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About the U.S.A.
About the U.S.A.
Published by the Office of English Language Programs Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs United States Department of State Washington, DC 20547
DC 20547 Author Elaine Kirn Copyright © 1989 by Author and Editors and Etcetera Graphics ENGLISH THROUGH CITIZENSHIP: Student Book Intermediate Level A.S. 1989. Washington. Elaine Kirn. iv . Inc.About the U. McHenry. Illinois: Delta Systems Co. Illinois: Delta Systems Co. McHenry. the United States Department of State.. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.A. 1989. ENGLISH THROUGH CITIZENSHIP: Student Book Intermediate Level B. Inc. Published by the Office of English Language Programs. Elaine Kirn.. Inc. Selected by Tom Miller and adapted by Frank Smolinski and Damon Anderson with permission from Delta Systems Company.
as well as to Victoria Richart of Los Angeles Mission College and the Los Angeles and Orange County curriculum committee for the creation of complete course outlines and guidelines. Anthony Thorne-Booth for falling in love with the new computer. appreciation goes to Dick Patchin of Delta System and the sales staff for enthusiasm and being out there. Suzette Mahr for typesetting. v . And as usual. In advance. thanks to the hard-working staff and freelancers: John Dermody for research and initial drafts. Chuck Alessio for putting it all together. Pat Campbell for editing. long workdays and evenings. Terry Wilson for expressive artwork. Special appreciation goes to Jon Hendershot of Los Angeles Southwest College and Jack Fujimoto of the LACCD for initiation of the project.Acknowledgments Thanks to the amnesty coordinators and instructors of the Los Angeles Community College District and surrounding schools for supporting this project and offering helpful suggestions. and all of us for long.
Government The Legislative Branch 90 The Executive Branch 93 The Judicial Branch 97 86 86 Unit 7: State Government 101 Unit 8: Local Government 107 Module 8A: County and City Services Module 8B: County Government 111 Module 8C: City Government 115 Module 7A: Branches of Government and Officials Module 7B: Functions. Constitution Module 5B: Basic Rights and Freedoms 83 79 79 Unit 6: The Federal Government Module 6A: Module 6B: Module 6C: Module 6D: Overview of the U. Constitution Module 5A: Overview of the U. History 44 Module 4B: Exploration and Colonization Module 4C: Revolution 52 Module 4D: Growth and Westward Movement Module 4E: The Time of the Civil War 60 Module 4F: Industrialization 64 Module 4G: The U.S. Powers.S.S. and Services 104 107 101 Unit 9: Citizenship 118 Module 9A: The Duties of Citizens Module 9B: Voting 121 Module 9C: Election Issues 124 118 vii .S. Becomes a World Power Module 4H: Modern Times 72 Module 4I: Local History 75 48 56 68 44 Unit 5: The U.S.Contents To the Student ix To the Instructor x Also to the Instructor xi Unit 1: Symbols and Holidays 1 Module 1A: American Symbols 1 Module 1B: Thanksgiving and Independence Day Module 1C: More National Holidays 9 5 Unit 2: Americans Module 2A: Module 2B: Module 2C: Module 2D: Module 3A: Module 3B: Module 3C: Module 3D: Famous Presidents 13 The History of Immigration 17 Historical Figures 21 Some Immigration Stories 25 The Geography of the United States 28 Famous Places 32 States and Cities: The West 36 States and Cities: The East 40 13 Unit 3: Geography 28 Unit 4: The History of the United States Module 4A: Overview of U.
and history of the states and cities of the United States of America in simplified English? Then this intermediate level of About the U.To the Student Can you understand. ix . The information in this book will help you to understand basic concepts and vocabulary in talking about your own country and city to other speakers of English.A. We hope that you enjoy working with this book. and write basic English? Do you want to learn about the customs. is the right book for you. read.S. you will be able to read and understand more that is written in English about other countries and share your own views and opinions in English. As you grow stronger in your use of English. government. speak.
About the U. Department of Justice. 1987). each subdivided into several lettered modules. and writing the English language. .S.S. The book is based on curriculum outlines developed by the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) and the Los Angeles County Community College Consortium for Amnesty (LACCCCA).A. The information in the program is derived largely from three texts issued by the federal government: United States History 1600-1987.To the Instructor About the U.A. is designed for use in intermediate EFL/ESL courses as well as in general civics instruction in high schools and colleges. Please allow ample opportunity for students to use their new knowledge to ask questions and try to articulate their own thoughts and ideas in English about their respec tive countries and cities or about the U.S. The mod ules can be presented in the order in the book or they may easily be used in any desired order. U.S. speaking. We hope that you enjoy working with this book. and citizenship materials of the program are divided into nine numbered units. government. Immigration and Naturalization Service. and reading). The history. is an intermediate level book for indi viduals who have some level of proficiency in understanding.S. Government Structure. and Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information (U. Based on proven ESL/EFL methodology in language skills instruction (primarily listening. reading. speaking.
Also to the Instructor xi .
Symbols and Holidays Module 1A: American Symbols UNIT 1 A 1. with liberty and justice for all. After a battle Francis Scott Key wrote a song about the American flag. it was the flag of the thirteen American colonies. there were thirteen white stars in a field of blue.” 1 . Now the flag has thirteen stripes for the thirteen original colonies and fifty stars for the fifty states. The red and white stripes were symbols for the thir teen American colonies. The pledge is a promise of loyalty to the United States. indivisible. THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE “I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands. Before the American Revolution. American citizens and immigrants sometimes recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag. 3. 4. The flag of England was in the corner. During the War of 1812 the flag had fifteen stars and fifteen stripes for the fifteen states. The Flag of the United States This is the British (English) flag. 5. under God.” It was the flag of the American army during the Revolutionary War. In the corner. This was the “Great Union Flag. 2. Some people say that Betsy Ross made the first American flag. The “Star-Spangled Ban ner” became the national anthem of the United States. 6. The new flag also had seven red stripes and six white stripes. The United States grew and admitted more states to the Union. one Nation.
3. Now the “StarSpangled Banner” is the national D Number the flags 1–5 in time order. . T Before the American Revolution. The “Star-Spangled Banner” is a song about the Liberty Bell and the Statue of Liberty. 6. 2. The Great Union flag was the flag of England during the Revolutionary War. Some people say that Abraham Lincoln made the first American flag. in a field of (6) . blue white stars stripes colonies Union Revolution anthem The British flag was the flag of the thirteen American (1) American (2) colonies before the . The first American . During the Revolutionary War. the red and (3) flag. The flag of the United States now has thirteen stars for the American colonies and fifty stripes for the fifty states. Correct the false sentences. In the War of 1812. C Write the words from the box. the stripes were symbols of these colonies on the Great (4) flag had thirteen (5) flag had fifteen stars and (7) (8) of the United States. 4. The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise of loyalty to the United States. Write T for true and F for false. 5.2 Module 1A / American Symbols B 1. the British flag was the flag of the thirteen Ameri can colonies. Tell about each flag.
the Declaration of Independence. Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Liberty Bell in the State House in Philadelphia rang out on that day. The American eagle is the official emblem (symbol) of the United States. . the U. c. He originally appeared in political cartoons and is an unofficial symbol of the U. F 1.S. the two major political parties. government. freedom for immigrants to the United States. The French gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States as a symbol of friendship. 2. More American Symbols The delegates of the thirteen American colonies planned the Declaration of Independence. The document declared the independence (separation) of the colonies from England. and Thomas Jefferson wrote it. the United States on the Presidential flag and some coins. Write the letters on the lines. and the dele gates signed the document on July 4.S. 3. 4. Match the sentence parts. 2. 4. 6. It appears on the Presidential flag and on some coins. The donkey and the elephant first appeared in political cartoons. 5. e. c The Liberty Bell is the symbol of The Statue of Liberty is the symbol of The American eagle is the symbol of The donkey and the elephant are symbols of Uncle Sam is the symbol of a. Uncle Sam has the initials U.UNIT 1 / Symbols and Holidays 3 E 1. 1776. Now it is a symbol of freedom for new immi grants to this country. d. They are symbols for the Democratic and Republican Parties. 5. 3.S. b. government.
4 Module 1A / American Symbols G 1. The delegates of the thirteen original colonies signed the Declaration of Independ ence. The donkey. 4. and the Liberty Bell rang out in Philadelphia on July 4. H With your class. and Uncle Sam originally appeared in political cartoons. The people of England gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States as a symbol of the President. The document declared the separation and freedom of the thirteen colonies from England. 5. 1776. 6. learn and sing the “Star-Spangled Banner. 2. 3. F Write T for true and F for false. The Democratic donkey is the official emblem of the United States. Thomas Jefferson George Washington wrote the Declaration of Independence.” The Star-Spangled Banner . the elephant. Correct the false sentences.
corn. showed the Pilgrims how to hunt. There was not enough food for the long. beans. But while they were on the crowded ship. and pumpkin pie. and give thanks. 4. the Plymouth settlers had a good har vest the next fall. cranberry sauce. and other foods. and other foods. Thanksgiving Day The English Puritans were trying to “purify” the Church of England. and many people got sick. Now every year on the fourth Thursday of November American families and friends gather. the Pilgrims agreed on a form of government for their new colony. the Mayflower. beans. pumpkins. Massachusetts. 3. but finally they formed their own church. sweet potatoes. In the fall of 1620 the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic Ocean on their ship. Chief Massasoit. cold winter. This agreement. They left England and went to Holland and then to America. There were also nuts. Finally on December 22 the travelers landed at Plymouth. The trip was very difficult. dressing. cranberries. estab lished the principles of voting and majority rule. 5. . and many settlers died. The Pilgrims and the Indians had a three-day feast of deer. wild turkey. Because of their help. fish. have a feast. 2. Then some friendly Indians. Samoset.UNIT 1 / Symbols and Holidays 5 Module 1B: Thanksgiving and Independence Day A 1. Governor William Bradford declared some special days of thanksgiving. The first Thanksgiving celebration was a great success. and Squanto. the Mayflower Compact. and plant corn. wild fruits. and fish. They became “Pilgrims” because they were travelers in search of religious freedom. President Abraham Lincoln established Thanksgiving as an official national holiday. Some traditional Thanksgiving foods are turkey.
8. Now Thanksgiving is an official national feast day for families and friends. the Pilgrims’ agreement about government in their settlement h. the governor of the Plymouth settlement d. beans. and cranberries the fourth Thursday in November turkey. wild turkey. and Massasoit William Bradford deer. 2. some friendly Indians b. 2. the official day of the national holiday of Thanksgiving f. . The Pilgrims were travelers in search of gold and adventure. 4. On the ship the Pilgrims established the government principle of separation of church and state. Their first winter in Plymouth. dressing. The Puritans broke away from the Church of England and formed their own church. 6. Correct the false sentences. b the Pilgrims the Mayflower the Mayflower Compact Plymouth. the ship of the Pilgrims e. Match the phrases. cranberry sauce. Write the letters on the lines. The Pilgrims came to America in the seventeenth century. 5. 3. Then the settlers had a good harvest because some friendly Indians taught them about the land. 5. some traditional Thanksgiving foods today C 1. the English Puritans c. the settlement of the Pilgrims g. 9. and pumpkin pie a. pumpkins. Write T for true and F for false. 7. 3. Massachusetts was very difficult. 4. 6. Squanto. Massachusetts Samoset. Governor William Bradford declared a special day to celebrate the independence of their colony from England.6 Module 1B / Thanksgiving and Independence Day B 1. sweet potatoes. corn. 7. some foods at the first Thanksgiving feast i. 8.
1776. American flags are everywhere. and there are often parades. This document contains several important (4) . People have picnics. speeches.” all people have the right to “life.UNIT 1 / Symbols and Holidays 7 D Independence Day During the Revolutionary War some of the American settlers wanted to declare the independence of the colonies from British rule. and (6) July is American (7) rang out. Independence Day is an official national holiday. The Liberty Bell in the State House of Philadelphia rang out that day. E Write the words from the box. It says that “all men are created equal. Now Americans celebrate the Fourth of July as the birthday of the United States. and fireworks the Declaration of Independence the Revolutionary War the Liberty Bell Independence Day During (1) the Revolutionary War some colonists wanted to declare the independence of . liberty. The Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence. parades. Delegates of the (5) signed the document on July 4. This historic document contains several important principles of American government. and the pursuit of happiness. speeches. now new states. Now the Fourth of . At that time the Second Continental Congress was acting as the central government of the thirteen colonies. . The Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to write the colonies from (2) (3) . 1776. and the delegates of the thirteen colonies.” Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Americans celebrate with (8) . signed the document on July 4.” and government can exist only with “the consent of the governed. and fireworks. principles of government thirteen new states British rule picnics.
When do Americans celebrate this holiday now? 6. What group(s) of people began the holiday? 3. Thanksgiving Independence Day 1. What is the meaning of the holiday? 5. When did the holiday begin? in the fall of 1621 2.8 Module 1B / Thanksgiving and Independence Day F Answer these questions about the two American holidays. What did these people do? 4. What do people do to celebrate this holiday? .
UNIT 1 / Symbols and Holidays 9 Module 1C: More National Holidays A Legal Holidays in the United States Holiday Date of Celebration January 1 the third Monday in January the third Monday in February the last Monday in May July 4 the first Monday in September the second Monday in October November 11 the fourth Thursday in November December 25 Calendar Date January 1 January 15 Purpose the celebration of the calendar new year the remembrance of the civil rights leader’s birthday a birthday celebration for two famous Presidents (See Module 3A.) a celebration of the industrial spirit and the dignity of work the remembrance of Christopher Columbus and his spirit of achievement the honoring of Americans who fought in wars and a promise to work for peace a day to gather friends. The calendar date of it on (date) 2. and give thanks (See Module 2B. The purpose of the holiday is .) the remembrance of past wars and a day to visit military and family graves the birthday of the United States (See Module 2B. Jr. but Americans really celebrate 1. feast. You can use these sentence patterns.) the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ New Year’s Day Martin Luther King. is (date) . . (holiday) . Day Presidents Day February 12 (Lincoln) February 22 (Washington) May 30 Memorial Day Independence Day Labor Day July 4 the first Monday in September October 12 Columbus Day Veterans Day Thanksgiving Day Christmas Day November 11 the fourth Thursday in November December 25 B Make sentences about the information in A.
because blacks had to sit in the back of buses. 1929. Martin Luther King. Jr. But on April 4. Jr. Tennessee. D 1.C. He said that it was important to change laws but even more important to change minds and hearts.C. D. Martin Luther King. Jr.. 3. Alabama. . was a leader in the struggle for civil rights and equality for black people. Now on Martin Luther King. 2. 1968. was born on January 15. On August 28. 5. 6.. King did not believe in integration because he wanted the separation of the races.” speech moved the nation. 2. King joined 200.000 black and white protesters called Freedom Marchers at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. He was the leader of many protests in the 1950s and 60s. 1963. Jr. The police always supported the marches of his followers because King opposed violence. There. and public places. The police often arrested King’s followers or used dogs and fire hoses to oppose them. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 but was assassinated in 1968. In 1956. Correct the false sentences. to support new laws for civil rights. D. In 1956 he led a famous boycott of the school system because blacks couldn’t become teachers. He became a Baptist minister. he was assassinated in Memphis. Martin Luther King. in 1963. Martin Luther King. his “I have a dream. Day Dr. There was a famous march for freedom and civil rights in Washington. Jr. Write T for true and F for false. 4. He helped blacks win their legal rights and made progress in the cause of integration (the mixing of the races) in schools. he led a 381-day boycott of (refusal to use) the bus system in Montgomery. churches. Day Americans remember a great man and promise to work hard for civil rights. King won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.10 Module 1C / More National Holidays C 1. used only peaceful methods to fight against unjust laws because he opposed violence.
began after World War I. this European sailor discovered a new world. patriotic Americans remember the dead soldiers of all American wars. or relaxation. Labor Day represents the idea that the success of the individual and the nation comes from hard work.m. . Today. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain agreed to support him. Families and friends enjoy the three-day weekend with trips. patriotic citizens remember Columbus. 3. Finally.UNIT 1 / Symbols and Holidays 11 E 1. Columbus knew the world was round. once called Armistice Day. 2. They watch military parades. sum marize your information in your own words for the group. Labor Day celebrates the industrial spirit of the United States. on November 11. as well as their own family members who died. Memorial Day. Each of you studies the information about a different one of these four holidays. People decorate graves with flags and flowers. Veterans Day. In turn. Columbus Day honors the achievement of an Italian ex plorer. first called Decoration Day. Some watch the Indianapolis 500. Today. citizens honor veterans (former soldiers) still living. It was the idea of Labor leader Peter S. Today on this day of remembrance. Work in groups of four. Christopher Columbus. and he wanted to sail to the other side. 4. as well as the dead of all American wars. 1919. The holiday marks the end of summer and the beginning of the school year. On October 12. Today. began after the Civil War to honor the war dead of both the North and the South. Patriotic Americans watch memorial parades and attend quiet ceremonies. sports. one of America’s greatest auto races. Americans stopped for two minutes of silence to honor the courage of those who died in that war. and school children learn that education and hard work are impor tant for progress. McGuire over one hundred years ago. 1492. At 11:00 a.
It began on November 11. L for Labor Day. G Is there a holiday to honor a famous person in your native culture? In small groups. people decorate graves. Who celebrates the holiday? 4. H Repeat Exercise G. Sentence 9 has two answers. 12. and may see the Indianapolis 500 on this holiday. discovered a new world. 5. Which holiday is each sentence about? Write M for Memorial Day. and people use it to relax. . before school begins. What is the history of the holiday? Why and when did it begin? 2. tell about it. 9. What is the meaning of the holiday? 3. an explorer from Italy. It is the last three-day weekend of summer. 10. 8. Today. A labor leader had the idea for this celebration over 100 years ago. This holiday is in honor of the achievement of a European explorer. when. and how do they usually celebrate it? What similarities did you find in two or more holidays of different cultures? Tell the class. watch military parades. with the support of the King and Queen of Spain. 4. in remembrance of the dead soldiers of World War I.S. 6. 1919. C for Columbus Day. C On this day in 1492. school children learn the importance of education and hard work for progress. On this patriotic holiday. Answer these questions: 1. 3. 2.12 Module 1C / More National Holidays F 1. It began after the Civil War in remembrance of the dead on both sides. Where. Americans honor veterans and the dead of past wars with parades and ceremonies. and V for Veterans Day. This holiday was first called Decoration Day. This holiday was first called Armistice Day. 11. Today on this day of remembrance. 7. because it represents the idea that all work has dignity. but this time talk about a patriotic holiday. This holiday is in honor of the industrial spirit of the U.
he believed that “all men are created equal” (are born the same and should receive the same treatment under the law). George Washington was a farmer in the colony of Virginia. He designed his own home. 13 . Before the United States won independence from Brit ish rule. summarize your information in your own words for the group. and free speech. and Greek. He could communicate in French. 1. from 1801 to 1809. Thomas Jefferson could do many things.” 2. and an architect. George Washington was the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1796. called Monticello. He also said that people could understand the U. As a young man. He was Ambassador to France. He wanted free elections.Americans Module 2A: Famous Presidents UNIT 2 A Work in groups of four. not just one. Each of you studies the information about a different one of the four presidents. For example. Constitution in many ways. He also said that power must come from “the consent of the governed” (the voters. He did not think that the United States should have strong ties with other countries. an inventor. As President. not the leaders). Vice President (under John Adams). Latin. Many of Jefferson’s ideas became basic principles of the government of the United States. The colonists trusted him because he did not want power for himself. He is often called “the Father of Our Country. He wanted all the states and the people to work together as one. not to men. Secretary of State (under George Washington). he was a farmer and a lawyer in Virginia. In turn. He served as a military leader in the Revo lutionary War. He wanted the government to serve the people well. a philosopher. and the third President of the United States. Jefferson bought the huge Louisiana Territory for the United States from France. a free press.S. Washington said that power should belong to institutions. He was also a scientist. Thomas Jefferson held many important government jobs. Italian. Spanish.
