se cha ur '~.. .-i~ Arry of the dlrnenslonsdetermlnea by bodily posltlon ana movement.a Clng to or &3sed on the sense of smelL kp ~. 35 reach. or use.i~~i?'~ i: " '~ f j /~V .J. ~)13ptJc i . _ ! cop " y t The senSoYy ~f>erience of Podlly position..... Ptllk:Il~s.. Also called ~uman engCnurin4.-' .:! things will Interact effectlvely and safely.-. k1na~$lai i presence.. mlt The correspondence II""··.r. ffunctioM&imell5ion ". > ------" pe~11315pace ~ The vatia!7le and su~lectlve dlstance at which OM person feels comfortable tal1:lng to 3~~her.'..) ~".."''' . It Ra~ropoll10.ns.~fiti The correspondence petween the size and posture of 3 human body aM a lnJi!dlng e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re.1ved chiefly from stlmu/..i. Also called~! distance. sha pe..f To 3sc'rlbil humin furm orcharacterlstics to nonhuman things or I1elngs. ·····.". i territoriality The pat tern of ~havior associated with defining and defer1ding a territory or domain r . /~~ r I ]r... ana Jolnts......J ~. ~~ia. i' \: ..! The Sfuay-bf the symtJol1c and communicatlve role of the spatlal separation Individuals malntJJn In varlous soc 13 I and In~al sltuat... alld how the n3ture and kgru of this sp3ttal arrangement relJtes toenvlronrnental and cultural factors... and facntt:es fully accessiple and usap!e by all ~1e.·-. ..~ if you h:mdlc3ppd fl . --. -.." . The measur'embTt and study of t~ size and proportions of the human rody.< presence and movement ana the size. ----...-.rp~~ . · · . f: !I:'J . or permission to approach... t olfutory' ReI.'~'" f . ~ : a. or mo.fDESJGN I l ~gonomiG5 r ~5tructul4ll ~sion ArTy Ofthe-dimenslO. stride..----.. Relatrng to or lr3sed on the sense of touch.' tendons. 11 .atlon of nerve endl~s in muscles.." 'The i1bltfty~ frudom..~esi5. nee his boo P~r.. or clea ranu. and proportion of a space. enter."etrent k. jVa~ Of or ~ini~ to spaces.. .-.Also.· ! j f' ······1· a~r~~I11~ I l ..softhe tiuman body a nd It 5 p-art5... · .

.. ~ . . .:i traMformatlcn-' The process Oftha~glng In form or nee if you ~l&iitJon Slmulztlng... th~ cycncal. analysis of a whole Into its constl:uent parts or elements. or realIZe the : capaPtlJttes or posslp!litles of so 3S to ~rlng 1 gradually to a fuller or more adva ncea or effective state.. t~rifty. 5~parattng iph. r •. function: • The natural or proper actIon for which somethln~ Is designed._ ~refut. ···········-···········t~#············~:··~'···-·-··-.: I. or Interchange Ideas. . A purposefll actlvtty aimed at devising a Tofonn'ln themlna ~ newcomplnatlons or plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng situation Into applications of existing Ideas or prinCiples..rasu!1jtct a system or process to such condItions or operations as will lead to a critical evaluatlon of a!71 lit!e 5 or p~rform3nce subsequent acceptance or rejection.. Jesfgn f~'·..-J3-'-tlO-'n--":::"~:l:. II systemailc seres of actions or operatlons le./ al . cop ~ ~ / _'\ . ~..f • The reason for which something exists or Is done.. esp.. or ~~yn.. or distinguish alternatlves. or ~ lli:e by writing._ .. requirements. .... . testing..canvey.rio.-----~.. character.'e. often dlve~ pa rts • or elements so as to form a single or t whole. Ina way that Is clearly ana readily understood.ss~~. lr--n. given.Creases comfort.Also.Ie.. testing.:::~:::~::M~OO' des~n project wtthln a specified tlme.. . ~ meons of which a changeofrelatJor.'Ilng a prol7lem.. ~[gJ elnt~: concept.. expand. •A partlcubrsta¥ In a process of change or }~~"lfor so. a future preferrea state. y Astandard.: To wolt but. or pleasure. . or teaching.--"... or prinCIple on wh!ch a Judgment or decision may ue ~ased. or qu.1.---.-. L develop.J conditions. I CO"""~ .. used.. comprehend relationships..:.nJ Its.ina i . or construction of something. To expre5S.{y(ng structure through a series of alscw~ permutatlons and manlpulatlons In ~ponse to a specific context or set of condltlons without a loss of identity Of' ~bIe :lternnlves ~CCCIf'Jlrig ~ specIffeJ goals ~nd criteria.) ~in~ € The pattern of change.':". usuarly by careful appraisal and study. or used..1 DESIGN . f"OPO''' The off~ of II pia n for consideration. A~nd. esp.angle. or devise th~ form and structure of a bulldlng or other constru~ contrivefoform In an artistic or Ingenious manner.. / . usua ny ~ullt to scale. acceptance. as a statement~ forth the context..h~ls J Comulnirig of separate. as a method of studying the natur~ of the whole ana determining Its essentl3l features ana their relations.--:_ _ _ _ _--..~. An .. EVaIu3tlve Information auout an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for a~ratlon or correction. /~~..' jmoclc~up: AfuH-s!ziJ model of a Uulkllng or structure.oi T'lie mental lIPility to perceive distinctions... I l. ~nd mod. and physical ~xt. or otherwise determlnea bct or proposition from which conclusions may I?e drawn or decisions made. IteraUv~ process comprising the following phases. . convenience...sI1lp to some context or condItion Is lodlcate.ading or directed to a partlcu~rc:ti PfO~S ..i$e. buJlt accurately to scale for study.... or quant1es of In oraer to glve a new orientation to or to serve a new end. J dmltll.esp. coof. to show the appearance ~~n' ... J refine.. ".-.. made.lltyof. growth.tharttte. fii cri3td li:enes5 or model of someth ln~ antlclpa~ for testln~ and evaluatbn. 58 L ... . f 0 Improv~ or elaborate In order ~ make more flne or precise._. Infonnatloll.. and o~Ject!ves for a c:Its~n project. ~igll" /. f 0 conulve. ~ judgment ~ : . . . econorny . ~ model : . or exists.orslmilarchange:n the shape of" configuration.~~.. in problem .· ~ deve~ . kp n o ur g cha ~ . CI'iterU. ~! fo chooSe from a numl?er of a~matlves ~ fitness or preference.--. J~meniFY.. and efficient use and m3nageme nt of resources.~~ . ~P~~I\ ! feeduack his . A'iT. .tnodifyl the ~icwttd 3n impIem~ solution In use ~ tk-specifieJ gozls and ori ~! fochange the form. L L L L L @@ L L L L dt se gin fo asceruln or assess the slgnlflcance.~ inflectio n ' boo To en~~ fulflnmentof ~ means of a definite pbn or procedure...i . fJ~tifying . worth...rnfitu~ represent3tlon. or t$!~ a common system of signs or symrols.:. socia/' economic. speaking. or action.. ' -? I '. ~purpo~ .U5t Arty feature that provides or l!)..

or predicting phenorr~. and fe3tures of a I1Ulldlng or otr.. an Idea generalized from partlcula r characteristIcs or Instances. ~tf._. A fortUitous circumstance.c-tu3r~nu or application of principles. or characteristic anJ on which bter st3qes are ~ased or eJ. ~ph!J." cop ori the se M object..wtthout rdereru to concrete re3l1ty or a p. ~~pt ~~~} ~~~ 10 ~nlmate orper-rneate with a ~rtk:ular fom. The f#culty or power of compre~ Inferring... represented graphically Py diagrams.8 h~~ some fmn of o~tlve ~Irty outside of the ~~Inthesolutlonofa' \...' AreproJ'uctlooof3nofiginai. An 3pt!tudefor ma[1119 deslrable and unexpu-tecl discoveries I1y accident. A'ri1entallmage or formulation of what somethIng Is orought to be.~ ! explaining.~.'- .. Jlld. >>A rr. I Kthoughtor notion resulting from mentalaW3reness. :. _. or thinking In orderiy..' '" 'Toreg3fd'an Ide3 orconupt 3S mind. esp.. Th'e faculty-ofsetllng things In their tnJe relations or of evaluating their relative significance.'l . 3S op~ to ~1"i1 arttflclal or cha . . '. Aconcept for tl1eform.-.. or distinction....l4~" ..er construction.::lerlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern or structure for a des41n.. future possibility. ~. _ . them. 0 ) o-----~) ~ ... . or amngement.eatlve processes. or ~~ The act or power of antlcipatl~ that which will or may come to be.. .. asd1stll19ulshed from theory.. or Interpretations. -e-nv-I-slc-n:-'-------~ \ I crutivity . his T =~ c ~ /lY'~ .s.. or assumption gc"Yernlng x-. 1'e<11 . A~tr3ct thought or 5pecula~\cr..e creation of something.a. f5~~.. ' procedure. . or relationships and to Initiate meaningful new lkas. j he~: al gin --'~(_-l.origiral~i The creative ability to Imagine or express In an Independent and Individual manner.:' r . esp. --.rtfuple. I boo I ! : ~hl~. dt Rri~neJP~ A similarity In some particulars ~ween things otherwise dissimilar. . An un. " To rttrut ana hold fast Py Influet\a or powu.. o }.irtlcuur Instance...-••• - \ I . ./ irrt. .: irrt3~in3ticn : The power of recombining former experiences In the creation of nell' --.lCterls1lc.acUvtty. To rorintmental plctvre of a. understanding. -. a-nltogy ( . kp . to pe developed In detail In later studies.>stance. as appl1ed to tile stating and solution of proPierns that Involves free use of ~phor and anJ10gy In Informal Interchange within a small group of diverse Individuals.. .. . ".. arid prc~ or followed 3S the b-a% or principles used in analyzing. ~tIon orreftectlon on a subject or idea..r. ""'_' _______ \ \ IJ ~~ •.\ / / / .n \ --.... -. ·-····-·-····· .. -. • '-... tnJth. resultln~ In a conclusion Inferred from Incomplete or Inconclusive evidence. : ...~_ .1cter.dd~.. proia..~i . ve... ! fa~ The pTay of the mind through which 'il$cns are summoned.en61 representation of / sorr...••• -~Q/.:t yro~. ap~~ ur ~vfn9 ot>~e. qU3!ity. asp~) A way In which a thll19 may ~ viewed or re<jarded._ . qUJl1ty...~: The faculty of fontilng mental Images or concepts of wh3t Is not present to the senses or perceived In reality.. playful.---~Efl------. des~n conceyt r 1 ~ ~a. of things r'e!JardeJ as forming a grotJp ry ~ of common attrll:rutes or nee Aftirld3'mental ana comprehensr. ~ ~ prototype : An ~rly and typical example that exhl~tts the esse~J fe3 tu res of a class or group ~ t model ' An rumple serving 3S 3 patte~~ for Imitation or emulation In tr.iDESIGN . i ..~r)'. r r t f' if fI I • A nu. or Idea used In place ci another to s~gest alikeness ~rWeen y ~~ I . The aPillty'tO transcend traditional Ideas. resultIng In a system of a5sumF~~5 Hlusory.e . ~pnctU ..:. esp. forms. The original scheme for a deslgn presented In the form of a sketch outlining Its spectflc char. ~ e LP : =~f3CUItYofknoWlng ~renJiFity ~klent. of 2Ctlon... plans. sul.. structure.A. mentallnventC1s that are whimsical.. patterns. and Independent ros~..n cW~~ or pattem on which all ~ thl~s oftM ~me kinJ are copied or ~ased. \.. ! I 59 . am~uity The state 0'7quality of pelng susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meaning or multiple Interpretation...V.. '.. I tBDJ]w w1thoot evident ratlonal thought and Inference. 4-. . vieW~t A part'lcular manner or mode of Iocl:lng at or regardin~ something. arc~-·····--·-·-···· ..~._ .. To a'ir~theefforts or attention of.. ana characteristically removed from re4nty.ethlng previously perceived In the 3b~nce of the 0~lnalstlmulu5. or other drawings..1I0glcal Inference !rased on the ~mptlon that If two things are [lIOWT'Itoi1ealiktlnsomeres::uts.l'ltlonJl way.. _ ~ ..~ IITt3ge5 directed at a speclf1c g031 .. you -~I char.

aldome A dome l1uilt with stu! or tlmPer trusses amn¥d In 3 raalalll".. thIs ring Is thickened and rtlnforuJ tc ~ndle the ~ndlng stresses C3usea by the differing elastic deformations of the ring and shell se the Adome ~ the form of a segment of a ~... - meridiana! line A CUllleJ hM aescrli:1lng a vertical section cut thro~h the axis of a rotatlort31 surface. 60 ori y .e .. perpendlcu lar to me ridlon3 Iforces. .-' forces 0CCIJr5 atan angle of from 45"to 6Q' from the vertical axis for most load conditJons. -. and a third set of dla~nals completing the triangulation.(").g the acme surface Into.eridIonai forces.. -. meridianal force ~ . rr.er I'd PeIcw the springing 11M Asaucer dome Is partlcula rIy salsItlve tc budhng uI'Jer 3n ~.. 5chwedler dome A steel dome having memPers which follow the lines of 1atit<Jde and longitude.lI'ftlIItS...---... . A stul dome structure havIng meml1ers which follow the circles of latltuae. and two sets of diagonals replaCIng the lines of longitude and formIng a series of Isosceles triangles..---~~' Aforce acting along a hoop line of a dome structure.... Hoop forces..."" .. ../ .ll$ItIon from merldiofl3l to hoop . 3rt compressive In the upper / zone ana ~sife In the lower zone.----._~ ... -....l series of ~uil3teral spherical trlanqles..~ .IT" ! conb!n the outward components of cha ... . hoop nne I ...Ir+- if you nee dt his boo ! . In 3 concrete dome.Jnner 3na connected Coy polygon .---""'. ~ttiudome ....: ur i the l7ase of il acme tc .... gin ~ucerdcme al cop 11 11 11 great circle The cIrcle of greatest d13meter that can ~e drawn on a sphere.. geodesic dome A stul dome havIng members which follow thrte principal sets of 9rtat cIrcles Intersecting at ~ subdlvldlr. compressive underfull vertical loadIng..DOME A vaufW structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of.. I rings at various heights... always kp ---4-J::':"'---. radl.cent. A force acting along a meridional line of adome structure... hoop forc..-semicircular dome Adome havlng the form of a hemlsp~re....... ---..e~~io~~~ng the rr...ema Iloaa. . ! ... t.. A circulAr line aescrl17lng a hOrizontal section cut perpendIcular to the axis of a rotational surface.. spnere. whIch rtstraln the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips In the shell of a dome./ roo .. so constnJcW 2S to exert an equal thrust in all directWns.

.age . A spherical dome formed by removfng four ~gments SO that It merges with Its perJentIves anel sits on " square pLon. as (Ner a semicIrcular apse. Asuperstructure crownIng a roof or dome havln~ open or windowed walls to let In light semiaome.... '.. -_ .-----------------------.lml1our· 'The vertiCal part of a cupola. .. ··~·--llrrterdome .DOME :...... as around the springing of a aome.. ~ oculu't a dome.. . cupou A light structure on a dome or roof. --: --_... . or sculpture. ring.. 61 ..rt~) ... y cop ~ pendentive ~ '\ }-1~3rne 1 " A dormer window In a roof or spire... al ~'L ~Ulrn.. It.sphere vault.-. A strap.. An area In the pLone of a wall framed by an arch or vault. ..1antern. one at the crown of -I : : r·-tb. . Whispering gallei'y\ rch ~) the ori ase .. serving 35 a l:>elfry. paintIng. esp. ~ gin .. space or gallerJ ueneath " dome or vault In which low sounds produced at any of certain poInts are clearly audIble at certaIn other dIstant pu \L.._ ...:. containIn~ a wIndow. O'IU an apse or A semldome or'quarter. \ pe~tttive dome ~ ..:--.../ ...{ A dlrc~iaropenlng. 3S nlc he. /. Or belvedere.. The space betJeen the Inner and outer shells of a dome.lunette i . H3ff a dome formed by a vertical sectIon.. A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the poly~onal pLon of Its supportIng structure... band..~cl andalr. orchaln placed around a structure to secure and hold Its parts together... An arch or cOrl:>eltng pullt across the upper Inside comer of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octa~onal structure. \ I if y 'l ou n eed l thi sb ook ~l i .. cul-de-four . ---------- ..1 J..

..... ":'-""-Ieaf 1! I A hinged or sliding section of a dOOr or shutter. ..Ine door pivot..~lng Vycolllng about4In ~ Ihm ~ the head of the door ~ ---~. nolse.-_-U.. electric eye...lr of double doors.IJ... .. r-----Y---~.. _ _ _ .'''- ~ . A pair of doors hung In the same doorframe. Inactive leaf The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate Is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active 1e3f..revolving door An entr3nce aoar for excluding dr. ~l or glass for opening . . l1alanced door A p~oW door that Is partially courT". active leaf The leaf of a pair of "oulne doors to which the latching or locking mechanism Is attached. -.-. jill ir j A folding door that divides Into two parts.rt:ic door _ i_ _ _ .. ..erir...jjii.. or other device.I.... / Y the foWtngdoor A door IritJI hI~ ~ns that can be ~ fbt ~"Inst one another when ~ se .. Also called standing leaf. ~ ucordlon door ori -r+--"'i'~'-'-"" - l:rifolddoor gin al cop y . ~~ metal sbts gUided Vy a tnd on eitherslcfe.. double doors I... hen actuated Vy a radio tr3nsmltter.J... .." \..nd closing an tntranu to a building.JJJj. ~ i overhead door A large door constructed of one or sever31 !eaves.... Also called openIng leaf. .. sometimes removal7le to permit the passage of large oVjects••.~i:./ \ .. providing a'legal passageway on roth sides of..I.J i kp A multi leafed door that Is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding b3ck In the manner of an accordion... cha . .~::s I I I that permit It to I swing In one direction only..' "' ' .. tnGt./ . astragal A molding attached to one or boUl meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent drafts or the passage of light.. .g:~~~i~.{l exclude drafts. J : . mullion A slender vertical memPer dlvidlng the opening for a p. or c. DOD DDD DOD Some revolving doors automatlc3llyfold Pack In the direction of ~ress when pressure Is applied. .._ ../ !i ... .oted ~t the jamb. -~ wIng One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.. asdlstln~ulshed from one hung on hinges.. 62 .Ilancea for easier opening and \ . allU)m..... -:. j_ ..... sw~ing door A000r ~ tunis on hinges or pivots aPout a vertical ~ wncn pushed or pulled.-.s from the Interior of a i7ullding.LiI. A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile. COfI$lstlng of four leaves set In the form of a cross and rotatlng about a central vertical pivot within a cylindrically shapedvestl~k:.... sliding... - c1051 rtg. usu4I1Iy p3n~1 to...pocket door A door that slides Into and out of a recess In a doorway wall rolling door A ~ge doorconslstlng of horizontal... .. ur 1. or folding Darner of wooa...1binet.: :. .. door opener A mech3nism that automatically opens a door .. ! .' his i I I boo r I 51iJin9 door A door ~ open tes or moves Vy st1dlng on.' ~' . / ./ / / :. opening Vy swinging or roiling up to a horizontal position above the aooropenlng. II ( I i .. sweep The flexible weatherstripping along the eages of a revolving door. pivoteQ door AXcr ~rT1e4 on and 5Wln~ln~ about on a un~roroff~ plvot.' :'.. r ..... or smoke. DDD .DOOR A hinged. usuallyflxed In a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door. air curtain A stream ofcompresseJ air dlrec~ downward across" doorway so as ~ form a shield t. it-'-"Tl I : : I I dt I I I ('f"'-"'" : 'I I if you I 1: I : ~ nee I 1 I I I I __ .oft... double-acting door A door hung on hinges that permit It to swing In either direction from a closed position... ~ ~..- / . . room. . wall.. I../ / . -~ . / . the Inner leaf of each part Pelng hung from an overhead tr3ck and the outer I~af pl..

. _--- \~_t~~ ::' ..saddle .J I r uan~cmwindow -----. ~e:=~~·I·~I~~~.K....-. or window opening. the portion parallel to the surroundIng surface and at ~ht angles to the Jaml>s.~-. -. cop al gin ori cha y '-~- j r ~~~?i.~-' doorjamb .~."~-4 I :':: '. you nee sectlan of woodwori: directly above a his boo . .. Either of the two sidepieces of a .-. -. '.----. pia nted 5tc P Astop fOf'lT'led by attaching a molding to a doorfra me or wi ndow fra me.--.~-----W~------------------ ..ed.". __ . rauueteJ stop I...-c-~-7:'.. Asubframe of wood or metal set In a partltlon to support the finish frame of a door or window. Also called door \1ud. -. .---. ' . The proj~lng part of a doorframe agaInst which a door closes.-. ~---+-+-. ·. • ~ \ A surface that makes an o\Vique angle with another.. rough puck. usually an Inchnatlan of 'fa In..\.1 ' -=U'=== Veneti3n door A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window. '..:1.cased opening ':J. --· Maml . The cle3ral1Ce required to prevent \ _ _I~ Inndlng Detween 2 door and its II --..-. esp...---. AlSo callej '::1 stop :.' \./ .::! wfnglight reYe411 ------------------.-~/ A window aDove the transom of a doorway. ·. __ . allowing the door to swing free of the door frame.. Also calW transom.. ua"~m ----------. ~: the fau of the loci: stile. casing ________ . se r r I ! --'------------ur kp dt the doorcle4r311U ------. often decorative mmewori: around a door or window openIng.head :0.I i I • •1 63 .--. ·· . I " . --.. (51rnm) of door thickness..----------- r .. (32 mm) for each 2 In..::1 The uppermost mem~erof a doorframe or wi ndow frame. consisting of two Jambs and a head or lintel An opening In a wall Into which a doorframe or window frame 15 fitted. '~------------~. --- The part of aJamb of a window or door opening that Is vIsIpk: pet-ween the outer wall surface and the Window or aoor frame. .s opening finished with trlmworl:.___ L __ <. ~~\. ' . nor prepared to receive hardware.-..fanlight Asem!clrcular or semleillptical window over a doorway or another window. -··· ..~j r-"--"".-----.' . to which a door fits closely SO as to prevent its binding when oper.. - th~hold The sill of a o. esconson. Araised piece offtoorlng between the Jaml1s of a dool1Yay.·~··· .. tr~n50m Il~ht.. doorles.g weather protection at an exterior door. ~ --------_ ..u. as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wa I\.i ">.....~~~. scunch~n I~ .-.. doorway. r 1 711 do<xway. if I A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window orfanllght above it. The finished. .1 .~ . ':1 doorstop.--.::.. covering the join t between twa flooring m3Url31s or provldlr. Also. 1 r:·~·:~~~~~y . buc~ blankpmb Adoorjamb having no stops.. ."---.. Also calle.':1 pmb Either of the vertlca I sides of an archway.c~--:-7::::7:~ DOOR doorframe Theframe of a aoo11Y3Y.. splay 5wncheon The reveal of a window or door open:ng from the frame to the Innerface of the wall. __ ...::=. -. I· t· I ----. -- ~kleli9ht A window at the side of a door or another Window..oorH'3y.. sill The horizontal member beneath a door or wIndow opening.---. rough opening ---------.~. subca...... i i I A stop formed Integrally by a ra bbetln a doorframe or window frame.i/19 A rough casing for a doorway or wlndol'! opening.: <j "l- doorframe.

