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INTRODUCTION
The cost of leaky joints in industry today is staggering. Out-of-pocket costs run into billions of dollars annually in lost production, waste of energy, loss of product and, most recently, impact on the environment. These problems are increasing, not decreasing. It behooves all of us to consolidate our knowledge and experience to solve or at least minimize these problems. This publication is being produced because we, as gasket manufacturers and suppliers, are constantly called upon to solve sealing problems after the fact. Too often we find insufficient time and attention has been given to: . proper design of flanged joint . installation procedures and . selection of the optimum gasket material required to solve a particular sealing problem. We will endeavor to outline in this publication those areas we believe to be essential in a properly designed, installed and m"aintainedgasketed joint. We believe most people involved with the design, installation, and maintenance of gasketed joints realize that no such thing as "zero" leakage can be achieved. Whether or not a joint is "tight" depends on the sophistication of the methods used to measure leakage. In certain applications the degree of leakage may be perfectly acceptable if one drop of water per minute is noted at the gasketed joint. Other requirements are that no bubbles would be observed if the gasketed joint was subjected to an air or gas test underwater and a still more stringent inspection would require passing a mass spectrometer test. The rigidity of the test method would be determined by: . the hazard of the material being confined . loss of critical materials in a process flow . impact on the environment should a particular fluid escape into the atmosphere . danger of fire or of personal injury All of these factors dictate proper attention must be given to: . design of flange joints or closures . proper selection of gasket type proper gasket material . proper installation procedures Care in these areas will ensure that the best technology goes into the total package and will minimize operating costs, pollution of the environment and hazards to employees and the general public.

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SECTION I

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DESIGN . By heat, such as in the case of sealing a bell and .

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spigot joint on cast iron pipe by means of molten lead. Note, however, that after the molten lead is poured, it is tamped into place using a tamping tool and a hammer. Gasket lip expansion. This is a phenomenon that would occur due to edge swelling when the gasket would be affected by confined fluid, as in the case of elastomeric compounds affected by the confined fluids, such as solvents, causing the gasket material to swell and increase the interaction of the gasket against the flange faces. Generally, gaskets are called upon to effect a seal across the faces of contact with the flanges. Permeation of the media through the body of the gasket is also a possibility depending on material, confined media, and acceptable leakage rate.

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75 5.25 1a. 3..50 3.1 GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGS "-" Gasket Factors (m) for Operating Conditions and Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) NOTE: This table gives a list of many commonly used gasket materials and contact facings with suggested design values of m and y that have generally proved satisfactory in actual service when using effective gasket seating width b given in Table UA-49.5 6. b..50 3. b.00 4.25 5500 \< \. Metallic.75 3. c.75 3..50 2. 1d*. c.50 3. Refer to Table UA-49.--.00 10000 2900 3700 4500 5500 J.25 .25 0 200 400 1 (a. d) 4.75 3.00 6500 7600 5500 6500 7600 8000 9000 9000 5500 6500 7600 9000 10100 8800 13000 18000 21800 ( .50 5.-.6500 3700 4500 Spiral-wound metal. d) 2.50 1..50 6.4.3. with nonmetallic filler Corrugated metal. 1 (a.25 3. Reprinted with permission of ASME "-" 4 . b. 1b. 1c*.00 3.75 3.50_- Vegetable fiber 1100 --3. Below 75 Shore Durometer 75 or higher Shore Durometer Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion Gasket factor m 0 Min.75 3.. b. double jacketed with nonmetallic filler r} II 1 (a.75 3.00 I Corruga1ed metal Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3. c.50 3.II 1 (a.3 Solid flat metal -.75 4. d) Softaluminum Flat metal jacketed with nonmetallic filler Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6°/ chrome Stainless steels Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3.00 1.2.75 3.25 3. b) Soft Aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass . Elastomer other gasket types considered as self-sealing Elastomerswithout fabric. d) 2. c.75 Carbon Stainless or Monel 2.TABLE UA-49. design seating stress y (psi) 0 Sketches and notes Use facing sketch Use column - - - 0. The design values and other details given in this table are suggested only and are not mandatory.2* Grooved metal 1 (a.25 4. 5 1.50 26000 18000 21800 26000 6 I Ring joint *The surface of a gasket having a lap should be against the smooth surface of the facing and not against the nubbin.2 Gasket material Self-Energizing types 0 Rings.50 6.00 6. 2.-.-.