Kennedy was President for only three years. In 1865 an actor named John Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln. when the Soviet Union put missiles in Cuba. Kennedy supported the ideas of Martin Luther King. but he couldn’t carry out the plan because he was assassinated. He set clear goals for America. Kennedy was a man for the future. He couldn’t go to school. he promised that the United States would land a man on the moon before 1970. but he had to lead the North against the South in the Civil War. He was both the first Roman Catholic and the youngest President in the history of the coun try. These young volunteers worked and lived with the people. and programs to stop poverty. He wanted the states of the Union to work together as one country. . 3. so he taught himself. He started the Peace Corps and sent Americans to over sixty countries in Africa. and fought for civil rights. he sent U. and South America. Jr. John F. 4. Kennedy was against Communism. Lincoln was against slavery and gave some famous speeches about his ideas when he was running for the Senate. But on November 22. but his personality and ideas changed America.14 Module 2A / Famous Presidents Abraham Lincoln grew up in Kentucky in a log cabin. and taught farmers more modern methods. He asked Congress for more money for education and medical care for elderly people. built schools. He had a plan to bring the South back into the Union after the Civil War. But he believed that the best way to fight Communism was not by sending armies but by attacking poverty and injustice. President Lincoln freed the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation. he was assassinated. He became a lawyer. from 1961 to 1963. Asia. He organized the Alliance for Progress to help the countries of Latin America. He worked to stop the testing of nuclear weapons. For example. ships to surround the island.S. In 1861 Abraham Lincoln became the sixteenth President of the United States.” As a delegate from Illinois. For example. he served in Congress from 1847 to 1849. fair housing. Friends called him “Honest Abe. 1963. Some people thought that Lincoln was too strong as President be cause he used power that the Constitution did not give him.
and he knew many languages. fair housing. . He bought the Louisiana Territory for the United States from France. W = Washington J = Jefferson L = Lincoln K = Kennedy J This farmer and lawyer from Virginia was also a scientist. He is often called “the Father of Our Country. 15. As the sixteenth President. Many of his ideas (for example. Which President is each sentence about? Write the first initial of his last name on the line. 12. and he wanted more money for education and medical care for elderly people.UNIT 2 / Americans 15 B 1. He was a man for the future. The colonists trusted this farmer from the colony of Virginia because he did not want power for himself. He did not think the United States should have strong ties to other nations. about equality. 13. and programs to stop poverty. 5. and Vice President before he became the third President of the United States. he used power that was not given by the Constitution when he led the northern states in the Civil War. He supported civil rights. 10. 16. He was against slavery but wanted the states of the North and South to work to gether as a nation. “the consent of the governed. 7.” free press. and one of his goals was to land a man on the moon before 1970. 14. He served as a military leader in the fight of the colonists for independence from British rule. 9. 6. This honest man taught himself and became a lawyer and a Congressman from Illinois.” His Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves. 3. Secretary of State. He tried to stop Communism with the Alliance for Progress and the Peace Corps and was against nuclear weapons. and free speech) are basic principles of the government of the United States. He was an Ambassador. This young Roman Catholic was President for only three years because he was assas sinated in 1963. 4. 11. but he was assassinated before he could bring the South back into the Union. an inventor. and an architect. a philosopher. 2. 8.
4. Everyone should work for freedom. but what together we can do for the freedom of man. Americans should work for America. In small groups. E In books. my fellow Americans. write the ideas in simpler language. Kennedy John F. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. that all men are created equal. D 1. discuss the meanings of the quotes in C. and the pursuit of happiness. (The information in A will help you.” : “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances.” : “We hold these truths to be self evident. My fellow citizens of the world: Ask not what America will do for you. I believe that this government cannot endure perma nently half slave and half free. 3.) George Washington 1.” : “A house divided against itself cannot stand. 4. with any portion of the foreign world. find other famous quotes by Presidents of the United States. . Kennedy : “And so. 2.16 Module 2A / Famous Presidents C Which of the four Presidents said or wrote these famous quotes? Write their names on the lines. Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln John F. On the lines. ask not what your country can do for you: Ask what you can do for your country. Write them on the chalkboard and discuss their meanings as a class. 3.” 2. liberty. that among these are life.
2. Armenians. Holland.S. 1700’s 1600’s to 1800’s B Now listen to your partner and number these facts 6-10 in correct time order. By the time of the American Revolution.5 million Irish Catholics left poverty and discrimi nation to work in America. fishermen. During the “Great Migration. about 3. too. there were also many immigrants from Scotland. After the Gold Rush in California. American slave traders captured black Africans and forced them to work on plantations in the United States. 6 During the Industrial Revolution. government abolished quotas for immigration from non-European nations. At the same time. Germany. priests. There were about twenty-five million “native Americans” (Indians) living in North and South America. Italians.” twenty-five million Europeans of almost every nationality immigrated to America. laborers. most immigrants are from Asian and Latin American countries. Greeks. France. Ireland. The U. many Germans became farmers. and Syrians. They included Russian and Polish Jews. 5. The United States welcomed thousands of refugees after the end of World War II. Tell your partner these facts about immigration history in order. Most of these settlers were Protestants. Canadians. 4. 3. 1500’s 1600’s 1. and businessmen in the United States. and traders. . They were managers. They were coal miners and railroad and canal builders.UNIT 2 / Americans 17 Module 2B: The History of Immigration A Work in pairs. Sweden. Today. especially California. Slavic people from Eastern Europe. 100. The Spanish settled mainly in the Southwest. The English were the largest immigrant group to settle in North America. Mexicans. and Poland. They were farmers.000 poor Chinese came to work in mining camps and on the railroad. and Central Americans came. Look only at this page. and soldiers.
Today. and Central Americans came. fishermen.000 poor Chinese came to work in mining camps and on the railroad. and soldiers. Holland. too. 9. By the time of the American Revolution. 100. At the same time. 1 There were about twenty-five million “native Americans” (Indians) living in North and South America. 10.5 million Irish Catholics left poverty and dis crimination to work in America. and Poland. They were managers. After the Gold Rush in California. Germany. The U. They were coal miners and railroad and canal builders. Sweden. laborers. D Now tell your partner these facts about immigration history in order. 7. Mexicans. Armenians. most immigrants are from Asian and Latin American countries. Most of these settlers were Protestants. The United States welcomed thousands of refugees after the end of World War II. They were farmers. The English were the largest immigrant group to settle in North America. Ireland. Canadians. government abolished quotas for immigration from nonEuropean nations. priests. Look only at this page. American slave traders captured black Africans and forced them to work on plantations in the United States. especially California. 1820 to 1880 1850 to 1870 1880 to 1930 1940’s 1950’s 6. 1960’s 1970’s . and businessmen in the United States. many Germans became farmers. France. During the Industrial Revolution.” twentyfive million Europeans of almost every nationality immigrated to America.S. Slavic people from Eastern Europe. Your partner will tell you some important facts about immigration history. They included Russian and Polish Jews. Italians. 8. The Spanish settled mainly in the Southwest. there were also many immigrants from Scotland.18 Module 2B / The History of Immigration C Work in pairs. about 3. and traders. Greeks. Num ber them 1-5 in correct time order. and Syrians. During the “Great Migration.
Born Americans probably accept immigrants from similar cultures more easily than immigrants from very different ones. But after the war. new acts made it easier for refugees and immi grants to come to the United States. 4. the U. America welcomed immigration before World War II. Before 1880. . The talents. these laws limited immigration. 2. The United States passed many laws to limit immigration before 1880. industry. You can use these pictures for ideas. especially from non-European nations. F Changes in Immigration The history of the United States is the history of immigration. G 1. but after the war. Write T for true or F for false. and cities. spirit. new laws made it harder for refugees to come to the United States. and hard work of immigrants to grow. Before World War II. factories in the East needed new workers. 5.UNIT 2 / Americans 19 E Tell some important facts about immigration history. Most of these immigrants came from northern and western Europe. and hard work of millions of immigrants built American farms. In the next century. and their cultures were similar. so they looked like born Americans. Many European immigrants came to work in the factories in the East. spirit. But then Americans began to worry about the influence and power of large groups of immi grants from cultures very different from their own. 3. America needed the talents.S. government passed many immigration acts. the United States welcomed immigrants from all countries. Correct the false sentences. Because Americans were moving west.
(the act or law) . You can use this sentence pattern.000 refugees outside the quota system. kept out illiterate immigrants (people unable to read or write in any language). admitted over 200. (year) . gave amnesty to many illegal aliens and allowed them to legalize their status. But the quota system still discriminated against non-Europeans.000 war victims to immigrate to the United States. YEAR 1882 1907 1917 1924 1948 The Displaced Persons Act The Fulbright Act 1952 1953 1965 The McCarranWalter Act The Refugee Relief Act An immigration act 1986 The Immigration Reform Control Act I In Make sentences about the information in H. Chinese. brought in scholars from around the world. excluded all Japanese. and other Asians from the United States. set area quotas instead of national ones: 120. Many of them stayed in this country. set up a quota system (yearly limits on the numbers of immigrants from each country).20 Module 2B / The History of Immigration H Immigration Law THE ACT OR LAW The Chinese Exclusion Act T. allowed 500. the Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited the Chinese from entering the country. The law allowed higher quotas for some nations than for others.000 per year from the rest of the world. stopped Japanese laborers from coming to the United States. Roosevelt’s “Gentlemen’s Agreement” The Literacy Test Act An immigration act The National Origins Act THE EFFECT OF THE LAW prohibited the Chinese from entering the country. opened the United States to Asian immigration. . EXAMPLE: In 1882. The law puts penalties on employers that hire employees without work authorization.000 immigrants per year from the Western hemisphere (Canada and Central and South America) and 170.
UNIT 2 / Americans 21 Module 2C: Historical Figures A a In groups or as a class. Anthony (1820-1906) Clara Barton (1821-1912) d e f Cesar Chavez (1927-1993) Samuel Clemens (1835-1910) Thomas A. answer these questions about each picture: (1) Why do you think this person was famous? (2) What do you think this person did? b c John James Audubon (1785-1851) Susan B. Edison (1847-1937) g h i Duke Ellington (1899-1974) Henry Ford (1863-1947) Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) j k l Hideyo Noguchi (1876-1928) Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) Lawrence Welk (1903-1992) .
22 Module 2C / Historical Figures B In correct time order. make sentences about the twelve people on the previous page with this pattern. This women’s rights leader led the fight for women’s suffrage (the right to vote). He often served as a diplomat to other nations. Today. and dead in battle and prisoners of war. 3. wounded. He did not believe that whites should try to have power over other peoples. He used the language of ordinary people to write stories such as Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. . 5. The government ar rested. She began the American Red Cross. She also campaigned for prohibition (against the use of alcohol). and convicted her because she tried to vote illegally. She was against slavery before the Civil War and worked for Black rights after the war. She got the United States to sign an international agreement about the treatment of the sick. (name) lived from (year) to (year) . 2. He learned to write through his work. printed.” He left school at age ten but wrote. a society named after him studies birds and works for their protection. 4. travels. including the responsibility of the white man. He studied science and invented useful things such as bifocal glasses. such as floods. This “angel of the battlefield” helped wounded soldiers in wars in America and Europe. This immigrant loved nature. tried. Under her leadership. and reading. For the colonies. You can check your answers on the next page. C 1. He painted pictures of all the known species (kinds) of North American birds. and published books and newspapers. the Red Cross began to give aid to the victims of natural disasters. and the lightning rod. He helped write the Declaration of Independence and the U. write the letters of the pictures a-l from the previous page. he printed money and served as Deputy Postmaster General. a stove. Which person is each paragraph about? On the lines. He was also a newspaperman and spoke on many sub jects. i This Founding Father of the United States was an example of “an ideal American. This writer used the name Mark Twain. Constitution. EXAMPLE: Benjamin Franklin lived from 1706 to 1790.S.
Besides big band music. and healthy living. g 11. This union organizer began and continues to lead the United Farm Workers of America (UFW). She supported young people’s organizations. Commission on Human Rights and helped write the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 9. such as the light bulb. d . This inventor started work at age twelve. but the UFW won the right to organize and represent all field workers. 12. l 12. This son of German immigrants learned English only after he left the farm at age twenty-one. his research led to many useful inventions. After 1876.N. movie projector. His earliest cars were the Model T and the Model A. he wrote for opera. 10. his company began to sell cars with eight-cylinder engines. honesty. As a young man. She was chairperson of the U. i 2. To his coworkers. he represented family-like cooperation. He worked for the Edison Company in Detroit until 1899 and then began manufacturing automobiles. This wife of a famous President used her position to help humanity. c 5.V. His music combined special sounds with the talents of great musicians. e 6. After her husband’s death. He encouraged children to work hard to develop their talents and increase their chances for success. f 7. His work of twenty-five years at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York led to discoveries about polio and other diseases and a vaccine for yellow fever. For many years. and films. she became a delegate to the United Nations. In 1932. he got yellow fever and died of it. j 9. b 4. Broadway shows. he created and manufac tured useful machines for stock brokers and telegraph services. and phonograph. and led large orchestras. This Japanese immigrant studied bacteria and snake venom (poison) in the laboratory. he led successful battles to help grape and lettuce pickers. This creator of big band jazz wrote music. In 1988 he led a fast (refusal to eat) and a grape boycott (refusal to buy) to call attention to the harmful effects of pesticides (insect poisons) on workers. ballets. 7. hard work. and equal rights for everyone. played piano. Grow ers tried to stop him in the 1970s with their support of another union. child welfare.UNIT 2 / Americans 23 6. a 3. In the 1960s. 8. 11. the improvement of housing. the Teamsters. but he signed his first contract with the United Auto Workers (UAW) in 1941. But when he was doing research in Africa. Answers to Exercise C: 1. host and big band leader. He became a famous American T. h 8. k 10. he refused to allow unions in his factories. This businessman changed factory production in America with assembly-line methods to lower costs.
led the battle for women’s rights. His work led to a vaccine for yellow fever. Constitution. In groups. Huckle berry Finn. and films. He was the creator of big band jazz. him works to protect birds. led the protests of field workers against grape and lettuce grow ers and began the United Farm Workers of America.24 Module 2C / Historical Figures D Who are these facts about? On each line. honesty. wrote jazz and music for opera. and other useful inventions. 10. 3.V. the phonograph. and other famous stories. was the wife of a President. tell one fact about each of the famous people in the pictures.S. 6. the light bulb. delegate. She worked to help the victims of wars and natural disasters. write the name of one of the people from page 21. made discoveries about polio and other diseases. 2. She fought against slavery and for Black rights. worked on the Declaration of Independence and the U. started the American Red Cross. wrote newspaper stories and spoke on issues such as the respon sibility of the white man toward other peoples. Henry Ford eight-cylinder engines. As a U. host and band leader. 7. A society named after was a T. was an automobile manufacturer and the first to sell cars with 1. she was a leader in the fight for human rights. He was the author of Tom Sawyer. was a Founding Father of the United States. created machines for stock brokers and telegraph services. and healthy living. created useful inventions. 11. 5. Do you know facts about other famous American historical figures? Tell the class. 4. hard work. 9. pub lished. 12. .N. and was a diplomat to other countries. She was for prohibition. shows. ballets. His union continues to organize boycotts and protest the use of pesticides. He wrote. 8. She worked for many causes. loved nature and painted pictures of birds. He represented American values such as cooperation. especially the right to vote. the movie projector. E F Turn back to page 21.
But we Irish kept trying to succeed.” In 1849. After 1887. I came here the next year. I also married an Irishman. 2. Although my family wanted to leave China for a long time. in 1952.UNIT 2 / Americans 25 Module 2D: Some Immigration Stories A 1. I guess some Americans were worried about the influence and power of people from other countries. Now I work as a shipping agent in San Pedro. Each of you studies a different one of these immigration stories. In 1849. In 1924. but I changed it to Charlie Ling because few Americans can pronounce my real name. California. the McCarran-Walter Act allowed Asians to immigrate to the United States. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 kept the Chinese out of the country until World War II. especially Catholics. they couldn’t enter the United States because of laws against Asian immigration. the National Origins Act excluded all Asians. Anyway. For example. I paid $25 to travel by ship to the United States. But life in the New World wasn’t perfect. They didn’t want foreigners to take their jobs or use public services. Work in groups of four. Many people discriminated against the Irish. Catherine Galligher is my name. . Then the potato crop failed in all of Ireland. In my native country. so the government limited the number of immigrants. the American Protective Association opposed us in the same way. He first laid tracks for the railroad and later became a union leader in Boston. as well as our writers and politicians. America was good to me. I worked as a maid in the house of a wealthy Boston family for twenty years. so now it will be easier for some of my relatives to come to America. My name at birth was Ling Chiao. I am Irish-born and a Catholic. signs on stores and businesses said “No Irish need apply. We are proud of our great railroad and canal builders. the secret “KnowNothing Party” started to work against immigrant groups. The Immigration Act of 1965 abolished quotas for immigration from Asian nations. the Protestant English kept my brothers and me from getting the good-paying jobs in the city.
But my mother. My mother opened a school for young girls. At first my father worked in a butcher shop in Chicago. Illinois. But not everything was perfect in our new country. and I own a small publishing company in New York. some excellent universities and colleges changed their policies in later years. and it soon became a small market. There is a long tradition of learning in my family. so they couldn’t go to school. in 1920.26 Module 2D / Some Immigration Stories 3. My sister Elena couldn’t enter Harvard Univer sity. . I was born in Russia before it became the Soviet Union. so my whole family immigrated to the United States in 1910. Some of my cousins came to this country illegally in the 1970s. Rosa Sanchez. Jose and Maria Sanchez. but the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 allowed them to apply for legal status. They are studying English and American history and government so they can become permanent residents and later U. The children helped their parents on the farms. He is a lawyer. I’m glad my grand parents immigrated to the United States because everyone in my family used the opportunities here to give their children better lives. My grandparents. they picked vegetables and fruits from the fields and orchards of California. I am a flight engineer with the U. 4. Mexico. They were very poor. Later she finished college and learned the skills to be an accountant. But Russian universities refused to admit us. I am thankful for my fine education and proud to be a third-generation Mexican-American. citizens. in 1945.S. Happily. Today both my sisters teach science. I am Juan Rivera. Armando Rivera. but they raised eleven children.S. He bought his own store a few years later. My mother married my father. learned to read and finished high school at night. so my sisters and I were hoping to attend a university in Moscow and become writers and doctors. Now they are temporary residents of the United States. even though her grades were perfect in high school. because no Jewish students were al lowed. My name is Yacob Wolf. Space Program. For forty years. came to California from Oaxaca. In my native country. They are happy and thankful for the opportunity to improve their lives. violent mobs of Rus sians burnt down my father’s butcher shop and the community synagogue (place of worship).