. L i L 64 ...'lnting. or I Li al cop y severe we3tr.eJ sa 35 to Doe Indisce.-----. storm door . f. window The uppermost r3il connectJng the stlk:s c:i a p3~ door or winaow sa $It. Iuminum sU!es ana r. a paneb:l door. 35 a screen for SlJmmer or st... a pane!ed door.. usua!1y glazed.-.lfts. gl1:7 door.ed of vertical l7oard5 hekl to~her Dy horizo:1cal lr. french door A door having rectangular gl3ss pares extenang throughout its length. rails.DOOR paneled Door A doorhJvlng a framework of sUIes. --. L . hi"¥stile The stile of a cloer Dy which it Is hung.1. Or~ of the a!nJtt. AlsoCJlled ca~mentdoOl".. pair of dou Die doors.11 outer or supplemeir'..""'~=". Ii j.onn sash for winter. L D gra~"ocr A door of heat-strengthened or ~pered glass. Also. ~ --. for protecting an erTtr.5 In a system of paneling. Also C4l1ed Pllnd £1001"_ louver --------~ An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sl.stile Ar. fixed or rncvaD!e slats to admit air Dut exclude r3ln ana snow or to pro0Je prlvacy....er.aht In the upper portlon cf..elll~...----The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a pa~ door or wiRdow sa$lt. I.lnce :XNr from dr. ook l. ase ori L gin ccmpi~n door An exterior door having a frame into which arfferent types of panels can Doe in~rtea.e of the opening. filled with panels of a ..=.. Also.ming panels. dmit air I7Ut ~!ude in~s. IocIcrail ---------------------------. louvered door A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air.------The . --D i Also callea shlltting stile. Jip door A door hinged ~ be flush with the wall on either skk and treat. or a ches~ vf drawers.~g.s and diagonal Dracing. or door. muting stile ~_J stiles In.-=-==d locI: stile The stile of adoor that closes against thefrar. used prima rlly a5 an erTtrance door_ Dutchaoor A door divided horizontally 50 that the upper or lower part can De opened or closed separately..tun door A door const~.t ~~ or dlvlskln of a wall c.' .-niL>te when cbsed. door glazed with clear g1355 for vlew~. \'tlth or without ra lis ex sUits... and often hung In pairs.l~'-3 i u vision light Asmallli. as in a system of panenng.itter..• p3nel A distinc. window sash.h Inlla' 1113 teriJt . driving /din.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ or . recessed r3a ::~~c~~~~~~~:_~ Arry of various horizontal memDers framing panels.3'j door. of a doo. ico. ana ~ lI1untlns.l:: :nesh to .. Alsccalltd hangIng stile. louvre.lils that hold a wire or pI3S'.that meets the shutt1n4 stile n the level of the ~ i1ottom rail -------------.-' IU L below or raised 3bove the general level orenclosea by a frame. pu rch o thi sb ou n eed if y the screen door A. _ _ _ _ _ // .y of various:: ?right memDers fr.

or medium density overlay.rase of a doorframe to the f.. at the !1a~ of a doorfrarT1(:. Also. stop..lang ~ boo Adoor hJving astructural wood core cl3d with ~ ~ . partlck: Doard. reinforced wtth channels.:.1 c:Ioorfr.. docrskin Asurface veneer of plywood. ~sketed ~ . The fa~ at the oUter edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface. A protect!ve lining. galvanized sheet metal.we!de. groute..krIockdownfume A met3! doorirame composed of three or more ~~sforassem!llylnthe ..t' an.• kraft hontj'COm!1 structure.. _. hollow-ccre door A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and ralls encasing an expanded honeycom!l core of corrugated fI!1erl1oard or a grid of Interlocking horlzontal a vertical wood strips.. ... core Awooden construction.ame A doorframe having a head andJamDs formed from a sl~le piece of metal.oor.y of var'. crossl1and.. bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a flush door.llne ks~ ned to be Installed durl~ the construCtion of a masonry or stud wan. Also ca11ed SOOnd-iIl5ULrti~ doer.anding The plywood or hard!loard veneer Immediately ~eath the face veneers of a flush door. or a minerai composition.a'l~ pase anchor A metal clip or device for securing t~ !. sanitary drywall frame A knockdown frame having a dcullle-return backbend for Installation after a drywall partition Is finished. acoustical door A door hJving • sound-&e3dening if you . 65 'i .-' gin t. cro5s(. throat rhe opening between the Dackbends of a metal doorframe. y flu5hfraIM r----L.. as In a daor. ~r. s :netal devices for orc P3rt of a struckJre to arccher. Alsacalled hospital stop.J. usually of stainless scul. double egre!ltS frame A metal cIoorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing In opposite directionS..DOOR 1 I l i _.:f frame i anchor Ar. cor-e.' nee ~ dt his kp k3~mein door hollow m~1 door A door luving face sheets of light-gauge steei PorJed to a steel channel frame.. cutQff :. i I aM casl~ ~m. and an autolTutic drop ~I along the bo«om. or 3 rigid p~stIc­ foam core.. : ! t i.. !lpat ~ . cha se the ori cop ur hollowmetalfr. forming a lIacklng for face veneers.es preflnishecJ and prefltted wtth all neces5Jr)' hardware . hardboard.____ _ A ma. sclkJ-ccre door Awood flush door having a solid core of staved lum!1er. -- flush door A door havl~ smooth-surfaced faces. al backbend/. \""" A metal doorframe completely fll~ with' plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigidity and Increased fire resistance. p13stlc 13mll13te.. ~:m:t:HS1~. aajll5table doorframe A doorfr4me h3vl~ a split had and J:Jmbs for InstJl13tlo11In various WJU thld::nesses.-to p A stop having a closed end that terminates above th~ floor line a 45° or 90° angle..dfnme A met31 doorfralT1e th3tls completely set up and welded at t~ factory. prehung docr Adoor hu~ In a doorfume More Ittstall3tlon In a wall sometllr.::! sides.

opinion.ttching eed if y h.. or " c:motlon. continuous 1TI3r\: made on ~ surface with a pencil. as that c:mpbyed Py an artist showing a high ~ru of skill or command of fu nda me nt3 ls. technique A method or procedure for accompllshlng a deslrea aim or tas~. or technique of drawing ~ hand WIthout the aid of draftlng Instruments or mechanical devices. had.3 tic painting in shades of gray to produce 3 three·dlmenslonal effect. stippling . gesture drawing generally p~s from the whole to the pa rts. movement. key The dominant tonal value of a drawing or palntlng.. or brush.'::.gnrrent.ttching ShadIng composed of two or more series of Intersecting parallel noes. '. and significant details a re projecW onto the drawing surface. the ou n sluding The r:ndering of light and dark V4lluesln ~ dr.. scene.n In close proxlmlty. Sh3dlng by means of dots. mu/tJdlrectlonallines. Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs am. depth. y gin al reg ulating line A o~ drawn to measure or. gesture drawing The technique of drawing a single or multlple lines freely and quldly as a subject Is scanneJ and percepUoos of volume. without shading or 1T1Oddi~ of form.:. ~5h. ••~ sculpture.~ of the b na. f\j ure 01' object. modeling The technique of rendering the illUSion of volume. represent light arJ s-ha. ph~raph.-"".oss. A1r'CI'e:m. cop ori ook thi sb pu rch trace A line I~htly drawn to record ali~nment or Il'asurerr.DRAWING The art. centour The outnne of a two-dimensional shape or PoundIng ~es of II three-dlmenslonal form. profile An outline of a form or structure seen or represerrted from the side. I I I Il ~ DRAWING _. low-key H3Vlng en iefty dart tones with nttle contrast.. image freehana drawing The art..(' line A thin.1ow. centour drawing The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject. for the representatlon of perceptions or the vlsualiz3tlon of Ideas. f. rn. process. A representation of the form or : appearance of something. process. . \- outline A line describing the outer bounaary of'a.::::. esp. or solidity on a two· dlmensloni/ S<Jrface Uy shading. SC3le.-. high-key Havir":l chiefly l1~ht tones with little ccntr. "g~ ?t~=F==i~a:5.'?s distinguished from sha ai~ or eolor:\ ~-------lZ-' \ ~ - I .~~~:. ~~~ng Shadlng by means of a netwon: of random..express a~.~~-deslgn or composition.. ~k visible In '. or ide3 b:t me3ns of lines on a surface.J~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of threedimensionality. small spots. L .::::::::. or technique of representi/19 an ol1ject. F'EKCEIYlNG lMAGlNIHG "'f'o. or movement ase The effect or Illusion of moUon conveyed by the rel3tlonshlp of structural elements in a (I. body th3t expresses an Idea. . or dr3wing.st. In contrast to contour drawing. 01' give the effect of color. .ent.Ice.:'. or short strol: es. grisaille MonoehrolT'. arm. 66 .=. Pe:'!. or proportlon.{' \.

sway r A drawing executed as an educational e~rcise. Any of the drawings made to aid In the visualization. lI1OS.x a fresco. of a building cha se A flJ~-sca~dra~ of it motif(X'des~n.6 ~~ -'1 )?)~ 'I /? :P / V' passage An area. to ~ :.~ /' /~ 1. M~ ?fE. often I1Ude as a prellmlna ry study. cop . a pers~ive. esp. one subject to revision.1wing. • J . . s1:~ of a deslg n Of pia n. draft A prelimlna!). t I ' ~'. or color that deflnes shape or form In general outhne rather than In detail.ed area of l'9ht. surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of Important details and some1:imes a pia nor section of the facade. ~U3S\ort I rI r L if you nee dt his boo kp I • intu\ol" space. . conception A d~wing of so~lng Chat dees not yet exist. ~~~~~~~ '\\ ~ ~~~. exploration. +.ketch A simply Of hJsUyexecuted drawing or palrrtll1g rep~ the essential ftatures of an ~ Of scene without the detJils.\:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a design or plan.ents.orother~sumce.Oic. ~ drawing done Of1a wall. 67 . section. productd as a prelimina ry to a final wor1:.. Of made to record ol7servatlons. or detail of a work./Ah_ vignette A drawing that Is shaded off gradually Into the surrounding paper 50 as to leave no definite line at the border. esp.DRAWING design drawing ... analyti~ue ". ort3~try. and evaluation of a concept In the design process.. tfom~roeil A drawl~ Cf' painting In which objects are rendered In extremely fine detail to emph3slze the Hiusior c' tactile a-j spatial qU3rtt ies An elevat\o!l drawing of a facade. r:sp.artlstlcalfy deHneatln~ 1T'. es-quis5e A s.( y $I:} r. shade.-. shades 3nJ shJdows: usua Ify done for tM pu~ of presen tatlon and Of'" ur r I renderi~ Adnwing. fbao. with respect to Its qualities of executlcn.'.toInsferred In preparation f. ScmetImes referreJ to 35 3 referential dr. the cartoon ori gin al mass A unlf'.oI ~rl3Is. from which are ~ the pattans forvarlous Dulldlng elar. epure AflJrt-SQIe.

crowfoot A V-shaped mark. to which a dlmenslon hne Is drawn. tUshed line AIn-oken nne conslstl~ of short. sometimes used In place of a dashed line. for the compasses. unUrline 'l I gin the ur cha se al cop dr. 68 . leader A short line leading the r. scales. - . or other design professlol13t on Wltract drawings ana spectftcatlons to show evidence of ~Istratlan In the state: wMre the work Is to ~ perfonTltJ. 17re3kline A I1roi:en line conSisting of relatIVely long segmentsJoined by short zigzag strokes.ye from a note or dlmenslon to a reference point. sys~tIc representation and dlmenslonal specification of archItectural and e~lneerlng structures. '. snort sl3shes. ---------1==3====i=r--t---t-:tt=IT--If¥=--ir--t"ff9· dotUd line ----------1H+-tr1+==---~l---{ Hf--~ A In-oken line conslstln!) of a series of 11i:z'i\::nmb1~mt~~mt0~~c:.J~ closefy spaced Oots. Also C311ed COfTt. triangles.truction drawings The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts snowl~ in ucurate graphic or pictorial fonn the ~lgn. . to represent object nnes that are hidden or removed from view. y co". nne. L. dlmenslon5. and along which measurements are $Galea and Indicated. wori:fng I ori A Im*en nne conslstlng of relatIVely long segments separated by SIn!J1e dashes or dots. dime~lon line j A flne terminated l1y arrows.nct drawings. esp. used to represent the axis of a sym metrlca I element or composition. or area.the apex of which Is a reference point. used to cut off a portion of a drawing. closely spaced strokes.DRAWING drafting Drawing done with the aid of such Instruments as T-squares.... plan. ~I An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a licensed architect. or dots.. used esp. engineer. ! if exten~ion line A hne e:xtendI"!J from an edge or f e3tu re of an o~. kp ( you nee dt his boo /~~ ~-'. and relatlonshlps of the elements of a projxt. ana o grid A rectangular system of lines and coordInates serving as a reference for locating and re1uiJtlng the elements of a o17jectline A solid line representing a contour of an oi>ject. Indicating the extent or mag nltude of a part or the whole.lccatlon.iwi"4 s . Also called muhanlcaf drawing.

_ _ ~'~.and orientation of a l:tultding or group of 17ulldlngs on a site.ch contour /1neon 3 top::graphlc plan or ~p. uSU311y 111Gludlng tl1e dImensions.~- " Xi ----'-~1in9 '-.. mmi~pUn A pUn showing the pattern.re hit hZffng its celhllf Sijrf3ces and elements proj«ted dowr.ard upon It so that what would appear to1he right whc1 seen from ~ appears 011 the plan to the left. _ _'l.ct1ons of die: structur. contours.:il1y shewing the for:n and arrangement of interlor spaces and their enclosing walls.Slonal o~ on a p~ne surface In order to deduce their geometric properties and relatlonshys.J USl!311y In ulack or by hatching.lr or roof of ~ bulldlng.!ect Is represented by projecting lines perpel1d1cul. suite. 1 69 . and other soflds of a l:tulldl~ that are cut !n a floor pl3n or section drawlng. lnd1caw. . The tl1rory of Mlng project1ons of threedlmtrl. I I I I floor ptan A plan of 3 rOOm. graphicecale --------~ 1 ! Agraduated hnear Uar Indlcatlnq the proportion ~ a represetlt3tlon and that which It represents .3r to a plctu re pl. topographic pun or The d!ffmnu I.... or Its rep~rrt. I __I area plJn A plan showing the principal elements of a design project In the wider context of Its surrounding en"lron~ent.lon remOr'ea. usually drawn to scale.·. " . the form of Its roof..3ne.ontcurline --------~---: An 1~lnary h~.: An orthographic projection of the top or section of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3 horlzoa"t31 plane. ~a!e y A plan showing the form. map.ontc~I~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~ rocfpL1n A plan showing the top view of a pulkllng. or entlre floor of a uuilding as sun from above after a horlzootal section ls Clft and the upper port. Also called orthogonal proJection. '~'_ _ '. typlc.Jolnlng points of equal eM tIon 00 a s. c. windows.. DRAWING ~r1ptive teCmetry projection The process or technique of representlng a thru-dlmenslonal o~ by projectlng an its points by str3lgh"t nnes. either parallel or converging.. !andSC3plng and other s19ntf1cant features of the plot. -" gin ori if you nee dt his boo kp ur cha se the " al poche The walls.bce. elements. A proportlol1 determining the relationship of 3 represen"tatlCn to that ~lch It represents.locatlon . _ . e!MtIon represented by l e. n of a room as seen from aw. AI50 called plot plan. to a picture plane. plJn -. columns.. and doors. usl~ a system of symrols and drafting nnewon.. 1- ApI.. Also C31bI ~ cef1l~ plln. Also calleJ plan view. esp. and conu.ztlon 011. I r 1 ~ '"' I !"I 11===fF -< - ~j~1 ". narth arrow A graphic symbd ~ on plans and maps to In dlc ate the direction of north.. gradi~ p~n A ~ n showing ~ proposeJ finish con tours and emtlon s cf the groo nd surface of a conWuctlon sI~ cop ~iU pL1n ~I ~dplaa ----~ -... c.. orthcgraphic projection A method of projection In whlch a threedimet1slonal '*.ll frame for a fu..

.hogr#phlc projection Of an object or dt SC3~ his struct<Jre 00 a vertical picture plane p3ratld to one of Its sides.... y U Lj 70 ! I: ...erse section. to conv~ li9ht.I sectlon Is cut In a plan or elevaticn view and the direction In which the sectlon Is to be viewea..s it \.. In orthogr3phlc views... cros.Ind shadows.11 cclor cop nee \. boo e:b7tWn ... used to IndIcate where .... esp. gin al r-·IcC. surface. ~ opliCiue $eCtion An orth~raphlc projection of a section made Dy cutting with a plane that Is neither para Ilei nor perpend1cular to the long axls of an object.. crt3tlng Illusion of three dimensions.. Also " III section line) Acerrterllne termInating In a perpenalCular ~rnent with an arrow. cai1ea mns. _. usually drawn to The casting and rendering of shades . The naturlll color of a part~ular 09ject ... would a~r In white tlght. shades ana shaaows kp \g)~ ur cha \00 relief An apparent projection from a flat bacl:ground due to contrast.. 5Q~ It Iongftudin415Ution An ortkoqraphlc projectIon of.. An ort. esp... t~.. lu Ii i ...e se the ori shade _ . if you shadow AdarHlgure cast upon a surface Dy an opaque body Intercepting the rlIYs from a theoretical light source.. The parts of a solid that receive no li9ht ~U~ they are tangent to or wmeJ away from a theoretical light 5O\IrGe...... at right angles to the ~ axis of an object.I DRAWING &tCtio1t An orthographic proJectlon of an object or structure . form.l sectlon made Dy cuttl"1 through the \::Ingest ax!s of an ol1ject.lSft woold appear if cut through by an Intu~ plane to show Its In~1 configuration. I It usually drawn to L.. S<':ction An ort~raphlc projection of a sectIon rruk ~ cuttl~ transversely. and depth..... _.

oPliqLle A para line drawing of an oDlique projectlc.~ of rela tively 10"9 ~rno'Its separa~ by two short dJs~or dots. or the relativ~ po9t!on of J n cavalier drawing A parallne drawing of an oblique prOJection. used to represent a property IIne. and all reced1n~ nnes perpend1cullrto the picture plane sMWT13t any convenient angle othl!1" th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion . h1vi~4 .e picture pl3re reduced to h3:f sc3le. cop ph. h3Ylng 311 lines pra'iel to the picture plaM drawn to exact scale. and the recedlng I1nes perperdicular tc j. • ~ntPJrt. 71 .1xonometrlc projecticn The orthographic projection of a threedimensional object Inclined to the picture pllne In such a WilY that its three principal axes are foreshortened. sb A dr.1ntcm A part of" dr3wlng that Is made y dimetric projection isametric is-ometrk: projection An axcnametrlc projection of a thrudimensional object having its princlp31 faces equally IncUned to the picture pI. Also calW ~naed if y ou n eed thi dispby tM ~ior. :~:f an oblique proJection.atlonships to each other and to the whole..1r."ode! havi~ an ouw StCtlon relnO'leQ to ook c~~ pu rch f- An axonometric projection of a three-d1mension31 object Inclined to the picture plane In such a way that all th clpal axes 're fo ata d'. 3xonometric A para line drawing of an axonome~ric projection.1.rt:dy M Ind~ their proper re1.ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawings . view. A par.311 converging ~ In linear r1 il DRAWING .!llInes pml!el to the princIpal axes . haVing all lines parallel to the thru principal axes drawn to scale Dut diagonal and curved lines distorted.. having one princlPJI face parallel to the picture pf3M. 1 r tn!1S~renttv permlt gin al reprtSelTt~ of detJ lis otherwise hidden fromrlew.l.en ase the trimetric projection ori An axonometrlc projectlon of a threedimensional object incnnea to the picture plane In such a way that two of Its principal axes a~ t'qual1y foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two..hm~ by pml1ellnes rtmaln~ pml1el to e3Cb other rather tn.1line drawi~ Arry ofv.tlon. exploded new A drawlng ~ shows eM Individual parts of a woctureor coostructlon separ.":lt'ln to true leryth at the sa..lMne draw'.ls. having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.l~ or . r r r J perspective.in alternative posltlcn of a part of an object. having all nnes and faces parallel to the picture pllne drawn to exact scale. c3Pinet drawing A paranne dra .~ cf an Isometric prdp:.e scale.. ne so that Its three principal axes are equally foreshortened_ opli'tue projection A method of projectlon In which a threedimensional oOJect.r p. phantcm line A brol:en anc wnslstlr.r.cepre5e1'lW D:i projecting parallel nnes at some angle other th3n 90° to the picture plane.

In Nnear perspective. denneatea by a thlder fine or by a sharp COf1trast In value or texture... ana dlstlnctness of objects perceived as recedJng from the plcture·pl3ne.•. arty fine or plane colnck:ltnt with the picture p13nec3n ~ drawn to exact scale. Also called atmospheric A ~hnlque for representlng depth or dlstance !rt placing dist. ... on whk.vanishing point A p?lnt toward which nudlng parallel lines appear tcconve:rge In llnedr perspectlve.... Also called "'&alinl!! .. deflnedby slghtllnes forming a lS°to:30° angle wft~ the untral axis of vlslon...ar perspective. ~'btion gin ori r . i. ~pectJve proFtion A mhoc:I of projection In which 3 three· cop y the dlrnenslonalobject Is rep~nte...nt objects higher In the picture pl3ne than otjects ~ed . as aer!at perspective. perptlndlcular to the picture 72 . A point rtpresentlngthe Inte~ of the centl'2l axis of vision and the plcture pbne In hne. linear perspective A mathematical system for representlng three·dlmenslonal oDjects and spatial relationships on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau loy means of perspective projectlon.lr perspective wfthout the appearance of dIstortion. The cone of vision serves as a guide In tktermlnlng ~t ~n ~ drawn In hne.... supporting the object deplcU:d or on which the viewer stands.. ~hnlque for representlng depth or dist... _ o".h the lm3ge of a three-dimensional o!7je.. ~ I al i P kp point . coexlsttnt wft:h the drawing surface. ' .. size perspective .picture pl4ne j I I ur cha se ! An Imaginary transparent p13ne. The illusion of sp3U or ~pth deplcW on a two-dimensional sumce by various graphic means.. nee you I if ~ ground line Ahorizontallfne represent1~ the I~fon of tne ground pbne and the pIcture pl3ne In linear perspect~tl. - .d point III spuc representlng a sing ~ eye of the viewer In nnea r horizon line A nne representlng the intersection of the picture p13ne and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer In n~r perspective.. _.ru-Jlmenslonal objects and ~tl31 rtutlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau as they might appear to the eye.. sprtUl edge An edge of an object or surface separated from Its bacl::ground by dn InU:r.... perspectlve. unterofvision ~ . tone.. central.al~tIc~ .... ..... contlnuity of pictorialspau ~ rn. Uxture p~pectlve A~hnlque for representlng depth or distance by gradU311y IncreaslM4 the density of the texture of a sumce perceived as receding from the plctore plane... . -----+ ......as being closer. ~I perspective vertlc~llocn:lon A~hnlque for rendering depth or dlstance by muting the hue. X ----->-- continuity of outline A f.. usually the ~ane .•.. boo A flxt..Xhnlque for representln~ depth or dlstance by emphastzlng the contlnulty of tne contour of a shape perceived as l:Ieln~ In front and conceaNng a part of another Pehlnd It.DRAWING perspective Ivry afV2.. 1ac3 teJ at the point where 3 slghtllne parallel tcthe set of fines Intersects the picture plane...ground pl~ne Ahorizontal pl3ne of reference from which vertlc31 measurements can ~ taken In linear perspectlve.' _____ '- - 1-. .ct Is projected.....d !rt projecting an Its points to a p!cture pl3nt: by straight lines converging at an ~rlly flxed point represerTtl ng the eye of the viewer. _.--! n-r~~·~ -: I I It perspective. dt his perspectlve..n.a1 of space...rious ~hnlques for representlng t. .. . ccne of vi~lon The field of vision I'2dlatlng outward from the eye of the viewer In nnear pers pectlve...ance by reducing the size of objects perulved as receding from the picture pl3ne.1xf~ of vf~ion The si9htl1ne lnalcatlM4 the dIrection In which the viewer Is Iookl~ In linear pl3~e...

to canverge at the center of vision.ls A dlston:eJ 11r139t: that appe3r5 In n3tural fOl1l1 only wh~n '(IeweJ at a ~~I 3 "!! Ie or reflected from a cUr.. ··~~Ic unit of measurement or space. peNpectJve A arawlng of the perspective projectlon of an aDject or scene.nlshlng polrtt 3S they P"rallellines perpenJicul. "'If Having the heads of all fi9ures at approximately the same level Also. . View 3t" shallow angle from this point 73 .--..~ Any nne colncldent with or parallel to the picture pl3ne..... usea In linear ~lYe to convey an HkJsloo of space ana depth..3 morpho... propor..~rs~~.--. -. diJg<'naf •. r diagonal vanishing point A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal hnes receding at a 45°~1e to the picture plane In hne"r pe~ Also called diagonal point. his boo kp horizon line ur cha graphiC Of or relating to pictorial representation.es of a rectangle.' Par.. isocephalic cop ori gin al se the a n. 0I1~ to the left and the other to the right.. . so th3t the thr~ principal sets of parallel nnes appear to converge at three different I'3nlshir.· "I ccnvtrgence The apparent movemertt of parallel lines reude..-~~-~--I--+--1---=~-'~+-~~-:>"'---':"~J A Ilne along which all sets of receding p-JI'3/1ell1nes Iyfng In the same or parallel planes will appear to converge In linear perspective..d IMs sloping dol+f1W1rd as they rmJe wffl appex tc ~nverge ~ere Pelow th~ horizon fine..l .urlng line . ---. Parallel lines which art hCriz0nt31 M not mea. --." .--.'W mirror. 50 th3t vertical nn~ ~phalor f I l..~~ horizon /in~.. V3n~hlng trace . esp.. three-point ptr5pectlve A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all prinCipal faces o~nqu~ to the picture p13M...----..u-allel t<J the picturt pl.- I j ... IlOrI3dpcen't angl.. as the ground line.. . used .o. ~-------1 Pmllel lines p.-.1r t<J the picture pune tt{lIappe3r t<J ~nverge at the center of vision.... measurements In "nea. DRAWING towara "cammon v. A straight line connectlng two ... '----'\ pe~dicul3r t<J the p~ plane WiU appear to ~rrYf:rge somewh~ en t.. distance pOint.. horizontal lines parallel to the picture p13ne remain horizontal.lUellines rising upw3rd as they ~WiH3ppe3rt<JCOtTVerge' / sornewhert ~ the horizon line. dt me3. . that which depfcts In a clear and effective 1T13nnu. characterlzed chlefty l1y convergence ana foreshorten In!!.-.c.0 the picture pl3M. y lOt-~ two-point per5peaive A "near perspective of a rectangular aDject or volume havll14 two principal faces oblique .~ points...lonate parts or multiplying" '.• foreshortening wapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a represented line or shape that 15 not parallel to the picture plane..uring point A V3nlshlng point for a set of parallel lines used In transferring scaled measurements the picture plane to lines recedlM!J In linear Ive. so that vertlc3lllnes parallel to the p1cture plane remain vertlc3l.~. I 1 1 . and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appe3r .-horizon line one-point per5pective A hnear perspective of a rectangular ODJect ..- --~-. 111 S1JpdMdlng a whole Into ..'1 I t. -.~! if you nee fd. parallel to the picture pl3ne remain 'r'rn\c31 and two horIzo1TtaI sets of parallel lines ol7ilque to the p1cture plane appear to C011'r'erge at two vanishing points.... / or volume having a prinCipal face parallel with the picture plane. -.1neret31n their orien tatlon and Will net appear t<J con~ge... conveying an iIIuslon of exte~slon or projection In space. . ' which can Pc used to take .

..: Joule's law The principle that the rate of production of heat by adirect Current Is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the squa re of the current.... . volt The $I unIt of potential difference and e1ecWmotlve force.: emf •. expressed In watts..tric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constai1t curren't of one ampere.. power 15 eqUJI to t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage.ance to conduct electric current.. voltaic cell. ana the cosine of the p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage... . defined as the dlfferenu of M.. gin I al !. or motor.... A~... Abk V The complete path of an electric U I current. occurring in two forms arl1itnn1y given posttlve and negative algebraic ~ns and rr......::~~~~n~eaaa:~~:~e point. equal to the energy transferred or expenkd \:1y one kilowatt In one hour: acommon unit of electric power GOnSIJmptlon. leW I P lei !ow.. galvanic cen.11 + -. kilowatt A tIf1itofpower.l5 fuDy ~.easured in couloml:1s. or vIce versa. mechanical..ow: curnnt parallel •. In a conversion device as a ba ttery.. esp.. Ii I I I two or more cells connected together to produce electric current...i& reslst. you In an atternatln§ current circuit.... The law that for any circuit the electric current Is directly proportional to the voltage and Inversely proportional to the resistance.. when the power dissipated Petween the points Is t:qua! to one W3tt. J :":::~:::":::....: C potential / (.. Also called spec.. An amount of power.. property of lNtter giving rise to an electr1.. potential difference The voltage difference l:1etween two poInts that represents the wort Involvea In the transfer of a unit charge from one pollTt to theo'ther... storage Pattery.... More the rrmn gf eJectrlctty w.. / w= VxA his power .. causing some of the electric ener~ to ~ transformed Into heat and usually measure4ln ohms... circuit energy...../ f'otenU31 difference or electromotive force expressed In volts: analogous to pressure In water flow...... or other form of energy llIto electrical energy. y .. j The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current.. Also called electric cell. Symbol: 0 if am~e from neg3tiY~ r. generator...al area. equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the sul>stance... voltage .r·· .:1 electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component In tum without pranchlng. wrtt The 51 unit 0{ po-""er. electromotive force The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical. AI:1Vr.. ~j I t_ _ _ i--_ _ _o-__ --<)O--'~-~-_f 1111. ThIs convention Is 5tlf1 used tren though electrons flow in the opposite dfrectlcn. APlir. ~~~:Ive terminal of a primary celf or L ... electric wrge The IntrinsW. The basic 51 unit of electric current. t:quivalent to a flow of one coulom~ per second or to the steady currelTt produced \:1y one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm.ELECTRICITY The sciena dealing with the physical pheno~ arising from the existena and interaction of electric charges.. current •....... the effectlve Cll!'Tent.. ... se the j ori f. y ccnductMty A IT1e3sure of the aulfltyof a sul>st... .... usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes In an electrolyte.. AI:1!?r... ~ The rate of flow of electric charge In a boo ---r- kp ur cha resist..rrangementofcomponents 1n..: W ~e neg3tlve one.. ·. t:qual to the qua ntlty of electricity tra nsferred across 3 woauctor loy a current of one ampere In one second... An arrangement of components In an electric circuit In which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and a/1 negative terminals are connected to oil second conductor.. Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges repel each oU1er.. the power required to o~ an electrical device or appliance. / ... ~agt!iof cell A device for converting chemical into erectric energy........ cop resistivity The resistance per unit length of a sul>stance with aunit cross·sectlon.. Abk..l The proaua of potential difference and CUi1"eI1t Itt J direct·current circuit..an~. including the source of electric series •. ADPr.. ApPr.1nce ~ . eqUJI to one Joule per ~ortothe power ~ Vy a CutT'e11t of 0IIe ampere flowing across a potential ctfferenu of one volt.... An . the same voltage Dtlng applied to each component. I ' I electrolyte A nonmetallic conducting medium In which coulomp The 51 unit of electric charge... ~··-··---······l \ 1-'" . Also called specific conductance. equal to 1....ermll14lofaprimaryCeHor n storage Pattery.__ .:R ohm The Sf unit of electrical resistance. positive. '.. measured In amperes.: A Ohm's law ....-... '.::::~'~""' ::::~:ves a nun metallic medium..: kWh 74 ....000 watts. .. ~:~~atlvet.. I =VIR amperage The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow. t:qual to the resistance of a conductor In which a patenU31 difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere.. _ .rtt--J\o ur A unit ofene-rgy... " ..........It ~s 3S5UI1JeJ th3ta JlrtCt aJrmrt fJoweJ fi-onI oil positive point ~ a nee dt circuit per unit time.. phenomena..