N -LNj.. " ~~ ~ ~ ~ .~ //«0 2 N 4 3N 8 3N 8 7N 16 ... b Column I I Column II .'E1J~"'..:':"l~f.."'..>.c.' 3 1/64" Nubbin: ~""'" . (W : N max) w .~ 1 -/(// ---:1 w<.' N' 1b* - Facing Sketch Basic Gasket Seating Width.... ~ 5* .J~/"l""l" ~~ ~ .. I <l Gasket t Face '-' NOTE: The gasket factors listed only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes. sketches 1b and 1d shall be used.:c.>?.. "~'.+://. T. Reprinted with permission of ASME 5 .~".~~.v..N w ..."-.>./... 1c ~~~ N 1d* .i8S 2 1/64" Nubbin !~.. (w : N ma1 w."c> .>..' I '" '"".~ ~ " '..»///0J0~~. when bo > 114 in.. Location of Gasket Load Reaction HG G--. aba b = boowhen bo b = ~ 114in..I--hG--1 °F~'C~O~!~~ --~ b 1--! HG G ---1-.%\'//////////// .hG I ---I.. width spacing.. ~ r: N 2 N 2 S'.2 EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTH ~~~~ggerated '/. *Where serrations do not exceed 1/64 in.'E~~r"...--/'M ~ ~ I-N-i ~ N 4 3N 8 6 w 8 Effective Gasket Seating Width. ~2 .'-' 1a TABLE UA~49. ..~ 2 ""v w+N 4 w +3N 8 w..c/ _fII.. depth and 1/32 in.' S'.'" w<. ~ /"r---I "-'" 4* 1.. T..

..) '\ ----------'. Metaljacketed gaskets (cant. This usually necessitates a bolt area to gaskel area greater than a ratio of 2: 1.250 - Solid metal washer type gaskets require extremely high seating stresses to seal. >-. Note @ . Note <D ' 125 ..L"..AARH 63-80 Solid metal 63 '-" '-....-.--"-'" Hollow metal y . ...TABLE 3 - GASKET SEATING SURFACE GasketDescription \". If this is not possible. it is preferred to use a profiled or serrated gasket to achieve the necessal seating load on the gasket..-') "'.. Spiral wound . I . Flange Surface Gasket Cross-Section Finish /.. FINISHES CONT. SEE NOTE 2 32 .'...Refer to page 23 for more details on flange surface finishes for spiral wound gaskets.

Distance from centerline of gasket to centerline of ribs 9. Inside Diameter 3. 2. Outside diameter. Shape per Standard Shapes Index 4. Materials (metal or metal and filler) 7. holes -cp -St v ~ J 20 . or type of construction 5. Thickness 6. Lamons style per catalog. Radii Ct " --<t Ct Examples: Qty.LAMONS METAL CLAD AND SOLID METAL HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS J INFORMATION NEEDED TO FILL AN ORDER: 1. Rib size 8.

LAMONS HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS .STANDARD SHAPE INDEX '-" 08CJOO§@8 8 0e90 @§~@j R C-1 C-2 D-1 D-2 E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 F-1 F-2 F-3 G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 @8S~EB ~@8 G-5 G-6 G-7 G-8 G-9 H-1 H-2 H-3 '-" §@@e@9~E9 e @@C§j@@~~ H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 @@@~-@@§EB 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 '"""'" @~E9C9 ~@~@ ~ ~ H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 .

BOLT TORQUE SEQUENCE 8-Bolts '"'" 12-Bolts Sequencial Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Rotational Order 1 5 3 7 2 6 4 8 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 '-' Rotational Order 1 5 9 3 7 11 2 6 10 4 8 12 16-Bolts 9 12 11 10 ...... Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 Rotational Order 1 2 9 10 5 6 13 14 3 4 11 12 7 8 15 16 27 .....