12. 7. 15. (You can look back at the stories on the previous two pages for facts about immigration. 10. 6. 2. power. 5. or jobs. Catherine Galligher is a typical Russian Jewish name. America is a land of educational opportunity. 8.) Correct the false sentences. In the early 1900s. Some immigrants change their real names when they come to America. 14. Many Irish came to the United States in the 1840s because the clothing industry failed. such as Harvard. Famous American universities. have refused to admit some groups of people. 3. European immigrants in the 1800s paid thousands of dollars to travel to the New World by plane. there was discrimination and violence against Jewish people in Russia. Many Mexican workers have picked vegetables and fruit in the fields and orchards of California. Write T for true and F for false. In Ireland in the 1800s. In 1965 an immigration law abolished quotas (limits on numbers of immigrants from certain countries). 13. The secret “Know-Nothing Party” and the American Protective Association worked to increase immigration from European countries. 11. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the National Origins Act of 1924 limited immi gration to the United States. . Americans don’t worry about influence. 9.UNIT 2 / Americans 27 B 1. Many people who entered the United States illegally have become legal residents and may become citizens. the Protestants often discriminated against the Catholics. There was no discrimination against the Irish in the United States because they are white and Catholic. Many Irishmen build railroads or canals or became writers or politicians. 4. 16. so there have never been any laws against Asian immigrants.
The Mojave. and the Painted Deserts are in the southwestern part of the country.Geography UNIT Module 3A: The Geography of the United States 3 A The Geography of the United States The United States is the fourth largest country in the world in land area. Rivers to the east of the divide flow east. The Great Lakes on the northern border of the country are Lake Superior. 14. 5. The island state of Hawaii is in the Pacific Ocean. Write O for oceans. The major rivers in the western part of the United States are the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The map on the next page shows the geography of the United States. and Lake Ontario. Lake Huron. R for rivers. 7. 12. Lake Erie. It is about 3000 miles (4800 kilometers) from the east coast to the west coast and about 1500 miles (2400 kilometers) from the Cana dian border on the north to the Mexican border on the south. The two main mountain ranges run north and south—the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern part of the United States and the Rocky Mountains in the west. 6. M for mountains. Lake Michi gan. The highest mountains of the Rockies form the Continental Divide. There is another mountain chain west of the Rockies—the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade ranges. and rivers to the west of it flow into the Pacific Ocean. and the state of Alaska is northwest of Canada. M the Appalachians the Atlantic the Sierra Nevada Range Superior the Mojave and the Gila Michigan and Huron the Colorado 8. Forty-eight of the fifty states are in the middle of the North American continent between the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. and the Mississippi flows south into the Gulf of Mexico. and D for deserts. 3. 2. The Missouri and Ohio Rivers flow into the Mississippi. L for lakes. B 1. the Gila. 4. 10. the Ohio the Pacific the Rockies the Cascade Range the Missouri the Mississippi Erie and Ontario 28 . 9. 13. The longest river in the United States is the Mississippi. Between them are the Great Plains. 11. The Great Salt Lake is in a desert area in the western part of the United States.
UNIT 3 / Geography 29 .
7. D Use the Scale of Miles on the map. The Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada: 5. The Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains: 4. 10.30 Module 3A / The Geography of the United States C 1. The Great Salt Lake and the Rio Grande: 8. 4. The Great Salt Lake is south of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. 8. 9. The rivers west of the Rockies flow into the Pacific Ocean. Correct the false sentences. 2. and the rivers east of the Rockies flow east. The Mississippi and the Colorado Rivers: 6. Between the mountain chains are the Great Plains. Write T for true and F for false. The longest river in the United States is the Gulf of Mexico. Write the shortest distances between: 1. All the states except Hawaii and Alaska are together on the North American continent between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Lake Michigan and the Gulf of Mexico: 7. the United States is the largest country in the world. The Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean: 2. It is farther from the Canadian border to the Mexican border than from the east coast to the west coast. The Mojave Desert is west of the Mississippi River. The Mojave and the Gila Deserts: . 3. 5. The two main mountain ranges in the United States are the Hurons and the Eries. urth o f F In land area. 6. and there is also a low plain along the Atlantic Ocean. The five Great Lakes are in the southwestern part of the country. The Canadian and the Mexican borders: 3.
10. 19. 2. 1. 9. 5. 8. 13. 4. 3. 6. D Canada Mexico Alaska the Hawaiian Islands the Gulf of Mexico the Ohio River the Missouri River the Colorado River the Rio Grande the Rocky Mountains 11. 14. 16.UNIT 3 / Geography 31 E Write the letters from the map on the lines. 15. 17. 7. 20. the Cascade Mountains the Sierra Nevada the Great Plains Lake Huron Lake Erie Lake Ontario Lake Michigan the Great Salt Lake the Painted Desert the Gila Desert . 18. 12.
C. N .32 Module 3B / Famous Places Module 3B: Famous Places A Washington. D.
In the National Archives we saw two important original documents—the Declaration of Independence and the U. The White House is the official home of the President. We began our sightseeing tour at the U. we saw the Lincoln Memorial.. Next we walked west on Constitution Avenue. Copyright. Show the sightseeing tour of the writer. 3. 6. This huge library has copies of all books with a U. We continued west to the Washington Monument. This high building was built between 1848 and 1885 in honor of George Washington. Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. the capital city of the United States. 5. Finally we went east on Constitution Avenue to the White House at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. After that we visited the Jefferson Memorial. After the Jefferson Memorial. Constitution. D. On two huge stone tablets we read some of Lincoln’s important speeches. . President during the Civil War. Congress—the Senate and the House of Representatives—meets in this building and makes the laws of the land. 7.UNIT 3 / Geography 33 B 1. 2. Read the story and draw a line on the map on the previous page.S. Capitol. This monument was built between 1938 and 1943 in memory of Thomas Jefferson. Inside the building are a statue of Lincoln and two murals (wall paintings) with symbols of freedom and justice. the third President of the United States. 4.S. We walked east from the Capitol to the Library of Congress. Then we crossed East Capitol Street to the Supreme Court.S. This monument was built in honor of Abraham Lincoln. the first President of the United States. I spent a day in Washington. The highest court of the land meets here.C.
the United Nations Headquarters. and other famous places. and two stone tablets with Lincoln’s speeches. Write the letters on the lines. 9. D. In pairs or small groups. use the map to plan your own sightseeing tour of Washington. You can visit the Empire State Building. Central Park. 3. 2.C. You can see the Statue of Liberty. Write T for true and F for false. 5. 6. It is the symbol of the gateway to the western part of the United States. wrote the Declaration of Independence. Grand Central Station. two murals. The White House on Capitol Street is the official home of the Senators and Representatives. the third President. In the Lincoln Memorial there are a statue. Missouri. The Washington Monument was built in honor of the President of the United States during the Civil War. New York City has many tourist attractions. In the National Archives on Constitution Avenue you can see the Liberty Bell and murals about Abraham Lincoln. 2. Congress meets in the White House in New York City. The highest court of the United States is the Supreme Court. The Senate and the House of Representatives make the laws of the United States. List the places to visit in order and tell the class the reasons for your choices. D E 1. Other Famous Places: Match these sentences with the pictures of places on the map on the next page. 8. The Library of Congress has only government books. 4.34 Module 3B / Famous Places C 1. The Gateway Arch is on the Mississippi River in St. Louis. the symbol of freedom for immigrants to the United States. Correct the false sentences. Thomas Jefferson. . 7.
5. The famous Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is in Arizona. An artist carved the faces of four Presidents in the Black Hills of South Dakota. California. on foot. At Niagara Falls. At Mount Rushmore. You can explore the spectacular canyon by mule. natural red rock formations are spectacular monuments of the West. and Abraham Lincoln. List the places to visit in order and tell the class the reasons for your choices. 7. 6. 9. 8. you can see huge rock sculptures of George Washington. Water under the earth turns to steam.UNIT 3 / Geography 35 3. F In pairs or small groups. The huge California redwood trees and the giant sequoias of the Sierra Nevada Mountains are some other natural wonders. you can see some of the natural wonders of North America. Thomas Jefferson. This tourist attraction is on the border between New York State and Canada. . The beautiful. the waters of Lake Erie fall into Lake Ontario. 4. At Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. There are many tourist attractions in San Francisco. use the map to plan your own sightseeing tour of the United States. It comes to the surface in hot springs or erupts in spectacular geysers. The Navajo people (native Americans) own the land of Monument Valley on the Arizona-Utah border. The Golden Gate Bridge crosses San Francisco Bay. Theodore Roosevelt. or by boat.
Take turns asking and answering questions.36 Module 3C / States and Cities: The West Module 3C: States and Cities: The West A Work with a partner. Answer your partner’s questions about the locations of the states. California Washington Idaho Arizona Montana Colorado Oklahoma Nebraska North Dakota Hawaii MAP 1 2. Listen to your partner’s answers and write the names of the states on the map. You can use these sentence patterns: (Name of state) is north south east west northeast northwest southeast southwest of (name of state). Your partner will look only at the map on the next page. . It’s between (name of state) and (name of state). 1. Look only at this map. Ask about the locations of these states.
You can use these sentence patterns: (Name of state) is north south east northeast northwest southeast of (name of state). . Your partner will look only at the map on the previous page. 1. Answer your partner’s questions about the locations of the states. Look only at this map.UNIT 3 / Geography 37 B Work with a partner. Listen to your partner’s answers and write the names of the states on the map. Take turns asking and answering questions. west southwest It’s between (name of state) and (name of state). Oregon Nevada Utah Texas New Mexico South Dakota Wyoming Kansas Alaska MAP 2 2. Ask about the locations of these states.
. Student 2: True. Make sentences with these sentence patterns about the map of the United States. EXAMPLES: Student 1: Tucson is a city in the state of Arizona. Idaho Arizona Montana Utah 9. 3. 10. 4. Your classmates will answer “true” or “false.38 Module 3C / States and Cities: The West C Do you know these states from their shapes and cities? Write the letters on the lines. 11.” (Name of city) is a city the capital city in of the state of (name of state). Student 2: False. 2. California Washington Oregon Nevada 5. Sacramento is the capital city of California. 8. 12. Alaska Texas Nebraska Oklahoma D Work in pairs or groups. 7. Student 1: Los Angeles is the capital of California. 6. 1.
The biggest states in area and in population are in the eastern part of the United States. Rank in Land Area Rank in Population (out of 50 states) (1979 figures) State Rank in Land Area (out of 50 states) Rank in Population (1979 figures) Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Kansas Montana Nebraska Nevada 1 6 3 8 47 13 14 4 15 7 50 32 1 28 40 41 31 43 35 46 New Mexico North Dakota Oklahoma Oregon South Dakota Texas Utah Washington Wyoming 5 17 18 10 16 2 11 20 9 37 45 27 30 44 3 36 22 49 F Work in pairs or groups. 4. G 1. In general. the states in the western part of the United States are smaller than the states in the East. 3. Your classmates will answer “true” or “false. In general. Write T for true and F for false. 2.UNIT 3 / Geography 39 E State Facts about the states. Make sentences with these patterns about the information in E.” (Name of state) is bigger smaller in land area population than (name of state). but they cover more land area than the states in the East. There are fewer states in the West. fewer people live in the eastern states than in the western states. . Correct the false sentences.
Look only at this map. Student 2: MAP 1 Georgia North Carolina Delaware Pennsylvania Connecticut Vermont Kentucky Indiana Minnesota Missouri Arkansas Mississippi 2. Your partner will look only at the map on the next page. It’s between (name of state) and (name of state). Listen to your partner’s answers and write the names of the states on the map. . You can use these sentence patterns: (Name of state) is north south east west northeast northwest southeast southwest of (name of state). It’s between Alabama and South Carolina. please? Georgia is southeast of Tennessee. Answer your partner’s questions about the locations of the states. Ask about the locations of these states. 1. Take turns ask ing and answering questions.40 Module 3D / States and Cities: The East Module 3D: States and Cities: The East A Work with a partner. EXAMPLE: Student 1: Where is Georgia.
Look only at this map. 1. MAP 2 Florida Virginia Maryland New Jersey New Hampshire Massachusetts Maine Ohio Michigan Illinois Iowa Louisiana 2. You can use these sentence patterns: (Name of state) is north south east west northeast northwest southeast southwest of (name of state).UNIT 3 / Geography 41 B Work with a partner. Take turns asking and answering questions. Ask about the locations of these states. EXAMPLE: Student 1: Student 2: Where is Florida. Answer your partner’s questions about the locations of the states. It’s between (name of state) and (name of state). please? Florida is south of Georgia and Alabama. Listen to your partner’s answers and write the names of the states on the map. . Your partner will look only at the map on the previous page.
11. Student 2: False. 7. Student 2: True. Student 1: New York City is the capital of New York. 3.” (Name of city) is EXAMPLES: a city the capital city in of the state of (name of state). Tennessee Alabama South Carolina West Virginia 5. Albany is the capital city of New York. Make sentences with these sentence patterns about the map of the United States. 1. Florida Maine Maryland Ohio D Work in pairs or groups. New York Rhode Island Wisconsin Missouri 9. 8. 4. Student 1: Memphis is a city in the state of Tennessee. 2.42 Module 3C / States and Cities: The East C Do you know these states from their shapes and cities? Write the letters on the lines. Your classmates will answer “true” or “false. 6. . 10. 12.
You can use maps of the United States for ideas. Rank in Land Area (out of 50 states) Rank in Population (1979 figures) State Rank in Land Area (out of 50 states) Rank in Population (1979 figures) Alabama Arkansas Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota 29 27 48 49 22 21 24 38 25 37 31 39 42 45 23 12 21 33 24 47 8 14 5 12 26 23 20 38 18 10 7 19 Mississippi Missouri New Hampshire New Jersey New York North Carolina Ohio Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Vermont Virginia West Virginia Wisconsin 32 19 44 46 30 28 35 33 50 40 34 43 36 41 26 29 15 42 9 2 11 6 4 39 25 17 48 13 34 16 F Work in pairs or groups. EXAMPLES: Student 1: Vermont (ends with t) Student 2: Tennessee (begins with t.” The first player names a place (city. etc. Your classmates will answer “true” or “false.) in the United States. G Play the game of “Geography.” (Name of state) is bigger smaller in land area population than (name of state). . river. and so on. Make sentences with these patterns about the information in E. The second player names a place that begins with the last letter of the first place. ends with e) Student 3: Erie (Lake) You might want to play this game in teams.UNIT 3 / Geography 43 E State Facts about the states. The next player names a place that begins with the last letter of the second place. state.
and freedom. The American colonists won the war. The new nation grew and added more states. The colo nists lived under British laws. President Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves in the Emanci pation Proclamation. 3. and the period of Reconstruction (rebuilding) began. and the colonies became the United States of America. 1840’s 1853 5. and the colonies approved it. Ten Periods of U. 1783 1787 1789 4.The History of the United States Module 4A: Overview of U. 1861 1863 1865 44 . The Constitution became the highest law of the land. The northern states won the war. 2. Tho mas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. Americans in the thirteen colonies wanted to be free of British rule. General George Washington led the colonists in the Revolutionary War. Millions of Europeans came to America as workers during the Industrial Revolution. European explorers and settlers came to the new land for gold. History Christopher Columbus discovered North America. History UNIT 4 1492 1500’s 1600’s 1775 1776 A 1. It expanded to the Pacific Ocean. Americans fought against one another in the Civil War between the North and the South.S.S. adventure. and George Washington became the first Presi dent.
The United States put the first men on the moon in the Apollo Program. The nation fought in the First World War. Because of its distrust of and competition with the Soviet Union and other Communist nations. The war ended when the United States dropped the first atomic bombs. After the war women got the right to vote for the first time. 1960’s 1970’s 1980’s . The United States entered the Second World War when Japan attacked the Hawaiian Islands. and the world entered the Nuclear Age. The Women’s Liberation Movement became strong. Computers began to change the nation faster than ever before. The United States grew to be one of the great powers in the world. 1950’s 10. and farms shut down. The Civil Rights Movement began. The Great Depression began with the stock mar ket crash.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 45 6. President Franklin Roosevelt helped end the Depression with the New Deal government. 1929 1933 1941 1945 8. 1917 1920 7. and many Americans were unemployed. The Space Age began. factories. Americans fought in the Vietnam War. Banks. 9. the United States entered a time of Cold War. and black and white Americans fought against segregation (separation of the races). Ameri cans fought in the Korean War.
The Great Depression began in 9. .S. . The United States entered the Second World War in 10. The United States put the first men on the moon in C 1. and many Americans were unemployed.46 Module 4A / Overview of U. Americans fought in the Korean War. The Civil Rights Movement began in . George Washington became the first President of the United States. . Americans began to fight against segregation. . 8. Banks shut down. European workers came to America during the Industrial Revolution. The time of Reconstruction began. 4. Americans fought in the Vietnam War. . The First World War ended in 7. The United States entered the First World War. President Lincoln freed the slaves in 6. 3. Number the events in each group in time order 1-3. The colonies wanted to be free of British rule. . General Washington led the colonists in the Revolutionary War. The northern states won the Civil War. History B Write the dates from the box. 2 3 1 2. 1853 1776 1955 1863 1919 1929 1492 1941 1787 1969 5. President Roosevelt established the New Deal government.
The Depression ended after Franklin Roosevelt became President and established the New Deal government. 14. Write T for true and F for false. The United States fought against Japan in the Second World War and dropped the first atomic bombs. The Declaration of Independence became the highest law of the land. In the Space Age the Women’s Liberation Movement became strong. Women didn’t have the right to vote in the United States until after the First World War. 4. In the Civil Rights Movement Americans fought against segregation of black and white people. 9. European settlers lived in the colonies under British rule. Millions of native American Indians came to the United States as workers during the Industrial Revolution. 13. 10. 2. He or she tells a fact about the American Revolution. England won the Revolutionary War against the American colonies. George Washington was the first President of the United States. 6. 12. .UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 47 D 1. Correct the false sentences. and so on for all ten periods of American history. 5. 15. 7.” the United States and the Communist Soviet Union were good friends. E Work in groups of five or more. 11. The second student repeats the first student’s sentence or corrects it if necessary. Americans from the northern and southern states fought against one another during the First World War. The Great Depression began with the Second World War. President Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves with the Mayflower Compact. 8. One student makes a sentence (tells a fact) about the Exploration and Colonization period of American history. The third student repeats or corrects the second student’s sentence and makes a new sentence about the New Nation. 3. During the time of the “Cold War. After Columbus discovered North America. America stayed out of the Korean and the Vietnam Wars.
e. He thought he was near the Indies. came to teach the Indians. By accident.48 Module 4B / Exploration and Colonization Module 4B: Exploration and Colonization A 1. But he didn’t get to China. he found some islands in the Atlantic Ocean near North America. 2. crossed the Atlantic to learn about the New World. explored North America. this sailor from Spain discovered a new world. 6. were native Americans. so he called the people Indians. The Spanish explored South America in search of adventure and gold. b. Explorers traveled into the interior and discovered many beautiful forests. valleys and rivers. Christopher Columbus The Indians European explorers The Spanish Priests The British and the French a. 2. Priests came to teach the native people. wanted to sail to China but discovered North America. B 1. f. . Instead. The British and the French explored North America. 4. Exploration In 1492 Christopher Columbus was trying to find a way from Europe to the Far East. The Indians were native Americans. 3. Soon other European explorers sailed across the Atlantic to learn about this exciting discovery. d. Write the letters on the lines. 3. c. 5. Match the sentence parts. explored South America to find adventure and gold.