ELECTRICITY ¥Mra-tcr A mJChlM that converts mechanical e~rgy Into electrbl enertr:J.. Induction co!1..: VA l I ·······r L---------_________J r- I : An e!ectrlG device consIsting of two or more J . l k. usually located on '-rl'J.. located near the entrance of the service conr:!uctors and usually consisting of a main dlsconnect switch and secondary switches.. alttrtutor A generator for producing alternating current..-::... A meter for rne.transformer I I Aunit of electric measurement. equal t<J the product of one volt and one ampere... 5e"".. Abbr. The main cum:nt-canyfng winding of a r--------------------l : .. (/~1 / al ~rviu electrical current Is converted.. _-. time only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly... I I L ______________________ ~ 75 ....~' I vott-ampere I r------------------. as from DC to AC. __ . __ .1--' I I I I I I I I I I I The equipment r... step-down transformer Atransformer havln~ a greater numl7er of turns In the primary wlnJ1ng than In the secondary. Also called swiUhgear. gas.. 5ervice CO nd uctor Arry of several conductors extending from 3 main power line or transformer to the service equIpment of a building.._..------... _. ~di_wm~ An electric current flowing In one dIrection .. __ -::.-=. voltaqe to low voltage. metering. ~ ~ ~. serving to transform high line drop The decre3S<lln voltage between two polnts 011 a power !Ine..1ge The voltage supplied b:t a power Mne..____ . alternating current An electric current that reverses directio~ at regularly recurring Intervals...or ~ng~3~~~or~~u Ia~ral to the serke equipment of a boo kp entranuconductor _... switch!?-oard One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches. and SWitchgear for a num!lu of electric circuits.~ The portlon of 3 servu conducr. _ ur cha -I r.. _ .-1 __1 . __ ..de~~nd portJon of service condUC"tars extendlltjJ from a main power line or ~rtsformer to. •. or transformer.. 5erVlng to concentrate and Intensify the magnetlc ftekl resulting from a current In a surrounding coil... fuses..i core ----... A mass of Iron or other ferrous materIal In an electromagnet. ...lS~ and recording the 'iuartmj' of eleGtric power consumed with respect to Clrne.. Al:rbr.. _ A conductor wound In a spiral form to Introduce Inductance Into a circuit...: DC electric motor _ _ _ _ _ _---'j~ A macnine that converts electric power In to muha nlcal energy. metering Instruments.l .----. I l I I ta maintain electric contact !?etween fixed and mOvIng elelnents In a motor or gen era t. step-up transformer ill y high-voltage Operated on.hg~r room ! tr. bulkllng. or / transmitting high voltage. and buses for controlling anr:! protecting a numl7er of electric circuits. a stq1-down transformer. equivalent to one watt for dlrect·current systems and a unit of apparent power fer alternating·current systems. and ~~Ity.. : I -1 L ___________________ : I ---------------~- if you i rr-=-=::::----=--- nee r 'tIf<iItt-hour meter -.?r...._ .:-_------:!. -::... senlng to transform low voltage to high gin ori the --. ____ ~.J }--.: AC 3 I I ----.=:::~7nhd~~d. A'ny of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various dlStributlon points In a l7ulkllng. I ~nsfor1f1erandauxlharyequlpment I I for a I3rge building. ______ ...-.. -t-. ~raJe orPelow~round and ventilated V1 : dlrectly to the outside air. . The overhead portion of servIce conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a . --.. se line volt.--------------------l rI5wft(. as water... or where voltage Is s"'. usually cause. uninterruptil1le power supply An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and Instantaneously upon failure of the nomul power supply. dt his buikflng. wldch employs the prinCiple of mutual Ind uct ton to convert vari3tlons of alternating current in a primary circuit Into vari3tlons cfvoltage and current In a secondary circuit. _ ... ~rviu l.. ovucurrent devices.:oo===:-=:-=-=-{""--=--. f~der ~l"Ilce equipment i standby genaatcr A generator for providing emergency power during 3 power outage.. ___ 1_ .InsfonMfvault l I A room corTtalnlng tM service Aflre-:rated I'0OI1 housing a I I I I I I equipment for a large bulkllng. L _ L _J whlLllngs wounCA on "fiCO same core.. ~ulred or demanded by the pu~\c. measured at the point of use. I I I I I lI=*====::c unit substation A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect SWitch. powered by.._.. __ :=:-=-=::.. Also c:J11ed emergency generator.. . 5el"lice drop bulkllng.. -.. coil _________ .rteral The un.. .:! by res!st3T1ce or leabge alone the line. having magnitude that varies In a sinusoidal manner. and circuit breakers.~·~~-----------J . and protecting the electric power supply to a bulid1ng.ecessary for controlling.. - I : .l.... Abbr.. " I arl113ture ----_.. A ~ or carron conductor serving l1r~h I L~ ___ ~~.epped up or down. cop voltage. _ . I The supplyi~ of uUlitles.==--.. 5u!lstation An auxiliary power station where A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary.. ""1.

ker-~ ~~ A$fofitch tlut automatlcally Internl~ an :1 ~_-_-1_ .... ground plate. ground-fault intempter Acircuit ~ker M SC1SeS currents caused by groond fa ults And Instantaneously shuts off ~r ~ damage or InJury c.. li. l I L ....:I:-------------.:rt velow :3000 F (:'7C). _.~oJ electric ! : L____ J e r3 conductor. and circuit F= -.Alscc3rlid ~f"oundlng ground wire ~.... kp : ___ knife-!1lak fuse .-T' ~r] ~ .'::: :-. -=========1==~ll I.----+:j ~ causIng ~ fire.ry. Also.. A circuit In-eaker I13Y Pc rec'~ And reused witl10ut ~t of i"Y components. two-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternatlng currents or voltages differing In phase ~ OM r'-:' quarter of a cycle or 9O~ f. Aisocalled caPlnetand ACCesslP!e from the "us .. ElECTRICllY pluse The fr3ctlona I pa rt of a per10d or cycle thro~h which tlme has adv..:' :1 ~..ed m an Insulating fiber cha f~si~e alloy.l nJet3ll7lade at each end for IT14klng contact with the i fusll7le fInk within. 120V 120Y p.'l boo front only. 3S when starting a motor.. rnwlem~1 ... grounded conductor -.. =..=--=-./S to luve A potential different from thJt of ~rth. --:.! . resistance Detween two points In an electric circuit. -..ected to . 76 . "7 120V 208V 208 V 120 V 120V fault A 001 failure In the Insulatlon or continuity of a conductor. hot..~ CIl""Cuitm. se tuPe...j--·-r----------· ---1 grounding electrode A ccnductor.lea metallrase.")'sluvlngarr~ . .... damagIng apparaws In the circuit or for collecting.7..-_ . I'Iire of fusible metal al c..rlc cIrcuIt to prevent excess current I /l if fr. Also called ~Ur.-='====-·=:":"·.__ ... result1ng In a flow of excess current. ".1IeJ I>u..~ --~. as a metal ground rod. ...... i ~ \ ~?~ 1 1 ground --. us~11y accidental condition of ~w by an alternating current with one phase or with phases differIng ~ 180°. ---\ A conducting connectlon ~tween an etectrlc circuit or device and the earth i 1C.: §til ...Alsccaned ori metal Afuse hooJsI~ • fuSl'c!e link In 3 porcelain cupfltt.-_____ . 11 '. u ~" ~ cartrWge fu5e " "'.....---------r----------r---------- h :1 L~:==~:::~=~:~:~~=::~-:..b". _--... : r . ground fault Amoment. _.. used I~ I! you Ii pandl7~rd.lnstalled In a protectlng a numver of similar l!: : dt P-rea~ersforcontroUingAnd Ii his I: ~~ 'I i A fuse that klays opening to allow.I. __ L_..-..._.-..:)V dead Not electrically conr.cTUptlng the circuit. AI". -. us1J311y acclkntal... groundlng of a conductlng wire. A fuse havlng a ont-Ume or renewable fuslvle I1nl: encJos.. nee ~nclt clrcults. { ~ '~n electrical system. ~ -~ u . Not electrically char~ed... or In the functlonlng of An . ..[..device contJinlng a strip C'" shock The muscular spasms caused I7:t an electric current passing through the body. . melts under the heat gin the i!._ . Also called short..i short· term ovedcaa to pass. three-phase _.ed wfth a thre3.-.-.. p. -_ ._J Of or pertaining to acoml-rinatlon of three circuits energized !1y alternatlng currentS or voltages differing In phase I7:t one third of a cycleorl20~ short circuit An abnormal./ AC3~ fuse having . tI: ~"----. flrmly em~dded In the earth to est3l7l1sh a ground ccnnectlon.t:~J of va rious .. cop _ I r Auud I7:t exuss y plug~ .. J 1.i nced. n ".. ._~:!______________ Ii d ... and d\stc1ht1ng large eltctric '"""".. Aconductor connect..~~~ lr.n occur.~ 1-.. --....."y conductor.r.. .f~:.. or electrlc~11y chJrged SO.··'-·fr-· i Aheao... _ . measured from a speclflea reference point and often expressed as an angle. used as solder . ! 2::'... carrying.-Any ccnductcr of an electrical Jl system Intentionally connected to a ground connection. -. time-deL1y~ ur u ~a=rd on which are mounted the swftches..-j in various safety ~4'~.... usually In the form of a soIkI copper p...-':r.. or ccld·water pl~. :-~ 1 live Electrically connected to a scuru of voltage.neutrAl or other point of zero potentlal one Ie .--. .J source of voltage. fuses. equlpmerlt or aclrcu:t io a ground connec~. ---. ~ single-phase Of or pertaining to a circuit energized • Ir! I~"" ~ .--..Al7!:>r.

~-I c:fiversityfactor The I'3tlo of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand on the whole.. maximum demand lightning 3mster Adevice fO!" p~ng electnc equipment from damage I1y lightning or other hlgh- -/ voltage currents... -----. 5pari: gap A space Petween two termllt3ls or The greatest load deliverea to an electrical system or circuit over a spectfled Interval of time... protectl~ a circuit to the outlets savea I1y the circuit...o'. Tl .i struct.-----. Indlvk:hul cirr.ac:fflctor L ori gin 1 ! al g!ner.-I t1. or the power consumed by an appll3nce or device. \ The power delivered I1y a genel'3tor or tr'3nsformer.--------" \.. I ELECTRICITY lightnj~ rod . voltage. .ve raceway.. Io. \.ectrodes. if I you I ______ . heating and cooling systems.i discharge of electrlctty may pass at a prescrlbeJ c:femana fKtor The I'3tlo of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system.. Intercoms. t law-voltage Of or pertaIning to a circuit In which alternating current ~elcw 50 volts Is supplied I1y a step-dewn transformer from the normal nne voltage.re. dCrosS whlch. using span: gaps to carry the current to the ¥Ound wtthout f73sslng throogh the device.. nee dt his boo kp [9]1 ur cha se l the cop I Li Dr3nch circuit The portlof1 of an electrical system extend1ng from the ftn... Arry of several conductl~ rods InstJl!eQ at the top of . and rerr.ol overcu rrent device The I'3tlo of the average load on an electrical system over a speclflc perlocl of tlrne to the pe3k load occurring In that period.Jlrility that only a portion of the connected load may be applled at any time. . Also called .al purpo:se circuit Amnch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for IlghUng and appll3nces. used In resIdential systems to CO!'Itro1 doom:lls.~. ....---.--. ~.---..II L-.rlbutJ~ power to other panels or to rrctor-s and other heavy pc-wer-consumlnqlcads. Low·vcttage clrcui:S do not reqUire a protect. dlvert I\ghtl1l~ aWirJ from the structure.ilr Unnin3 L ccnnecUd load The total load on an etea rica I system or circuit If all connected apparatus and eqUipment are energized simultaneously.-. used In estlmatlng the reqUired capacity of the system to account for the prolr.uit A mnch circuit that supplies currerrt Oflly to a slng~ piece of elxtrlcal equipment..inJ grounded to \ load .e lighting fixtures. '-I distriMlon panel A pa nd for als. I y appliance circuit A mnch circuit that supplies current to one or IT'IOT'e outlets specifically intended for appl13nces.

.. or device th3t ev"nduct5 heat.~ conduct.rlcal wires for a circuit and a J if series of receptacles.. or electric Ity. ori se the cha f ( l!{() grommet A rul7ber or plastic washer Inserted in . Also called Romex c.e undesired flow of current.... as by punching... insulator . l . sou nd.. ri9id metal conduit ~- .?r A substance. flameretardant she3th.s per unit of thlcl:ness. . often used In offlu I1ulldings to allow for the flexlule placement of power..... dielectric strength The maximum voltage trut can be applled to a given materi31 without ca using It to !. .. signal... usually expressed in volts or I::i iovor-.. Also called Grunfleld dt ~!~~!I~. lJ u 11 coawlcaple A caulefortransmlttlng h~h-frequency telephone.. 78 .a£. Vushing An Insulating and protective Ilning for one P"""' "CO". 1>0<. .. A material that Is a poor conductor cf electricity.. _. nonmebllk... Pu~duct . u conduit A ~Pe.. down. or duct for enclosln~ and protecting ~Iectrlc wires or cal7le. noncorrosN~ locations... cable tray An open metal framewon: for supportln~ Insulated electrical conductors. shielded caple gin al cop An electric ca!Jle enclosed within a meta IIIc sheath In order to reduce the effects of extern. often Insulated with a dlelectrlc materlaland used as a conductor of electricity. hammerir~.... Cj')"". orcal7les. digital. used for separating or supporting conductors to prevent tr. ~reakdown l~ mineral-insulated caple Electric caule consisting of a tul7ular copper she3th con'blnlng one or more cond~rs em~ In a highly compressed." .. _. EMf his boo compression or setscrew coo p/lngs. !:>ody. _. and telephone ou~!ets./ multi-outlet assemply _. Al7k: kp =~. 5~ caple Electric caPle conslstlng of two or more Insulated conduct«s enclosed In a nonmebilic.I hole In a metal part to prevent grounding cf" wire passing through the hole. ". ./ A ra~ t:lesIg ned for exposed installation In dry./ &urface raceway . y I ..:Ia~~:::d~l~j~i~d~··1u. ex cutting.. Also called 6X caiJle." . racewJy Achannel expressly designed to hold and .--. / ...tteeway designed to house the elect.{e.1 ELECTRICITY ~l7!e A single Insulated conauctoror a Paund or sheathed coml7lnaUon of conductors Insulated from one another...Knockout .. conslstlng of an Insulated conducting tul7e enclosing an Insulated conducting core.:~m~~'I'~~~-I~:"'-"~ conduit... nee used for connections ta motvrs or other vlln7tlng equipment. rmored caple Electric calk consisting of two or more Insulated conductors protected by a flexible..lnsulatlng refractory mineral voltage The minimum applied voltage at which a given Insulator UreaKS down and permits current to pass. moisture-resistant.... I.>.ew!ng directly Into <l threaded huu with loci: nuts ana l7ushln3s. wire A pnable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands.1 electric or magnetic ftelds..>red!. Asu rface· mounted r... pipe. nonhazardous..._____--_--J~ ur He3'fj'-wafled. tul7Ular steel conduit Joined by 5C. to provide an opening Into the Interior. -.. helically wound metal wrapping.. An enclosed runway for housing conductors you Arigid metal housing for a group of ~ses Insulated from each other and the eflclosure. dielectric A nonconducting substance. or television signals. Also called Pu5way. .-./ protect ~ wires and cal7les." Apanel In a casing or box that can readily be removed. L underfloor raceway A raceway suitable for Installation under a floor. junction box An enclosure for housing and protect1ng electric wires or cables that are joined together In connecting or branchin~ ~Iectr'c circuits..

. r= 79 . receptacle Afemale fitting connected to a power supply and eqUipped to receive a plug. ':--' bceplate \. doulne-throw switch used In conjunction with another to control lights from two locations.. moving through a snnallarc..Iass t..ma clcses anelectric An es~lally 't1Iiet Sl'fttch that circuit by shifting a sealed !:.:'-~-'- three-way switch A Single-pole._. Drcaklng. . .~. An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact for a ground conne..ElECTRI(ITY Jir switch II switch 111 whlch tM Interruption of a circuit occurs In air. knife switch .--+. ---.. insilited ca~ie fitted with a plu:l to conroxt a port. "" swiU:h A device for making... causes the contacts to open or close an electric circuit. spatl31 dlstributlon."..--_.ed on porcd.l.u ~ of mercury so as to u"coyer or CClVtr the conUcts. convenience outlet _~ sb An outlet usually mourrted on a wall ana housIng one or more receptacles for porta!nelampsorappllances.---.I statlor. A protective plate 5urrO\Jrtdin~ 3n electric \\.. ~. float switch fuatl~ A switch controlled by a conductor In a liquid mercury switch opens ... key...g~. if y ou n eed leu! A flexl~ In~ted conductor for ekctr.. . An obsolete wiring system conslstll11 of ase r f Iccm A flexible. ____ .lln knobs ana tubes. I : ~ ! 'I I I kncl7-. threaud metal ftWr. grounding plug connector Any cfmlous de/a's for joini~~ tllO or more conductors '..ln$u!ated conductors 5eCur~ to and suppor'. \ I!Jl -~ polarized A plug haVIng a Dlade for a ground J.q for 5C~""ing onto the Intertwl~ ~ds of t ..~i~~i~::~. Also called dimmer switch./ / : four-wayswiU:h A swItch used In conjunction with two three-way SWitches to controlllqhts from three locations..:i. Also called socket. outlet or light swi"~h..1nd-tu~ wiring gin J al outlet A paInton a wiring system at which current ls taken to supply an electric device or apparatus.i:.. plug A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by Insertion In a receptacle. . fire-resistant tubing for conductors In I:nob·and·tube wiring. ook thi "''--' __ ' --.c connec" 'Vcontainln~ 3 . flexl!ne. ~-~J--------------r!8:>~ ~ :.--I .. the 5ln.. . urmil13l A condxtlve dement or device for estabr. facIlitate connectlng an electric device or I rheostat Aresistor for ~ulatlnq a current by me:ans of vartal>\e resistances. '.. ~i: ~! ! r electric Ilght without appreciably affe.-.ery termln31 with a termlr\41 havl~ 3 n~d range of motlon.:hout 3 pe~3~ent splice @ .)+--Fe--l d -" ___ .ctin. p~n A short. ori cop ----.wftch II switch opel"3W O!lly by --.l circuit. ~~ taggle switch A switch In which a lever or knob.-····-··-··-··~ 0 ~.c4l1ycon~ an app3ratus to grounding outlet A snna~l. .sning an electric connection to an aFp3r:ltuS..~-.#~ !amp orap(:3nce to a reap-tacle.Oor more CCflductors. Designed so that a plug and receptacle can fit together In only one way.----. . another or to:. or dlrectlng an electric current.. ". II form of air swftch In which a hl~~ copper PI3~ Is placed betwxh two co~tact cnps. i U I I ""&-+------------H: r .. wire n\It Aplas>J. ----:~1+-1:. connection. : ! rch y pu receptacle to a wiring system.. . /'bIble cOMuctor used In CO\'tnecun~:.------------. :!: . nonmetallic._ _ _ _+-!..outletl1ox AJunctlon box designed U. -.ctlon.

.----.and discharge of passengers or freight.------.1 driving .--------.a common operating S'jSt. has passed a given point. al .-----. idle 5heave A vertlcal enclosed space for the travel of hol. ~~!--_". ----..n. stalrwen or an elevator shaft_ A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of .. as the rectangular cast-Iron ulocks mounted In a steel frame to courtteri1alance the load placea on the holstlng machine by an if you elevator WI r. travel. elevator pit ---.ELEVATOR A m~ pLotfonn or cage for c. cha se the I' I~ hoi$tW3)' door ----------.._-----------------.------------t-~I--.an ~tar Qr from the bwes t to the ~r ~rsafety .. rift 6ritIsh tern1 for elevator. drive shaft. An emtor exclusively fer tne use of pas5el'l¥f'S.----------.mother weight.. ur t. hulk/lng.and an elevator landing. as an elevator car...-----.tw.--------------------------A mechanical Mvlce for slowing aown and stopping an elevator ~r In the event of actuated by a ousslve ~ or free governor and clamping the guide 1'3115 by a wedging action. used as a pulley for hoisting.--. . il One of the vertlcal steel tracks centroiling the travel of an elevator car or counterwel!Jht. nee dt IlA counterweight A weight halancl"9 . hoisting machinery The machinery for raising and lowering an elevator car. supporteJ by hoisting ~l1les. 011 whleh t.. Qr ~..ay ----. i. duml>w. ~ .-------.traveling caple One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to 3 flxecf electrical outlet In the holstway. speed governor."'. or other m~ Is Detween tM floors of . traction machine.. \ hoi5ting cable One of the wire caPles or ropes used for raising and 10 we rl ng an elevator car. Also called elevatcr shaft.---------------A door ~ween ~ holstway . and Mven byeb. dishes.a UullJlng.---------The portlon of ~ holstway extendIng from the fevel of the lowest landing to the floor of the holstway_ L~ buffer A piston or spring device for a!lsorulng the Impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of l>ottom carck.------- h~kest larJings oft'" holstway.. An elevJ tor for ca rT)'ing r.-_'_:_I~ Arowofeb7tcrs In a hk3h-~ by... Also called t. top car cle.n • limit 5witch A switch that automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved I1y It.-. p.arJ the perso~s neu5S4ry for unloading aM loading the freight are permftttJ to ride. AI~ his boo Q/bltnvd- kp The v~1 aiStance tnr~ by . i The portion of ~ floor adjacent to ~n eIemor holstway.after A snuU eb7tor for COI1veying food. 80 .at the landing.----.em and responding to 3 slng~ ~~ Putton..evator c.--_.----. pan~ ...1r~nce The vertical distance from the floor of an elMtor pit to the lowest part of an eleva tar car pl~tform when the car rests on fully compressed buffers. e!ectl'1c eIevrtc r ebr3tor system conslstlng of a ~ Is InOUnWon gulde ralls. ori gin . fre~ht elct'ator ~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ control panel A panel contain 1"4 SWitches. huttons.~ operator .1rance The vertical distance from the top of an el.--. If used. ..-.r to the nearest overhead obstructlon when the car platform Is with the top landing. hrake. A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoistIng cahles of an elevator system.tric hoisting m-.heave A wheel or dis!: with a groovecJ rim. -. Uul1dln~ controlled cne or more elevators. usea for the receJvlng ! y cop guider.--.r-r-~-\o~' " ana gears.--.-------. IL. and other equipment for regulating electrical devices.---.l'~r elct'rlor penthou~ pulkhe3d Aroxllke structure on a roof providing access to . .e3Y)'cargo.rryir. consisting of a motorgenerator set.g passengers or freight from ~ levei of a uui14ing to anothu.I4Inding . Also called deflector she3ve_ lu I~ machine beam One ohhe heavy steel Deams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator.r3ctJon elevrtcr.-.... driving sheave.----.-----.::hlnery. no 1"11141 fly closed except when an elM tor car Is stoppea.

_.. 3S movlng sk:lewal~s Or automaud drtv~5 vehicles. .ELEVATOR r L elevater car The !oacl-carrylng unit of an e!e-{3~'Y. gulde shoes.311 17uttcn ~ al pu rch hydraulic elevator A push l7uttan for requesting a.'1e i i.x1" or gate Is fully cl~.. piston that Is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure. -'-. k\'\. '. Also cal!ed gJ~ contact.~'~·~~'. door cont. I .carframe The structural steel frame of an e!evAtcr car to which are attached the pIJtfor.. continuously moving surf3C'e. c. moving sidewalk inclined lift A chair or plJtform mounkd on a steel gulde rail and driven by an electric motor.. over the entranu to an elevator on each floor of a multistory ~ullding. ~ ~~:':sually . M~ht • cnetal enclosure. -'.. person or goods along a stairway.e oper.• .! . _ . -. u$tJ for movl"9 passengers up and dcr'ln Petween fars. Alsocal!ed stair A power-driYen. hoisting ca~les.J if y : ou n / . ~at.ltlon of an elevate-r car unless its a. eleVl/torcar safety. and contrcl eqUipment. platform.tor A power-driven stairway conSisting of steps attached to a continuously Circulating Pelt.:. cop gin the ori ase c of floor landings.. usd . and $haves for . ook eed thi r o •• J1 . used for raising or lowering. used for shuttling people 3rc"~ airports or In congested urban 3reas J lift.rt.1. --4-.r carrying pedestrians horizontally c-r akJq low Inclines.~ people mover Any of various forms cf mass tr3nsi~. control equlpmcmt. slmllJr to a conveyor belt. and door or 93 teo ! ---. that signals the apprcJcn of:. annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elev:l t:r W' cr at a landing that displays a VlsU31 \nd1catlo11 y machine room Aroom housl"9 the hoisting machlne1j'. consisting of a car frame. Also caned moving staircase.\.~. door inter'Uk A saf~ Ibice for preventing the operatlon of an elevator C3r unle:s$ the hcistway doorls Icd::ed In the clostJ position.1ct Asaf~ device for prevenU"9 t~..:·:--~-r '... sb An elevator system COI1s!stlrtg of a car supported by ...upp~orlowerendofanescaiJte-r. L . mOYirl.3 stairway.c-r.• elevator." CO m17plate The toothed portion of the th res hold plate at roth eMS of an escJlator or mGVIng wall::." newel ~ . .i el~. ising ana Ioweri"'3 an ~C3r. designed to mesh with the grooved surface \ of the movl~ steps or treadway. 1'4 f'~ [Thehor!zontalsectionofrai!ingJtt~e ..