UNIT 4 / The History of the United States
The Spanish established the first permanent settlement in North America. It was St. Augustine, now in the state of Florida. The British established their first permanent settle ment at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.
People from Spain, France, Holland, England, and other countries started other villages on the east coast of North America. Thirteen settlements became colonies of England. They were Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, North and South Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Georgia.
Some of the native people were friendly to the colonists and taught them about the land. But other Indians attacked them. The settlers killed many Indians and took their land. They pushed the Indians to the west.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Write T for true and F for false. Correct the false sentences.
The British established the first permanent settlement in North America at St. Augustine, Florida. The first Spanish settlement was at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Thirteen European settlements on the east coast became colonies of Spain and France. Some of the settlers were friendly to the native Americans and taught them about the land. The colonists killed many Indians and pushed them to the west.
Module 4B / Exploration and Colonization
The Thirteen Original Colonies
Reasons for Establishment to find gold and to trade with Europe Some Facts The colonists wanted to be rich. They didn’t want to do the difficult work to live, and many people died. Then the settlers discovered tobacco and used it for trade. The Pilgrims came to Plymouth in 1620. The Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They came for religious freedom, but they didn’t give the same freedom to other churches. The King of England gave the land to Lord Baltimore. Lord Baltimore sold the land to settlers. He also gave religious freedom to Catholics. Some Puritans left Massachusetts to start a new colony with religious freedom for everyone. They established the principle of separation of church and state (religion and government). Thomas Hooker and people from his church left Massachusetts for this new colony because the farmland was better. Settlers came here from Massachusetts. They lived by fishing and trading.
Colony 1. Virginia
for religious freedom
to make money from land sales
4. Rhode Island
for religious freedom
for religious freedom and economic reasons for religious, political, and economic reasons
6. New Hampshire
7. North and South Carolina
for economic reasons
The King of England gave away the land, and the landowners rented it to settlers from Virginia and Europe.
8. New York
for political reasons
Dutch settlers were living in New Netherlands, but the British took the land from them and named it New York.
UNIT 4 / The History of the United States
Reasons for Establishment to make money from rent
9. New Jersey
Landowners rented the land to settlers.
for religious freedom
William Penn established this colony. The Quak ers settled here and gave religious freedom to everyone.
for political reasons
William Penn gave settlers from Pennsylvania this land because they wanted a separate government. People came here from England because they were in debt (owed money). The government gave them land to farm.
for political and economic reasons
Make sentences about the information in E. You can use these sentence patterns.
EXAMPLE: Settlers established the colony of Virginia to find gold and to trade with Europe. Many settlers died because they didn’t work enough. for to because . . .
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Write the letters from the map on the lines. Then tell one fact about each colony.
Virginia Massachusetts Maryland Rhode Island Connecticut New Hampshire 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. North and South Carolina New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Georgia
they could send their products only on British ships. They were used to freedom and self-government. 3. The colonists were not free to settle west of the Appala chian Mountains. They were also charging high taxes on American trade with other coun tries. and England won control over most of the colonies of North America. One of the reasons for this freedom was that between 1689 and 1763 England was busy with wars against France. . British officials could enter homes to search for illegal goods. Then England put new taxes on the colonists. and they had to allow British soldiers to live in their homes. They felt strong. 2.” They often traded with other countries. In 1763 the war ended. They were buying goods from the colonies at low prices and selling back manufactured products at high prices. The Causes of the American Revolution The King of England allowed the thirteen American colonies a large amount of self-government. For example. such as the Stamp Act (taxes on printed materials).52 Module 4C / Revolution Module 4C: Revolution A 1. 4. The colonists helped the Mother Country (England) against the French in the French and Indian War. But by this time the colonists felt they were “Americans. Other strict laws made life difficult for the colonists. and they had to sell some goods only to England at very low prices. and they did not need the Mother Country for protection in wars anymore. But the English needed the colonies for economic reasons.
5. settlement. . they passed even stricter laws.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 53 5. 3. England passed even stricter laws. To punish and have more control. the colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. and soldiers. 6. This act was called the Boston Tea Party.” They had to pay high taxes but could not send delegates to England to vote on them. Here are some causes of the American Revolution. To show unity.” so they dumped tea from a ship into Boston harbor. They were angry about “taxation without representation. they met at the First Continental Congress and demanded their rights. They were buying goods at low prices and selling back manufactured products at high prices. The Congress decided to stop buying British goods and demanded rights for the colonists in a decla ration. B 2. Write C before the sentences about the colonists. 6. Their lives were difficult because of strict laws about trade. In 1773 England passed the Tea Act (taxes on imported tea). The colonists were especially angry about the “taxation with out representation. To show their unity against Eng land. Americans prepared for war. To punish the colonies and control them more closely. They were used to freedom and selfgovernment and didn’t need the Mother Country for protection anymore. Write B on the lines before the sentences about the British. 4. so some colonists dressed up like Indians and dumped all the tea from a British ship into Boston harbor.
1776 Philadelphia. General George Washington led the colonists. 3. but the colonial army did not have enough soldiers. The colonial army won some important battles and took control. 1779. 2. they couldn’t get rights from the British. The Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. or supplies. The colonists fired shots at British soldiers at Concord and began the Revolutionary War. Massachusetts Some Facts British soldiers shot at some Minute Men (colonists ready to fight) at Lexington. Pennsylvania 1778. the English won the French and Indian War. 1780 the middle and southern colonies October 19. they wanted to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea Party. The American colonies had a large amount of self-government be cause England got control over North America because The “Boston Tea Party” occurred because The English passed even stricter laws because The colonies stopped buying British goods and prepared for war because a. and George Washington gave the soldiers courage. France entered the war on the side of the colonists. b. the colonists couldn’t send representatives to England to vote on taxes. The British won many battles. training. c. American delegates signed a peace treaty with England. America won land and independence. the Mother Country was busy with wars at that time. Virginia Paris.54 Module 4C / Revolution C 1. Write the letters on the lines. The war ended. Representatives of the Second Conti nental Congress declared the independ ence of the colonies from British rule. The colonial army could shoot well. d. 1781 1783 Yorktown. 5. 1775 June 1775 Boston. 4. Match the sentence parts. France . April 19. Massachusetts (Bunker Hill) other colonies July 4. e. D Events of the Revolutionary War Date Places Lexington and Concord.
On April 19. On In F Study the map and write words from it on the lines. 1. because . The (3) the Atlantic Ocean .UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 55 E Make sentences about the information in D. 2. and controlled controlled and the land west of the Mississippi River. The (5) .1775. Massachusetts. . The United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783) After 1783 the eastern border of the United States was (1) the western border was (2) (4) the land north of (6) . (date) on in (place) . 2. You can use these sentence patterns. . The Revolutionary War began because the British refused to give the American colonists their rights. EXAMPLES: 1. the British shot at some Minute Men at Lexington.
After the American Revolution in 1783. from Spain. Jefferson bought the territory west of the Mississippi River from France in (3) In the year (4) the U.56 Module 4D / Growth and Westward Movement Module 4D: Growth and Westward Movement A From the Atlantic to the Pacific in Fifty Years B (1) Finish these sentences with information from the map in A. annexed (added) the territory of (6) large (7) in 1845. .S.S. and England received the northern half in ceded (had to give up) the territory from the Louisiana for some Mexican Canada. (8) Purchase to the Pacific Ocean. After a war in 1848. paid $10 million in the year (9) land in the Southwest. The U. In 1803 President . called (10) . the territory of the United States stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the East to (2) in the West. President Polk divided the with Great Britain in 1846. obtained the land of the state of (5) The U.S.
No wagon traveled [6. alone / with others ]. The men protected the train with [9. especially in times of danger. two / sixty ] miles per hour. The travelers had [10. circle / long line ]. Thousands of Americans moved to [1. Six [3. cars / covered wagons ]. British / Indians ]. so a 2000-mile trip from Missouri to California took about five [5. At night. eastern / western ] territories to start new lives. horses / oxen ] pulled each wagon across the land and rivers and over hills at about [4. Wagon trains were important for protection against the [7. meetings / slaves ] and made rules for themselves. hours / months ]. Groups of over sixty people traveled in [2. the wagons formed a [8. guns / bombs ]. Everyone worked together. The pictures in C suggest the answers. like a wall around a small town.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 57 C Moving West in Wagon Trains D Circle the correct word or words in each choice. .
” Sam Houston and the Texans won a battle at San Jacinto on April 21. American settlers moved to Texas. and wanted the rights of Americans. They wanted to separate from Mexico and form their own republic. 5. The settlers in Texas believed in slavery. 9. Santa Anna was the American military leader. Jefferson Davis became the President of Texas. Write T for true and F for false.S.1836.” The Republic of Texas did not become part of the United States for nine years because most northerners opposed the annexation of another slave state. The “Lone Star Republic” was the Republic of Texas. 3. 8. The Mexican army of General Santa Anna defeated the rebels at the Alamo on March 6. Before 1836 the area of Texas belonged to England. . The Mexican government wanted these set tlers to become Mexican citizens and Roman Catholics and to free their slaves. right away because it was a free state. Stephen Austin was the leader of the Mexican Roman Catholics. demanded local self-government. The Texans had the spirit to defeat the Mexican army because they remembered the battle at the Alamo. Correct the false sentences. They signed a peace treaty with Mexican leaders and elected Houston President of the “Lone Star Republic. Texas became part of the U. The settlers declared their independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. but the settlers had other ideas.58 Module 4D / Growth and Westward Movement E Difficult Years in Texas Before 1836 the Texas area belonged to Spain and then to Mexico. and Sam Houston was a Mexican general. Under the leadership of Stephen Austin. F 1. They demanded local self-government and the same rights as Americans in the United States. 7. 4. such as trial by jury. But with the spirit of the battle cry “Remember the Alamo. 6. 2.
In the Monroe Doctrine. Make sentences about the information in G.S. (state) (state) .” and these were later admitted into the House of Representatives as states.” and these later became states. 4. should expand to the Mississippi River. I 1. 3. The Monroe Doctrine was an example of the principle of nationalism.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 59 G Some Principles of the Times In 1823 President Monroe warned European nations not to interfere with the politics of the Western Hemisphere (North and South America). Some of the land became “countries. 2. President Madison warned with the politics of Europe. 1. The doctrine was an example of the principle of separatism. . Became a Territory Vermont Kentucky Tennessee Ohio Louisiana Indiana Mississippi Illinois Alabama Maine Missouri Became a State 1791 1792 1796 1803 1812 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 Arkansas Michigan Florida Texas Iowa Wisconsin California Minnesota Oregon Kansas Became a Territory 1819 1805 1822 1838 1836 1849 1848 1854 Became a State 1836 1837 1845 1845 1846 1848 1850 1858 1859 1861 1804 1800 1798 1809 1817 1812 H Correct these false sentences. Because of the principle of “taxation without representation. European nations not to interfere 2. The settlers organized some of the land into “territories. By the 1840’s most Americans believed that the United States should expand to the Pacific Ocean because it was their “manifest destiny” (fate). You can use these sentence patterns.” many Americans thought that the U. (state) was organized as a territory was admitted as a state became a territory state before in the same year as in (year) . The following states were admit ted officially into the Union before the time of the Civil War.
government to put a protectionist tax on products from other countries..S. . B Make sentences about the information in A. Their differences led to the Civil War. You can use these sentence patterns and the pictures on the next page for ideas. The North.. 1.produced expensive products and got the U.. . and southern plant ers felt they needed slave workers to make money... ... but the southern states .believed in the unity of the United States and opposed the separation of the southern states from the Union.was adding free states to the Union and had a larger population than the South. The South. .... The southern states were losing power in the House of Representatives. . . The abolition ists (opponents of slavery) worked to free the slaves.... Although the North 3... North ern factories did not use slaves. .. .60 Module 4E / The Time of the Civil War Module 4E: The Time of the Civil War A The Causes of the Civil War In the 1800s the northern and the southern states disagreed on basic issues. On the other hand..was adding slave states to the Union but had a smaller population than the North. The main crop was cotton. .. .preferred cheap European goods to the expensive products of northern factories and opposed the protective tax on them.supported the election of Abraham Lin coln as President of the United States.. ..opposed the election of Lincoln and chose Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy. The states of the North states of the South ... The northern states had more representatives in Congress than the southern ones. the . ..lived from industry and the manufacture of goods such as clothing and furniture..opposed federal laws and seceded (sepa rated) from the Union by creating the Confed erate States of America. the South .depended on agriculture for its economy. The northern states 2. They opposed the abolition of slavery. .
. Although was a slave state. During the time of the Civil War. the state of Illinois was free. The state of seceded from the Union to become part of the Confederacy (the Confederate States of America). but Tennessee was a slave state. 2. 3. EXAMPLE: During the time of the Civil War. C Finish each sentence about the map on the next page with the names of different states. 4.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 61 1. but was a 2. the state of slave state. it did not secede. 3. 1. was free.
Supplies for the Confederate army. Lee led the army. so the North and the South were about equal in strength. E 1. and its factories supplied its army with weapons. Lee for the Confederacy. Its army got supplies more quickly because they didn’t have to travel long distances. It got weapons for its army from its own factories. Grant for the Union and Robert E. Navy.S. 3. The North was richer.S.62 Module 4E / The Time of the Civil War Free States These slave states seceded These slave states did not secede The western section of Virginia refused to secede and became a separate state in 1863 D The Strengths of Both Sides in the Civil War The War Between the States divided not only the country but also families. 6. N General Ulysses S. on the other hand. It was long and difficult because each side had advantages. Its soldiers had more spirit because they were fighting for their own land. Write S before each sentence about the South. . and the Union controlled the U. Most of the railroads were in the North. Write N on the line before each sentence about the North. It controlled most of the railroads and the U. 4. 5. Navy. so the soldiers had more spirit. Its army was defending its own land. Both sides had excellent generals: Ulysses S. had to travel only short distances. General Robert E. Grant was the military leader. 2.
July 1861 1861 1862 The East The West January 1. Then General Grant won many battles and demanded the surrender of the Con federates. The cruelty of the soldiers destroyed the spirit of the South.1865 Richmond. President Abraham Lincoln an nounced that the slaves in all states under Confederate control were free. spectators from Washington. The proclamation weakened the spirit of the South. Virginia G On In Work in pairs or groups. July 1863 Gettysburg. the Confederate army defeated Union forces.C. Neither side was winning. 1863 Washington. The Confederate forces defeated the Union army. The North won an important battle. False. Lincoln made a famous speech.” Student 1: Student 2: Student 1: . at the battlefield. Your classmates will answer “true” or “false.) Some Facts Spectators from Washington came to watch the battle as entertainment. Pennsylvania 1863 1864 Georgia and the Carolinas April 3.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 63 F Events of the Civil War Date Place Bull Run (near Washington D. D. and railroads. Make sentences about the information in F. EXAMPLES: (date) . In July 1861.C.C. D. The army of General William Sherman marched through the South and destroyed homes. On this day the Union forces defeated the Confederate army as expected. plantations. in at (place) . General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House. The war was over. To their surprise. You can use this sentence pattern. In the Emancipation Proclamation. The North captured the Confederate capital. the Gettysburg Address. and everyone was surprised. came to watch a battle at Bull Run. True.
people produced most goods by hand. and America grew to be an industrial power. It passed high tariffs (taxes) to keep out foreign products and supported the free exchange of goods among the states. What happened to the U. How did the North punish the South? 6. during the time of Reconstruction? B To answer your partner’s questions. Your partner will tell you the answers from the information on the next page. Farmers produced more food with machines. . How did Republicans of the North help ex-slaves during this time? 3. The Industrial Revolution Before the nineteenth century. Some examples are Eli Whitney’s cotton gin and Elias Howe’s sewing machine. and these cities became large markets for factory-made products. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. machines changed the methods of production. He or she will write the answers. What were the 14th and 15th Amendments? 5. Constitution do? 4. Edison invented the phonograph and the electric light bulb. But during the Industrial Revolution. and Thomas A. The federal govern ment helped industry. When was the period of Reconstruction? from 1865 to 1877 2. Write them on the lines. Many people left the farms to work in factories in big cities. 1. What did the 13th Amendment to the U. Mass production made manufacturing quick and cheap. Why didn’t white southerners accept the new laws? 8. Look only at this page and ask your partner these questions about the time of Reconstruction.S. find the information and tell it to your partner. What couldn’t former southern leaders do? 7.64 Module 4F / Industrialization Module 4F: Industrialization A Work in pairs.S. Many important inventions of the Industrial Revolution were the work of Americans.
What were the markets for factory-made products? 8. Constitution: • Amendment 13 put an end to slavery. find the information and tell it to your partner. Who invented the phonograph and the light bulb? 6. To answer your partner’s questions. Write them on the lines.S. During this time. Who invented the telephone? 5. so they opposed the new laws. Republicans of the North helped ex-slaves with housing. D Now ask your partner these questions about the Industrial Revolution. How did the federal government help industry? . Why did many people leave the farms? 7. Former southern leaders could not hold political office.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 65 C Work in pairs. and food. • Amendment 14 made all blacks citizens. Look only at this page. the United States became one nation again. What was Elias Howe’s invention? 4. The North also wanted to punish the South. Congress passed three Amendments to the U. What did Eli Whitney invent? 3. The Time of Reconstruction The period of Reconstruction was from 1865 to 1877. Although the differences between the North and the South were great. What happened during the Industrial Revolution? 2. education. so Congress established military government in the southern states. But black people had some political power in the South. 1. • Amendment 15 gave blacks the right to vote. Your partner will tell you the answers from the information on the previous page. He or she will write the answers. Few white southern ers believed that blacks were equal to whites.
66 Module 4F / Industrialization E The Labor Movement Since the Industrial Revolution. job security. shorter hours. 2. Write the name of the union before each sentence: the Knights of Labor. but it wasn’t very successful. labor unions have fought for safe and healthy working condi tions. 1881 Samuel Gompers 1938 John L. President Reagan’s government reduced the power of this union. or the AFL-CIO. CIO This union began with John L. workers’ rights. not just indi vidual factories. The AFL joined the CIO and was powerful until President Reagan’s government weakened the unions. Beginning Date 1869 Union the Knights of Labor the American Federation of Labor (AFL) the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) AFL-CIO Founder Uriah S. This early union wasn’t very successful. This union got higher wages. and better working conditions. 3. Lewis. and its strikes shut down whole industries. the CIO. the AFL. It got them higher wages. Stephens founded (established) this union. 8. Lewis 1955 (merger) F 1. 4. This union represented only skilled workers. Stephens Activities This union represented all workers. shorter hours. 6. pension plans. and civil rights. 7. . This union represented semi-skilled workers. Its strikes shut down whole industries. Uriah S. Samuel Gompers was the founder. an eight-hour workday. health benefits. This union was a merger of two big unions. fair wages. 5. and better working conditions for skilled workers. This union represented semi-skilled and skilled workers.
not by state legislatures. and even Senators. Some leaders of the Progressive Movement held political office and made reforms. and the Seventeenth Amendment allowed voters to elect U. state representatives. In the first part of the twentieth century. What did the members believe? 4. When? 3. They felt that big business had too much power and that the system was unfair to farmers and industrial workers. They also believed in govern ment control of the railroads and the telephone system. Who formed it? 2. so they tried to help workers. Progressives believed in a “square deal” for ordinary Americans. What did they want? 5. Senators by the people. Senators directly.S.S. Populists became mayors of towns.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 67 G A Political Party and a Movement Farmers formed the Populist Party in 1892. and protect the environment. secret ballots (voting). What did they do? . They wanted the federal government to control big busi ness. They wanted a graduated income tax (a higher percentage of tax on higher incomes). but their ideas influenced the major political parties. progressive thinkers formed a movement for social reform. The Populist Party The Progressive Movement 1. and farmers. small businesses. H Answer these questions about the political party and the movement. They lost power after the election of 1896. Their ideas also led to several amendments to the Constitution: the Sixteenth Amendment established the federal in come tax. take responsibility for the quality of food and drugs. and direct election of U.
Module 4G / The U.S. Becomes a World Power
Module 4G: The U.S. Becomes a World Power
Work in pairs. Look only at this page and ask your partner these questions about World War I. Your partner will tell you the answers from the next page. Take notes on the information. Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was shot. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
1. What happened to begin World War I?
2. What were the two sides in the war, and what European countries joined them? 3. Why did the United States enter the war in 1917? 4. Why was World War I called “the Great War”? 5. How and when did the war end? 6. What was the basis of the peace treaty to end the war? 7. What was the League of Nations, and why did it fail?
The Great Depression
Because American goods were too expensive for other countries to buy and American wages were low, many investors lost confidence in the stock market and sold their stocks (shares, or part ownership, of companies). The Great Depression began with the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, October 29,1929. Thousands of businesses, factories, and banks closed down, and millions of workers lost their jobs. This time of economic depres sion lasted for ten years. President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped end the Great Depression with his “New Deal” of relief, recovery, and reform (“the Three R’s”). His government relieved suffering with payments to unemployed people and loans to farmers and homeowners. It created govern ment jobs to help the economy recover. Roosevelt also worked on economic reform to pre vent future depressions.
UNIT 4 / The History of the United States
Work in pairs. Look only at this page. To answer your partner’s questions about World War I, find the information and tell it to your partner. He or she will take notes.
volvement in world affairs, the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles and the plan for the League of Nations.
• It was Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a world organization to prevent future wars. To avoid in • It was a “total war” because it involved the economies and the people of many countries.
The U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service Acts to draft young men into the armed forces.
• The basis of the Treaty of Versailles was President Wilson’s plan for peace, his Fourteen
Points. Among other things, Wilson wanted freedom of the seas and trade and self-determi nation (the right of people to decide on their own form of government).
• Austria-Hungary declared war on the small country of Serbia because an assassin shot the
heir to their throne.
• Americans were angry because Germany was using submarines to attack both warships
and trade ships. They wanted to fight this “war to end all wars.”
• The Central Powers were Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the Allied Powers were
Russia, France, England, and Italy.
• Germany signed an armistice on November 11, 1918.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Match the sentence parts. Write the letters on the lines.
Many people lost confidence in the U.S. economy because... The Great Depression began be cause... Millions of workers lost their jobs because... The Depression ended ten years later because... The government made payments to the unemployed, farmers, and homeowners because... The New Deal government created jobs because...
a. businesses, factories, and banks closed. b. Roosevelt wanted to relieve economic suffering. c. investors sold their stocks, and the stock market crashed. d. American goods were expensive, but wages were low. e. President Roosevelt started the New Deal of relief, recovery, and reform. f. it wanted the U.S. to recover from the Depression and prevent future ones.
Module 4G / The U.S. Becomes a World Power
Work in pairs. Look only at this page and ask your partner these questions about World War II. Your partner will tell you the answers from the next page. Take notes on the information. Germany invaded Poland. Germany, Italy, Japan – the Axis. France, England, the Soviet Union – the Allies.
1. What happened to begin World War II?
2. Why did the United States stay out of the war at first?
3. Why did the U.S. finally enter the war?
4. What happened during the war in Europe?
5. How and when did World War II end?
6. What were the effects of the war?
Organizations and Plans
After World War II, the Allied countries organized the United Nations (the U.N.) to solve problems among nations and keep the peace. Although this world organization had many of the same principles as the League of Nations, this time the United States was one of its original members. But at the same time the U.S. and the Soviet Union (the U.S.S.R.) were beginning to compete for power. In 1947 under the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. government gave $400 million in economic and military aid to keep Greece and Turkey free of Soviet control. Then the U.S. established the Marshall Plan to rebuild the countries of Western Europe, including its former enemies. The period of history after World War II is known as the Cold War because the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., with their opposing economic and political systems, were trying to win influence and control over other countries through economic aid rather than weapons. In 1949 the U.S. and the nations of Western Europe formally allied in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to defend one another against attack. The U.S.S.R. began the Warsaw Pact with Eastern Europe in 1955.
and killed many groups of people.S. the U.S. find the information and tell it to your partner. Under the Marshall Plan. 3. attempt to influence other countries through economic and military aid. and the U. declared war on Japan.S.S. 4. in the NATO. After World War II. General Dwight D. Correct the false sentences.S. Germany surrendered unconditionally. To answer your partner’s questions about World War II. The U. Write T for true and F for false. • The army of Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. • President Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.S.S.S. allied with Eastern Europe in the Warsaw Pact. China gave aid to rebuild Japan. In the 1930s it passed Neutrality Acts to keep the seas free. In May 1945. and the Allies (France. 5.R. and the U. H 1. • Germany invaded countries and enslaved.R. so the U. He or she will take notes. The Soviet Union pushed back the attack of the German army. • Over 22 million people died. In general. Congress rejected the plan for the United Nations because it wanted to avoid involvement and stay neutral. • Congress wanted to avoid involvement in world affairs and stay neutral. On “D-Day” in 1944. The other Axis countries (Italy and Japan) sup ported Germany. The Truman Doctrine is an example of the U. the U. the nations of Western Europe allied with the U. 7. During the Cold War. Look only at this page.S.R.S. 1945.S. tortured. became the two leading powers in the world. Eisenhower led the Allied armies to victory in Europe.S. and Germany and Italy declared war on the U. England and later the Soviet Union) opposed Germany. The U. and its allies. The purpose of the United Nations is to solve world problems and prevent war.S. • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. and the countries of Western Europe began to compete for world political power.S. .UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 71 G Work in pairs. 2. and its allies had a different political and economic system from that of the U. Italy surrendered in 1943. the U. Japan surrendered on August 10. 6.S.
.S. it can be used to improve human lives and to solve many of the world’s serious problems. invaded South Korea. such as hunger and poverty. and Soviet shuttles are building space stations for both peaceful and military purposes. However. the whole world has been using satellites and other space technology for communication. North Korean communists. In 1950. and business. The period of history since the invention of the atomic bomb at the end of World War II is known as the Age of Technology and the Atomic Age. the computer is as important as the pencil. There were many protests against the war. 2. mainly the United States and the Soviet Union. bombs.S. and by 1969. Both U. Each of you studies the information about a different aspect of modern times. 1. The desire for independence gave the Vietnamese their fighting spirit. supported by the Chinese. With U. and space weapons. continued to build missiles. The United Nations supported South Korea. Fortunately. help. science. and the United States sent troops (soldiers). Before the Vietnamese war. At the heart of the Age of Technology is the computer. To school children. Between 1961 and 1975. In the future. North and South Korea could not agree on a common form of government. the South Koreans pushed the communist troops back to the thirty-eighth parallel. The United States sent its first satellite into space in 1958.72 Module 4H / Modern Times Module 4H: Modern Times A Work in groups of four. In turn. Vietnam was a colony of France. Since then. America went to war twice against communist countries and their supporters. not all technology is designed for war. the first American stepped onto the moon. and the United States finally withdrew. summarize your information in your own words for the group. but they wanted freedom from foreign powers. the superpowers. The world powers and people of all nations know that a nuclear war could destroy the whole planet. The people didn’t want war. the United States intervened in the conflict on the side of the South Vietnamese anticommunists. military aircraft. weather forecasting. After World War II.
troops to Little Rock. American women are still fighting for equality because their salaries are generally lower than men’s. Black Americans in the South. Few women finished college.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 73 3. In the 1950s. and their pay has risen. used only restrooms for nonwhites. and others are executives in private business and government. Northerners.S. Constitution. especially in government jobs. blacks sat in the backs of buses. could not attend white schools or live in white neighborhoods. Arkansas. American men did not believe in equality of the sexes. many changes in the positions of the sexes have occurred. and ate at nonwhite lunch counters.. the amendment was not ratified (approved by enough states). Presidents John F. Johnson used King’s ideas in their New Frontier and Great Society programs. Because of the policy of segregation. Eisenhower sent U. to force the all-white university there to accept black students.S. President Dwight D. many citizens have tried to add an amendment to the U. as a result of the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King. . The “Equal Rights Amendment” (ERA) states that both sexes have equal rights. Jr. too. Many women own businesses. especially in jobs and housing. but nonwhites have not yet achieved equal status today. because it is easier for women to get jobs that used to be for men only. In 1957. Today. for example. For a long time. In recent years. new laws helped blacks and other minorities to achieve equality. such as the right to alimony (financial support after divorce) and exemption from the military draft. More women are working than ever before. and even fewer rose to executive-level positions with high salaries. However. Kennedy and Lyndon B. often discriminated against blacks. Women worked in lowlevel jobs and usually received lower pay than men for equal work. But because many people fear that the amendment could take away some of women’s special protections. In some southern states. “the American dream” of wealth and freedom was easier for white males to achieve than for members of minority groups. black people could not even vote. There have been great changes in the last forty years. Between 1957 and 1970. 4. Half of all college students are women.
8. h. the country could not agree on a common form of government. 7. The Age of Technology began around the time of the discovery of the moon. The New Frontier and Great Society programs were plans for U. . bombs. and Soviet shuttle space stations. e. d. 2. d North Korean and Chinese communists invaded South Korea because The United States finally withdrew from the Vietnam conflict because The United States and the Soviet Union continued to build missiles. b. great changes have occurred in the last forty years. weather forecasting.S. 5. the people fought hard for the independence of their country from foreign powers. nonwhites and women are still not equal to white males today even though Many American women are still fighting for equality today because The Equal Rights Amendment was not ratified because a. 2. and space weapons even though The whole world has been using space technology for communication. 4. 3.74 Module 4H / Modern Times B 1. 6. In the Korean War. President Eisenhower sent U. 1. Jr. 5. the United States sent its first satellite into space in 1958. America went to war twice against capitalist countries and their supporters. c. In 1957. North Koreans pushed Chinese troops back to the thirty-eighth parallel with help from the United States. C Correct these false sentences. many people oppose the loss of special protections for women. southern states followed a policy of segregation. troops to Vietnam to oppose the followers of Martin Luther King. and science since In the 1950s. in the civil rights movement. black Americans could not attend white schools or live in white neighborhoods because Especially in jobs and salaries. Write the letters on the lines. g. f. After World War II. women’s salaries are generally lower than men’s for equal work. Match the sentence parts.S. 4. a nuclear war would destroy the whole planet. 3.
What do you think the pictures show about local history? (What probably happened?) 2.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 75 Module 4I: Local History A Look at the map and answer these questions: 1. About when did these events probably happen? .
The Pike was the first of thousands of steampowered boats with paddle wheels that changed St. 2. But when New England abolitionists began sending anti-slavery citizens to settle there.76 Module 4I / Local History B 1. summarize your information in your own words for the group. this mansion was the home of another famous American: the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. led a band of supporters in a raid of Lawrence. he often rode to the hills around Boston to plan military strategy. In 1775 soldiers marched from the town to the Battle of Bunker Hill. which the British held in the Revolutionary War. a young Northerner who believed in slavery. proslavery Missourians crossed the state border to vote illegally in territorial elections. To make railroad construction easier. Work in groups of seven. When George Washington arrived in Massachusetts to take command of the colonial troops. Missouri. marked the end of the steamboat age. which joined Missouri to the state of Illinois. is only a few miles from Boston. But Cambridge was a center of rebel activity. Pike landed in St. From this elegant house. Each of you studies the information about local history in a different place. The state became known as “Bleeding Kansas” in this violent period of history. in 1854 the U. Louis after a six-week trip from Louisville. During the Civil War William Clarke Quantrill. The residents of the new territory were supposed to decide for themselves if Kansas should become a slave state or a free state. In 1817. On the map on the previous page. French settlers began a town and trading post there the following year. 3. the steamboat era began on the Mississippi River. government opened Kansas to white settlers. In the following century. In 1856 proslavery Southerners formed armed bands to destroy Lawrence. Cambridge. Louis from a frontier town to the third largest city in the nation in 1870. John Brown led raids against slaveholders along the Kansas-Missouri border. Massachusetts.S. show your classmates the place. the center of abolitionist power. killing hundreds of civilians. when the Zebulon M. so their opponents formed their own local governments. . Proslavery candidates won these elections. But in 1874 the completion of the Eads Bridge. Kansas. In turn. he lived and established military headquarters in a mansion in Cambridge. In 1763 French fur trader Pierre Laclede greeted Indians at the place that is now St. Louis.
at the end of the first day. and the Chinese diet of rice. government allowed white settlers to move into one part after another of Indian territory in Oklahoma. there were settlers from 32 U. burned their corn. when Prohibition made the sale of alcohol illegal. fish. The Navajo Indians began thinking of themselves as a tribe during the winter of 1863 and 1864. Most settlers were living in tents or their wagons. “king of the Chicago underworld. In Guthrie. and six foreign countries. A signal gun started each stage of this famous “Land Rush. As punishment for stealing cattle. and they missed their native home. Between 1889 and 1906 the U. The labor unions in San Francisco protested. most white workers quit because the work was so hard and dangerous. The city of Chicago was once known for organized crime.S. U. but they soon built wooden houses. The famous Al Capone.S. territories. But many of the workers died from accidents. By the early 1920s corrupt politicians such as “Big Bill” Thompson were running the city. the soldiers killed the Indians’ sheep. Then they made the Navajo march three hundred miles to a camp at Bosque Redondo in eastern New Mexico. (Today Oklahoma has the nickname “the Sooner State. After about a month.” Thousands of settlers hurried into Oklahoma each day. three U.”) 6. each with its own cook and supervisor. The Indians couldn’t raise crops in the poor land there. After 1865 railroad companies in central California began to hire Chinese workers. 5. and cut down their fruit trees.” didn’t go to prison until 1931. troops trapped several hundred Navajo families near Canyon de Chelly in northeastern Arizona. At the beginning of the twentieth century. .S. A land agent and a lawyer had already set up outdoor offices to settle land disputes. for example.UNIT 4 / The History of the United States 77 4. Chicago gangsters profited greatly from bootlegging (dealing in liquor illegally). the town had a jail. States. Tea carriers brought hot tea to the workers. gambling was big business there. After 1919. Many of them died.S. and vegetables kept them in better health than the whites. The Chinese worked in groups of twelve to twenty men. usually with the approval of the mayor. but when the Central Pacific Railroad Company began to lay tracks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Some of the prisoners were called “Sooners” because they had claimed land sooner than the law allowed. 7.
Pike landed in St. Louis. because they wanted to find gold there. Massachusetts. bootlegging. Tell about local history from the pictures. 5. 4. 9. Louis in 1817. Gambling. Cambridge. and corruption in local government are examples of the organized crime that Chicago has been known for. In spite of union protests. Al Capone was a famous proslavery fighter who killed civilians in Lawrence. an era of peace began. When the U.S. government took land from white settlers to give it back to the Indians. Kansas. government was treating the Navajo Indians of Arizona well because they were excellent farmers in the poor land. 2. the age of the airplane began. Correct the false sentences. only white workers could build the railroads in California in the 1860s. .S. Spanish explorers started the settlement of St. In the famous Oklahoma “Land Rush.78 Module 4I / Local History C 1. D E Turn back to page 75. 10. 7. Write T for true and F for false. 8. At different times General George Washington and poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow lived in the same mansion.S. during the Civil War. When the Zebulon M. The state became known as “bleeding Kansas” because supporters of slavery and abolitionists opposed one another in elections and violent attacks. Find out about one period of local history in your town or city. In the 1860s the U. was a center of rebel activity and colonial military headquarters. Make notes on the important facts and collect pictures. 11. 3. Oklahoma has the nickname “the Sooner State” because of the many settlers who claimed land before the government allowed them to. For a time during the Revolutionary War. government opened Kansas to white settlers in 1854.” the U. 6. 12. Missouri. Summarize the information for the class and show the pictures.
and . and the twenty-six of 79 . The third principle is basic equality. the new American government. Another principle is government of.S. One of the main principles of the Constitution is the three of government. such as individual . the Articles of Confederation (1781) were the basis of the new American government. But this weak government did not work very well. 3. government of. The delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 revised the Articles of Confederation.The U. The Preamble tells its purposes: to protect the nation and to assure justice. for. . and by 5. peace. and liberty for all. the seven . equality. The Document contains seven articles. Constitution Module 5A: Overview of the Constitution UNIT 5 A Introduction to the U. B Write the words from A. the separation of powers of the three branches of government 2. basic human rights (individual freedom. After the Revolutionary War. of powers of the 4. for. the Articles of Confederation (1781) were the basis of 2. The result of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was 3.S. and by the people 3. Constitution. Constitution After the Revolutionary War. 6.S. 2. The result was the U. . Three main principles form the basis of the Constitution: 1. and justice) The Constitution has three parts: 1. . Twenty-six Amendments guarantee individual rights and freedoms and establish other basic principles of government. The three parts of the Constitution are the Document. 1. .
All public officials must promise to support the Constitution in an official oath. 2. Article Three created the Judicial Branch under these principles: 1.S. have the right to trial by jury. 2. 3. All states have a republican form of government. It is a court of last appeal. 2. It included these principles: 1. It is the responsibility of the Supreme Court to defend and interpret the principles of the Constitution. and its decisions are final. Congress will call a national convention. U. 1. Residents of the U. The Electoral College elects the President. territories. Article Seven declared that nine states must ratify the Constitution for it to become law. To add the amendment to the Constitution. such as to enforce laws. The Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. 3. The President has certain powers.S.S. 1. Congress may propose (suggest) an amendment if two-thirds of both houses vote for it. 2. The states may initiate an amendment. 4. No state constitution or law or judge may contradict (state the opposite of) the Constitution. among others: Congress makes the laws of the nation. . 3. The people of each state elect two Senators. 2. If two-thirds of all state legislatures agree to pro pose it. Article Six declared the Constitution the Supreme Law of the Land. Here are a few of its principles: 1. Congress may admit new states and make laws for U. The President may initiate the law-making process. the Presidency. 4. It established these principles. three-fourths of the state legislatures or special state conventions must ratify (officially approve) it. The population of each state determines the number of Representatives. The two houses of Congress are the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Document Article One created the Legislative Branch of government. 3. The President is the chief executive of the nation and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. 2. Article Four defined the relationship among the states and the relationship of the states to the Federal government. Article Two established the Executive Branch of government. 3.80 Module 5A / Overview of the Constitution C 1. Article Five described ways to amend (change) the Constitution. residents have the same rights in all states.