_.. .=~~··... al ~ the A rta'luvIng a small ccnJca I hea d an.. anJ a ~monJ point.:! a s!gnt ~ ~ than a common nail of Q-..1I1..... Also called driftpin... as scaffolding and formworc. namng strip A strip of wood or other pa rtly yielding material attached to a hard surface.. Symbol: d l. slender piece of metal having ~ ena pointed ana the other enlarged and f~ for hammerl~ Into wood or other 3{Jmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm shank The straight. J ...'. be driven at opposite anqles to prcl't'lde IncreaseJ holdIng power. mae ~ P!1I1!1 A heavy nail for fastening together he3vy tlm!ler5. driven Into a surface Ul secure sheet material or to hold a hasp. . s.. ~~ ~~ end-nait To fasten I7y ru\ll~ Into the end of a board. a flat hea....H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or mere parts or members. driftl10lt A spike having a round shanl:. Also carted wiggle nail l. i currug... welding or 5OIderi~.. st.... chi~lpoint A ~flnlshlng rui!.. I L L 82 I f I ..... cc~lUii you ~ a ~ on Its shari to prevent it fran ~~ driven In an the way a-nd to 1e<Ive the he3d free for pumng. used In ~I1dIng te-mpcr3 ry ~res. driven into predrilled holes to fasten heavy tim bas together.. End-na lling flooring na n A oUorfllstenlng floor roards. '~'. (102 to 356 mm) long a~. n. A polnt on a nail or spike formed I1y two rut lnclin--"A slaes meetln£! at a sharp angk:. conical point on a nail or Spi(e b I se ~ ~...'1.. ~Iso called saewnai1. ur .. with .. pyramidal point on a nail or 5pil:e. a miterJoint.... L I ~..tn I7y nailing perpendicular Ul thP.~""''''''''' "'wlthaca.xure • . used In finish won: In whlGh the head mzy remain vlslb1e. or cementcoated shank and a ~ro3d. 5tr. .. "lIh"d ~ ~ -... ~pea head that 1$ driven slightly ~the surf3ce and CCf~ with putty or thelk cha 0"'1111 ~ ··' · arm cop y .. for unltlng two pieces of wood. -...1ple A U·shaped piece of metal or heavy wire with pointed ends.. ori C '.ener h3vi~ a hdlGally threaJeJ shac that can be driven with a hammer and relI"OIea with 3 screw driver...d.: ...Ii!ht..tm~ with a mechaniC31 fastener. between the head 3nd the pOint. f'lJt head for osterling shlng~ or the like.. b<Jildl~ I13terlals 35 a fastener. Alwnate nails mil)' if A ~ naM ~ng a fliMd or ~ shank ana a dbrnond point for halWleli~ Into concrete or masonry. ~hankrun ~u A hav1~ a series of concentric gl'OOl'es on ~ s~nk for Increased holding power..1<Jso QlbInu SON')' IU iI.. from twopenny to slxtypenny.e Si1I1e le:n§th.naI con~1 ~a.h'~l<lowth""". thre3ded. .' kp fictshing nan A l13._ •• _ ••• ~=. ~uiI ~th4n a common 0 il -U~~________________~~ Artad having a fult heaJ ana a shank more nail of the same til"" ~~lUa gin ....3 diamond point An acute. ' eightpenny nail A nail21f2 Inches (64 mm) long.. ~!i:ure a nail or screw In position bY hammerln~ down the protrudlnq point... : ~ . ry ronding with an adhesive... . I7y nalll~ In such a way that To nailheads are not vlsl!71e on the face of the worl::.-p round point An acute... or bolt.. dt 'I II '~1~'~~'f«! _ . . a mechanically defOl111ed shant.... _...... I • sharpeneJ. face of the wo~..... 0' A~ having a 1rari1ed. his boo Pnd c RUllI!!! ~.d proportionally thicker than a COmmon nail ! l•... pin.. or Dy 4J 6J 8d 10J 12d 16d 20J . .Jn .4to Min. and a !Iluntdbmond point." L I ••• u ••• u . as by d. six1:unpenny nail A nail 31f21nches (89 mm) long.)1 . narrow part of a nail or bolt. I ccmmonnan A rtlQIgvtn~ a slender shank. r..' .-. suffold nan.rted fastener A fastener ccnslstlng of a piece of corrugated sheet stu! with one wavy eaqe 3S In ..~:!lok' 511. .. so that oUJects may be fastened to the surface.. nail set..toen..::. parallel to the grain of the wood.. I . AM4I fast.bvill4 a sleMershank and a s:nall. U 1 '.• penny IV2' 2' 2Vz' 3' 4' The deslqnateJ length of a nail.. as of steel or concrete...1i1 . c·_- . Also called form nee roo . cllt nait A ~d Ur1~ a tapering rectangular shank witIt a Wunt point mac:le I1y cuttlng from a rcl1eJ sheet of Iron or steel 0 n spike wire un A ~rt I1y cuttl~ and shaping a piece of round or elnptlcal wire....-:-~ ~-.W roofing nan ~~--====== P ~~ii~. doub(c-~ded na iI A113. face-nail To fas-:. . To secure bY nalll~ o\:1~uely to the surfaces ~einqJoIned. havl~ a s..... 1 . drW$Crt.....

haVing a straight.---------i I A screw head ha"llng 3 shallow. nllisterhead ----.--.--..--.:'~?l. --. machine screw A metal fastener used with a nut or driven Into a tapped hole.----~a _ i self-tapping screw Acoarse-threaded screw designed to tap Its corresponding female thread as it Is driven. threaded shank held by threads tapped In the hote Into wh1ch It is screwed.------------A screw head having a flat upper surface movement. thum\:1screw Ascrew having a flattened.-. -. Also called tapping screw. lag "oIt.--------.The helleal or spiral ridge of a screw.-. and a conical bearing surface_ e OV31 head .-. ------------- security head A screW head designed to resist remOTa I with a flat-tipped or Phillips screwdriver. "'-------.-.-----. -----. countersink .---. driven by~a Phillips screwdriver.A cylindrical screw head having a slightly domed upper surface and a flat bearing surface. Also called coach screw. r I pan head . threaded shank and a slotted or Phillips head for tumlng with a screwdriver.--------. A screw or rivet head having a cylindrical shape with Oil rounded shoulder. designed to I:>e driven Into wood or the like by turning. . ~ I futl~ad ~ KIIII e se the gin ur kp his boo dt you nee al if "'.---. sheet-metal screw A coarse-threaded screw for fastening sheet metal and other thin material. helically threaded shank and a slotted had. nut. --. strip To tear or darruge the threads on 3 bottorscrewbyapplylng too much foru. used In areas Inaccessible to the placement of a nut or where an exceptlcnally lang bolt would be needed to penetrate ajoint fully. Phillips head Ascrew head having two partial slots crossIng at ~ht angles. or ~t_ wood screw A screw having a slotted head and a threaded point that permits It to form its own mating threads when driven into wood with a screwdriver. p~lehead Allen head Ascrew head having an axial hexagonal recess.---.-----------------------~~ . screw eye A screw having a ring-shaped head. tap To cut screw threads Into an opening. A screw head having a flat uppe~ surbce and an underside shaped Ii". or for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. as with a screwdriver.The dlstance I:>etween two corresponcl~ points on adjacent th reads of a screw. threaded through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or Into another part to prevent relative -. pitch . . knur.. driven by an Allen wrench. 83 .e the bdl of a bugle. setscrew Ascrew. . cop ori cha y cap screw Ametal fastener for machine pa~.~ pitothole ~--------------------­ lag screw A heavy. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a square or hexagonal head driven by a wrench. or bolt_ ---1 ~<C. having a straight.-. thread ----.ed head designed to be tumed by the thumb and foreflnger. nut.J FASTENING. o 1 ' r I slotted he3d A screw head having a single slat. ~~ ~~ ~'\.: To enlarge the upper part of a drilled hole so that the head of screw or bolt will lie flush with or below the surface.~" ~ ~ -. ------. screw A metal fastener having a tapered. Aguldlng hole for a nail or screw.-. spherical shape with a conlcall1earing surface. driven by a fiat-tipped screwdriver. often without a head.

l prearilled hole and open as th0' emerge to engage the Inner surface of .~_----"=. when It has a speGlal fOI1!1-'" . ~ I __ exp..l: pm'or....ap !?etwe.erPore To locraSoe the d~meter of 3 portion cf the ~gth of a drilled hole to receive the he.. or rerle1e friction.. sleeveltl:e shea th threadeJ so th. ~ hex head A bolt or screw head having a hexagonal sha pe designed to ~e tumea with a wrench. _ •• _ . fox~lt sleeve.id or nut cf a Dolt or screw. An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a split tnd to re:c. ! I l l. cop al ori @~ A washer speciJlly constructed to p~ent a nut from sh4klng loose.-JC. used ur'krthe he3d ofa nut or bort or at aJoint to c!stribute p-ressure.....om nut..lted wr. " db \l:J/ :~:stle nut.:. edge d15tan. des~ned to be Inserted through holes In assempled parts and secured fly a lTt3tlng nut...: ~ ~ . >_..en tr.ea in ' b o t h the nut and a hole in lts bolt. nee I + .oll!li~~~~'~" ..lnd of expansion bolt spilt.. ~-. : i ~~ locl:nut ~. A nut having r3d1J1 slits onl1. used where the head /Tt3j' ~ Inaccessible during tlghtenlng...\. __ . Melly .0 hoW It. and a square shoukJer for preventing rotation... -····.lslori ill the lockwashu the r I gin I .'--' A It3d or pbstlc sme Inserted Into a predrliled ho~ and expancled ~ driving a bolt orscrtW Into It. "'" """ ""'" ~ . .. c ... :t<~:::WU'M.I n ..dcmed tcp to co<er the threaded tr.d of 3 screw. exp. Dott..1 head at one end. ~~ Fi--I _ O ~Uli-. :.. the.~re<o. -.s outer fJCe to Olilowa locking pin or wire to!?e Inser-.. kp ur r row spacing dt The center-tc-center distance ~tween two or more rows of bolts. Also called thumlmut.-... I ~ i I two flat P"'J«tl'g pl=s t"-'t provide agrip for tightening wtth the thumb and forefinger..-----..11 FASTENING" ~It square head A bolt or screw head having 3 5qua re sha pe designed to !?e tumed with a wrench. © ~ . end distanu + r if you his boo ." ". 103J·lndicm~ washer A W3Sher havlng small proJect1ons which are' ~ressfvely futtened as a Dolt 15 ~htened.. -. -'--' ---.~~~ted dis( of metal rubt>er. hollow wan. _.__ • ~__ ..~.an.lon 'hiekf -. _~ The dlstance ~een tne end of • ~ "oJ the center of the ~rest bolt !IoIe.eX310nJlrre:"'lbloc. a flat beJring surface.~ &W A nut i1Jvlng a hexa90nal base <lnd ..jJ ~:~t~:. ···· -~ An anchor ~olt havlng two hinged wings that close against a spring when passing through.t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the s~th together and spreads the sides to enga¥.ce The dlstance from the ~e of a tlmbeT • rod the center of the ne3rest bolt ho~ rraaeman: for.ole to f-: around arJ secure abort cr screw A nut speci3l~ constructed to prO'Y"\je Ii carriage po It A bolt having a rounded head. "fi) m? ~ 0---... II -$. . -'...e he3d or nut ana the washer Indicating the te.. Also cal~d expansion Iewi5 ~It An anchor bolt i1Jvlng a ~-shapea end ~round which coocrete or Ie3d Is poured '. togglel1olt·· . nut . '" .e:ve a foxtail wedge as It Is scrtwed Into a Hind hole.an. y ~.. machine 170ft A bolt having a flat ~ring surface and a square or hexagonal head for tumlng with a wrtnCh. Also called ac. cha se ! ccun+. usually h3vlng . A thre3ded metal pin or rod...a Pr....lon 170 It An anchor bolt havl~ a spnt casing that expands mechanically to engage the sides of... Ats-J IL. ____________ .. or piJstlc..: Asqum~orr."d. ··-····· __ ··-···..-"'-'-. hole drilled In -nusonry or concrete.iIW~'m.:h a threadd r.. prevent IeJI:"':le. neck Thepartontheshankofaboltnextto the head.I hole drltblln masonry or the Inner sumce of a hollow wall. __ h2v1~ . esp....

using special nails which are loaded laterally rather than In withdrawal.r I tull¥' A.e s~ member Is through shear b '.:.:!-.r~I"'§ ~ end of a beam. ". or sl"91y in a wood-to-metal connection.-' . used with a single 110ft that serves to restrain and clamp the assemDly to¥ther.~ of varous lHhaped II1etaI mckets for FASTENING . --.--------------_. held III piau Py a :.. uid ~ lateral Ioods. llml:oer connectors are more efficient than I10Its or lag screws useJ alone since they enlarge the area of wood over which a loaJ Is dlstrlputed. the ori gin C"p...----.---------. rrt :0 Iocsenlng due to vlbratlon.:'e ~ rtilils securing the hanger.. ---.prUlg or to them. white the ~eled cross section eases Insutlon and ensures a tlght-flttlng Join t after the ring Is fully seated In the grooves.'li pbte punched to produce . or ~ CtlrYed grid of spikes for eed ~piU grlJ thi A $-~-rret. Soi. or grid for transferring shear l1etween the faces of two timrer meml:oess. plate. . . cop if y ~~ havytwt~. y ou n A fIr.----. rch A C)tmJr'd pm fttUng snugly Irrto holes b tlooO ~ pieces to prevent their s1. • cCsdy ~ §lid of protrodlng teeth. Also called hurricane tle .pct. consisting of a sttffened steel angle I10ftea to a wall stud and secured Py a threaded rod to a concretefounJatlon. haWown A metal devtce for restraining a wood frame structure against upllftlng wind or seismic forces. ase ~j .---------------. The tongue-anel-groove spht In the ring penn Its It to deform slightly under loading and malnt3ln !lea ring at all surfaces.floor anchor A metal tie strap for restraining a floor of a fight wood frame structure against uplifting wind or seismic forces_ ~illanchor A framing anchor for securing a sill plate to a concrete slab or fouMatlon wall.l>ut load transfer t. ~plit'rln9 A tlml:oer connector consisting of a metal ring Inserted Into corresponding grooves cut Into the faces of the Joining members and held In place Py a slngte Dolt.-......:...frtwood~ al Ir.--.--.---. flush with the face of a tlm!1er.. .Jolst._----------- tim\7er connector A metal ring.--. ~ re-5lJ~joInt Is ~ .jolstanchor A metal tie strap for securing the joists of a floor or roof dlaphrag m to a concrete or masonry wall In order to transmit lateral wind or seismic forces. or tl'uS5 Jt 2 §Irder or wa II. framin9 anchor /' i Any of various sheet-metal connectors for / / joining light wood framing members. : _ . t::d ~s 3 sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture sb ook ~pbte pu dcwdpirt.''"''!l~ Pdt. Shear plates are used In bac~-to~ck pairs to develop shear resistance In demounta171e wood·to-wood connections.-----.. purlin. The supported ~ tnnsfers Its re3CUon to the ~~r t:hrough ~ring. and he'd In place Py 3 single I1olt. Also called a. 1 5~r p~te A tlm~r connector consisting of a round plate of malleaule iron inserted Into a corresponding groove. hurricane anchor A framing anchor for tying a rafter or truss to a wall plate and securing It against lateral and uplifting wind and seismic forces.

or cut.. root The point at which the I7acl: or rottom of a weld !nUts cop y Thejunctton Detween the I7ase metal and the face of a wekl.et . tapering piece of metal for enlarging or angnlng holes to receive rivets or polts. '-. memw rmt Ametal pin having a ht4d at one end. soldered.... .:f IIytM corrtlnuOlls flow of an Inert gas from an external source.nd the addition of an Interme-diate or flib... shield around the arc. doul1le-vu weld Agroove weld In whk. as rosin.?.:. and In these arcwekllng processes In i'l'hleh the el~ does not rJmish the filler metal .lt Is detonated ~ striking the head with a hammer to expand tr. "'~ " <D3. ..:f by a ~n~et of granular metal that n-. USU311y a~In-~ .elts to form. havlng 3n explosive.1 nee welding Any of. " i the .-=-/- throat A sulistance.~{1.o\i:t:::::::::.. at a temperature a!love 800'f (427't). .. This shield protects the weld are<! from oxygen aM nitrogen In the iilr that would C3use ra pld oxid3tlon of the flquld metal L1 welding rod '.----- -----.toe o A wire or rod of filler Iretal used in gas-welding and mzing processes. "'\1ead A continuous deposit of fused metal. pneumatic riveter A pneumztlc hammer used with 3 """t set to form the second head of a rivet.----<.1 ~ of protectl\o e sla ~ Tl~ filler:netal may I7e suppl1ed !1y a consumable dectrode or by a separate weldl~ rod..filleJ shank th. slt13li pool of molten rretal. . remove oxldes from .FASTENING $O'kr To unite two pleus of ~I !1y applylng any of various nonferrous braze To unite two pieces of metal ~ applying any of various nonferrous solders.it A groove weldin which the edge of one abutting memller 15 !?eveled from path sides..~e met3ls to few together. JI flux 1-. Wttweld A weld between two p~s of /I'1eb1 ~u.. Imzing. -----------------1-'-\1 cha I lj1 h~_o:."~~_. I5lng\Hevei weL:f A~roove weld 1ft which the ed¥ofoneal7utt~ IneIT1Per Is ~ from one side. !lrazlng.flLlX'cc~ arc weldi"9 Amethod of arc welding usi"4 a tutrular stu! electrode conta Inlng • core of vaporlzlng flux that forms a ga~s shlelJ around the weld area I Y submergea arc welding A method of arc welding In which the se weld area Is shie!de.. Also called electric arc. arc A sustained luminous discharge of electricity across a gap Iii. -"-. sometimes y. Dr3Zed. or soldering.JoIned.l group of welding pr~sses utilIZing the heat produced D:i the comDustlon of a oxygen and a fuel gas. used for uniting two or more plates IIy passlng the sham: thro~h a hole In exh piece and hamrrering down the plain eM to form a ~d head. as acety\el1e.et31.. aligning punch A drift for Drlnging holes In line to receive a rivet or bolt. at a tempmture "'low MO'f (427't)./ . applied to. as distinguished from filler metal..'.jJ group of welding processes utlr!zlT'g the heat generated by resist4nce to tbe passage of a e!ectnc current.... Also called drlftp!n./-' The distance from the root of a weiGl to the f3ce of the I7ase metal ori _ _ _. dt I '~" his ----.::.l'Id prevent further cx!datlon of 1T'.!loy.:.-:.ea~.~.o.arc weldi"9 A method of arc welding In wh~n the weklarea Is shle!de. f ---'''. double·l1evel we14 if you nee l5ingle-vu weld A groove weldin which the edge of each abutting mem~ Is !?eve1ed from the same side. fusi~.~~~""'_. filler metal The metal that Is added during a welding./ // gin A wek:I ~. -groove weld A weld made In 3 preformed IndentaUon Petween two alMtl"4 pleces of IT'<:t.inert-gas shielded . g3S solders. rivet~ A tool fOf' shaping the second head of • rivet.----<~". solder Any of various fus/VIe albys applied In a molten state to the jollTt l:>etween two metal parts to unite them without he3ting the pa~ to the melting poIn~ The JI10Iten sokler flows Into aJoint !1y caplttary mtactton..1 surfaces to I7e joIned ~ wek:I1ng.e edge Is of each ab-vttlng !leveled from both s!des.=... .h P-..---'-'- kp full'penetratio nweld A ~tt I~d having a depth puddle weld A weld made I1y truml~ a hole In a piece of sheet metal and filling with.. .~J The princIpal met31 to lie welded. or soldering process.<:-:-i arc welding Any of a9roup of welJ1ng processes utinzlng the heat of an arc Detwee-n 3 n electrode 3nd ~he base metal. . dolly Atool for receiving and holding the head of 3 rivet while the other end 15 I7elng headed.11ong the seams of two overlapplng plet:es of metal tM Ir. boo A Putt weld h~ adepth less than ~ thickness of the sma lIu of ~ two meriet's being . 86 . \1ase metal . _ al lap weld --. drift A rouM. haVing a melting point either approximately the same as or l ':--~~!ot-""'~''<'r''---<.! re-si.--------.th pressure ."..e sh3n~ on the far side of the hole.. Also called weld ~d. wetaing Any of. explosive rivet Arivet for ajoint 3CCe5slble from or-e side only.. ur l-. shielJed metal arc weldi~ A method of arc welding using a consurnaDIe metal electrode that " relases an Inert gas to form... weld To unite or fuse two pieces of metal by heating aM allowing t. equal to the thickness of th~ slt13ller of the two mempers Delng joined. c!rcuit or between two electrodes.<.-_ _ _ _ _ _----"'~~-=-=-c»--->"""". the filler metal Deing $lJpprled by a consult13lne metal electrode or Dy a sep-a ra te weIJ1 ng rod. ~:I::hatofth' mota I.. PJrtial'pen~atlon weld ~..t..~ fillet we 14 A wek:f with a triangular cross section joining t~ surf3ces that meet In an Interior right angle.ise metal.rr. usually a copper-zInc alloy..

used to step or deflect sparts or emDers thrown from an op~ flrepiJce or chimney.. b front hearth The part of the hearth that projects Into the room.------------------------A metal cover or canopy for a stoTe. AcurretTt of air In any enclosed space. . or to. stove. as In a room. !1etween 3 chimney and 3 header In a floor structure to support a hearth. ashpit A receptacle in the bottom of J fireplace or flreDax for the collection and rem(N31 of ashes.r.::S:~·~-~~~~i~~'-"-'-~' or ~ lixe..-( I I ~ ! . --. often extending a short distance Into a room.. rectanguur. esp. l The part of the hearth 15 --. Also called camper par. caused by the dlfference In temperature or pressure. pack hearth ! _ trimmer arch An arch... ur sm(ike cha mper An enlarged area Petween the throat of a fireplace and the flue of a chimney.FIREPLACE Ponnet A corer for ~n open flrepl3ce.:-"'~"'-_-~"".mney pot --- ...___ ---. flreplace..h a damper. chimney. chimney. A cylindrical pipe of earthenware or .l chimney fer removing SCOG. Aisc. --- smokesta<:k A pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion. the masonry arch used In place of such a lintel. !~~. nee throzt The narrow openl"9 ~ a flreplace and Its flue smoke chamPer./t metal. -. " . . or ventiLJtcr. Ame~1 vetTt forfuel-flrtd equIpment. lth se3ting 1\lso called chimney corner A ca5t·I/"()(l door pr(Nlding access to an ashpit for removing ashes.Ctfoc.-. dt i " his chimney cheek The sides of a fireplace opening supportlng the mantel.mOkA''''· An IncombustIble passage or y A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pia s ter for a chimney flue.Imin4 the Apart of a chimney or fireplace that projects out from a wall..----draft. -===============:!==++================.1nUIplece. smoke aome ---------------------The smol::e chamber coverinq of Ii prefabricated metal flrepiJce unt!o downdraft A downward current of air In a chimney or flue.. usually In the form of asia b or cornIce. 87 . drili A devrce for regulating the current of alrln a stov~ or fireplace. / A raised cover for a chimney.mteltree Astor. cha supporting the bre..e or wooden lintel (Ner a fireplace opening.311y coverlnq part of the chimney b-re~st In a <kcor3tlve ITt3nner.. se chimney arch An arch over a fireplace opening. A steel lintel for carrying the rna sonry above tM flrepl3Cc opening.. h3vln!l a ~uare.. ~ /1 \\ ~\ i I .. i I prefa~ricrted flue . damper A movable piJte for reguiJtlng the draft In a fireplace.c. firepox The chamrercontalnlng the fire of a fireplace.-. Or furnace.~. ori A~stnJCtlon fr. often carrying smoke with It.e1 m.--~flue lining A smooth-surfaced unit of heatreslsta lit flre cuy or nghtwelght concrete.. assemUlea from factory- r ITt3de parts. contained within the flreplace Itself.. Also called outuhearth. fire screen flue pargeting f opening of. . tumlng par. used for lining the flue of a chimney..lst. i / I /7--"."- fPiiiiiiiii~~ . or J cowL hood. ashpit aoor i~lenook A comer or nooI: nar aurge. usually of brlcl: anQln theform of haff of a segmental arch. or stove. kp smoke shelf Aledge at the bottom of 3 smoke chamPer. gin 1Tt4nt./"'-(--_________ chl. the part of such a structure that rises above a roof_ / ~chimneycap ~~~ii..--------"\'./ .. if you or hearth The floor of a fireplace.3 flrepbce and usu... parget. r. chimney Avertl<:al. so made as to deflect or break the downdrafts from the chimney.. or stone. or a chimney m~st al cop A screen placed In front of a fireplace to prevent sparks Or _ embers from enterll'g the room.-----------.lncomUustlb!e structure contaIning aflue through which the smoke and gases of a fire or fumace are carried off to the outside and by means of which a draft Is created. open flr~pIJce. usually Inside a Uulkllng. ___ / j Increase draft and disperse smoke.········~velitliJtor. Also called Inner hearth. or oval sectlon. 1J5u311y provlded . I I I 'I' . tile. hood ---.. . . fitted on top of a chImney to .lchimney par I I I I boo /r. or wInd cap to Increase Aframed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire. usually of brick. d.~~s. Also called m. often closed wtr.

. or del3ys the egress of occupants In the event of fire. ~.aterial can produce when It 1nJrns..- : .. .. as concrete. measured In pounds per square foot of floor area... J . reslstanu rating required by Its tunnelu5t 1200 j ~!--i--~~-7---7--.---~--... developing any openings whlch ~nnlt the passage of fIa me or hot ~ases. the water aPsorVs heat..•.~ .. I r L 88 I ~ . .-. I on the slde aw. ::. fumeret3rdant A compound used to raise the Ignitlon p0. assemL>!y. his f:?·~+~:· . Materials having a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~ aDOI"e450 are not permitted to De ~ Inside InJlldlngs. fire-rated Notmg or pe~lnlng to a material... when exposed to the heat of a fire.. : . the establishment of adequate firefighting services... :~ ..-=-........... determined by S\lbjectl~ J full-size specimen to ~res according to J standard tlme-temperature curve.~..._-_ . _... '. .. -~ .. '.hou" 6 8 I~_ii/l u I _ if you -.... } time ~nition point flash point The lowest temperature at which a combustll:ne Ilqukl will give off suffic~~ vapor to ignite momentarily when ex~ to flame......- : ' . thus makln~ It more resistant to ftre.. [LJ '. -_. combustil1le Of or pertaining to a material capable of igniting and bumlng.. o~structs access to ftreflghtlng equipment. used In making a structlJral memver or system resistant to dam~e or destruction by fire..-... Q. the use of fire deuction and extinguishing systems. ~ -. swells to form a thICK Insulating layer of Inert gas ~utoDles that retards flame spread and comvustlon.. applied by air pressure with a spray gun to provide a thermal varrler Ul the he3t ofa ftre.... the amount of fuel the material contributes to the fire....• : .----T---7--: Atest measuring the time It takes for" use.....: .. : ... I U I boo dt .'-----i y ~ .. flame-spread rating Arating of how qUickly a fire can spre:ad along the surface of an Interiorflnlsh material Reel oak flOOring has a flamespre3d ratlng of 100 while a cementasbestos roard has a rating of O..:~ .:... "'-".. . rises by convection to remove the heat..::.... :~..:. confining the spread of fire with fire-resIstant constructlon..i:• •• : . and 15 replaced with cooler water from a stcrage tank or a city watu main.. : " . :.... _.... smoke-developed rati~ A rating of the amount of sm'*e 3n InW.~~-~-~--~--~--+--+-~ gin r------: 1..:-:":. I 'pray-on fireproofing A mixture of minerai fll>ers and'an Inorganic ~Inder.. 01' construction having a flreAlso.- cha - ~ I •.ayfrom the fire. ana the training of building occupants in fire safety and evacuation procedures.. ----~-~-~~--.. fud-GcntriPutlan rating A ratlng of the altlOtllTt of com!:oustl~ sUUstances an Interior finish mater!3i c.--~--~~--~--r--7--~~ contrl!nIte to a fire.. gypsum.. -"-- al ori the ~ i cop d ! ~ 600 (!)!+---.. metal lath and plaster ~ ... 1000 controlled fIa me to spread across the bee of a test specimen.. __ .- ~ I ..----+----=----i----...' :'.... The lowest temperature at which a substanu will undergo spontaneous comtoustJan and continue to!:oum without additloM31 appl1c3 tIo nof ixte rrul! hea t. .. 2 time.': . ~ ~ []I " ..or finish IT'. of a flammable material. : I ~" - .. se kp /'."'"-. 01' minerai flber. ".. Also called 5Ulner tunnel test..: ....7": ••. fire hazard Any condition that Increases the likelihood of a fire...."=.]c. . [ZID ...r FIRE SAFElY The measures taken to prevent fire or minimiu the loss of life or property resutting from a fire.' ~ L I ... _.nt r " nee ~ J 'f "':~. .. :.:......... r '. flre-reslsunce rating The time In hours a material or assem~1y can be ~ Ul withstand exposure Ul fire without collapsing... I fire load The amount of com~ustlble material In a ~ulldlng.' : ..sn 200~.. If exposeJ Ul flame.f:e denslty'of the smoke developed by the fire. IJ ~ fireproofing Any of various materials. -. fire-nslstlve. L• . intumescent paint A coating that.. '. and t... . i I t.. _. >:~ . .... ' .- .:. 01' exceed1ng a specified temperature ~ 8oo~1~~----~--~--~--~---+--~~~ ~e. ur o o --L-.. including limiting fire loads and hazards. l~ukJ-filled column I ~ I A hollow structural·steel column filled with water to Increase Its fire resistance.