Then write the answer in a few words on the line. ( 4. ( 7. ( 9. ( 10. ( 3.S. ( 11. ( 8. ( 12. What is the Supreme Law of the Land? What is the highest court of the land? What branch of government makes the laws of the nation? How many Senators and Representatives does each state have in Congress? Do U. ( 6 ) 2. ( 13.UNIT 5 / The U. ( 15. ( 6.S. ( 5. ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) the Constitution What is one important responsibility of the Supreme Court? What form of government do the states have? May a state constitution or judge contradict the U. ( 14. Constitution? How are new states admitted to the Union? Who has to approve a proposed amendment? What must public officials promise in an official oath? How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it became law? .S. write the number of the Article of the Constitution that contains the answer to each question. residents have the same rights in all states? Who is the chief executive of the nation and Commander in Chief of the armed forces? What are two ways to propose a Constitutional Amendment? What are some of the duties and powers of the President? 1. Constitution 81 D In the parentheses.
Constitution is “a living document” because Americans can change it with amend ments. Amendment Ratified 110 1791 What does the amendment say? The first ten amendments are the “Bill of Rights. The Vice President becomes President if the President can’t carry out his duties. A new President takes office on January 20. Senators directly. Citizens living in Washington.S. You can use these sentence patterns. The Make sentences about the information in E.C. may vote in Presidential elections. The existing amendments protect individual rights or have solved other national problems. All citizens eighteen years and older may vote. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed. . It says that . Electors vote for the President and Vice President on separate ballots. D. Women citizens have the right to vote.” Citizens of a state or foreign country may not take another state to court. It is illegal to require voting taxes. All people born in the United States or naturalized are citizens. Slavery is illegal. The citizens elect U.82 Module 5A / Overview of the Constitution E The Amendments The U. 11 1798 12 1804 13 1865 14 1868 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1870 1913 1913 1919 1920 1933 1933 1951 23 1961 24 1964 25 1967 26 1971 F 1.S. Congress has the right to tax income. Black men have the right to vote. It is illegal to make or sell liquor. 2. Presidents may serve no more than two terms. (number) Amendment was ratified in (year) .
S. Write a letter to a government official. because Amendment 21 repealed Amendment 18. b. join political parties. can the newspaper publish it legally? a. b. b. because separation of church and state is a principle of the U. citizens if they follow the state laws about weapons. Only born citizens can work in government jobs.S. government.S. government officials. b. You can get the information from entertainment films and popular music.? a. No. No. Yes. 4. Only white men in the fifty states (not in Washington. All citizens. No one.C. and talk to lawyers familiar with U.) .S. because the Bill of Rights of the U. D.S. but not federal ones. except perhaps in time of war. because the truth can damage the government.UNIT 5 / The U. Yes. b. Is Christianity the official religion of the United States? a. 3.S. You can read the Constitution and law books. How can you find out the rights and freedoms of Americans? a.S. and the Bill of Rights guarantees freedom of religion. How are the rights of born citizens different from the rights of naturalized citizens? a. laws. Who can own guns in the United States? a. 9. All U. 5. Is it legal for adults to use alcohol in the U. except that naturalized citizens can’t become President of the U. Nothing. If an American opposes a federal law. Discuss these questions about individual rights in the United States and decide on the answers. Constitution 83 Module 5B: Basic Rights and Freedoms A Work in groups. You can protest local laws. ask U. 2. 8. because this is a basic right of government. No.Yes. Who must allow soldiers to live in their homes? a. Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and the press. b. because private gun ownership is illegal. because Amendment 18 made it illegal to make or sell liquor. Who can register to vote in the United States? a. or run for office. because most Americans are Christian. They are the same. b. what can he or she do about it? a. No one. If a reporter writes an article about a government official stealing money. 6.S. b. b. 1. All born and naturalized citizens over the age of 18. 7.
a unanimous verdict witnesses bail . people who give evidence f. 5. an accusation of a crime e.84 Module 5B / Basic Rights and Freedoms B 1. promise or give assurance g. Write the letter on the lines. legal permission to search c. Match the words with their meanings on the right. 9. decision agreed on by everyone 2. 7. 10. give evidence j. a trial testify guarantee jurors 8. b a search warrant a. people who examine evidence to decide if a trial is necessary b. the hearing of a case in court i. charge (noun) grand jury 4. 3. 6. money paid to guarantee that someone freed from jail will return to the trial h. members of a jury who hear evidence and come to a verdict d.
Amendment 8 protects people against unreasonable bail or fines and cruel or unusual punishment. Amendment 14 guarantees all the rights of citizens to people born or naturalized in the U. write the letter of the exercise and the number of the item on the line. Amendment 3 says that the government may not force people to take soldiers into their homes in peacetime. 14. the government may not bring a person to trial more than once for the same crime and may not take away property without a legal process. 2. a grand jury must charge him or her with a crime. Amendment 2 guarantees the right to own weapons. Amendment 19 guaranteed the right to vote to women. 3. Amendment 5 says that to bring a person to trial. Amendment 9 says that individuals have rights in addition to those in the Constitution. 7. 1. (One amendment may refer to more than one item. 13. No one must testify against himself or herself in court. Also. Amendment 4 says that the government may not search or take individual prop erty without a warrant. peaceable assembly. D. 15. A3 Amendment 1 guarantees the right of freedom of speech. to question witnesses.UNIT 5 / The U. .) Then explain the amendments.S. Constitution 85 C Here is a summary of the Constitutional Amendments about individual rights and liberties. Amendment 21 repealed Amendment 18. Amendment 15 guarantees the right to vote to ex-slaves and black people. Amendment 26 gives the right to vote to all citizens over the age of eighteen. Amendments 6 and 7 give individuals the right to an open trial by jury and a lawyer. and to get witnesses to testify for them. 9. 11. religion. To match each with the information in A and B. 10. They have the right to hear the charges. 4. 12. 6. Amendment 18 made it illegal to make or sell alcohol.C. Amendment 23 gives the right to vote to residents of Washington.S. A1. and requesting change from the government. 5. press. 8. A2.
the Legislative Branch The Constitution the Federal Government the Executive Branch the Judicial Branch B 1. the powers stated in the Constitution. the branches of government the separation of powers checks and balances 86 . no one group can have too much power. There is also a system of checks and balances so that each branch has some control over the other two branches. Write the letters on the lines. and the judicial d. This way. elected officials g. only those powers stated in the Constitution e. or association. 5. Constitution gave the federal government only limited powers. a government of the people (a representative democracy) f. the national government h. 7. and the judicial. an association b. Each branch has different functions and powers under the principle of separation of powers. the execu tive.S.The Federal Government Module 6A: Overview of U. the executive. Government UNIT 6 A The American System of Government The United States is a democratic republic (a representative democracy). having different functions c. a system of control of each branch over the other two 6. All other powers belong to the individual states. the legislative. 4. The national govern ment is a government of all the people and their representatives (elected officials). of states. The Founding Fathers established three branches of government: the legislative. a democratic republic representatives and senators the Federal Government a federation limited powers a. It is called the federal government because the nation is a federation. The U.S. 8. 2. 3. Match the words with their meanings.
It has power over the other two branches because it can declare their laws and actions unconstitutional (against the principles of the Constitution). eleven Circuit Courts of Appeals. the Legislative the Executive the Judicial 1. and the independent agencies. and ninety-four District Courts. It’s the responsibility of the executive to enforce laws. What powers does it have under the system of checks and balances? . This branch explains and interprets laws and makes decisions in lawsuits. What are its responsibilities? 3. The judicial branch consists of the Supreme (highest) Court. the Vice President. It consists of the Senate and the House of Represen tatives. the Cabinet and the thir teen Departments.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 87 C The Three Branches of Government The legislative branch is called Congress. D Answer these questions about the three branches of government. It is the responsibility of Congress to propose and pass laws. What does it consist of? the Senate the House of Representatives 2. The executive branch consists of the President. He appoints all Supreme Court Justices. Congress can refuse to approve Presidential appointments and can override a Presiden tial veto. In the system of checks and balances. The President has the power to veto (reject) any bill (law) of Congress.
and their ideas often change with the times and the issues. “Conservative” politi cians usually oppose change.S. Article 2 of the U. a third party in opposition to change.S. 3. and conservative candidates oppose it. such as the Federalists and the Whigs. 6. Correct the false sentences. Since 1854.88 Module 6A / Overview of the U. Since 1854. the two major political parties have been the Whigs and the Libertarians. “Liberal” politicians usually favor reform (change) and progress. candidates. F 1. and their group later became the Demo cratic Party. and their ideas have changed with the times and the issues. the Democratic-Republicans wanted to limit the power of the national government. Government E Political Parties The U. During the time of George Washington. Many people say that there is not much difference between the Republican and Democratic Parties. They wanted a strong federal government.S. but they began during George Washington’s term of office. 8. Their leader was Thomas Jefferson. no longer exist. the Federalists supported a strong federal government. the two major parties have been the Democrats and the Republicans. But both liberal and conservative members belong to the two major political parties. Constitution establishes political parties. Voters have elected some third-party candidates to local office but never to the Presidency. Write T for true and F for false. 5. All Democrats are conservative and all Republicans are liberals. Some of the early political parties. Constitution does not talk about political parties. but their candidates have never won a Presidential election. On the other side. 4. . 2. On one side were the Federalists. but the Democratic-Republicans wanted to limit government power. Liberal politicians usually support reform. Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Whigs. Smaller parties have lasted for only a short time. “Third parties” have won in local elections. Political parties. 7.
P. . the issues of the nation and the ideas of the party have changed. H 1. but in general people consider the Democrats today more liberal than the Republicans. It is the oldest political party in the United States. 4. land. Since that time. Both the major parties have liberal and conservative members. In 1829. They want government to support big business but not to control the lives of citizens. They often oppose government spending for social programs but support military spending. In general. sometimes called the G. They usually say they believe in equal rights for women and minorities and they oppose nuclear weapons and too much military spending. and the elderly. Republicans vote more conservatively than Democrats. I Tell about other political parties in the United States or your native country. The Democratic Party is the oldest party in the United States.O.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 89 G 1. and business issues. The party symbol is the elephant. It is sometimes called the G. Each of you studies the information about a different one of the two major political parties. Republicans oppose slavery.O. Which party is each sentence about? Write R for the Republican and D for the Democratic. such as the poor. (the Grand Old Party). Its members do not want the government to control the lives of individuals. The Republican Party. The party symbol is the donkey. Democrats often want the government to establish social programs for people in need. Summarize your information for your partner. Its members usually prefer to spend tax money for military purposes rather than for social programs. 7. Its first President was Abraham Lincoln. Republicans got interested in farm. began in 1854 over the issue of slavery. Its first President was Andrew Jackson. The symbol of the Democratic Party (from political cartoons) is the donkey. 3. 2.P. Work in pairs. 8. 6. the unemployed. The first Republican candidate to become President was Abraham Lincoln. Andrew Jackson became the first Democratic President. It is generally more liberal than the other party. 2. After the Civil War. 5.
What party does the Speaker of the House usually belong to? a. Who presides over the House of Representatives (the House)? a. Mayor of Washington. the Senate and the House of Representatives 4.S. the Vice President of the U. Who presides if the President of the Senate is absent? a. Who is President of the Senate? (What is his office?) a. 6. the President pro tempore b. Then check your answers on page 91. citizen January 3 to adjournment Number of Members Number of Members Per State Length of Term Number of Terms Age Requirement Citizenship Requirement Dates of Regular Session 1 100 2 6 years1 no limit at least 30 at least 9 years as a U.S. one with cameras 3. Discuss these questions about the legislative branch of the federal government and decide on the answers. one with two houses (divisions) b. . government called? a.C.90 Module 6B / The Legislative Branch Module 6B: The Legislative Branch A Work in pairs or groups. the President of the U. the majority political party B Facts About Congress the Senate the House 435 determined by state population 2 years1 no limit at least 25 at least 7 years as a U. the Council and the Supreme Soviet b. What are the two houses of Congress? a. 5. b. Vice President of the U.S.S. no political party b. What is the legislative branch of U. Congress b. What is a “bicameral” legislature? a.S. citizen January 3 to adjournment One-third of all Senators and all Representatives run for office every two years. Parliament 2. D.S. 1. b. the Speaker of the House 7.
If the President becomes law anyway. If the Senate or House 5. 2. Make sentences about the information in B with these sentence patterns. . The Senate House of Representatives Senators Representatives has (number) members. 4. b 3. (rejects) the bill. the bill. and it Answers to Exercise A: 1. either a a . 5. 3. it goes to 7. b 7. Senator or a can write 1. or the bill. (postpone) the bill. . the veto. D Write the words from the chart on the next page. send it (change) the bill. b .UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 91 C 1.S. If the President signs the bill. b 4. a 6. a 2. To begin the lawmaking process. The bill then goes to a 3. If the second house passes the bill. of the same house. Senator Representative serves in Congress for (number) on the number of terms for each Senator Representative years. it does not become law. 2. a and a U. The committee can call back to the full house without a 4. Congress can . Representative. it 8. A regular session of the (date) to . (number) Senate House is from Senator. If the Senate or House its committee. citizen for at least 6. b 5. must be at least (number) years old To run for Congress. it goes to the other house of Congress and 6. . years. The number of Each There is for each state is.
Senators or Representatives can force it out of committee with a majority vote. The bill goes to a committee of the Senate or House. The President vetoes (rejects) the bill. If the President does nothing and Congress adjourns within ten days. 5 The President signs the bill. Congress overrides the veto (passes the bill). This step often “kills” the bill. A bill concerning taxes or the budget must begin in the House of Representatives. The bill becomes law. 7. 8. The committee can call public hearings. It can table (postpone) the bill. 3 It can amend (change) the bill. the bill does not become law. The Senate or House defeats the bill. 1 2 3 4 5 . 3. The bill goes to a committee of the other house. If the second house of Congress amends the bill. 4 The second house defeats the bill. 2 It can send the bill back to the full house without a recommendation. The Senate or House passes the bill. 6. If a committee tables a bill. A Senator or Representative writes a bill. 4. and it becomes law. the first house must agree to the changes. The full Senate or House debates the bill and can amend it. 5. 1 2. The bill does not become law. The second house debates the bill.92 Module 6B / The Legislative Branch HOW CONGRESS MAKES LAWS 1. The second house passes the bill. The bill goes to the President.
If no candidate wins the majority of the electoral votes. 5. 1. Then the voters make their choices. who becomes President? 5. 4. Take notes on the information. 6. The candidates with the majority (more than half) of the electoral votes win. Your partner will tell you the answers from the next page. All candidates campaign until election day. . Look only at this page and ask your partner these questions about the President of the United States. the House of Representatives chooses the new President. If the President dies. Political parties choose their candidates in state caucuses (conventions) or state primaries (elections). 1. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Convention delegates vote for the choices of the voters in their states. What are the qualifications (requirements) for President? 2. What are the qualifications for Vice President? 3. For how many years may a President serve? 4. Electors (members of the Electoral College) cast their votes for President and Vice President. 3. 2.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 93 Module 6C: The Executive Branch A Work in pairs. Where does the President live and work? 6. How should people address the President? B Work in pairs. Political parties hold national conventions to choose their candidates for President and Vice President. Look only at this page and tell your partner the steps in electing a President. The new President takes office during the inauguration (formal ceremony) on January 20 after the election.
C. the President pro tempore of the Senate. D Work in pairs.S. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. To answer your part ner’s questions about the President. E In your own words. Convention delegates vote for the choices of the voters in their states. Political parties hold national conventions to choose their candidates for President and Vice President. the President must be a born U. and no President may serve for more than two terms in a row. • If the President dies. D. citizen and at least thirty-five years old. Electors (members of the Electoral College) cast their votes for President and Vice President. the other twelve members of the Cabinet. Then the voters make their choices. If no candidate wins the majority of the electoral votes. find the information and tell it to your partner. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. He or she will take notes. • To qualify to serve. these officials take over the position in this order: the Vice President. All candidates campaign until election day. The new President takes office during the inauguration (formal ceremony) on January 20 after the election. President. • The President travels a lot. Your partner will tell you the steps in elect ing a President. the House of Representatives chooses the new President. • The President’s term of office is four years. . The candidates with the majority of the electoral votes win. Political parties choose their candidates in state caucuses (conventions) or state primaries (elections). tell the steps in electing a President. He or she must have lived in the United States for at least fourteen years. • Visitors address him as Mr. the Secre tary of State. Number them 1-6 on the lines in correct order. but he or she lives and works at the White House in Washington. Look only at this page.94 Module 6C / The Executive Branch C Work in pairs. • The qualifications for Vice President are the same as the qualifications for President.
S. system of government is a represen tative democracy. the system of electing these officials is an indirect one. Large states have more electoral votes than small states because their number of electors depends on the number of senators and representatives from the state in Congress. however. they have more power in an election. citizens vote on federal laws. Correct the false sentences. The winner of the majority of votes in each state gets all of that state’s electoral votes. Voters choose the President and the Vice President of the United States directly through the popular vote.S. The candidate with the majority of the popular vote can still lose the national election. Senate. but they do choose the President and Vice President of the United States. 5. U. occasionally the candidate with the majority of the popular vote loses the presidential election. Because of the Electoral College system. 6. they are actually voting for presidential “elec tors.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 95 F The Electoral College U. The electors of the Electoral College meet to cast their votes. even if he or she won with only a small majority. The Electoral College is based on a “winner-take-all” system. 4. Because states with large populations have more representatives than states with fewer people. Write T for true and F for false.S. On January 6 the members of Congress meet to count the votes. However. 2.S. For example. citizens do not vote on federal laws because the U. When voters choose candidates on election day. 3. Candidates receive the same percentage of electoral votes from each state as their percentage of popular vote.” The numbers of electors in each state is equal to the number of senators and representatives from that state in Congress. In December the electors meet in their state capitals to cast their votes and send them to the U. This is unusual. but they can’t vote for Presidential or Vice Presidential candidates. Even if a candidate receives forty-nine percent of the votes in a state. the candidate with over fifty percent of the popular (total) vote in California gets all of that state’s electoral votes. . he or she “loses” the state (gets no electoral votes) in a “winner-take-all” system. and the members of Congress meet to count them. 7. G 1.
2. . There are fourteen government departments. Correct the false sentences. and the Veterans Administration (VA). the Environmental Protection Agency. Constitution and federal laws. the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). EXAMPLE: It is the responsibility of the Department of State to advise the President in foreign policy. the United States Postal Service. The President chooses the members of his Cabinet (the heads of the departments). J Do you remember or can you guess the functions of the officials and the departments and agencies of the execu tive branch? Complete this sentence in various ways. chooses the members of the Cabinet with the approval of the voters. The fourteen departments are the Departments of: State the Treasury Defense Justice the Interior Agriculture Commerce Labor Health and Human Services Housing and Urban Development Transportation Education Energy Veterans Affairs Many federal agencies provide special services and may be temporary.96 Module 6C / The Executive Branch H The Cabinet. and the Senate approves his choices. and their heads are usually called Secretaries. and the federal agencies are also part of the executive branch. 4.S. It is the responsibility of to . The executive branch makes laws but does not enforce them. Some well-known agencies are the Civil Rights Commission. and the Department of Commerce are federal agencies. the Department of the Treasury. the Departments. The Vice President. and the Agencies It is the responsibility of the executive branch of the federal government to enforce the U. 3. I 1. The State Department. The President is the Chief Executive and head of the government. The Vice President. Write T for true and F for false. the fourteen Cabinet members (usually called Secretaries) and their Departments. the Chief Executive of government. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Supreme Court is the “Last Court of Appeal. As an example. What does the Supreme Court do? a. It hears cases from individual citizens without lawyers. The voters elect them.C. the Supreme Court b. the Presidential Tribunal 2.1 7. No other court has higher decision-making power. how does the judicial branch have power over the other two branches of government? a. The Supreme Court appoints all judges.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 97 Module 6D: The Judicial Branch A Work in groups. Discuss these questions about the judicial branch of the federal government and decide on the answers. In the system of checks and balances. in every state capitol b. It approves or overturns decisions of lower courts and explains and interprets laws. 1 . b. Robert H. D. the President and the Cabinet b. Supreme Court 1. 4.” What does this mean? a. The Supreme Court can decide on the constitutionality of laws and Presidential actions. Citizens can appeal its decision (take the same case) to lower courts. 5. in 1987 the Senate rejected President Reagan’s candidate. Then check your answers on the next page. in Washington. but the Senate must approve them. What is the highest court of the land? a. Bork. (the nation’s capital) 6. b. Who chooses the justices of the Supreme Court? a. The President appoints them. because the Democrats (the majority party) thought he was too conservative. b. The nine justices of the Supreme Court elect him or her. Where is the Supreme Court? a. Who chooses the Chief Justice (head judge) of the Supreme Court? a. b. Court of Claims Court of Customs Court of Customs and Patent Appeals Court of Military Appeals 11 Circuit Courts of Appeals 94 District Courts 3.
b. There is no difference. Must the Supreme Court hear all appeals from lower courts? a. It takes only the more important cases (especially cases concerning individual rights and the constitutionality of laws or actions). Federal courts take only cases concerning federal law. How long do Supreme Court justices serve? a. All cases concerning state laws begin there. There are a Court of Claims. 12. a 14. How do federal courts differ from other courts? a. b 10. b. b 5.98 Module 6D / The Judicial Branch 8. for life 10. b. Are there any special federal courts? a. Answers to Exercise A: 1. Has there ever been a woman Supreme Court justice? a. 14. They are the lowest level of federal courts. What other kinds of courts and how many of them are there in the federal system? a. No. b 7. a 9. Only a Constitutional Amendment could abolish it. 15. What do the Circuit Courts of Appeals do? a. a Court of Customs. b. Sandra Day O’Connor became the first woman justice in 1981. No. b 8. because the Constitution states that all Supreme Court justices must be men. Yes. a 15. b. for the same length of time as senators from their states b. All courts take the same kinds of cases. 16. Can the President or Congress abolish the Supreme Court? a. two Executive Courts and three Legislative Courts 13. Other courts hear cases about state or local law. a Court of Customs and Patent Appeals. They are state courts. What are the District Courts and what happens in them? a. a 13. They overturn decisions of the Supreme Court. Yes. because hearing appeals is its only responsibility. a 4. b 6. No. b. Yes. b 16. b 12. No. eleven Circuit Courts of Appeal and ninety-four District Courts b. 11. Yes. They hear appeals (requests to hear the case again) from lower courts. b. All courts must accept all kinds of cases. Federal cases begin there. 9. a . and a Court of Military Appeals. a 2. b 11. a 3. with a two-thirds majority of both houses.
Arizona “Women’s Rights” Roe v. the Board of Education of Topeka. Georgia “Poor Migrants” Brown v. States cannot make abortion illegal. The police must tell an arrested person about his or her right to remain silent and to have an attorney (lawyer) present when he or she answers questions. Wainwright Escobedo v. Illegal (undocumented) aliens are persons under the Constitution and have the same protections under the law as citizens and residents. They serve as a guide in law making and the future decisions of all courts. except in the later stages of pregnancy. Unequal treatment based on sex violates (goes against) the Fourteenth Amendment. Year 1803 1824 1832 1841 Case Marbury v. Kansas Gideon v. Goldberg Plyer v. Ogden Worchester v. The U. Segregated schools are unconstitutional because they are unequal. 1954 1963 1964 1966 1971 1973 1981 1982 1987 . Refugees no longer have to prove that their lives are in danger. It is unconstitutional for states to control or stop migration (movement) of people from one state to another. CardozaFonseca Decision The Supreme Court has the right to interpret laws and judge their constitutionality. Madison Gibbons v. Wade Rotsker v. Congress may draft (take for military service) only men (not women) into the armed forces. Doe INS v. Integration (the bringing together of different races) is a part of education. Here are some examples. Even in small cases.UNIT 6 / The Federal Government 99 B Supreme Court Decisions Supreme Court decisions are very important to the nation because they set precedents. the government must provide a lawyer to a defendant (person on trial) if he or she can’t afford one. No state may control Indian Lands. government can give asylum (protection) to refugees if they have reason to fear death or mistreatment in their native countries.S. Illinois Miranda v. Only Congress can regulate interstate commerce (trade between states).
California taxes all goods from Nevada. Nebraska takes land from an Indian reservation to build a state prison. : The INS sends a political refugee back to his country because he cannot prove that his government would take his life. 8. 2. 5. : Congress makes the Speaker of the House the head of the armed forces even though the Constitution gives that position to the President.100 Module 6D / The Judicial Branch C In groups. Doe (1982) 1. : 3. : Without permission. : You are the best-qualified candidate for police chief but the city won’t give you the job because you are a woman. D Do you know about other Supreme Court decisions? Tell the class. 9. read each situation and answer this question: Why would the Supreme Court disapprove of the situation? On the line. : Texas keeps the children of illegal aliens out of its public schools. : Oregon refuses to let a family move there from Washington because they have no home and little money. : A young man refuses to enter the U. write the name and year of the Supreme Court case that is the precedent. 4. Plyer v. : The police send a man to prison for drunk driving but do not give him an attorney because he can’t afford one. 11.S. : The police arrest a man and tell him to confess his crime on videotape in a room with no one else present. : A public university refuses to admit a student because she is not white. 7. 6. 12. 10. . Army because his sister does not have to serve in the armed forces. : Arizona sends a woman to jail because she went to the doctor to abort a two-month old fetus.
There are also circuit courts of appeals and district courts. The legislative branch has two houses that make laws. Write S on the line if the facts are the same for both governments. President and Vice President. U. The government has three branches with different responsibilities and powers. The highest court is the U. 10. S The federal government is in the form of a democratic republic. The government follows the principles of a constitution with its bill of rights. Work in pairs. Write D if they are different. The leaders of the executive branch are the U. It is a representative democracy because the people have the power through their elected representatives. Supreme Court. 7. The upper house is the Senate. Constitution Federal Government legislative House of Representatives the Cabinet Vice President circuit courts of appeals 101 . 8. and the lower house is the House of Representatives. 9. The judicial branch of the federal government judges cases of federal law.S. 2. Tell your partner each fact about the federal government and listen to the corresponding fact about state government.State Government UNIT Module 7A: Branches of Government and Officials 7 A 1. 4.S. 6. 5. write the missing words in the boxes. The President appoints the members of the Cabinet. which means that the people elect representatives. B From the information in A on this page.S. 3. These advisors (“Secretaries”) are the heads of federal departments.
the people have direct power through the initiative. district. The judicial branch of state government judges cases of state law. There may also be appellate (appeals). 9. The government follows the principles of a constitution with its bill of rights. referendum.* The upper house is a senate. and special courts. Tell your partner each fact about state government and listen to the corresponding fact about the federal government. State Constitution State Government Executive senate advisors other levels of courts * Only Nebraska has a one-house state legislature. . Some advisors are elected and some are appointed. 7.102 Module 7A / Branches of Government and Officials C 1. S State government is in the form of a democratic republic. municipal. Write S on the line if the facts are the same for both governments. D From the information in C on this page. The executive branch includes advisors to the governor. In addition to power through their elected state representatives. Work in pairs. The legislative branch has two houses that make laws. 5. circuit. 8. superior. write the missing words in the boxes. 4. The leaders of the executive branch are the governor and the lieutenant governor. county. Write D if they are different. The highest court is the state supreme court. 3. 2. 6. which means that the people elect representatives. The government has three branches with different responsibilities and powers. and recall processes. and the lower house is a state assembly or a house of representatives. 10.
In both the federal and state governments. For example. . (In) The federal government On the other hand. (In) Both the federal and state governments 2. the people elect them. (in) state government F Read the information. The chief executive of a state is the governor. in state government. and the Auditor or Comptroller is concerned with state financial matters. but their responsibilities are similar in all states. the governor appoints his or her advisors. Who pays the bills for the state? . the Secretary of State keeps records and announces new laws. On the other hand. . the people elect representatives. EXAMPLES: 1. The Superintendant of Public Instruction is the highest officer in educational matters. Who announces new laws? 3. A lieutenant governor replaces the governor if he or she can no longer serve. 2. High state officials may have different titles. and in other states. In some states. the people also have direct power in law making. Who is responsible for educational concerns? 4. The Treasurer receives tax money and pays bills for the state. Then find out the answers to the question about the executive branch of government in your state.UNIT 7 / State Government 103 E Make sentences about the similarities and differences in federal and state government with these sentence patterns. The Attorney General represents the state in court. . Both the federal and state governments are in the form of a republic. Both the federal and state governments are representative democracies because the people elect representatives. Who is the head of the government? 2. 1. 1.
• maintains a police force • supports a state militia.104 Module 7B / Functions. such as the National Guard • regulates transportation and trade within the state • establishes and maintains schools • oversees local governments and grants city charters declares war supports the armed forces coins money establishes and maintains post offices • gives authors and inventors the exclusive right to their work (copyrights or patents) • makes treaties with the governments of other countries • • • • Only the federal government: Only a state government: Both the federal and state governments: fund public projects (buildings. . and Services Module 7B: Functions. Powers. Look only at this page and answer your partner’s questions about the responsibilities of the federal and state governments.) support farming and business maintain court systems regulate banks The federal government usually provides funding and the states distribute the money and provide programs for: • • • • public assistance for people in need health care protection of natural resources improvements in living and working conditions powers of the Federal Government shared powers powers of State Government “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectively. and Services A • • • • Work in pairs. etc. or to the people. dams. Powers. highways.” The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
… issues copyrights and patents? 11. EXAMPLE: 1. What can the federal government do that a state government can’t? (Example: declare war) 2. … distributes money through programs to improve living and working conditions? C Answer these questions in as many ways as you can. … regulates banks and supports business? 7. … coins money and maintains post offices? 5. … oversees local government and grants city charters? 8. … provides public assistance and health care for people in need? 12. like dams and highways? 9. Look only at this page and ask your partners questions with the pattern “Which government …s …?” Write the answer or answers on the line. … funds public projects. What do both the federal and state governments do? 4. … maintains court systems? 10.UNIT 7 / State Government 105 B Work in pairs. What programs does the federal government provide funding for and state governments maintain? . Student 1: Student 2: Which government declares war and makes treaties? The federal government. What does a state do that the federal government doesn’t do? 3. … maintains a police force and state militia? federal 3. … establishes and maintains schools? 6. … declares war and makes treaties? 2. … regulates trade and transportation in the state? 4. … provides funding for the protection of natural resources? 13. 1.
All state governments are similar to one another. Write T for true and F for false. President have some direct power over state governments. The U. Like in the federal government.S. a state constitution or court may not contradict the U. 2. The governor also appoints judges in the judicial branch. They can declare state laws unconstitutional (contradictory to the state constitution). citizens may put proposed laws on the ballot for the people to vote on. the governor uses a “line-item veto. . Under the principle of separation of powers.” This way.106 Module 7B / Functions. The federal government also has power over state governments. each branch has some control over the other two branches. or recalls. With enough votes in both houses. 5. state legislatures can override vetos. the legislature can override the governor’s veto. but they are different in structure from the federal government. Correct the false sentences. In a “line-item veto. E 1. For example. In some states. Supreme Court may overrule the decision of a state supreme court. Through the initiative process.S. They may decide on proposed constitutional amendments or important state issues in a referendum. 3. Supreme Court and the U. 4. Constitution. and the judicial. The governor may veto bills from the legislature (the senate and the house or assembly). State government includes a system of direct democracy. 6. and recall elected officials in the federal system of direct democracy but not in a state system. In the system of checks and balances. state courts also explain and interpret laws. Citizens may propose laws. President may withhold money from a state if the state refuses to obey federal laws.” the governor can reject parts of initiatives. Powers. and Services D The Separation of Powers in State Government State governments are similar in structure to each other and to the federal government. and state courts can declare laws unconstitutional. he or she does not have to reject an entire law in order to veto parts of it.S. the executive.S.S. Through a recall. referendums. they can sometimes remove an elected government official from office. vote on constitutional amendments. and the U. the government of each state has three branches—the legislative. The principles of separation of powers and checks and balances apply to state as well as the federal government. Like the federal courts. Also. the U.
there may be a separate traffic division responsible for accident investigation. Most cities hire private contractors for major construction projects and repairs. summarize the information in your own words for the group. but the fire bureau of a city is a large professional unit. Each of you studies the information in a different section. Its employees clean the streets and collect garbage. In some cities. these departments provide similar services to the public. stop signs. 107 .Local Government Module 8A: County and City Services UNIT 8 A B 1. in both large cities and small towns. However. Employees of the city’s traffic engineering bureau study traffic patterns and recommend places for one-way streets. But in other places. there are separate police and fire departments. the local rules for safety. a detective division to examine the evidence in crimes. The Public Works Department is responsible for the maintenance of streets and sewers (pipes that carry wastes). Volunteer companies may fight fires in the county and in small towns. The office of the building inspector issues construction permits to contractors. the Department of Public Safety includes a police bureau and a fire bureau. traffic lights. The Department of Public Safety may include a building inspector and a traffic engineer. 2. 3. and an identification and laboratory section. and so on. In turn. It sends out employees to inspect new and old buildings. These officials check for violations of the building code. Public Services The names of the departments of county or city government may vary. In the police bureau. Work in groups of five.
If a place has violated local health or sanitation laws. swimming pools. 6. dances. 1. the elderly. . 5. but the names are always the same. gas. 4. the elderly. the disabled. The disabled. The Department of Social Services is concerned with the welfare of people who need help. The Department of Public Health sends inspectors out to restaurants. 2. It also operates water purification plants. Employees of the department read the utility meters on each building to determine monthly billing. and baby care. 3. C Correct these false sentences. They may also offer health education. It can impose penalties if violations are not corrected. and the blind. Other divisions of the health department run clinics that provide low-income people with free health services. and in some places. tennis courts. it runs transportation lines. lab tests. The Department of Public Safety may include social services and health inspection. such as community centers. The Department of Public Health has no power because it can’t impose penalties for violations of sanitation laws. The services of local government departments differ from one city to another. and similar places. It may also provide recreational programs (instruction in sports. the department issues warnings and instructions. such as chest X-rays. classes. 4. The Department of Parks and Recreation maintains parks and other recreational facilities. Most of the money for these programs comes from state and federal tax funds. 5.108 Module 8A / County and City Services The Department of Public Utilities usually provides water. Volunteers run the fire departments or bureaus of large cities. food-processing plants.). nursing homes. and the blind provide funding for the programs of the Department of Social Services. such as young children. and electricity. etc. Most cities hire private contractors for minor maintenance of streets and sewers and for garbage collection. and baseball fields.
What is the “Master Plan” of the city? Personnel Department 1. The Finance Department 1. (department. What records does the city keep? 4. Here are some examples of questions you might ask. division. What public transportation does the city provide? 2.UNIT 8 / Local Government 109 D Work in pairs. What legal services does the city need? 2. Where does the money come from? 4. What does the city require from private developers? 4. What is zoning. How does the city attract new businesses? 2. What is the Civil Service system? 4. What does the city offer visitors and tourists? 3. How does the city spend its money? 3. How does the city plan its systems? 4. Ask and answer questions about public services with these sentence patterns. Can citizens sue the city? (If so. how?) Transportation Department 1. How did they get their jobs? 3. How does the city “compete” with other cities? The City Planning Department 1. Student 1: Student 2: does do What does the traffic division of the police department do? It investigates accidents. How does the city borrow money? The Law Department 1. What E What Can You Learn at City Hall? Many cities offer guided tours of their seat of government. and how does the city use it? 3. How does it get funding for those systems? The Commerce Department 1. How does the city plan its growth? 2. usually the city or town hall. How much does it cost to run the city? 2. What public information services does the city offer? 4. In what situations must the city go to court? 3. EXAMPLE: 1. What is the salary range for city jobs? . Where does the city get transportation equipment? 3. How many employees work for the city? 2. or people) (description of service) usually do? . You to can also visit the local departments on your own to find out what they do.
Take notes and summarize the information in a short report.110 Module 8A / County and City Services F As a class or in small groups. 1. Complete one or more of these activities and report on your experience to the class. 2. Circle the departments with the same names as the departments mentioned in this module. List the names of the city departments. Follow the instructions in (2) for another government department. Choose one or more of the departments in E. Summarize the information in a short report. ask more questions about that topic. List at least four questions about it. If you think of more questions. similar to the questions in E. 3. Choose one or more of the departments discussed in Exercise B. Visit the department and ask an employee the questions. ask them. visit city hall or the seat of government in your town or county. Visit the department and ask an employee the questions. Take notes on the answers. . 4. When he or she gives an interesting answer.
a city or town in the county.UNIT 8 / Local Government 111 Module 8B: County Government A The Structure of County Government County government is different in structure from state and federal government. . 3. State revenue comes from state taxes. The elected governing body of the state is the state legislature. but county revenue 6. The governor is the chief executive of the state. but the county board . 5. usually part-time officials. County revenue comes from the federal and state governments. A county board receives its authority from the county charter (official document to establish an organization). State legislators usually meet in the state capital. It not only passes ordinances (county laws). B Here is some information about state government. but it enforces them. but a county board . county property taxes. The elected governing body has many different names throughout the country. too. The board may share executive powers with other elected officials such as the sheriff. The state legislature has hundreds of members. but the county board 4. A small county board has between five and eleven elected members. They meet in the county seat. and other sources such as sales and income taxes and licensing. 1. Finish each sentence with the corresponding information about county government. but “board of supervisors” and “board of county commissioners” are two common ones. The state legislature passes state laws. such as “board of supervisors” . along with state laws. The state government receives its authority from the state constitution. . . 7. but the elected governing body of the county has many different names. but the county board . but county board members . 2.
and in other counties. for example. Student 1: Student 2: What does the district attorney usually do? He or she is a lawyer for the county. (description of service) * In large cities. What does the 2. He She (official) usually do? . . Ask and answer questions about the responsibilities of county officials with these sentence patterns. EXAMPLE: 1. The high officials in many counties have the same level of power as the elected board members. Official County Attorney / District Attorney Sheriff Assessor Treasurer County Engineer Superintendent of Schools County Clerk* Responsibilities • is the lawyer for the county • brings criminal cases to court • provides police protection • oversees the county jails • determines property values so the county can set tax rates • receives tax money • pays bills for the county • plans and manages construction projects • oversees county schools not part of city school systems • is an official recorder of county business • is secretary to the county board • issues birth certificates and marriage licenses D Work in pairs. residents go to the Registrar-Recorder for family documents and voter registration. In Los Angeles. the board appoints them. Here are some common titles for officials and their responsibilities. the voters elect officials. there may be more than one recording office.112 Module 8B / County Government C Other County Officials In some counties.