•... . _..arove. fire area An area of a Duildlng ~nc!osed by fire· rated constructloi1 capal1le of confining the spread of fire. . flr/! d3rnpe~. distance separatlon 1M separation required Petween an exterior wall of a uulidlng and a property nne. -..._ .. r ! I! tfit\ ___."J "Its location and use.p~ device to Insure closll19 .._•. The assemDly of 3 fire door. frames. A ftrt asseaWly ~t 15 normally kept In "'... ".. ur A fire <lsseml7lythat may remain In an ~ posltlon and wiU clese ~ utomatlcally If suPjected to an ~se In temperature or actuated by . ========= . fire window.s. [.... reqUired flre·reslstance r3tlng for ''". or roofor fire damper.... and Sills..~d:~~~"...I I 89 .. component.. anch0r3g~ frames and sills. "firetUmpu W AM~~b~. floor..catfng that the product (a) has a ratlng vased on performance tests of such product. the center hne of an adjacent street or public space..rtk-c105i~ fi~ a5~mbly . ex a n area of a city to another....• ....~~r ~ ~..IncIud1ng all requ~ hardw3re. Inc..' FIRE SAFETY firezofl('! A zone of~cttywlthln which cutaln construction ~ ~re prohl~lted ~useofflrelm3rds present In the zone. or other recognized testing la~aratory. or other tests for safety...anchorag~ frarntS labeled Of or pertaining to a l1ulidlng materlal or assemu\y having aflre·reslstance rating certtfled by Underwriters' La roratorles..uestabllsned to prevent the spread of fire from a Dulidlng. . ~ fire assembly irl· ~ dt his UL laPel _. or roof-ceiling construction having the required flre'reslstance ratlng to confine the spread of fire.•..•.lI ...' _ / fu5ilk finK A hr. ~ .~I~I~'" required hardware•... -. An open sp. the nn~ mel:s . and (c) 15 suPj«t to the reexamination service of UL if you nee cop y maae ~_~ :}~. An opening In a wall. l. Inc.I". (l1) Is from a productlon lot fotmd I1y exJmlnatlon to ~ from Nterials and by ~ses essentf3rly taerrtlc31 to those of representative products which have ~ subjected to appropriate flre..lndudil19 all required ceiling construction that Is fitted Mardwart.. __ . flre·r3t..ed shaft.. required whae a duct penetrates a fire wan. " II ... extending from the foundaticx1 to a parapet above the roof and having 3n openings restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and protected by a self·closlng or autcrr....11W fire .sem'-lu __ . with a fire assemlily having the ~1f-c1o..atlon of Underwriters' LaPora-torles. all measured at right angles to the exterior wall. electrlcal hazard."" cau~s a fire door. Ind'.. A laDe! affixed to lIi111lidlng material...J having the required flre-reslstance rating to prevent the spread of fire from one occupancy to anotherln a mixed· occupancy Dulldlng. or the exterior wall of an adjacent i1IIlldlng. wall._ III >" fire wi I'Idcw ~:::.3tlc·closlng fire assemDIy.1L[t()m... '···0'" ... anchorage.arJ latchl~ a&r havfng Peen opened for use. occupancy separation _.. . or other fire sep3r3~n. a 9roup of \7uiIdJ~.... .... fire~reak fire separation Arry floor.-. cha ~ ~ ~ se the ori gin al fire door A door ~l>ly.....3.... When exposed ~ the heat of a fire.I '. .. boo l l ..'~ a clos&:! posltIoII and 15 equipped with ~ <In a.=========~ A vertical or horizontal construction \l...-------~.. I '. ~E~~~=~~~:· Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct autcrnat!cJlly In the event of fire to restrict the passage of fire and smo(e. -~""'..• protected opening _ . Exh portlon of a building separated Dy one or mere fire walls rruy ~ COIlsklered a separ3te uulldl~ when calculating the floor area and height allowed Dy a i1IIlla'lr~ code'l L drntstop A flre-ratea parlltlon dlvklll19 an enclc5ed attle space of comDustl~le construction. havfl19 the reqUired flre-reslstance ratln~ for Its 1oc1tlon and tJ5<l.... -~--- kp 4Smo(e~.. or the concea led space l?etween a ~d Ceiling and a wood· fr3 me floor . -1 firewall A wallll3vfng the reqUired fire· resistance ratlng to prevent the spread of ftre from one part of a D<Jltaing to <lnather.k rr3~ of iI fusible metal. cr the Ii~e to close.... or devlce wlth the authorlz....

which requires a nOflconductlng extinguishing medium. .---... I I I r gin nee dt his siamese A plpe fitting Insblled c~ to the ground on the exterior of a building. automatic fire-extingui'hing 5ystem A system of devices and equipment which 3utomatlcally detects a fire and disch3rges an approved flre-extlngulshlng agent onto or In the area of a fire.FIRE SAFElY flre-2L1rm system An electrical system Installed In a l?uildln4 to automatically sound an alarm when actuma I7y a firesprinkler . allowfng water to flow throu~h the piping a~ out the opened nozzle..lter pipe extending vertlcally thl'OU:9h a ~lkfIng to supplyflre hoses at every floor.. classifled according to the type of fire It fs able to extinguish. 5tandpi~ A w.J if you kp . building or building area that has or Is protected by a properly maintained sprinkler system..6fire waUrmafrl j A fire Involving flammap\e liquids. whlch. 5moke deUctor An ek:ctronlc fire alarm that Is actlv3ted l7y the presence of smoke. 35 gasoline. preactlon system A dry-pipe sprinkler system through which water flow Is controlled I1y a I'3lve operated I1y fIre-detection devices mor~ serl$ltlve than those In th~ sprlnlltr heads.--.must ~e extinguished by txeludill9 air and Inh 1!:>Iting the release of combusUI7Ie vapors..--. c\a.ystem Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing fires In a building. dry5tlndpfpe --------------. wets~ndpipe wet·plpesystem "'1 r I ----. through which ~flow Is controlled by a valve operated D:i 3 heat-.-.elts at a predetermined temperature. cla55 Cflre A flre Involving live electrk:31 equipment.-. heat·al:>sortnng extinguishing medium. __ . which rt<tulres a nonreactive. I . 011 and grease.. and supptJed with valves or sprinkler heaas maae to open automatically at a certain temperature. on which the quenching or cooling effect of water Is of primary Importance.--1I A standpipe COITt2lnlng no water a~ " ~I cop al boo A pump th3t provides the rea. -----. . usu311y controllea I1y 3 fusible linl: that rr. smoke-.etals. connected to a suitable water supply... 3 preselectM I'3lue.---.t the flre tJepart~ to connect flre hoses to a flre hydr. sprinklered Of or pertaining to. conslstlng of a system of pipes In or l1e1ow the ulllngs.-------. as magneSium or sodium. cb" Dfire A flre Involving certain combustible rr. orflame-senslng devlce. I 'i I r I I . A stantJplpe containing water under pressurt: a~ fmed with fire hoses for emergency use I7y I1ulldlng occupants_ I y cha I I i I I A sprinkler system containing water at sufficient pressure to provide an Immediate. Preactlon systems are usea when an accidental discharge would damage Vdluable M'13UriaIs. Afire A flre Involving ordinary wmbustll>lt materials. dry-pipe system A sprinkler system ccnt3lnl"!'l pressurized air th3t Is rele3scJ whtn a Sprinkler head opens In the event of fire. I the I ori se /-'fire pump used v. .ulred W3Ur pressure In a standpipe or sprinkler system when the pre55u~e In W system drops ~Iow. as wood. providing two or more connections through which the flre department can pump water to a standpipe or sprinkler system. delu~ ')"tem A sprinkler system having sprinkler heads open ata!! times. contlnuous disch3rge throuqh sprinkler heads that opet1 automatically In the event of fire. stlrinkler head A'nozzle In 3 Sprinkler system for dispersing 3 stream or spray of water. --- truct:.. pa ~ :md cloth. fire-~n symm Asystem of thermostats or other approved sensors for detectlnq the preStllce of flre and automatlcally 5~nall~ an abrm.llrt or pu mper " ''1I I I .. tkttctlon system. L f L I I 90 . ur cbs. L fire extinguisher A porta Die apparatus for putting out a small fin I1y ejecting pressurized water or special chemicals. Dry-pipe systern5 are used wh~ tM piping Is sulject to freezing.. -.