Required by County Charter m .Required by state law . FLOOD CONTROL H MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY RECREATION LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE H H H PARKS AND n PERSONNEL n PROBATION n PUBLIC DEFENDER n PUBLIC SOCIAL SERVICES n PURCHASING AND STORES MENTAL HEALTH H MILITARY AND VETERANS AFFAIRS MUSEUM OF ART LEGEND q REGIONAL PLANNING n REGISTRARRECORDER n ROAD LIGHTING DISTRICTS ROAD DISTRICTS LIGHTING MAINTENANCE DISTRICTS n HCOMMUNITY AND SENIOR CITIZENS SERVICES SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS n n BOARD OF EDUCATION TREASURER EX-OFFICIO TAX COLLECTOR LICENSE COLLECTOR APPOINTIVE n - Required by County Charter q - Required or authorized by state law H - Established by ordinance of Board of Supervisors I - Required by Federal Government qFLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT DRAINAGE DISTRICTS H PUBLIC LIBRARY LIBRARY DISTRICTS UNIT 8 / Local Government 113 ELECTIVE l .E ELECTORATE l DISTRICT ATTORNEY SHERIFF BOARD OF SUPERVISORS SUPERIOR COURT MUNICIPAL AND JUSTICE COURTS l l l m m ASSESSOR H CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION MARSHAL LOCAL AGENCY FORMATION COMMISSION H ASSESSMENT APPEALS BOARDS CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER EMPLOYEE RELATIONS COMMISSION H n H o o CLERKS o GRAND JURY BOARD ADVISORY COMMISSIONS & COMMITTEES BUSINESS LICENSE COMMISSION o EXECUTIVE OFFICER. WATERWORKS DISTRICTS. SEWER MAINTENANCE DISTRICTS n DATA PROCESSING FARM ADVISOR n n H n An Example of County Organization H COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT & HOUSING CONSUMER AFFAIRS COUNTY CLERK n FORESTER n HEALTH SERVICES AND FIRE WARDEN FIRE PROTECTION DISTRICTS H HOSPITALS VETERINARY MEDICINE HEALTH CENTERS GARBAGE DISPOSAL I HEALTH PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY PUBLIC WORKS: ROADS. BOARD OF SUPERVISORS o PERFORMING ARTS COMMISSION REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION EMPLOYER RETIREMENT ASSOCIATION H H MUSIC AND H BOARD OF RETIREMENT BOARD OF INVESTMENTS HUMAN RELATIONS COMMISSION n ANIMAL CARE AND CONTROL ARBORETA AND BOTANIC GARDENS AUDITORCONTROLLER BEACHES AND HARBORS n n H H n H H H ADOPTIONS AFFIRMATIVE ACTION COMPLIANCE OFFICER AGRICULTURAL COMMISSIONER AND WEIGHTS & MEASURES BUILDING SERVICES n CHIEF MEDICAL EXAMINERCORONER FACILITIES MGMT: COMMUNICATIONS BUILDING SERVICES MECHANICAL H COUNTY COUNSEL COUNTY ENGINEER: FACILITIES.
114 Module 8B / County Government
Work in pairs. Ask and answer these questions about the chart on the previous page.
1. What officials are elected rather than appointed? 2. What officials have the same level of power as the members of the board of supervisors? 3. What are some examples of appointed positions required by state law? (See the Legend.) 4. What are some examples of high-level commissions? 5. What are some examples of departments or sections under the supervision of the chief administrative officer? 6. What are the special districts (organizations for large, expensive responsibilities)? 7. Which is higher on the organizational chart: (the) ? (official or office) 8. What does (the) 9. (a question of your own) (official or office) or (the)
(official or office)
Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions with this question pattern about the county budget charts.
What percentage of county revenue comes from the state? revenue expenditures comes from goes to
Public Protection 17% Social Ser vices 31% Other 25% Public Works 9% Health Care 20% Other 23%
What percentage of county
Federal 22% Property Taxes 22% State 31%
UNIT 8 / Local Government 115
Module 8C: City Government
The Structure of City Government
The government of a state grants city charters, and the charter establishes the form of local government. There are three main forms. Law-Making Body city council How Chosen? elected by the people elected Chief Executive the mayor the city manager one commissioner How Chosen? elected by the people hired by council chosen by commission Functions and Powers may have actual power or be only a council member1 takes instructions from the council is the ceremonial head of government only2
Make sentences about the information in A with these sentence patterns.
EXAMPLE: The city charter establishes the mayor-council form of government. 1. In one form of city government, the members of the (how chosen?) by the voters. (law-making body)
2. The chief executive,
(title of official)
3. He or she (functions and powers)
Make sentences about the form of government in your town or city with the patterns in B. Begin Sentence 1 with “In our form of city government, ….”
In some cities, the mayor carries out the laws and is the most powerful local government leader. In other cities, the mayor is simply a council member who represents the city in ceremonies. 2 All the commissioners are executive officers of the city, and one is the ceremonial head.
116 Module 8C / City Government
Getting Involved in Local Government
In many countries, the national or central government runs the cities through its officials. But in the United States, local government means self-government. The state government creates cities and determines their responsibilities and powers, and no city council or commission may contradict its charter or state law. But the city may have a large amount of freedom, and every resident of the city has the opportunity to participate directly in local government.
Correct these false sentences.
1. In the United States, the national government runs the cities through its officials. 2. The city council or commission can contradict its charter and state law in local matters because cities create themselves. 3. City residents cannot participate directly in local government because cities have no selfgovernment.
The Board of Education
In some places, the city council appoints the board of education and controls school funding. But in most cities, the board is more independent of local government. It often has its own budget and may collect taxes. Sometimes its members are elected, and board meetings are open to the public. Board members must make decisions on the many problems that face the school system. The public expresses its opinions in various ways. The views in this letter are typical:
Dear Members of the Board of Education: We parents demand changes in the city school system. There are too many students in each classroom and too few teachers and other school personnel to control them. Our schools are becoming dangerous. Why don’t school principals expel students who disturb classes so that our children can learn? Our sons and daughters score low on national tests, but they seldom have homework to do. If the situation does not improve soon, this parents’ organization will sponsor a petition to recall the school board members and elect new ones. Parents for Better Education
How might the community raise more money for education? 4. pretend that you are members of the local school board. write an answer to the letter in F. Are there classrooms available for more (smaller) classes? If not. Together. How much money is available for new teachers and other school personnel? 2. 1. how can teachers improve the scores of their students? 6. Discuss your answers to these questions. how much? 7. every child has the right to a free public education. Are national test scores important? If so.UNIT 8 / Local Government 117 G In small groups. What are the responsibilities of parents in the education of their children? . Can school principals expel students? 5. In the United States. how much money is available for new rooms or schools? 3. Should students have homework? If so.
11. Take English classes at a local school or adult school. If you disagree with a policy or law. Write a. Protect your own rights and respect the rights of others. 10. Army. Serve in the U. Learn about the candidates (people running for office) and issues (topics of discussion) before every election. or members of national groups. 3. 2. county. 15. 16.Citizenship Module 9A: The Duties of Citizens UNIT 9 A Do you know the responsibilities of a U. Navy. Discriminate against women. 4. Obey the laws of the nation. 7. 118 . write your representative or senator to try to change it. 5. or c on each line. Join the armed forces in peacetime. and city.S. Register to vote. 18. 9. Pay income taxes on time or pay the penalties. 6. Oppose the Constitution of the United States. 13. Serve on a jury if the court calls you and you are not excused. Volunteer (work without pay) in the community. Speak only your native language. 8. Stop work temporarily to do jury duty. 17. state.S. b. Refuse to report all your income so that your tax bill will be lower. Stay away from your children’s school and refuse to help them with their homework. citizen? In pairs or small groups. a = things you must do b = things you should or may do c = things you mustn’t or shouldn’t do 1. Attend community or public meetings. or Air Force if there is a draft. blacks. Then check your answers on page 119. 12. discuss these sentences. Marines. 14.
6. church. b 15. have to As a citizen.S. you mustn’t ought to shouldn’t C 1. c 11. b . a 8. c 14.S. There should be no military draft. a 9. Then in groups. 8. school. c 16. and nationalities are equal. b 17. You should not try to lower your tax obligation because tax money is necessary to improve your community and the country. You can volunteer to help at a hospital. If citizens don’t vote. b 13. c 2. 9. b 5. it is your responsibility to try to change it. It is important for all citizens and residents of the U. b 12. Your classmates will agree or disagree and tell the reasons for their opinions. or community organization even if your English is not very good. citizens. Everyone should serve on a jury even if it is difficult to leave work and take the time for jury duty. 5. You can use this sentence pattern. 7. and only volunteers should serve in the armed forces. 2. You can make an important difference in your community if you attend public meetings. 12. 4. religions.S. 10. Answers to Exercise A 1. a 3. 3. the system of the U. choose one sentence and talk about it for one min ute. Discrimination is against the law because members of all races.UNIT 9 / Citizenship 119 B In groups. 11. tell the duties and responsibilities of U. Everyone cheats on income tax because it is unfair. a 10. to know English well. You should join the PTA (Parent-Teachers Association) at your children’s school. Which sentences do you agree with? Check them. b 7. You can learn English better if you get involved in community activities. can’t be truly democratic. a 6. a 4. c 18. . If you don’t agree with a law.
” These appear in local newspapers. my husband and I had to spend $3000 of our own money because the government didn’t give us any help. Gangs. I have no money left to buy health insurance. What does the government do with all that tax money? The city hasn’t repaired our street. and I want my children to continue to get bilingual help in school. everybody should learn English. I believe that a great nation should have plenty of room for different cultures and languages. find a letter of interest about a national.S. are controlling our neighborhood. and other readers may write answers. Dear Editor: Many states are changing their laws. When my daughter broke her arm last year. I want to use it when I pray and when I have meetings with friends from “the old country. not the police. . so I want the government to continue to prepare these papers in two languages. There are not enough teachers in my daughter’s school. After I pay my tax bill each year. Dear Editor: Why should I pay my taxes honestly? My neighbor makes dresses. or local issue. In small groups. 1. Why do they want these “English only” laws? People use English all over America! Of course. and she doesn’t pay tax on her earnings from them. even their constitutions. but I’m afraid that these new laws will discriminate against me and my people. You might want to write an answer together and send it to the newspaper. I know my English will never be good enough to understand voting or tax documents. My native language is important to me. 2.120 Module 9A / The Duties of Citizens D Citizens and residents of the U. state. to make English the official state language. E In your local newspaper.” I also put bilingual signs in my store. I am a waitress and I don’t want to report my tips. sometimes write their opinions in “Letters to the Editor. discuss these “Letters to the Editor” and write answers to them. Read and discuss it as a class.
a system of indirect voting for President and Vice President b. b. Decide on the answers and then check them on page 123. Local officials reform the politics of all opposing parties. 1. b. Can the electoral process be changed? a. but only with a Constitutional amendment.S. How many “electors” does each state get in the electoral college? a. What happens at the national convention of a political party? a. The number of electors depends on the size (area) of the state and the date of admission to the Union. every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November 5. The dates vary from state to state. 4.UNIT 9 / Citizenship 121 Module 9B: Voting A Work in groups. Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates of their own political party b. sheriff. The number of electors for each party is equal to the number of that state’s representatives and senators. b. city council members. Elected delegates nominate candidates for President and Vice President and decide on a party “platform” (political position). The Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates of the party with the highest number of votes in each state win all the electoral votes of that state. b. The candidates of each party win electoral votes in proportion to the popular vote (the percentage of votes they have received in the whole country). the mayor. every two years on February 28 or 29 6. b. a group of professors and teachers in political schools 7. . how does the electoral college process work? a. the first general elections of new states b. How often and when do state and local elections take place? a. What is the “electoral college” process? a. because all the states are satisfied with it. and district attorney 3. Yes. Discuss these questions about elections in the U. party elections in individual states 2. No. but they are often at the same time as national elections. b. How often and when is there a national election? a. 8. After citizens vote in a national election. What are the primaries? a. 9. Congress decides the date of a national election. Who do voters choose in a closed primary election? a.
pamphlets. citizens. give the volunteers there your name and address. find the information and tell it to your partner. • If you can’t get to the polling place. newspapers.S. You can register as a party member if you want to. and advertising mail. Fill it out and send it in. except criminals and the mentally ill. You can also get brochures. such as post offices and librar ies. • The right to vote is the most important right of U. To answer your partner’s questions about voting. • To vote. you don’t. citizens (both sexes and all races) over the age of eighteen can vote.S. If citizens don’t vote. • You can get a voter registration form at many public locations. California requires ninety days’ residence in a county and thirty days’ residence in a precinct (voting district) before you can vote there. He or she will take notes. but you can also write “no party” on the voter registration form. • The back of your sample ballot (voting booklet) will tell you your polling (voting) place. and get a ballot. you can get an absentee ballot from the Registrar of Voters. Read the instructions carefully to vote. For example. • No.122 Module 9B / Voting B Work in pairs. radio. you don’t. and newsletters from the headquarters of politi cal parties. • All U. as well as the most important responsibility. You can also call the county clerk or Registrar of Voters to get a form. • No. the system of democracy can’t be truly representative. . • It depends on state law.V.. • You can inform yourself about the candidates from T. go to your polling place. All voting is secret. All votes have equal value. Look only at this page. No state may give you a literacy (reading and writing) test or charge you a poll (voting) tax before you vote.
b 2. for President B. for President ANDRE V. a 3. b 5. for President DAN QUAYLE. DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES PRESIDENTIAL AL GORE PREFERENCE PAUL SIMON Vote for One JESSE JACKSON LYNDON LAROUCHE MICHAEL S. FULANI. How many political parties had candidates on the ballot? 5. a 6. What year was this election? Who won? Answers to Exercise A: 1. DUKAKIS Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic 2 3 4 5 6 For which party? 2. MORSA. Who did the voter vote for? Vote for One Party MICHAEL S. MARROU. for Vice President Democratic Libertarian Independent 2 4 6 8 10 JAMES C. Who was the Democratic candidate for President? For Vice President? 6. b . GRIFFIN. What party did Ron Paul and Andre V. What offices were these candidates running for? 4. for Vice President LENORA B. for Vice President GEORGE BUSH. b 8. for President American Independent CHARLES J.UNIT 9 / Citizenship 123 C Answer the questions with information from these ballot parts. for Vice President RON PAUL. for President LLOYD BENTSEN. KWAKU DUREN. b 4. for Vice President Republican 3. DUKAKIS. Marrou belong to? 7. a 9. a 7.
the voting booklet or card b. a signed request or demand f. Write the letters on the lines. Correct the false sentences. a state or local measure on the ballot d. Then they “campaign” to present their views to the people. 6. removal of an official from office e. 4. 3. 2. First. 5. Write T for true and F for false. a measure begun by action of the people C 1.124 Module 9C / Election Issues Module 9C: Election Issues A The Power of the People If enough citizens strongly oppose an elected government official. usually. such as a protest against an unfair law. the voters must get the support of all major political parties. they can start a movement for a recall (removal from office). An initiative or referendum appears on the ballot in the form of a “proposition” or “state measure” and can cover only one issue. 2. Occasionally a referendum. they have to gather the required number of signatures on a petition. To put a recall or an initiative measure on the ballot. comes directly from the people. Citizens can protest an unfair law through a referendum. In a similar way. The state legislature can also present a ballot measure directly to the voters in the form of a referendum. a measure presented to the voters by the legislature c. 3. 4. B 1. It needs a majority of votes to pass. If a politician wins an election. there is no way for the voters to remove him or her from office. the voters decide on the recall issue at an election. by collecting enough signatures on a petition. A proposition on the ballot needs the approval of all registered voters to pass. Finally. . citizens can put an initiative (proposed law) on the ballot. an initiative a petition a recall a referendum the ballot a proposition a. Match the words with their meanings.
000 in 1988-89 and $300. 2. They also warned that the tax would cause people to smuggle cigarettes (bring them illegally) from other states. BENEFIT FUND. 159 160 YES NO . E 1. They said that the measure would unfairly tax one group of citizens. List arguments for and against Proposition 99. 5% to protect wildlife and parkland. Imposes additional cigarette and tobacco tax for medical care. health education.not high 1. Supporters said that the 25-cent tax was not high and that smokers should pay the high costs of disease and fire damage caused by cigarettes. 3.UNIT 9 / Citizenship 125 D An Example of a Ballot Initiative The goal of Proposition 99 (state of California. Revenue from this tax would go to the following: 45% for medical care to the poor. For Against tax . They did not believe that an additional cigarette tax would lead to smuggling because the taxes in nearby states were already higher than those in California. (You can add opinions of your own. 99 CIGARETTE AND TOBACCO TAX. 5% to study diseases caused by smoking. Opponents of Proposition 99 believed that doctors and hospitals would receive most of the tax money.) Then mark your “vote” on the ballot.35 per pack and to add taxes to other tobacco products. not poor people. 3. 2. INITIATIVE. and 20% for any of the above programs.10 to $ . smokers. State administrative costs are estimated at $500. 20% to help people to stop smoking. Fiscal Impact: Raises state revenues of approximately $300 million in 1988-89 (part-year) and $600 million in 1989-90 (first full-year).000 in subsequent years. 1988) was to raise the cigarette tax from $ . other purposes.
and housing for people with special needs. The goals of Proposition 84 were: to build emergency (1) (3) (5) (7) purchase homes. it should make it easier to build new housing with more lenient building laws. Opponents of Proposition 84 said that the government should not try to solve the homeless problem with tax money. Private buyers purchase the bonds.000) to provide funds for a housing program that includes: (1) emergency shelters and transitional housing for homeless families and individuals. It would help many people rent apartments and buy homes. disabled. the California legislature presented Proposition 84.000.) Proposition 84 asked for $300 million in bonds to help solve the problem of the homeless (people without places to live). and farmworkers. a bond referendum. 107 YES NO 109 Supporters of the measure said that it would get homeless people off the streets. to provide new . shelters for (2) people. G Write the words from the ballot measure in F. Instead. (A bond is a way for the government to keep borrowed money for a long time.126 Module 9C / Election Issues F An Example of a Referendum In 1988. (2) new rental housing for families and individuals including rental housing which meets the special needs of the elderly. to the people. such as (4) . and (4) home purchase assistance for first-time homebuyers. It should also change city zoning laws to open more space for low-income housing. This act provides for a bond issue of three hundred million dollars ($300. (3) rehabilitation and preservation of older homes and rental housing. and the government pays back the money with interest from tax revenues. and farmworkers. and to help (8) . to make possible the (6) of older homes and rental housing. Here is the measure that appeared on the ballot: 84 HOUSING AND HOMELESS BOND ACT OF 1988. The money would also create jobs and improve the economy.
health care. I Election Issues Candidates for election should present their opinions on the issues so that citizens can base their voting decisions on those views. residents? • Should tax money go to the development of fuel sources of energy other than coal and oil? • Should it be illegal to smoke in all public places? • Should the government test everyone in the U. and the other will list reasons to answer the question no. 2. and so on. (You can add opinions of your own.S. 2. One “speaker” from the “yes” group will tell the class an argument. Against 1. Here are some issues from a recent election: • Should abortion (ending a pregnancy) be legal? • Should there be public health insurance for all U.UNIT 9 / Citizenship 127 H For 1. for AIDS? • Should the government cut down on defense spending to have more money for education.S.) Then mark your “vote” on the ballot in F. Then the class will discuss and vote on the issue. 3. List arguments for and against Proposition 84. Then divide your group into two smaller equal groups. Repeat the activity with another issue and another group of “debaters. 3.” . One of these small groups will list reasons to answer the question yes. a student from the “no” group will tell an opposing argument. Have a “political debate” on the issue for the class. Choose one of the national issues in I. and protection of the environment? J Work in groups of six to ten.
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