protectea by an ~~ ...om3tic-closing fire door. Bulkling codes usually reqUire on/: or more of the exit stairways for a high-rise !7ulldlng ~ protected elevator.cy lighting A hghti"9 s~ designed to SlJpply the alumlnatlon required for 5Jfe /:91"es5 from a !lulldlng In the event of a pcwer failure. (I) occupant leola The wr. '-. stairs. exit 5t. s wing 1"9 In the direction of exit travel and usually e<:tulppea with a panic cha ur Par. accessl~ by ii well A shaft for .I required &. An exit stairway down an outsfa/: wall of a !7ulla'lng. nee dt o exit passageway A means of egress cor.FIRE SAFETY me3ns of~ress A contlnuous path of travel from any point In a bUIL::I1ng to the outside at ground level.ilrJ enclosed by flre-resls'tJve constnlctlon as reqUired for the walls. an /:Xft court. or pupllc way. Mtermlned by dividing the floor area ass4)ned to a particular use by the square feet per occupant permitted In that use..-' A j13ssageway serving as. i t L r occupy a I1vikllng or portion thereof at anyone tltne. boo kp • -< exterior exft An exit cIoor opening directly to an exIt court or public way. and ceiling of the building served. extending vertically th the floors of a ~uilding. fjre~pe required exit. leading from an exit access to an exit discharge. 'constructed to the same sta:ubras as an interior exit stairway.a! number of persons that may . having no openings other than required e:dts . BUilding codes use occupant load to establish the required number arid width of exits for :1 b<J'Id!ng.. -.l re<:tulred means of egress.airway A stairway leading to an exit passageway.ir.. he riUlITtJ I exit A passage through or around a wall ccnstructed as re<:tulred fer an occu pancy separation. al gin ori se the exit ~rrUlor . 8ulldlng codes hmlt the length of dead-end corridors. ngh t. fuors. and venul3ted by natural or mechanical means to nmrt the penetration of smoke and he3t.1 ntumlnatea slg:1ldenttfylng a y enclosed by walls of fire-resistive coostroctlon.1. if you /:Xft Of' exit court with a public way. travel exterior exit balcony Alanding or porch projectlng from the wall of a !7tJl1dlng and sm-Ing as.. and leadin~ tv an area of refuge In the same puildin~ 01C1l approximately the same level In aapGerrt bUltdIng. BUlkling codes spectfy tne maximum distance of travel to an exit and the minimum distance between exits when two or more are required. exit door A door providing access to a means of egress. or an vestl!7tJ1e or by an open exterior balcony. enclosed by fire-reslstlve construction with self-closing flre doors th3t swing In the direction of exit cop exit light . -': exit An enclosed and protected path of escape for the occupants of a pulkllng In the event of fire. by a smo~proof enclosure.neetlng a l'e<\ulreJ his 91 . smo keproof enclosure The enclosing of anexit sta Irway by wa lis of flre-~Istlve construction. exitacce55 That portlOn of a means of egress that k:ads to an exit. emerger. ~ __ .

~~~~U.':.d to the floor joists.e of .. roaras cro"l7rldging Bridging composed of dlagonallmlces set In pairs Pe'tween floor or roofJoists.. Also called stringer. i i l f~r:. A sulrl\:lor Is often used as a wo~ln~ platform ~ ~n and may also act as II struc'tUral dlaph~m to tra nsfer bUralloaas to ~rwalls. A~m. _.--:.--. ... plywood.'. Also called ~U~~~"'..HIy bid (Net .-.:/. gin ~3rds.. cetnngs.-------.. when their depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6. USU.Afram~member~andsupportlng ! ~ ~-:o....~"--'-"-[~===jlliililii!~ -. or 17fters.: y flni5h floor . ./'OUfh flM-. -._ .. ---The wearing SUmc. ~ilpiece ------- . or rafter supported by a wall at one end and by 3 hea~r lit the other..rimJolst AJolst set on wpofthe sill and forming the .. ....::>. jo~t the header . . proc:ess. esp./ . or flat roofs. Bridging may not ~ requll'tJ when ~ ends of the meml1ers are flxed against rotation and their eJges are held In line by suWlooring orshe:athlng . (.="~=~~:·~-_~~. Also.illled he3aer. or rafter supporting one end of a heakr lit the edge of an opening In a floor or roof mme. Atrj of ... ori '>----:::--1~. sulrlloor.. y al perimeter of a wood-framed fuor.of constructing the structural frame eX ..._. -_ ....joIst._ ....joI5t.: totr2nsfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts. .... studs.-:":'_~~~~"':==~"'.•...FLOOR The level. I l F~... or manna.=~'.~~~~~. floor.... se cop y LA I the eMs ofjoists. :7 I.. floor framil\9 The act.. trimmer ~----. ~Jnc:I fWor. / // studs.ase surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.. -----Imdglng An arrangement of IH-aces or PIoctlng l7etween joists Or rafters to prevent their rotation or lateral dlsplacement.:::=~l-::-':':=T~-:::·: c. or rafters... fWshtd &01".:::~~::::~·:~'::-·.. or other structu ral she3thln~ bid over and ftxe. ser\¢S eX 5m3" parallel ~ams for supportlni floors.-:: I if you __ nee dt his boo kp ur cha --..~-fu. floor.col : ! : ! iI ! ~ I 1 l.. Also c.. solid I1rtaglng fixed Bridging consisting of short vertically I1etwun floor or roofJoists.' '--~---".- A rela-tl\le!y short ~am.----. so as .

-'" gin al shear stud I. ------- An angul3rcut at the end of aJolst or beam wall. or concrete capable of spanning beams. --/ .._____ _ An opening In the vertical face of a -'structunl !T1aT1rer to receive a beam.....:>r. if you nee dt his boo fonnworl: for. metal.. ori -'.he topftange of a steel ream or girder . Also called raised floOf"lng sysUm.as permanent fOrM1worX and tensile reinforcement for a concrete slap 11on<kd to It by a deformed or dovetail rib pattern. used as a sound-al1sorblng ceIling.-r. ---. • .awtenJolsts or Peams In or on top of a m3S011ry wall. and provldl~ Increased fire reslst4ra:.~:O.. Mattrbl as m3S011ry or concrete. decking Self-supporting units of wood... and usually galvanized forcorroslon ~Istance.• Metal decking 1113 nufactu red by welding a corrugated steel sheet to a flat steel $hut.a reinforced concrete sla b Metal deckl~ servlng.-----.. 93 . . whe~ It enters a masonry r------------.. y -------- floor panels supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers to allow free access to the space beneath. ~ ________ _ _. stiffening the memrers. se cha I the ~I dectlng servl~ as permanent und ~ stlb C3n support Itself. or purllns and serving as a base for flooring or roofing. AIso. rafters.and em~ In a concrete slab so liS to cause the beam and the concrete to act as a structural unit. steel pin welded to t.l:>e3m filling. JOists. I .----. for flIllng the sp~ t. allowing the mem!1er to fan without damaging the wall h' It /roms through somewhere along Its Ie~th..bles./ ur --------------. beam pccket---·------------.FlOOR i1e31T1 fig deck The structural surface to whleh flooring or roofing Is applied..metal decking Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof aecklng by coW·rolilng a series of rips or flutes Into It..1cou~tk duking cellular decking .. The spanning capaPillty of metal decking depends on the thlclness of the steel sheet and the depth of the corrugations. kp form duking composiU decking .. electrical wires and c.:-_____7-'-'-_::>"7 cop . Metal ~Ing ccntainlng glass fiber ~n the perf0!'3tea wel1s of ribbed kcl::lng Of" In the perforated cells of cellular tkci:lng. forming a series of raceways fo!./ .

:-.. usually ~ued on two adjoining sides and grooved on the other two to ensure proper aIlgnmertt In setting... ipal"l\uet Afloor composed of short strips or 17!ocks of wood forming 3 pa~m.. par'luetly Mosaic won: of wood used for floors and wainscoting.•• ~ !. solid plock flooring ------..tntltlous or resinous matrix and otr.__ ..-..' .~ :. . bondingagent ~------------.. L I L 94 J ( .-. A flooring ~Iod made \.------.ieand-cu5hion urrazzo ~ A terrazzo system for cantrolling crackln~ when structural movement Is expected.!y ronding three or more wood venxrs with a molstureresistant adhesive.----.lZZO topping Installed over a reinforced mortar unaeroed that Is . al se Aflooring plod m~e \....~ ~~....-.:'. ~~~~11. -.... memDrane and a thin layer of sand...1n temzzo .'~:il' D .!y assembltn!l narrow slats orflngers of hardwood Into larger units.. The mortar Ir.~ ~ substrate to create a Pond nee stone chips. sometimes with Inlays of other woods or other materials. -... -......311ed w!th n-gstlc (]Ier a wood $.!/f) . ptlnks. I'<-hich are not ground. thanstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~J·m3tched. narrow wood s~'ips..rompos<dol Ij~~iii :!~::~'.' ~ . . '" .!y an lsolatk>n ~~~~~~~~~~~ '. -..·-·····"·"'·~..awrd terrazzo -_ . Achemical Pondlng agent Is used If the concrete surface Is too smooth fora mechanical !..er :t ~~':'~4f!l~ dt ='''''"p"..~'.--. ~~~5.1n.. •• 1" his boo kp ur P-Iock floorirog FWing composed of square units r'.. -... ... ----------long-wearing flooring composed of sond wood I7locks set In adhesive with their grain oriented vertlcally..... cha cop you monollthicternz:zo- ~ WJ y Aterrazzo toppln!llnstalled dlrect~ over a rough-flnlshed concrete slaD.dl=tly umentltlous or resinous matrix over a sound wood.. :.. IIIIJ unit bfc.'~~ that produus a terrazzo surface.-. !B'lI .._ .-.. woodfloori~ Anl$h ~ in the fonn of wood strips. mrul. .u--_ _ _ ~. r·"I:\. wfth 5lT13f1er chips flfflng tilt spaces Pe-tween.:~ .!y h3 d in the desircJ pattern. :Ii. as ~ rdwood. ~~~. • rondo bonded terrazzo A terrazzo topping Installed over a mortar undert. flooring composed of~..4ssem~ at the mill and usually ms t..t.. ='" .-.... .·'~I::=="PPI'.!i. ': underbed ----.. ••••••/:•.p. separated from the subfloor \.1 II rrosalc terrazzo finish consisting of cut ~ frac~rtd marVle slal:1s set \. '.'~~h.ck laminated plock the ori gin slatl7lock Aflooring U10ck made \.l. . -_ . if .:..~~I~~.. polyester. Palladi. . bf'. hollow-uackea afer pertaining to a wood or stone piece h3vlng a pack face hollowed out so that It ca nfit more tlg htly against an irregular surface. Aground and ~ temzzo flnlsh ~.. or ~s.. or concrete sulrl'loor.. with smilu chips Mlng the spaus ~t . usually tongued on two opposing sides and groovea on the other two to ensure proper altgnment In setting. strip floorin9 ..: • " <. . .• 4 Veneti.::or or cor. terrazzo topping Is applied..---.crete sb P.' 6 ".:-:·. consisting of a terr.~cl-~r~·~~.' A latex. ~ .iformly textured terrazzo finish proJucea by l't'3shln!l the matrix prior to ~Ing so as to expose the chips.-.:. .4-' .....~~~~~~~~~.c -. or floor We.. een.. ~. '.~.!y Joining short len~ths of strip flooring edgewise.------------ --- Anyofa numberofwooaen strips laid upon aconcrete slap to provlde a means of attaching a sulrl'loor or flooring..ise on which a •••.' as between a terrazzo topping stone chlps.: . rustic terrazzo A ur. resInous matrix " '. or epoxy Pinder comPined with stone chips to from a terrazzo topping especially resistant to chemicals and apr3slon.. ~~ndwhendty.. ~een It and a succeeding layer. o Achemical sul1stance appnea to a ~~ st.FLOOR fin~h floori~ M4ter13/ u~ for the ~ring surface of a flOOr. usu~lti side· and end· matched. -..~.. -----A gl"OlJnd and fdshe4terrazzo finish cooslstln~ ~~ ofbrge stone chips..~. temz:zo./. .eQ that Is bonded to a rough-flnlshed concrete stab.~~ . i l ~ sleeper . set In a :narble or cen-. and a subfloor....~ ~:.. ~~~ consisting lItlinlyof~vely slT13l1 i:~~' ~.

__ . --~ -~ ..~ ~~~~ s~~·~~~~~·~~~-----rll~\'!~mW---·· f~upright tufts of yarn forming the surface of a carpet or fabric. ori ! I gin In a Interweaving the backing 1.-. underl3yment A material.. ---. stated In ounces per cubic yard. as plywood or hardboard.iy of poIytlnyt chloride In comblnatlon wtth mineral fillers. . I ~. ---·-·--·~H1Jlmqn~mnlT[Illijnlnnn= ..gDB~ . '. Also called carpet cushion. §it~i~~~(6~liliiiii~ The 5p3C1n~ of~s across the cut pile r 1 if I width of. -. vinylt& A resilient floor tHe ccmposed prf nclp3 ~ of poIyvl nyt ch 10 ride In I ..A<->OL'_ _~'--":L-._____ .. p~ment.. boo kp p~~ity tufUa carpet •.. or felted fabric forccverlng a floor.----. -.__ --~ carpetpad I.---. -------IrmiWl·· .. ~rpet made by looping the backing. \ .ru!llI. .. 95 .. f1uW carpet --····-. -. fett. -. neealepunched carpet . A carpet texture created by weaving. Improve dltr3blltty. esp. ana floor covering Material. corku'le A resilient floor tile composed of granulated cor\: and synthetic resIn blnclers. a nonfabric material as v!nyl or cera mlc tile.10op pi'1e y his knit~C3rpet ·········-._____ . expressed In fr3ctlons of an Inch. uacklng Thefounaatlon material securing the plley'amsofa carpet and providing It with stiffness. and a fiber.-. or protective coating.::-------= ~ A pad of cellular rubberorfelted animal hair.. or other nonstructural flooring. orknlttlng the pile yarn Into ".lUL_. linoltum resilie nt flooring Any of various floor coverlnqs capable of springIng bac~ to the original fonn after Pelng Pent or compressed. finished wttha protective coat of wax or a film of clear polyvinyl chloride.. r combltUtlon wtth mIneral fillers and p4Jments.FLOOR A resl1len t floor covering formed ry roaUn4 1?urbp or canvas wtth heated rosln. adhesive..-.:=--. even base for resilient flooring. -=. iiiit-·- tile carpet A flooring tile made of carpeting material... linoleum shook! Pe used only on a suUfloor suspended al:oove grade.. vinyl sheet A resilient floor covering composed prlnclp. _______ . the gauge . ru1?1?erti1e I l!~~r!~!!t!~~!!~~!!~!!~~~!!!!!!!~!J~~~~!!!!~~!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!! pi~w~ht ~ avera9/: weight of pile yam ~rpet. Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant. Carpet I113ck by punching carpet flPers back and forth through a WCNen polypropylene sheet with Da rbed needles to form afelted flPermat.---.f..--------.. A carpet texture created ry cutting each loop of pile yam.----. used to cover a fleer. ana reduce Impact sound transmission. lInseeJ oil powdered con:.. and addln4 pigmalts to achieve the desired colors and patterns. can: Uk: should Pe used only on a suWloor 5lJspended above grade. t ~ al cha se ana pile ~ . ur yarnsonaloont _----. . and pile yarns with three sets of needles. stitching. carpet.s. tufting. Carpet m3de by propelling short stra nJs of pile fiber electrostatically against an 3dheslve-coatedbacklng. -. tufted or knitted ~rpet.. strength. anJ dimensional stability. -.. CNer which carpet Is Installed to Increase resilience.BHill~ ~~.-~ .-. A resilient floor tile composed of natural or synthetic rubber with mineral fillers.. you ~ ~ nee I dt r r ill The welg ht of pile yam per unit volume of carpet..IO Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face yarns to a vinyl pac~lng supporteJ by other materials.l!lll!!. loops. fuslon-uondedcarpet ·-. '. available In either tHe or sheet form and set In mastic CNer a suttable underlayment. ~nlttec. --. cop carpet Aheavy WCNen. needle-tufted.. st3ted In oonus per 5qU3t"e yard. .. Carpet made by mechanically stitching pile yam thrwgh a primary faPrIc backing and bonded with latex to a secondary backing. -. producing a range of textures from Infomt31 shags to short. dense velvets. or foam !:rackIng. laid CNer a suUfloor to provide a smooth..

.. polygon method A graphic technique for flndlng the vector sum of a coplarl4r system of several concurrent fOfUS Py dnwlng to scale each force vector In 5ucusslon.h~ last yector. . Also caf1ed resultant... '--.... kp ur cha se The poInt ...-.. . -.. mornentcenter -..m""" f.1I polnts In the Agure Is zero.... " actbn.... ")I wpl... . "'."..mmal effectofthefo~.um ~. equa lin magnitude to the product of the force and the moment ann ...... nonca ncurrent force. the l>ody remains In rot.. with the tall of each at the head of the one preced1ng It. L L ...-. u I 1 u . Aforce acting on a rigid body rruy ~ I"e9rdeJ as actlng anywhere aloatt Its line of ~Ion without .•. Aforce SYSt... Aforce whose nne of action p. ..:... ---... .twhlch the axis of a moment ~ the ria ne of th:: forces causing the moment. .FORCE An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change In shape ormovem~.:==:b======~ Two or II'IOre COII(.1ng lines of action that do not Intersect at a common point.~.. .1f SlJ~ ai.av1ng nnes of action Intersect~ at a commoo polnt. ~ctlng ak:lr.--.malle!. {11111l ~J __ m " " . For conven fenu In structural anafysls.. ---..of.Urrtnt forces Into which a sln91e forc:e Ni I1c resolved and having a net effect on a rigkJ body t:l\ulvalent to that of the Initial force. wncurrent forces Forces h. and com p!etJng ~ polygon with a vector gin if you nee : al dt his r' that ~nt5 the result3nt force. tM vector sum of wnlch can bt found Dy applyIng the para"lleIogram law.. ........~.-.....e to produce rotation of a body a~. •. _...~ ~ '-. ---~ M. -.--- y A slngle vector equ~lent to and produCing the sa~ meet on a body as the application of two or more given vectors.p. center of rtU" --~-..-... ...a5SeS ~~h the center of gravity of a boJy aff~ only Its translational equl!lDrium. '~ .. The moment of a couple Is equal I" IT12gnltudeto the product of one of the forces and the perpenarcular disbnu ~etween the two unter of gravity The point ~ which the entire welght of a Pody may ~ c. and whose orientation In space represents the direction.ltlonJl equJllDrlum.... Aiso calleJ force arm..er of mass In a uniform gnvftJtlondll field.... aDout which the sum of the displacements of... para lief forces : ~1n9 In ~ directions 2nJ tending to produce rota1lon Put not translation.. Concul1"e1'Ttforcesn~lngth~sameh~of " line of actio1I .. vector . ~.a ra JleI to Itself until Its taU coincides l't'It:k the he3a of the other and completJ~ the tnangle with 2 vect...-----.. untrold The cem:a. .-.hat o~ In a Single plane. ~ vector sum of which Is the algcPralc sum of the IT13gnltudes of the forus.. the ori The tendency of a furc... boo moment'Mft ~.ogram Ltw The profOSltlon that the vector sum of two concu mnt forces Cd n ~e descri1>ed by the dlagor131 of a parallelogram having adjacent slJes which represent th~ two force L vectors ~I~ addea.a poIrrt or nne..... ...... -. . these are usually the rect3ngular orCarUslan components of the Initial fOfU. 1--_ _ _ _ _ ..... altering ther....-... or two-dlmenslonal flgure..21 of 'twO equal.. ' ... cop moment ---. the vector sum of which Is a sl~1e force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a rody as the set of original forces. Oi. j parallelforc~s '-: ••• - Th~ point at which the entln?mass Of 3 that the II"IOmtnt a Pody mzy ~ conslJered concentratea such rout any line through the Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action.--.• •···• .1nar forus Forces . the body would /'tIN1" In equilibrium In arry posltIon: coInclknt l't'lth the unt. component6ofJforce •..q the same Nne of actlon...:J~ wnuntratea so forctS.... ~ ~ an arrow whose length Is proportlon4l to the magnitude ~ •..-.... vector A 'luantlty possessing both magnitude and dlrectlon.• tri. -. --..?r that represents the result3 nt force. ~ -. 96 ...... couple -..... A line of Indeflnlte length of which a force vector Is a ~lnent. ~. ---.and acting In a clockwIse or counterclockwise alrectlol!. Forces "3". -...... _ _ _ _ _ _--1 point Is zero.a rout wnlch a InOme<It OCClJrs... -----. or.•.... extendIng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the head of . ~Is point... 'The perpendicular distance from the hne of action of a force to the point orn~ .".•.... .1"9 Ie method A 9raphk: technique forflndtng the vect« sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng one force YeCtor p.

. I . ensuring rotatlonal equlfllnium: :EM =o.-------The point Of" support aDout wn Ie h a b'ert<Jrns. it i the .~ '''")1 .iInch of physics that 0&1 Is WIth ~ effects of forces on podles or rrt4terbl systems.~ rei3tlons of forces prcJvdn. ~uilil1rium a ~ht at a seconJ polnt by a force appr~ at a third. the yector sum of all forces acting on It must ~ual zero. gin ur llllllllll+ \ ~lunic31 ad~ntage al cha se 1 F r> fulcrum . .! . two conditions are necessaij. Q I .-.• ! f f .. -.. ~ujlil1rant roUtion The c!rcuLY rnotlon of a Dody about an axis. • tn n5Lrt....(Ix 0) 0 A state of l7alanu or rest resulting from the equal action of opposing forces.uuc5 that deals 'Nlth :~~ motion and e.. 1 . 97 .... with motion In the dlrectlon of the resultant of the forces. TheforcerequlreatobrI~asetof. reactive force An external force generated Py the action of one lIody 011 another..l:F). First. the I70dy exerts a force having equal magnitude ana the opposite direction along the same hne of action as the original force. Also caneJ the law of .':1/ his boo kp ~wton's'~orullawatmotion The physical law that the sum of the forces actlng on a \7ody Is equal to the product of the mass of the \7ody and the acceleration produced Py the force..:·1 ori The mlo of output force to the Input force app/1e...letlan and r!actlon. : inertia The tendency of a \7ody at rest to rert13ln at rest or of a body In motion to retain Its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon Dy an external force. y 3 : r .h of mechanics that deals with '..lwtc =px Q._.... l:Fz = o...--. -. fIj ~ lever •. stlUc5 The ~n.m to e:xert.~1 systems.-----.1lsysums under the ~C':'<J<I of fcrus.~ if I· you nee m.. -.g ~ulljbrium among bodies or m... .' . = cop m LM.. wttnaut rot:3tlon or angular dlsplaument. third law of motion The pnyslcal law that for every force actlng on a Poay. Second.-A ri... statically equivalent HayIng the same translational and rotatIonal effect on a body. --..iJ element that pivots about a fulcn. dt force (F) = /TI3SS (m) )( l@et"3tion{l) r ~ I .! ~ .~ concurrent forces Into ~ulflllrIUri1.-----. comprised of st..l pressure Of sustain Lh. equal In magnitude l7ut opposite In dlreGtlon to the resultant of the concurrent force system and actlng along the same line of action.. ensuring translational equlltlnium: l:Fx = a. -.-. ~mics The h~-ch of mech.-. " .lSs (m) =F/~ =weight ('11)1 plt4tJonllforce (I) I I mechanics The !:>r.= 0. "" ··tsl--. For a rigid Poay to I7e In equlhlnium.lppljed force An external force actlng directly on a Pody.qulllDrlum of bod:es or m3~rl.d to a ~hanlsm.ic n ~ tmiforin motion of a I10dy In a strai9ht line.AlsocalleJlawoflnerUa. i : ~ .-------------.. the afgel7ralc sum of all moments of the fortes arout any polnt or line must equal zero.F) ! r r-···- FORCE 1 Newto~'s first law at moticn The physlcallaw that a body remaIns at rest or In motion wIth a constant ve!oclty unless an external force acts on the I1odY.1tlc 5 and dyn3 mIcs_ ~wton'.(7:t3) + (Ix 0) .

motte and pailey A Norman ~stle of the 10th through 12th Ul'Ituries. covering the ori l'2Velin Either of ~ two outer s!des that form tM sal1ent angle of a pastlol'l ___ ._ _ --.Perm A ~ ~n the exterior slope of. AprojectJlI4 part of a rampart or other fort!&atlon.• terreplein The top platform or horizontal surf3ce of 3 rampart where guns are mounted. curtain L .1~ _ _ . pale A pointed stlck or s't3l:~.palfsade Afence of pales set fll"l!1ly in th~ ground for enclosure or defense. • 98 .:i1ng downward In front of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that It PM"9S ad-m~clng enemy soldiers Into the most line of fire . An enclosing wall connutlng two Dastions or towers.----------..FORTIFICATION A defensive military work coostructed for the purpose of strengthening a position./----./ A ~ateway In a forUf1catlon permrttln~ 4 t..-. motU ..:!:.Jtlol'l ~ r dt J .'~..rge number of tmJps w move npla'1y from the pesleged position 3na attacl:: the Deslegers. /-------.ea ~nd a In3ln fort~ ~ ur SlJl"I"olJnding a rampart.J ~ moat of a forth'\c.. f.--....-.Adefensl\le W4l11 or elevaUon of ea rtn or stone prot.. emate A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart...--------. --"-'--'-'--'-'~:" ~unterscarp cha T'~ Inner slope or wall of the dltch se eSClrp the A V-5ha~ outwork outside the main dltch of a fortress. his A slope ex-'".. shculder . Also C4i1ed scarp. C. outwork A II'Iinor kfenslve position esbDl1sr.en. The part of a Dastlon that extends from the curtain to thefau.•---\.-.ectlng so!d1ers from enemy flre.lr.:.'--------.-.. typically forming an Irregular pentagon attached at the Ir.Istlon./ .1 5 \ j bastion -------·----·-----·--·---________ LI.t.• gorge The rear ~ss.p::::. .\.lstlons. _.1geway Into a Dastlon or wort../ Asteep mound of earth surrounded Py aditch and sunnounted by a t:lm~r stocbJe and tower.• ~:J:~~ln..sally port . slmllarotItwon_ " ..lse to the main ------. -.-::: i boo kp ~bc~ I r r "rect cardon AproJecUng course of stones belcw the parapetofa rampart.::. . -..ch surroundlng a rampart.• -.*ment of ~rth ra!sea as a fortlflcatlon around a place and usaa/ly surmounted Dy a pal"3pet_ . circumvallate Surrounded Py or as If Py a rampart. y ---... rr~ exterior slope or wall of the d"r-..: /.--. i13vlng embrasures for artllkry. consIsting of a motte pl3ced withIn a Dailey_ ------ _. -. l1alley The outer ~II of a castle or the courtyard enclosed by It. ----..au gin al cop Thean~1e ~een the f3ccand t:hefunl: of I worts ~ two Ir. parapet .. . '. nee / if you 1 :r:= L--_____ -.

chapel Asubordinate or private place of worship or prayer within a larger A fortified group of Uulkflngs usually domlnatlng the surrounding country and held Py a prince or nol:>le In feudal times. omet.htch priSCf'trS were drOFPed A strong gr..-----A ~~ ._." battlement A parapet haVing a regular alterr13t1on of merlo/ls and crenels. The privy of. Also. surrounding the rampart of a fortified town. a watchtower at the gate A slTl3I1 re..I dt A snt311 or lI3rrow openl~ In . .. cop ~-. ineJIev-31 castle..rYI'"!'--t:". or rolhng oU could De cast upon 3n enemy ~neath.!. deep ditch. gin ori the ~.l loophole or crenel.....__ 1.. Also CJf1eJ tourdk.lpet at the top of a CJstle wall._~!'_.. ---. rt. ward Power A lady's pM~ chamPer In 3 l!1ed1en1 CJ stle. siege. Also called eml1attlement.. Also. citadel A fortress In a commanding posltlon In or neara city.. frequently ~Innlng ~alstance above the ground. moat ' A Droad." 99 . used In the control of the Inhabitants and In defense during attack ar siege.. kp I . In times of siege. 35 In.. oubliette -----.or door or glte to a fart arcast~. ."11 if medieval castle used as a window or Ioophoie.. complex.. ·~ donjen.all o. -- -----. '-----. l1arilacan.. you eyelet A small aperture In the wall ofa .b~.I wall of fortification for the d1scharge of nee mlsslles.-------.Ln¥OO having an opallr":J CJr1". !n theuiOng. ~.... ---.FORTI FICATI ON keep The Innermost and strongest structure or tower of a medieval cast~. necessarium ./ :' . usually filled with water. fortress.. A te mpon ry l'\OOden fartif'. or castle as protection against assault..'~ll9lng turret on a wan or tower..l medieval castle/ or 1TI()1I. used as a place of residence. often at a comer ar I\eJ r a gl te'... aye/te. _____ . enclosed. ~ . '~drawn ask:lc to prevent access or to Jfe{mlt passage Dene3th it. through whlGh missiles may De dlscharged. \ \ portculli~ dungeon A d. erected at the top of a lfJlI during:.----..c3 tlo n In med'tevalardrltecture. ' przttU _.. loophole . merlen ~ . or the place so gardero::'e. esp. One of the solia parts between the crenels of a ~attlemerrt. ::.qy. Also called castle turret -------------------A slTl3n towa-forming part of a ~rger stroctu'e.. originally for defense Irot later used as a decorative motif.. crenel.. ~um An open space within or between the walls of a castle. enceinte A fortified wall enclrchng a CJstle or town. y . his i IT + l An opening.---.a prison or cell. l7artrun A sm.Tted . --. letdown. ---. -----. boo A pro~ng gallery or par..--.( c he min-de.=2:::::::':'::'::':":'::===< --. Also called / -. dr~~ridge A lnidge that can ~ raised. molten Ie3d. through . or drawbridge.ltlng of Iron or tlmPer hung (NU the gateway of a fortH'led place In such a way ~3t it could De lowered quickly to prevent passage. HavIng battlements_ embr~~ure :.barbican An outwork on the approach to a castle or towil.. -: '. 3S. ______ .cl'eMI Any of the open spaces alternating with the merfons of a battlement.. ..en undergrour. I machicolatWn ur supported by corVeled arches and having openings In the floor through which stones.------.. esp.ronde Acootlnoous 9"!lW3Y prov!dl~ a Jne3n5 of comnmlCJtlon Denina the: rampart ofa forUfled l'follL ---: al se cha '~.

.u re. due chiefly to lIt!ustr._.. AISiJ C3lbi .. i soU pressure The actual pressure tleveloped between a footlng and the supporting soli mass...5'1 ''\ ) softenlng of soil resulting from the thawl" of f"._. Also 5eCCrWry~n you c... .FOUNDATION The lowest dMsion of a building or other coostruct1on. Aliowal7le ~ring pressu res for va roOlJ 5 soil classiflc3'tlons are conservative values permitted ~ lIulld1ng codes In the absence of ~hnlcallnvestlg3tlon testing of the sot!.i. A reduction In volume of 1I soli mass under the action of. nee dt his pf'im3 ry c. .<oJ.a ~lned load... DDDDD __ . frost heave An upltft In scl C3used tr... ioo 9-. nsf"ofst.. Areductlon In vvlurne of a soli mass under the action ~...Jly on a supporting soil mass. allc ... 02'1 / ._.. designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly U:l the earth.ol15OlldrtIon boo A =ccnt:3ct Jre3 of f~ ~1~(q}=P/A if diffuent.nonuniform 9J{/ pressure CjUsM by Utml forces shallow fourubtlon A found1t:k:m system placed directly Pelow the lowest pa~ of a su~tructure and tnnsfming building loads directly to the supportJn~ soillly v~1 pressure.1lsat!ement The relitlve movement of different parts of a structure caused IIy uneven settlement or failure of Its fou.I3l Su~lJ1ng of a structure as the soli ~ Its fOUrWtlon consolldates urJerWdin~ ccnso IWtion The graau:.1rtn pressure The horlzontJl component of pressure ~ The gr.. / 100 .l reductlon In the volume of a soli mass ~1tJ1If from the application of a ~~!ned Io4d ~nd an Increase In ~5ttes5._-..od-.ent d the Internal structure of the soil In3SS after ~t of the load has Peen trlInsfemJ from the soli water to the soIlson&s.. passive e. fro$t ~on 2rching Tho t ..~t'i~~~ i r" frost.wt01.... .Jre through the solL '" 5he3rr~$W1cc provided by friction Utwun footings .. cha se J...1cfty. due chiefly to.a sus~lned load.ndsot1 gin al that a soil ~S5 exerts on a vertical retal n1 ng stroct...a soil mass to adjoining..line 1 The maximum depth at which soli Is frozen ~rost penetntes the ground.1rth pressure The horizontJl component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vert~lstnJCt.. __ ..1llowal7le l1ealing kp ur ana cap...1Ied ~ry compression. I ! i i I I i I ::::::::.abk ~ pressure. less ylekilng or restrained parts of the mass.. r _ ~...-aring pressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation Is utive e.-t the -----_.~Jj\ I~ 0._ .....Y the freezing of Internal moisture..a squeal~ out of water from the voids I't"ftIIln the IlUSS...l nsmftted and the area ori y permitted to Im~ vertically or I3ter. __ . .~~ f·-·····--·-······~l~' i ... P'" 10~. equal t~ the quotient of the magnitude of the forces t<. partly or wholly ~efow the surbu of the ground. "'''''T''' 1-.and 41 tr3nsfer of the load from the soli wafer ~ the soli solids. cop 4IlIowa~1e be..~ ."f"""'y"IJI"'J of.

~..... ur cha se kp . A refnforUa COncrete footing connected AreWoiuj conc~ footing for a perln-eter column or foundation wa n o.'. A rr.'e or below the sial:>. ~ -.. the sla I:> must t... ·r·····. .v' cop al gin ori r- ..' . 101 . Also c... ____ .. -~..' nee !:>y a tie beam to ..... tera Ily to dlstrf~ the foun.i grillage Aframewon: of crossIng ~eams for spreadIng heavy loads over large areas.·tii.:..@ ~~ ...Unded to support 3n Intercr cclumn k::3J. iI:SlJ311y reinforced with welded wirefJ!1rIc en grid of relnforclng lrars to sp~d footing Aconcrete footing extended I.~ as a mat foundation..wid rot'4tion or differential ~ COfTtJnuoIJs 1(4/ C3nt1lever~ n boo P""f'CrlJoneJ t<1 ge:n~ uniform >:J~ ~SIn if you raft m. flcatlng founJ. ArelrrforcelconGrete ream SUP~1I9 a superstructure at or neargrouna level arid tnnsfem~ the 9~~1rel' the pic:rs...1tion A foundation ~ In y!eldln~ soil.-_ . I I control anya'3Cklng caused I1y drying s-hrlnbge orlhermal str~~./ .. ~ It.t .~~. --] ! A layer of caarse granular ~rlals placed and compacted on undisturbed soil or prepared flO ~ prevent th~ c..1t A th~.pillary rise of moisture toa concrete ground sial:>.. To ..-. · · · . ~~~~~s~pre3d footing of a ~ifo()tig: Something thoIt underlies or serves as 3 !:rase or four'4btlon./r~. l:r41~COUrse ~ ._. ~ ".~~parate or Integral f~s art required for heavy or .~{p....mother footln~ In order to balance an asymmetrlGallylmpJsed load..••..3t providing a footing on yielding soil usually for an entire ~ulkllng..~.·. ..r"~' ... Also called grid. _ .. .. placeJ so that the we~htofthe displaced soli exceeds the weight of the construction. ______ ... des~ to support and anchor the I· "".... foundation wall Th.:t.c.!':. FOUNDATION ~..=<::... _tonti~uotijf~. ~ .. A relrTfoffiJ iOncrete footing extended to support a rowofcolumns. np17ta mat r" <.J{ 5tCtJon assumed for she3r rI rl r ! concentrated leads./ y .. _: 5 Ub-str3tucn ~-'-:----M . ik.inchlng she3r ~ ' " ___ ' . __ .. . ___ ..M the wdght of the construction s-upported <:t:""~r. ' .btlon load CNer' a wtde enough area that the al1ow3tr1e ~arlng capacity of the supportl~ soil Is not exceeded.alled su!lstrate..... Also C3ltld~~~o..I ! r.- _.' :r~' Io3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s..:.. or piles. ullularmat A composl~ structure of relnforceJ coocre~ slal:>s and lraSlment wails SlT">'./ r . L ... dt his ~~~w~. __ ''' __ ..'co~f~ng~~:: . ~ ... having for tts footIng 3 r1ft placed dup enough that the weLjht of ~ excavated soli Is equal to or grea ~r th. sla!:>fi:e footing of relnfOf'Ce.. ribs abc>..1 F. as at the perimeter of a ~Ildlng s~.. "" .. critJc. . . Over prol1lem soils.... N:so called slab on grade..t ~U"" grak.~. Also called strap foothtg...~~ .~ff~=------ ground sl# A concrete sbl:> placed CNer' a dense or compacted \73se and supported directly l7y th~ ground.d concrete supporting 3 num~r of co/umflS or an entire !:>u11d1~.- r I' r I I superstro<:1:lrre.. A ITI3t foundation reinforced l7y a gfJ of ........:~.~-.. -. designed as a nut or raft foonaatloo...

shoe /- ~~.ciV3"tlon I:>efore i7elng fliled with COllGrete.. ":~' : .• " A precast.:' ".t cOncrete pile \.~ . y cop f.' «/~~f~j~~~:i ~f.'. '---.. :.FOUNDATION dup founcUtlcn Afou~sy. A~mofsonorrockon whleh a footll14 ~ or to wIlleh a Irolldlng load Is tn~ I7y a pile or caisson. f I. ~<:. I L I if dt . I 102 L .tem t:hJt extends do... A machine for driving piles. preca. An openeMed pipe pile ~ulres Inspection and ex. anvil The component of a pile hammer. as 3 tlmver pile having a concrete upper SC1Ctlon to prevent the portion of the pile al70ve the water tavle from deterloratl~.!.::/ . ~ .m. Alsocalltd drive &hoe.'.//·~t·¥~tE?~~.. polrUd or rounded foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlyIng soli... 1- his pile to lmrIce fr..11 specified period of tlme. or polygonal section and sometimes an open core.: . phed i.echnlcal Investigation of . drM~.Julkllng loads dewn to a sult. ---:--------.a static load test. pile C3pS. boo arm kp ur cha The NXlnII'I axb! 3nd bteralloads pennfU. The hard. rounaea tt::~J ~~~i:.. which tends to d~ the pie down~rd Into the soli.eJ on a pile.. '::::':.. " .. A steel H-sectlon driven as a pile. y . and vertical ralls or Ie2ds for guiding the hammer. '. The gin ~ l1eml>a.: ~t:~.Jullalng k:laJs to a nn appropriate Uearing stratum ~ kIow ~ superstructure.lift frictiHI The frY."en••mltea by the ~Ion d soM to the pile sides and the snarstrength of the surrounding SOlI 111355.~ r ' .:.'" the e!'\ se V H ori point-!>~ pile.:-'-~:. Also called cushion 17loGk.1 load requlr~ to reach a ylelJ point.. often fltted with a steel shoe and a drive !nnd to prevent It from spllWng or shattering.I:::~aa:~~~ : .' . when the soil rNSS directly ~Iow the c.:(. _ ... pipe plfe .----. sometimes ellGasea In concrete to a point I:>elow the water table to prevent corrosion. and tie l7eams fer transferrfftg !. ... having a round.' '" ..~. The ~tIoI of.A zone In a loaded soli mass by an ! arbitrarily selected Isobar of stress. Also called plfe ring.--.on~ Is not suitable for the direct Pe3~of~s. located just I:>elow the ra m. or . end-~e..~.1 pile from Its pIa n wUoo the vertQl. i. steel.- pile ~ity -. point of refusal .:.obar A line connectln~ points of equal pressure. \ yield point The point at wn!ch 3n 11lGre35e In pile load prod~ a dlsproportlonate Increase In settlement. 3 drM~ hammer.t. as c:feterml~ by a ~all1lc plefonnub.--- H-pile.:' j: : :~ I~ ~·-·' · · ·/· ~ "Kf. used esp.'x~:. . drivpl Into the earth by a pile driver until it meets the requlrea resistance. .l.. drive l1and A steel ~and enGlrcling the head of a tlml:>er pile to prevent It from splitting when driven.. ~!low3LoIe pt'1e Ioa~ the fourW1lon soil ... as from a single or numUeroff~tlon plies. J pile A~ slena:r column of wood.:". ~frictSon An ~I bad on a pile resulting from ~ of fln.e p'rrnlUed devl3tlon of a pile from the v~ for which a reduction In 3~PIe klad Is net ~ulred. ...~ !~. or reinforuJ QlftCrete.t1ol JevelopeJ ~tween the ~ of a pie and the soH Into which the pile Is . ~"I ~~:~=:.1 ~~~~~~«.-'. cushion head. often prestressed concrete cclumn. pi1efourWtion A system ofpks. that transfers the driving force to the pile head.~~~· . j ":. " . ccmpo.a~ ~ st. I f J ~ring stntum ____ J pile driver l1atterpile A pile driven at a specified angle to the vertical In order to provlJe resistance agaInst lateral forces..r a .w11 _ th~h un~17Ie soli to transfer !.Jm. you nee A heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete. i <~ ~\ '. cushion A cap for protectlng a pile head as well as the pile hammer durl"1 "' driving operation. resultlng In 3 reductkrl of Its allowable load. a point of reslstanu. driven or h3mmered~ical1y Into the earth to form part of a foundation system.. s-tuare.. ~wn~ ---------~~ A pile dep<:Ung prillGlpally 011 the fric1Jon31 resl:stance of surroundlng ~ rth for SIip'f'<rt . :. Also calleJ al SUITlXl~ soil mass ?rovides a ~ree ofbCa-alsta~lityforthe long timber pile A log driven usually 3S a friction pite.a"-9 pile -------~~ Ap~ ~g principally on the ~"!1 reslsbnu of soli or rock ~neath Its b:it for support. usually composed of a ta II fra meworl: supporting machinery for lifting 3 pile In position !7efo".~~:~ "" continuously for . I.1U pj~ A pile constructed of two materia Is. H-sectlons can I:>e wekb:/ ~ether In the driving process to form 3fT'j length of pile.:-.

• ped~1 pile A cast·ln-place concrete pile having an enl3rged foot to Increase Its Pe<irlng area and strengthen the l1earlng stratum by compression. .........d ~ driving 3 c. ..tr'lir. driven or dropped In place ta as a form for a cast·ln·p!Jce coocme pile..-...e piles.... I ~I~~n ... -......... A cast·ln·place concl'eU foundation formed!ly Poring with a larg~ 3uguor ~vatlng !Iy hand a shaft In the earth to a suitable Paring stratum and filling the shaft with concrete. (610 mm) or larger In atameter to permit Inspection of the rottom... o 0 c~5t·ln·place co~rete pile A pl!e constructed !Iy placing concrete Inta a shaft In the ground..-. Aconcrete pile coostl"UCUd by driving a steel pipe or casl~ Into the ground --..-ete·fll'eJ pipe casing m~n. --: .distribute the load from ...... $eI')'(: f: A ha-Iy stu! tul>e or core th3t Is Inserted Into a thln-wal1ed casing to ~t It from coll3pslng In tM driving process. esp.. -' .ina then ftlnng It with concrete.g cancw~ L. and then withdrawn Priore concrete Is pl3ced In the casing...I cclumn or grade Pe<im equally am01l4 tr.. Jalnl~ A reinforced concrete slab Of mat the heads of a cluster of plies to.'.•. ex3mplts ofpile 13Y0utS . ........ . if you r nee dt ~(.... c ...- //' ur 103 ..... sometimes ~ or taperea for Incre:asea s ~s. --.cme pl~ Ir.FOUNDATION· ..1ase of 3 caisson enl3rged Ul lnuease Its bearing area.. A s.. -.....J-nd along wit.3~ Aconcrete ~ CO!1struc'.....x~tted cat=scn having 3 steel H'sectlon c-=~ "..~Cai5~n his .o the gro'. --. --... ' The \...~I"9 -.. cop al cha se I ... -..o p~ as the casJng Is wtU-..:hwn.-..1 A pler.......• pulP A bu~e C<lst u formed at the l10ttam of a j i cast·ln·piau concrete pile to enl3rge Its ! 1 Pearl~ area ar...drel . 1<: .... . -...-... _.......o -~ In o ° t::3 0 tiep~m oli}O Areinforced concrete pe3m dlstrlputlng the harizont.... --...!.t. when the roring Is 2 ft.1 forces from an eccentric311y khided pile cap or spread footlngto other pile caps orfootlngs.. y ori .... i I f J pier ..... bdl17ucket ~I An attachment to an earth auger having expanding I1lades for D:c3vatlng a Pell at the rottom of a caisson shaft.pile cap -------.:n:.-.. . -. boo pile rocl:~i5~n kp A caisson that Is drilled InUl a str3tum of solld rod rather than belled.+ . --...... _--_.... un-tll It meets the required resistance gin the i cas..' • ~ casli1g unullt meets ~~ reqUired ~nce. 1 Unc. .... -----_ .. .. ~II .--.. A cyl1ndrlc31 steel section.ed pile -.:r. ' . and then r.on..Ithln 3 c. ... formed !Iy forclng concrete out at the Pottom of the casing Into the surrounding soil .a strengthen the rearing stratum !Iy ccmpression..

if • A-frame A !nJlldlng constructed with a steep triangular frame resting directly on ..1me to develop ~I thnIsts at Its lr.e axial ~ and shear forces In all meml>ers of the frame since the ~Id joints restrain the eMs of the meml7ers from rotatl~ freely.1 I -1 rigidmme Astructural frame of linear memrers ~ldly conr. .FRAME A skeletalstrocture of relatively slender memf. In aaaltion.ol hillg/l that develops when an fJ. 104 .ost rlfect&i by support settlements and thtnl'tllstresses.... The three pin Joints also permit the frame to lJe analyzed as a stat:lcally de1ermlnate structure.Ise. I "raced frame A·structural fume whose resistance to lateral forces Is pf't1Vlded by diagonal or other type of k-ac1t\4 pL1stic hinge A vlrtu.ers are fully yielded at across section Of a stroct<Jral member. The pin Joints prevent high !lCndin4 stresses from developlnBby a~ u".ame Is st3Uca/1y indeterminate and rigid only In Its plane. vertlcal waS C4use a rigid fr. you A rigid fr3me connected to Its supports with pin joints.3k:1 fralT16l7y lateral loads Or asymmetrbl v~31Ioadlr~ ur cha I. Also Col Ilea moment~"4 fr.frame to rotate as a unit when stnlned Loy SlIpport settlements..~ designea to give shape and support to a ~uilding or otJ1er construction.ectea at theirjoints. A flxed frame Is more reslsta nt to deflection tha n a hinged fra me put also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion aM r• y cop f1 gin ori the al contractlon. and to flex ~htly when stressed by changes In nee dt his hinged frame boo kp se L1 three-hi~ fume A structul'llfas5ell1!11y of two rlgta sections connectea toeacfl other and to Its supports wltfl pi" joints. the thru-hlngea frame Is Ie. fixed frame A rigid frame connected to Its supports with fixed joints.1me. s Ides way The later. ~'1 . temperature.. J. Arigid fr. Appllea loads produr. While more sensltlve to~n than either the fixed or hl"¥d frame.. foundation.lf dlsplacement produced In a r'..

l st4t:b11:i dekrmlnate ori \ gin \ 1=== I I i al ase the p<lrt. A strvctural member. ~!M4 ry pin . 10000000-0 0101010101001011 .d to parallel top and ~ chords.:ry ~ proportlonal. and wt tM axidl fOf"Ce In ~h WuIM of a st. A vertical series of superimposed r1~ld . .. . portal A rigid frame of two co{umns and a .Jncy •..lt each level Is distribuW 1ft propoI'tlon to the floor:..ter. ~rrt&ver~ statlcally ~1n:.-fergiraer ~-. corm~tlons.. and that the acts :.. 1M portal methcJ assumes tn3t a point of InfIectloIt occurs it the mkl~ of all rnemDer$ In the frame...lS2 ~ of~ portals to which the tobl t.tstory frame .d 3t e. . Imaginary pin joints c.o ~ tIortz:ontal distance from the centroid oI3a the columns 0f1 tn3t level.lolrrts C2n ~ lnsute.:lulred for the statrillty of a st.il point of Inflection OC~ it the 1l'1!d~ngth of an II"alPers In ~ fralre. Of or perta In Ir..ream defining a Single bay. then ~sI~ the joint to allow It to rotate.1'U deUrmllJrte degreeoffr~m if y A Ir1ethod for J!t:.". Also called V1~ ~lrder..SS slnu Its members are subject to I'lOII2xtal ~ forces. The C3rTtllever method :.ll shar:.q to a structure havl~ more than the minimum number of 1 r members. The number of members l"e<\ulred to stabilize 3 collapse mech3nlsm.s at the Jolnt.-t:. . supported at some Intermealate level where Its load Is transferred to aajacent columns. DOt] ou n rch •. connection..e WJ<-'"tUI"e.~' r. ~ dlfferenu 105 . A '{:trendeel truss ~ not a true .clumn.'ah. moment ~trip1ltlcn methcd A method for mlyzl~ an IrJetermlnate str'uCt1Jre ~h :. or support not required for a statically Wb!T1lnate structure. resulUng In more unknown forces than there are static equ.iIt.iIo'1Iter:..l5Surnes th.ltN/: pr-ouss of fixing a r19ki jo!rTt In splU.. IO]DID]ODlDiDiol ~-.le for solur:cn. transfer column A discontinuous column In a multiStory frame..:cally determinate structure. d~ru of iru:!eUrmlnacy Of or pertaining to a structure able to ~ analyzed completely by means of the principles of statics. Also called slngte-l1ay frame. f'" 1 j stnlCture.un pent A braced or ~Id frame deslgnea to carry vertlcal and lateral loads transverse to the length of a framed structure:..1n ~ Inserted at each point of ~ Iftlk~ the frame a thi sb ook pu A method for a~lyzlng a mutt.llyzlng a lT1uttlstory frame ~ 2 C3ntllever $U~t to Pe:1dl~. frames.. ~termlnl~ the fIxed·enJ I1'\OII'1CTt.aUons for solution. ..toryf"""./ redund.. Nkl~ ~ ~:. V-terenJ~1 ~5 A framed ~ stroctore h~l~ vertlc31 web mem!1ers ~idIy connecte.ctlcn of the tap ana either of tne uprights of a bent.ilre3 ~h wlumn ~s. or supports needed for staDil1ty.d ~ shear rackIng. and studyln4 the ~nsftrence of moments and rot3tlons to £Mer joints InkUrmil'\..r' ""'! FRAME knee Thejur. --: A girder supportl~ a tnlnsfer c.15 a C3l1t11ew:r ~te.. r petween the number of unknown forces In an Indeterminate structure and w number of static equ3tions 3'.ch point of Inflectlon.1I~ cop mme I I y I I' ~ eed ~ DODD DDDD DDDD tran. degree of reduMancy The number of members Deyond that re. multi.

-. secondary !?e./ ... -.. . \ ..~ balloon fr.... or manneroffittlng and joining together relatively slender members to give shape and support to a structure. l light frame constructlcn A system of construction utlllzlng closely spa~ and sheathed memPers of dimension lumreror lIght-gauge metal to fonn the structural elements of a 11ulldlng. arcu.. AIso.. J r"'"'' terttary !?eam Any beam that transmits Its load to a al ur cha se the ori kp dt his boo gin cop \ y seconml)' ~eam.. cylindrical... pole A long...... j ! I I 1 1 . . skeleton construction A system of construction utilizing a framewort of columns and !leams to transmit !lullding loads down to the foundation. wood or metal. Floor or roof constructlon utilizing a framewort oftlml1cr \.r_ .am Any beam that transmits Its load to a principal ~eam... arc~te Of or pert3lnlng to a sys~ of constructlon employing arches or arched fonns.• principal !?eam Any large !leam In a structur......FRAME froilmlng The ut.Ids at IsoI. .ll frame that supports secondal)' beams or JOists. Also called primal)' ~m...1 plank-oiInd-l:Ieam constructlon . define.Ieams to support wood planks or decking. or enclose.d points along its length...rte.. pole MUse A hou~ of pole construction.me fIoorfr3minq platform fr3me roof fr3minq I froilmeworic Askeletal structure of parts fitted and joined to¥ther In order to support.girder A large principal beam designed to support concentrated Io. proceS5..... .. often s~nder p~ of . . J L J ..tt&i if you nee I i poie construction A sys~mofconstructlon employIng a vertical structure of pressure-treateJ wood poles whlch are firmly embedded In the ground asa pier foundation.. stilt One of seve-ral p!~ or posts for supporUng a stnx:ture arove the surface of land or water. 106 ./ . / ..

fca m.--------------- "no~ One of a number of short wooden pieces Inserted between the principal members of ahaft-timbered wall to 5tr~gthen the frame and retain the brick Inflli.......~P..ln-acea framework of solid girts mortlsea Into soltd posts the full h~1Tt of the frame...FRAME praced fra me A building frame employl~ a he3Yj1. .. fastened to.·-·.Jres for the eSC3pe of smoke and admission of air... ... the m'mbee' '" ... Also.-~ i A girt set lielow the floor Joists It 5U pPOrts.. AprI"clpal ream supporting the ends of t:io-o sets of floor Joists.. _.. .....raiseagirt crossbea ms. .. "'--.. ...t1on.. ~... WIth studs one story high filling the interstices..... --------. "m!>e.. A SW11.. ..... Alsa called flush girt. _ . A form of wall construction.. rv~........--.. used In the construction of walls and fences.. ~hrn9....... -..--.................. Also ' C3 Hed summert:ru. as straw.. A heJ..-i A crossbeam or a bay formed by A girt parallel to ana level with the floor joists... Also...... _ .....':.... .-.i ope~:ng....-.. Also...ren with thin branches. _ ....... sum mer -'" .'...... ---.... ..... !>etw.. ""'" .. ....... esp.. consisting of wattles COIered ana plastered with clay or mud.. halftimbered.. if thJtch _. ""\.. -..... _ ....\ you nee dt open-timl1ered pan A major vertical division of a wall. _.. Also called full frame.. a noggedpanel of haft-timber construction....3~her so as to shed water and 5O~~s to provide thertT131 Insut:. twigs.'T1er supporting a wan o........ Alsa Cd lied t>indin~ P-e. ntern or turret on the roof of a rnealCal !lulldlng having slatted a~.. .5tiJd Ineastsummer _ ..._.. -post ..1 wattle and aaul1 ~ I'·...... .. kp ur cha se the ori gin al --."..... Also. and reeds... \ str3ining plect _...... ---" ..I 11111 107 .... his boo Ioll'r'tr _.... cop tr3Ye _ ..... -.... _.. queen post -. .._ . ... _ .. dropped girt y half-timl1er H3v1ng a ~mber framework with the spaces fliled wtth masonry 01" plaster............. 'fll-. wattle A framework of rods or poles Interwo. _..rer an Also called Ureast beam. or palm leaves.girt A horizontal timber connecting the posts of a In-aceJ frame at an Intennealate level abo.....II. At:. _...\\.~~~..re the ground floor........ "-_ . .. 17if\der --..... __ . -..tnal foreaverlng a roof. ".... wattle and dau.. A mr....1m.. principal ~fter _.)' Umber serving as a """ principal beam or girder.

-.. if you --.-.". radiln angle A unit of angular measure equal to the central3ngle subtendlng an arc equal In length to the radius: ~/21t or approx. .. o~u!Je Jngle An angle grea~r than 9O~ Uut less than 100°.right angle l . _ .' a17scissa A coordlna~ detennlnea !1y measuring parallel to the x-axis.es~n caordinate ! y-axis . A ~ element generated !1y a moving point 3nel ~vlng extension wlthOllt breadth or thickness.. 108 1 _ .mon point. angles.... Anang1eofWf~!1ythe perpena1cular Intersection of two straight lines. ---.GEOMETRY A branch of mathematics that deals with the properties. __ .. Also called axi s ofordfuUs. The 60th part of a minute of angular measure. -.d1nates or y. .1~ssas. and solids.. c. 57:3°. minute The 60th Dart of a aearee of angular ~asure. deduud from tneirdefining a>nditions Dy means of urt.... esp.. are perpendlcuJ. polar angle The angle fortned !1y the polar axis and a radius vector In a polar coordinate system.. / /1 1/ l. l"'4 ... The axis 310ng whk:h z-V3lues are measurea In a three-dimensiOnal Ca~ian coordinate sys~m.. -" ---.-"-'....-"'--~-.--+----+-!c--+---f Acoordinate aetennlnea !1y ~rlng pal..e axis aloog which abscls53s or x-values are I!1e3$Ure. eq!Jldlstant at all pOints. or In space !1y referenct to a ftxed figure or system of hnes.ical f~~iartot:he p!3neof~ horizon. ur Extending In the same direction. or In ~ !1y Its distance from each of three planes Intersecting at a point.ordinate .lines. ~ccnd -+----.. or within two planes diverging from a common hne: the figure so fonnea.___f __ polar coordinau system A system for locating a point on a plane !1y Its radius vector and polar angle.. The amount of rot3tIon neeaea to lning one nne or plane Into coincidence with another.:I In 3 C3rtesian coor&nate cop y al paralld . A!:so calle<l y-coordlnm..j . point A dImensionless geometric element that h3s no propertY!lut Ioc3tlon.1in assumed properties of _. the ori gin rutangu~r coo rd ilU'te system AC4rtesbn coordinate system In which the axes orcoordlnzte planes x-axis --_._ . '\ z-coordinate A coordlnzte determl AIry of the coordlnates for locatIng a point on a plane Py Its dlstana from each of two Intersectln~ hnes... J I I !1y ~surlng parallel to thez·axls. _. minutes..... and neverconverglng or diverging.. as the In~rsectIon of two hnes.. .. Also calLed axis of . nee dt his faralleltoorope. spau...tlr~ boo Ina plane line para lie! t.-...aJ1:.. Also called x-coordlnau. and relationships of points..:. caordinate AIry of a set of numms that serve to s~1fy the location of a point on a nnt. 3Cute JnSIe An angle ltss than oo~ '.... -. "--.vertex The point at which the sides of an lIng!e 1nterseG't. measurement.-.o the horizon. and seconas.. --: . The 3x1s along which o.. .. system. polar axis The reference axis from which the polJr angle Is measured In a polar coordinate system. the postulJte that only one Mne may pe drawn throu~h a given point parallel to a given line. .. mea sured In radla ns or In degrees.-. degree A unit of angular measure.-.' T}. V3lues are ~sured In a CartesIan coordln4U system.. horizonbl o 0 a~le The space l1etween two lines dlvergl~ from a com. 5U rf3ce.... z-axis _. i cha se kp skew lines Any lines In space that are neither parallel nor Intersecting. '/: \ Euclidean geometry Geometly based upon the postulates of Eucnd. equal to 'J~th of 3 complete angle or tum. radius vector A straight line segment that JOins 3 V3rla~ point to ~he fixed origin of a polar coordinate system..r. ver"..... or of the circUMferenCe of a circle.i~1 to the y-axis...

. surfaces. ~jmibr cha se ... esp. "'-....... Lsalient obtuse --..' _.. as one formed l1y cutting off the corner of a square or cuPe.. ........ - .\_. or parallel surface... the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter. as sine or coslM..~--------l. -... and of their . or faces that meet at right angles. -H......exterior angle I The angle form&! petween any I An outward projecting angle or "-. .'---: side adj3cent to the angie T~ ~ apothem A pc:rpend1cular from the center cf a regular polygon to one of Its sides... vertex \. I 1 I part.J~ tr'.. ..e...'-. ... hexagon Pythagorean theorem The theorem that the sqU. or characterized l1y stralght lines..41 and cor....: :.-. you G nee Q _.. CO"9/"tlCft _ •..3ppfk7'. rectangle ! ----"'~~ side of a polygon and an extendea adjacent side. ~ q. :. . - n. . .. .... The nne or surface forming the part of a ¥Ometric ~ure that Is most ~rly oorlzo11tal or on whlGh ~ Is supposed to stand.. "'-. GEOMETRY he~ht :.:... fIxtd point...... ~~:~~~7h"J"" roth p" . ./ . ~carrt "---.. The side of a right tri3ngle that .. pentagon A polygon having flve sides and flve angles. "'-.3 re of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.. n :......j---. Having all sides equal (equllJttral) and an angles equal (equlangulJr) - cot.. The I7nrci of l713thematlcs that deals with t~ ~les of kiangles and trI9O~... ..."<'CJT1etr!c functlon deflned as the 1'3".. 109 .....• dIagonal right angles. 1'3~ The the ~"""lOmetrlc regular ..rlc functions..An ol7l1que hne or surface... -.....3 polygon or r-:..e.. aspect ratlc In any rectangularconflguratlon... the .... plane A surface generated l1y. ~ 35 the ratio of tr. The point opposite to and farthest from the Pase of a plane figure....1..' .. v cop y coincideJTt .... rectangular Having edges.tde3ls WIth pl3ne~ures.:'...---./ The ~rlc functlon defln&! as ratio of ~ hypotenuse to the side adj3Ce:1> to 3 given angle.r.. Having ~ite unequalsk:les....... Havlng.. ..... acuU .. . as an Interior angle of a polygon that Is greater than 150~ --'•."" altitude .rtuse angle....espondlng II--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....e s~ of a~ht triangle.d.' -.cf!$.....-.:r.: :..1-.. &iN! kp A triangle having a right angle.. -..3ving ccrrespondlng sides ~.. angles e:q-....•• . -....etrlc function deflned 3S the 1'3~ of the side oppostui a given angle to ~ hypotenu~... C' Ci 2 I b-: .. Composed only of acute angles. from which . ".....'-. ~~ triangle Apolygon having three sides and three angles.... ~-+--:""~+----t' c05ine The ~~ functlon deftn&! as the ra~ of the side adjacent to a given a ngle to the hypoten use.... r- Occu~ tM same place In spaceort:~.._ . of unequaller!gths.. ... / I···· _. octagon A polygon having elght sides and eight angles.. rectilinear Forming.·'"t...... reentrant Reentering or pointing Inward.C. Extent ex distance upward from • glven level to.uadribteral Apolygon having four sides and four angles. past!: ...... -----.... C05eCarrt A polygon having six sides and six· angles... parallel side... polygon A closed plane figure havlngthru or more straight sides. plane geometry The pranch of geometry th... such that.. formed l1y.... .. CoInc~ 3t all points when cant .. -.... -.. . -..o¥./ ... if The ~rr.. ---. straight lineJoining any two of Its points lies wholly In the surface.. . \. 1:... .. function deflned as of the hypotenuse to the side opposr-~ ~ ~Iven angl.. Apmllelogral1ihavlngfour --..... ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _......--= '-t:-. The perpendicular distance from the pase of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex."'-..... polyhedron.. . I ~1eM -.. ... -..'....an altitude ~n pe C011Str1. Is opposIte the right an~le.~ trapezoid dt his trapezium parallel Aquadrilateral having no two $Ides tangent The tro9""'O~trIG functlon deftned as the rat:o of the side opposite a given angle to ~ side adjacent to the angle. straight line moving at a constant velocity with resp~t to a flxed point.. ur u-Ig~etry ri9ht tria ng Ie boo '::'" hypoUnuse / .. aI ~~lteS~~~to~~~ A quadrilateral having only two sides parallel. square Aregular polygon having four equal sides and fou r rig ht angles... interior a"9le ..i the sIde opposite a given angle:. one with sides A hne connecting two nonadjacent angles or vertlces of. .- figure A complnation of geometric elements disposed In a partlcularform o~ shape...... u-~funcUon A fuoctb1 of 3n 3rl9Ie..JL ori $U~rI~ gin al The angle form&! Inside a polygon!:>etween arty two adjacent sides..:. Havl"!l t1000 sides of equal length.

'. ..J The roundary hne of a closed curvilinear ·flgure. _ .. . --.. the ~. a constant.._."oJ from or appl'03c:hl11g It._ . meet.p3rt of the clrcumferenu of a circle. ..---. L ...'.. kp . the perimeter-of a circle.-. ... .Involute Acurve traced by a point on a string as It Is l:ept taut and unwound from a stationary cylinder.na meetlng ~ circumference or Poundl~ surface at eacb end. plane ..g-----+----r-~........ numrered counterclockwise from the upper right. convex Curved or rounded outward 11I:e the exterlorof a circle or sphere.. without ~..~..../: :' r-'''''--'' Any .. . off-center Not centered or attne center point.....:::=--... concave Curved Inward like the Interior of a circular arc or hollow sphere.---. / I .._.~ b"dl" II""... -'... another curve.-. ---..g surface. as clrc~s or . the fOCi.. _. "'>'" " The straight nne segment ~~ two points on • ~lven curve. . --..' . eng. 110 .... -....14159+. as a pl3ne with a tangent cylinder.. --../ / . __ . as a straight line In relation to a curve... gin :.. .. One nmiting a curve such that the perpenalCular dls~nce from the curve to the n~ approaches zero..-. .::t or surf.. pi The sym~ol Jt aef'(Jtlng tM ratio retween the circumference of 3 circle and Its diameter...... ------..t the sums of Its from the foci..®I /-..I '-" e{Jj~ ---... ..uarterslnto which a plane figure Is dM:Jed by two perpendlcutar lines. _.....inflection Achange of curvature from convex to y al se ' colIC3Ve or vice vel'S3. q..... ~ ~llw< . .. helix A three' dimensional curve tr3Ced on a cylinder or cone Py the rota'tIon of'a point crossing Its right ~tlo"S at a constanto!:>llque angle.. or the point within 3 regular polygon tqU311y dlstant from the vertices...ne curve 9tnerated ty a point so ~ th~ the difference of the distances (rom two flx&f points In the plane remains constant...-.. nee . dlst...A .. ~': '..... (f ~ \ An arc of 9O~ or any of the four a. point moving around a fixed point while const4ntly recea:../ ......~ .. __.~rant cenUr The pcint within a circle or sphere equally d1sta ITt from 311 ~nts of the clrcumferer.... _-."O"... his dt ...t figure rounded by tliO radii and t~.. raalus A stra~ ht hne extendl~ from the center:f ill circle or sphere te the circumference or Pound1n.arc . ...... .._.~?'~~:slng through the tn'ofocl of an ori i \.. ---.-. eccentric Not having the same center Or center line.------ boo ! I i i ur rouchlng at a single point./ I -.. evolute rhe locus of the centers of curvature of.minor axis The axis of an ellipse that Is perpendicular A closed pbne cUrYe generated by a point to the :T"-3jar axis ata point eq~!dlstant ~ In such a W7"j th. angles...! Includ. .. hyper~ol..... spheres. concentric Having a common center... . --..s the curve Is extended to Infinity....' .. circumference _. Is cha I .1 Aplane curve ~t3tea by.. cop cherd -'---'" . .. A p!.GEOMETRY circle A closed pl3ne curve every point of which 15 eq~1Tt from aflxed point within the curve. . if "---. ----=-. -...... a ccnstolrrt equ~ te 3. .. ___ .__ .--. _ .. --.centerline figure. .nces from tl'lC flxed points. \ . cycloId A curve generated by a pOint on the circumference of a circle 3S It rolls along a straight line.di3meter A straight line extending through the cen~ of a circle or sphere.. cusp A point where two pranches of curve and are tangent.ice.. ellipse.. or the envelope of the nortTUts te. ." .d arc of a Circle.. _ .. you spiral •.---. sector A ptar. asymptote A stralglr.. . - An Imaginary line that plsects.e. __ .. or In contact along a $lngle hn!:... esp.......

.e ... selid gee rMtry The bra nen of gX'!l'...gul3r polyhedrons: te.lse and t. prramid A po~t.directrix .a sphere.g.iU1nic so~ One of t. '...-_. ':. prolate oblate Flattened at the poles... pl3ne parallel to the :...-_ . ed.. . measured In cubic units. pri~m / .'... the gentra0". ...1e flve re.. ---.. _ ... A conic section formed by the Intersectk)O of a rl:Jht Circular cone with a pl3ne that makes a greater an9te with the base than dc-es the generator of the cone. \---.edrcn havln9 a polygonallr...a~rcn A regular polyheJron h2v!~ ~~ht faces. _..... _ . cuP-e Asor. Asoild ger. and thickness...-_ .. Of' Ic054 heel ron. _.. ellipsoid A solkl f1qure all plJne sections of .base.... cyiinkr -_ .. Th~ point within a regulJr polygon equally dls~nt from thevertlces. esp... congruent polygor... by one parallel to the base.:"-3'JlJrfaces mutlng at a common pelnt or ver-... passing throug h a ftxtd pclnt.. as a plane or curved two-dimensional l<Jcus of points deftning the boundary of a solid.. the ur cone .raheaml.. -A point In a geometric solid common to thr~ Of' more sides.n... Also called l7ody. or end \. poly41ron AsoIkI ge...nhearon A regubr polyhedron ~nded by four pbnef3us. _. vertex. left aftercuttlng offtM top :..d rot:~ded by SiX equal square slks. t1-~ angk: ~ween lrry two adJac. surface Arry figure having only two dimensions. cha A fixed fine used In the descrlptlQn of a curve Of'surfau.'lvir.s <lna sides that are parallelograms. A solid I10unded by two parallel plJnes and asurface generated by a stra~ht hne moving parallel to <1 ftxe. hex3hedron.... the vertex. .... A po~hearcn havlng ends that are para~el...--r. kp moving a~ the Intersectlon wtth a closeJ plAne curve..GEOMETRY &pherokf A solid geomttrlc3l ~ure similAr In shape to..- -~ tet..hex. _ . volume The extent of a three-dimensional object or the amount of space that It occupies._. .fru. -----_ A nne at which a surface termlnaus or at which two surfaces of a solkl meet.... boo directnx..erated by ~ revolution of a :-emic:rc1e about Its diameter. uuncmJ .. 3S an ellipsoid..t fates being 3 ri9ht angle.rted by rotating an e!l1pseabout Its mlnoraxls. Also called the ori generator -.g all faus congruent regular poly~ and all solid angles congr~ _. --~ oct.._ ...l:Ireadth...mth are ell1pses. ellip~ A conic sectlon formed by the Intersectlcn of a ~htclrcul3r cone with . prolate sphuoid Aspheroid generated by rot3tlng an ellipse about Its oblate spheroid Aspheroid gener. equidistant from the center. ~ ico~a~dron A re~\hr pclyhedron having 20 faus. _. r~ular H. _... dt right circuur cone -A cooe ¥nerated by rotating a right tria "9 Ie arout one of Its his center . octahedr:. a straight I1ne that generates a surface by movln9 In a sPeGffl~ fasnlon.cmetrlc fl9ure bounded by p13nd3ces.ed by a straight line.. 111 . _ .tum Havl"9 the apex.. A cylinder genera ted by a rectangle aboot one of Its skies.. dodec3 hearon.etry that dais with sofld figures and three-dimensional spau. Eklngated along the po~r diameter. A salk! whose surfau Is !lener<lt.".. you if vuux ... The portion of a ccn1calsolld cut off by a rane. and generatrlx. esp.... •· . .. whose ~rface Is at all points ~. hyperbob .'.. co nic 5eCtio n A plane curve formed by the Intersection of a ri9ht Circular con~ with a pl3ne. hUron A requbr pclyhedron having sIx f3us..ex..1 ~ do<b..etrlc fi9ure.. .. cop al gin - y '.. ' Pl....·· ..... paraPob A conic section formed by the Intersection of a right circular cone with a plJne parallel to a generator of the cone.::Istra~ht line and Intersectlng a c!oseJ plane curve In one of the planes.... se An element th:lt generates a gtOlT'.. nee legs. with. ~ht circuL1r cyiinaer selid Ageometric f1qure having the three dimensions of Iength.a~ron A regu br p<llyheJron having 12 faces.. sphere major axis...I pbne that cuts through both the a)(ls and the surface of t~ cone..

Glass ~i-tnftSinitS~117Ie light while -. I' Annealed glass thJt is reheated to just l>elow the softening point a then 1'3 pldly cooled to Induce compressive streS~ In the surfa~s and edges of the glass and tensile stresses in the Interior. heat. ~tem~red gtas.. Heat·strengthened glass h:..5..as about twice the strength of annealed glass of the same thlc~ness.-. heat :. __ . hoilow The r..~Il. ~. * em~ The reb-tNe alIdlty of a surface to emit I'3di3nt ~t. "_. -"- ". Also called~t~~·. ~'~~~$j :~~~Wt~:. Circular dis£: wIth a center IuI1p left Vy the wori:er's rod.. soda-ltme-sl1lca glass formed Dy roinng molten glass Into a plate (rotled glass) that IssuPse'luently ground and ponshed ~coonng....nts If the gl3ss is mien.':' rch more sheets of glass sepal'3ted by henretblly-st3ied alrsp3U5. textured..". _._ .-l' . soda·h~sllicJ glass that J.. The flrepolished surf. tJIvIdIng It lengthwise.lves together with a partla I vacuum Inslk and used for glazing openings.. r~ I 1.uare or diamond wl~ mesh eml7edded withIn It to prevent shattering In the event: of ~bge or excesslv~ heat.1ng a thickness of 3/YlIn.~~: Glass ~ achem~1 admixture to aVsorV aportion of the I'3d~nt heat and LL '... hermetlc -_ . Also called ..~ i pu I I ook sb '"~t. ... i i cop I .1. An o~~ glass ·f~ ccnceanrig the structural elements In curtain wan construction..ctly pm/lel resultln41n some distortion of vision. produud Dy ~ a Iow-emlsslvltyccatlng -. Imp3ct'reslstant glass plock unit.. 112 . or pattemed faus.. Glass biii'g'a thin. translucent met..nd nearly dJ.~ thi ill J +.and pressure to Interlayers of polyvinyl l1utyl'3l resin that retains tM fr39!?!t.4mm).ren¢l glass Sf-at glass l!3yjng a thickness of '/~ In. ~~. rsat~!!. (2. plate 5laS5 A fut.----. faPrlcatlon.....~~. . lIIe ~ toondeJ to the exterior or Interor sUf"bce kI reflea J portion of the JIg ht and radiant heat th3t strike It.--.?o~~j~ if y Glass ~lng one or roth sides acld-etched or ~nd!llas~ to wscu revlslon..i'~~g~~~ laminated gl3ss havlng exceptional tensile and Impact strength.. __ . ££~It ~~lmpartsa~h.lnstucent.. hUt-~Rf . _u . "either ~ the glass Itseff or over a transparent plastic film suspended In t.a1ed g1a5~ Glass t~3tTs cwled slowly to reHeve Internal stresses. II IL eed SlJrface pattern formed In the roOing process to obscure vlslon or to diffuse fight..~"::!~~fl3t9IaSSDoncWUnder I I I I I float glass . Tempered glass has three toflve times the reslstanu of annealed glass to Impact and thermal I na J stresses ~ut canM Ue altered afte.e «<aMI glass). Iron oxide gives the !lass a pale ~.~~_ ~t. and futtenl"! It (cyffnder ..staIJizJtion.lass.ana sudden cooling. produced Pi' fusing sita together with a flux and ~ sbl1t11ur Into a mass th3t cools to a rigkJ condItion without c!.. -r1 i -t- ase '~i~~~ A glass unltCOi1Ststlng of two or the . ht3t~enqthenedgl1~$ Annealed glass thJt is partl311y tempered Py a proctss of reheatlng:. == bfoc~ of glass wIth clear.-.. ori gin al .~!~l~~· .:~ y ! I r~u~lgb" laminated or InsiJi3tlng glass used for SOU nd control ! i I 1 \Wire9ra. Wlre gi3ss Is WI1sldereJ a safety glazing m. A fut.'~ : 1 = Flat or pattemed glass having a so. A tf.. sometimes having an Insert or coated to reduce solar heat transmission. J ..stortlonfree.. MUe airtlght by fusing or Staling.< I GLASS A lurd.. NllIbctured by pouring molten glass ooto a surface of molten tin and a~ It to cool slowly.against a ~fack ~ at the ~me temperature... anne... . or Pyformlng a cylinder.. ~ refleaIng the longer ~sofradla"...insmlsslon thro~h:l particular glass to the solar h~3t tranS«1lsslon thf"OUgh dool7le-strength c!earguss.~ T 1 I vlsa.s '" extremc:!y smooth .sterl4l sdenkm Infuses a~ tlnt Also C4f1ed __ . produced by fusing a ~ramlc frlt to the Interior surfa~ of tempered or heat-strengthened glass.1t I1re3ks Into relatlvely h3rmless particles.lass). si~~strength gla55 S~ glass h3-. When fracturea..lI1easured :. made Py fusing two h. AIS<? called ~~:egUlar ou n fl§ured I~SS._ ..Ices are not perfe.). __ . shutgbss A flat. __ . Float glass is the successor to plate glas5 and account5 for the 1113jorIty of fl4it-g lass proJuct1on..-' -. -··~~·-::~~=ll-j ~.5~. scda-Ibnc-~ glass fa ~rlcattd Py drawing the InOIten glass from a fumK.l T 1 1 .:.:.~k ~son. crown glass An old fonn of wfndow glass formed Py ~lowl"1 and wftlr!l~ a hollow sphere of g13 ss Into 2 fbt..he sealed spaceoflnsula~ng glass.le Ight tlut strike It. dcuble-st..lniWe. 'h~di~ ~lent ~V:j~~i~~I~ ~j. _u..iI~ eX solar heat tr. (32 mm)... _. usually transparent or tranSlucent suf1stance. consIsting of multIple piles of glass Pondea under he3t and pressure to InWlayers of polyvlnyf I:>utyral resIn.

Also called gl.. One of the SlT13n l7locks of synthet\c --_ .----. cr Icd-strip gasket. ancl Joined by... -----.g system In which the framing members are setentlrely behind the glass panes or units to form aflush ~ surfau.------------------. the glJss ~ng to the framing with a structural silicone sealant. -.eJ inches The sum of one ~ and one width of a recta~ular glass C<lmpression ga~ket A preformed strip of synthetic rubber or plastic compressed bawe.. ------. A high-strength SIlIGoM Sailant capable of adherlng glass to a supportIng frame.las5_P'. unit'.anu bet~ the edge of a glass p-ane or unit and. -.. ------The dlst.~ • ..------. eageck.dlng a glass P"~ In a wood sash until the tau putty has hardened.. Iockstrip gasket --.----. allowing for adequate eJ¥ c\e:aranus. Apreformed ribDon of synthetlc rubber haVing adhesive properties and use.. malntJln a uniform width of Sailant. --\--------_... -.. The panes or sheets of glass or other transparent material made to De set In frames.. =:'O~5~af~.. pointed piece of sheet metal for hol. -----. --. with their vertical edges being Joined with a structural silicone sealant without mullions.Jcegluing doul:Jle gl3zing The Installation of two parallel panes of glass with a sealed aIr space between to reduce the transmission of heat and sound. Iii \ .. Also called gl. the side ~es of a glJss f13~ or unit and i. Also calIea centerrng shim. ." y dry glazing .. ". -- .' ~Itdlry 'Ilt>ratlons or thermal expansion One of the Sm311 Uiocl::s of lead or dt or contraction. flush glazing Aglazlr. A wood molding or meta! section secured against the edge of a glass pane or unit to hold It In place.--.-.. secur!l1g windowpare5 or.. and seaang It IIIlth a beveled bead of putty or glazing compound.1rance -------------.mount of OYeNp between the edge of.----. 113 . used In '-. arJnmft13ttral~t~usea~ II rJb~ pl3ced l7etween sating block .... . or mirrors. as In windows...a:zrng size. putty Acompound of whltlng and linseed oil.--.. curing to fonn a watertlglrt seal. A preformed gaske-t of synthetic ru.-----.. IT1e3surtd In the plane of the glass... formuiJted so as not to become brittle with age.... -: .-' .....structural Se3lant The .-----. A Sm3n. .. l:Jutt-joint glazif19 A glazing system In which the glass panes or units are supporteJ at the head and sill In a conventional manner. TheotStanul>e-t~thef3Uofaglass pa~orun!tandtheneares-tfaceoftts r".. hakllng It In pbce with glnler's points.. ---.---.glazing tape : . I'i l wet glazing The setting of glass In a window frame with glazing tape or a liqUid sealant. Also called cap l:>ead. -.---------.-"" t '.GLASS t. fAce putty . Also catted glazing stop. curing to form anairtlg ht sea I. gl.ce _... ~e p~ck --. A thin layer of putty or glazing compound lata In eM rabl>e-tofa window sash to give II paM of glass an mn I7acklng.~zing .... wi11dowframe.lce c!elr~n.. The size of a glass pane or unit required for gLnlng 3n opening.en aglJss pane or unit and a Window frame to form a watertJght Sail and cushion for the glass.- fra me" stop.. glass p:lMe or unit and a window fra me. \.::.azJng Urad..---~-"'m----r . you "'- nee f.. ---.----. -... The seWng of a glass paM In a rabbeted frame.--. -----.. stJbil1zed by pe~ndlcular stiffeners of tempered glass.l structlJral silicone ~larrt and sometimes l7y ~I patch plates ..1 frame to unter It. --..4 In glazing to form a watertlglrt seall7etween glass and frame. ~-..._ synthetic rul711er placed unaer the lower edge of a glass pane or unit to support It within a frame. glazir~ compound An adh~sNe compound used as putty.. ~sured n~31 to th~ plane of t~ glass.-.I The setting of glass In ~ window frame with compression gasket Instead of glazing tape or a hquid sealant... --. " "" if '. pM or unit..--.. patching woodwork defects...-. s~.--------. ... held In compression by forcing a keyed lock I1\1 strip Into a groove In the gasket.ber for securing 3 glass pa~ or unit In a window frame or opening. l:Jite ~.----_ glazing ~d heel pe3d . measured In tnches. I: The putty or glazll\1 compound formed on . -. ~X~t~if~~~~~~·~----··-·-··tempertd glass are suspended from speclJl clamps. spaur. glHS stu . of doug hfl:e consistency when fresh..-. cop al ori gin cha se the ur his boo kp . -----. : An adhesive liquid of synthetlc rubber Injected between a glass pane or unit and a glazing Dead.___. stop.cap stalant An adhesive liqUid of synthetic rubDer Injected Into the joint between a glass pane or unit and a window frame. doars. -. I glazier's point ---------.----. -----~.--..

Bor". .. al cop pun par _.. ' door h.. Dar.. . door and the doo~amb to prevent the door from I1eIng opened more than a few Inches wfthaut the chain l7elng removed. ___ -.. .l i.. A ~~!e for opening a door. ~ac~~ck finish hardware Ex~ hardware serving a decorative as. Also C31~ architectural hardware.-. L/ L right-hand reverse Having t-he hinges on the right of an outward Cf'?llng door when seen from the exterior of the building or room to which t!--e doorway leads.l r flxed acl"O$s a glazed cIoor.-. windows... doers.!?Ie slide fitting that C3n be attached between the Inside of ..... ' ... .·.... A hydraulic or pneumatic device for controlling the closing of adoor and preventlng It from slamming. ------i I hand The position of the hinges of a door... or diS«: for al1sor71r~ shock or preventing damage from t>vmplng.-. _.e ..---.. A pt:t:Fho!e. gU3rd..._.... --..--. gin A Ir. used for ~lng or closl~ the door and prov1dl~ p~ for the glass.. ········-·'·········:~I....!eJ In the he3d of a doorfra me.... nails..'~ doo~p boo .. when seen from the ~~rlor of the l1ulldlng or room to which t.-. as the other accessories for lod:s.-. and other metal fI~s that are COI1ct3led In a flnlshed doorclo~r overhead conce. d"" . judas I door pull ~ ..eilas a utilitarian purpose.. nee dt ~ . _..i11C6 door or the door cf 3 prison cell.....J house or room.ea vertlcally on the lock stile of a __ ...-..!"" door closer for sloWing the speed i'o~i which a door may be opened.---. . .. !?earing the OCCuF3nt'S name.HARDWARE The metal tools..1 left-hand reverse Having the hinges on the left of an outward opening door when seen from the exterior of the ~ulldlng or room to which the doorway leads.--.. -. Also called AcIocrcloserconu.....heclc.. floor closer --:. cr I::nol1 on a door for use In knccl:ir-3. A ~lve metal pIm fastened to the XttaTn of 3 door to resist I110ws anJ scrnches. _ . -' A sm~Q identifying plate on the outside door of . Also called letter slo1:. .. as a wedge ex.A protective pl3te of metal or plastic mcu~. 01 nd C4lnnetwOrl:.. l1umper A~~ rim.s. if left-hand Having the hinges on the left of an Inward opening door when seen from the exterior of the Irolldlng or room to which the doorway leads. door chain Ashort chain with a remov:._/ AtlevIu In a hydra!..small weight.. I Fl~) ---- rlght-hana Having ~ hinges on the right of an Inward C¥nlng door when seen from the exterior of the Irol!dlng or room to which the door"ay leads. L L 114 .. - . and fittings usea in construction.. often i'fith a hinged closer...--......1rdware The fu1ish hardware requlrea for ha~ing and operating a door. as In an entr. the house Or apartment num~.. Ii -.·1-- ori man slot A smail ~Ing In an exterlordoor or war.-..•.---:::--... push plate ..automatic door Pottom his A horlzonta IIr. A hlngej ring...' door. A device for hotdlng • door open.ie doorwIIY leads. --..ed.. -.".--. ana knocl:er -.. .. I J .. fastenings... ~h hardware . . ~ ~- y .--.... .--..•. pad..... -/.. you L _________ . -.. through which mail Is denve.--. doorptrt... ... or the IlI::e.3 ttd cfcser c. In terms of right OIna left.. A door closer Instat~ in a recess In the floor..----------./.. hinges. kp ur cha se the ".onstructlon.--.-. screws. Also calledJudas hole......at the rottom of 3 door that drops automatically when the door Is closed In order to seal the threshold and reduce noise transmission./ . kick pL:rte ---.

Also called Putt.--------.and the long stem loeing tM mavaD!e lat.. parliament hinge An H-shaped hln¥ hJvfng a protrua'1ng knuckle SO that.. ~ . -mounted on the fau of the door.----. plvatl~joi. hinge. door can stana .. narrow hinge that runs the full length of the two surfaces to which Its .-.lll loearlngs bet~n the klltJdles to reduce friction and ensure e:35e of ~ratlon. hinge ~---------------- _---.----. . rI~lng hinge AgravIty hinge causing 3 door to riSt 0 ® 0 piano hinge II long..Mtln~ sur-f..-----------.strap hinge o A hInge havIng two long !eaves for securing to the adJ3cent faces of A door and doorjamu. single.rTt. on which a door. -~- 10 ·Y·~ aou17te-acti"!'l hl"¥ A hinge permlttlng a door to swing In either direction. with shoulders mortlse.d on ana the other the doorfra me.¥ .____________ '..proJectlngjolntofa hInge through whIch the pin passes. Also called T-h1"9t:. or shutter swings..las of a door and A jointed device. . ------. sliding.--. A h~ 1uvI~ mo le3ves surface". Also called l7acl:fup hl"¥.-.¥o 1a"e5_ rch pu ~ ase ------.urface li.lting the t. al . - A hl~e M3vlng a nonremovaule pin. ga~. .. ----3S tI-~ gudqeon of a hinge.. ~ah~.~~:oh~"6t ..l num!7er of flat plates rotatIng about a central pin. templ1te hinge ~-.' --------. _r----.. \. ------------.es of a door ana docrlrame.(£5 '--------4-r-----.d~~~ ------I ---\\ th~ tdge of ~ door 5 urf~.. leaf Ahinged. 1 115 . liftcff nl~e_ eed thi A hinge hJving a knudle formecl from half of each bf.. ~ from the wall when My ~ Ioc~joint hinge ------. usually conslstlng of two leaves . 17afl-~Jring -. Ioc~pin hinge ------------------... A hin.\j ~l I tlpring hinge ~------------------------A hinge co~ J coiled spring In Its u-arrel for closing 3 door automatically.cross-garnet Ar-shaped strap hl"¥ with tM crosspiece 3S th~ 5t4tlonary 1!1emPa. ® pnd Also called con ti rHiOtJ 5 hin¥ ~aves ~re 0 0 0 ® slightly when opened . if y ou n pintle -----------------.d Into the door edge and doorframe SO 3S to concealed when cloSea. or otherwise mevable part of a door.. A h~e Mavlng. A mortise hlr'¥ rnanufa<.~ Thecylinarical. ~ ~"I .- _.on A socl:et for the pintle of a hinge. mounteJ to tile adjacent fa<.------.l reroovable pin 50 thilt .-------. Also cafled ollvt: hinge.je hJvi~ one leaf mortised Into the doorframeana the other surface"--.es.'. ---.. Also c31led concealeJ hlf14t:.-.dovetail hinge A strap hinge having ~es which are narrower at theirJunctlon than at ~ei. flap bi"ge ------------------.~~~ . gain A notch cut Into 3 surface to reuive a leaf of a hinge. y ® .I door can be unhuf11 P:i separ. _.~~ ~. _.-. turns. r'-'-invi.-J gin ori the . knuckle ..HARDWARE hinge mortise hi~ doojamb_ ~----------------------­ A Pun hin¥ I10rtLsed Into the .----. bst-pin hiO¥ (±) cop ~ A hir-¥ equipped with!r. --- pau~"e A hinge havIng .atherextremltles.turea to fit the rea:5S and match the arrangement of hck5 of hc&w metal doors and fran-. ~ gravity hinge A hln~ that closes autcmatlcally by means of gravity. -'----. ~ :!) olive knuckle hinge A paumelle having 3n MI-shapea knuckle.--II pin cw. ~ from the pln_ Also called sb ook gudge..JoIned together lJy a pin. usually fitted with sprln gs to Uring the doof to a cIosea poslt1cn after opening.rolt on which something turns. Also called sInkIng.I~.='==-t~==~ ha~-. or tabletop. wlth the upper haff remo.llIle hi"¥ A hinge consisting of.~.moofTk. Or moves.-. htthinge A hInge com posed of two pf3tes secu red to the auuttlng surfaces of a door ana doo1amu. fun-surface hinge.-.

't) J l ~nj&&7withfn a rnortJse c~ Into cha a doer ~ so ~ the led mecha nlsm Is ~ on ~oths~.y~ A slOt In a Iod: for receiving and guk:llnga~.. . -_. . one t&tough ~ face of a door and the adler In the door edg~ ---.. -. '~'=--==:-". of a doori:nol1 at the face of a door..nto a mortise In a the silL A horiz""tal~3r th.-::::::~ . pani.~.:f 1- bevel The cplique end of a latch bolt th.ry leads.J ~ jA ~..3~ cut to.'. .-.. . as arO'J rJ a keyhole..'~iQift. movea \~.I I A' kd f3~~ to the f3a of a door...--"'. roreJ at right angles to euh other.·. ..u irem the the knob stem.---'.- (eyer'til.'.1 ~ 1 HARDWARE lock A ~ for securing a door.. keyhc~.• b>evd .i~ within a ~~ular notch cut Into the &mit~~' -.i ..o a lad and :r""..~--:-:. t.. ----..o A ~roove or hole. or when pushed aga In st the lip of the strike plate as the &oor 15 closed. -. Thef. -'sc~ecn'1 face of a eek through . \.1!-~ with the face or edge of a aoor. regu~r nee dt his Or shift that C3nies the knmand actuates tM I3tch •.. -.(fl~sh'boit&iei. Imh Ade.. ... ~}t. cOQJ~i~!C_~.fX comDlnatlonAn asseml:ily of parts lT13Klng up 3 complete locking system. Adlsk or cylinder having an Irregu lar form that rotates or sl4les U> lmpa rt motion to a roller moving against Its edge or to a pln free to move In a groove on ltsface.L L L L L f "~ -y. ___ doortoob.. _pit::--·--·---···---····--··/ One cf *~ projecUn~ bl...-~.lncfuair<.-._ . ~ .ng a ~ey....1f.--. ori An ont4rr... ccnsistlng essent13l~ cylindu A cylindrical device for retaining the Dolt of a locI:: unUI the tumDlers have Deen pushed out of Its way. if you ron ~.~ that falls or $ilks Int.ental pl3te surrourJ1ng the sh. as Dy a ~nob or key. drawer pulL '_ or r'9ht swluh.'e its ~.rt spans the Intero. Alsocall&t~f!1~ al ~ ~e plate or surface throo~h which the Pelt of a lock cop reyel'5ible lock A led having a latchbolt th3t can be rev~rse. Also callea panic bolt. Of locI: cylinder.·--··--··-··-··-········-~·­ lip . ~'-t~ .~ The'!iOrlZontal d1star....d for installation In either a ~ht·h3nd or Ieft·hznd door. as opposed U> one l7Uilt ilto Its edge.. edge of a door. consisting of a bc4 fX com~atlon of ro!ts propelled and wtthJrawn l1y a key.gage with ana actuate elU-~::f roth the Pelt aM the tumr:~ of a lock.~ __ l ~~:.~.l ~nc. hen the door is closed.. 116 L I ...hapeahandle ry which a door 15 o~orc~eJ "(fOcdiUilt -------. Afut meta! tUmDler having a pivoting motion actuated !r. sliding Into a socket In the head or striKe . : A proj~lng ridge of metal In a lock or \:eyhole that prevents the Insert10n of any key that does not have a corresponding war-If:..ich the bolt passes to the ~dJM of se turni~ propelled or withdrawn.--' --~--" A metal plate 0... ~~~ A~ll1arorrodlnthe mechanism of a lock that Is gin pas~..1 doorpml1 having a hole for receMng the end of a lock l101t wMn the door Is closed.. A1IOte frta loci: case or esc utcheon for In ser-. _-.'.~b:.. cam· . Also. Mnr M:·-----------.f. ~.u. drawer.. :. the .~---._____ _ ~~wtUtil two ~Ies specL...avlni1 a ~uare heat.":.. notch.GjW-. '\. .' The l1evel of a or lock on a door opening 1nU> the L>ultdlng or room to which the &oorw.:1omB~ II K:>&~ h..l that into posltlon !r.-'_7'. . or bolt of alocl:..~ . //". 'a for hoidlng 3 door c~. -_ ..---."-~6riiDi1tatliandle for operaUng the bolt of a Into position l1y a that Is spring exupt when retracted ry a doorknol7.. _ kp Ont4 :r. Also called~. "'..---. panic h3rdware. the turning of a key.br The prC¥Ctlng ulge or rim of a strike. leaf of a pair of doors Is permItted to close before the active leaf. The sIde of a lock facing In the same direction as the !level at the tTl aof the I3tchrolt.e:rtal plate..~Jdtt"~ i~~" A~~eor ~'f~~.. ---.---. . boo . ~. '..t hits a strl~ plate. ~. .. POX aoor... or lid il posftloll when closed...~.mM An o~tructlng part In a lock that prevents a Dolt from relng propelled or withdrawn unUilt Is movea by the action of a Key.s. plates and a locking mect\3nlsm.'". opern:ed ~h3 nisin. • .:!y c~ t.. ~ dtVfCefor'ens'uring that the Inactive A metal Pox recessed into a doorJarrb to receive the end of a lad bo!: .. reverse bevel The Devtl of a Dolt or loci: on a door openl"g outward from the Pulld1~ or room to which the doorw3'j leads.mbJer. _} 'i...of an emer~ricy exit door at waist ~ht and M opens the uteh when pressure Is 3pplled.-___ ~~ ~---:. of 3 b:.o fit Int..~.-:.• --..ng a !leveled head \ v~~~ Ioc~. the turning Is of 3 ~nob or key rather than ry spring action.. Also called stn~ piaU:.. ..~ ur rrcrea y ·>.::-....o~.

.....alorle.alse the temperature of a suustance by one degree. ~!7s0lute ~are cop I I y I Atemperature SC3le In Atemperature scale divided Into 100 degrees.lty of heat required to raise the temperature of one kl~ ra mof W3ter 1"(. expand: or evaporate.------I1 The'tUJrrtlty of hat 3bsorred or rdeasea ~ 75 tl '----·-----L-----~·. Abw.~---__I1--~""r_--------___.. . or the number of C310ries per gram per degr-o."ttem~tureaMpressure. r · ..by a sU~5t3nce during a chJi"L¥ in phase at ". if IC<J you 125lI I r------r-------------' nee dt his the ki10cJ lerie }: .a!ork:.. equlv3tent to 1000 SfT14IIf calorles. 'r<A j 1 epecific heat Heat C3p3City per unit mass of a su!:>stance: the num~r of Btu ~ulred to raise the temperature of one pouiJa of 3 sul:rst3nce 1°F. fft$ subcnct 32 and t!-~ multiply by ~9 to find Celsius. a~J sola pha~ of a substance can exist In l4.- ori ~.-. Of' radiation and causi"'3 substances to rise in temperature. Also called ~ntlgrade scale. -' . se When you know degrees boo .------~ The ql!3ntlty of ~. al : : which :32°F represents the freezing poInt and 212°Fthe roiling point of water under of -273.HEAT A form of energy a550C~ with ~ random motlOfl of atoms 01' morecules.eat required to r. 1 hatC3pacity ----------.67"F.c1Jt 3 char\¥!n phase.r .iijbrlum . . calorie .186 joIJtes.r. cha When you know deqrees Fahm:heit. ..-e untlgr'3M. .l6 of the tr:ple point of v. _.. ur deg~Cdslus. ----.16°e. g3seous. 1: ~ const. ruse. equal to -27. kelvin The b:ase Sl unit of temperature equal to Vm. . gin A unit of heat ~U31 to the quantity of heat r~ulrea to raise the um~tureofoM gram of water l°e at a pressure of one atmosp~. at a pressure of one aUr.al..-.latent hut "'*~~_=.ospnere.-.7ter. AQl. Also caW gram standard atmospheric pressure. ~ \ f }j)J .: ~l Also calW kilogram calo~. snt311 C3lcrle. In whIch O°C represents the freezIng point and 1000 ethe boiling point of water under standard atmospherlc pressure. conduction.. _. -·· .-- Fahrenh~itSC3le Celslu5~le kp A unitofheat~U3ltothe qU3n".a l?solute zero The hypothetlC3llowest limit of phystcal temperature characterized by complete absence of heat. capaine of i:Jei"'3 transmitted ~ convection.~:~I~hata!lSOrredorreleasea I l tlm~ -.lArge c...3.. 5ym~oI: I( triple point The particular te:nperature a:'J pressure at which the hqliid. A temperature scale !1ased on absolute zero with scale units equalln m3gnltuae to centigrade degrees.. ./.:..: c. 117 .. first multiply by9f5 and then add 32 to find tkgrus Fahrenheit.16°C or -459. Kelvin $C3~ An absolute scale of temperature havlng a zero point by a substJnu during a chJr\¥ In temperature wttlo.al?solute temperature Tempe~ture as measured on a absolute scale. ~ulv3tent to 4..