The use of manpower to tighten the bolts. retorque the bolts to 100% of the allowable stress for the particular grade material. however. the hydrostatic test pressure that the flange joint must pass is one and a half times the design pressure. As a consequence.) ~ . (See Page 32) ~ . When this is required. relievethe bolts to approximately 50 percent of the prestress required. that in order to pass hydrostatic tests. Appendix S. As a consequence it may be necessary to use high tensile bolts or studs in order to achieve a satisfactory test. tensioning devices. this would be an extremely costly and impractical approach to determine the true measure of bolt stress. I 14 2 Rotational 1 13 5 17 9 3 15 7 19 11 9 Order 2 14 6 18 10 4 16 8 20 12 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 24-Bolts 12 4 3 11 10 2 Rotational 1 9 17 5 13 21 3 11 19 7 15 23 Order 2 10 18 6 14 22 4 12 20 8 16 24 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22 23-24 NOTE: Allowable bolt stresses. (Once again it is imperative that a proper lubricant be used on the bolts when replacement is being made. . In cases where low yield bolt material is being used. any joint that is designed in strict accordance with the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and is subjected to hydrostatic tests in excess of the design pressure. Use high tensile bolts or studs for hydrostatic tests following the procedures outlined above for gasket installation. In addition. Section VIII of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. in most cases. After a successful hydrostatic test has been achieved. As each bolt is replaced. In practice. strenuous and is a very dangerous practice. states. or drilling the studs and inserting heaters to preheat the stud to a specific temperature that will ultimately create the proper tension on the bolt. bolts may be stressed to whatever level is required to satisfactorily pass the test. The newer techniques are much more reliable. As a con28 . the stresses required in bolts sufficient to satisfactorily pass the test may exceed the yield point of the bolt material. the following procedures should be followed.20-Bolts 13 16 3 4 15 sequence the trend in industry today is the use of torque wrenches. by sledgehammers. striking wrenches and pieces of pipe on the end of the wrench is becoming less and less a standard practice. will require a higher initial stress on the stud to successfully pass the hydrostatic test. It is time-consuming. a flange designer will determine his required bolting for a 600 psi application at a given operating temperature specifically in accordance with allowable stresses for the bolt material at the operating temperature. no additional stressing of the bolt will alleviate the problem of leakage. torque it to the value of the other bolts. These allowable stresses are based on the particular material and their strength at operating temperature. Replace the bolts or studs one at a time with the proper grade bolt for operating conditions. Once this occurs. hydraulic wrenches. However. specifically recognizes the problem of initial bolt stresses. As a consequence. This introduces additional problems. After all the bolts have been replaced. TORQUE VALUES Probably the only true measurement of bolt stress is by bolt or stud elongation. in essence. in most cases the design of the flange is based upon the allowable bolt stress of the particular material at design temperature and at the design or operating pressure. For example. the same bolt material will have an allowable stress at ambient conditions as specified. Appendix S of Section 8 of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code speaks in great length on this problem and.

(C) OD of Gasket Surface on Boiler Dim. TX 77001 Fax (713) 547-9502 31 Width (Short Side) Shape (check one): Oval c=::J c=::J Obround Other c=::J (Drawing Required) '-' .LAMONS GASKET COMPANY . B Pressure Dim. Application Information Sheet For Oval or Obround Manways Boiler Manway Cover 1 ~ OD of Gasket Surface on goyer Dim. A Dim. (B) t t '-" 1 r Boiler Please provide the following information: Length (Long Side) Dim... Box 947 Houston. C Dim. (D) i BoilerOpening Dim.. PO.. (A) t ID of Gasket Surface on Cover Dim. D Temperature Service (Typically Steam) Lamons Gasket Co.

150°F Hydrocyanic Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluosilicic Acid Hvdroqen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulphide Kerosene Lactic Acid Linseed Oil RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS Alurni. B A A B A A A A A A A A A A U A B A U U A U B A B A A A U B A A A B A A A A U U U C U U C A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A 8 A A A B B B A B A A A B A B A A A A B U B A A B B B U B B B A U U A B B U B A A A U U U A B B B A B A B B A B B B B B U U B B A B.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 316 410 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 S.S. Acetone Aluminum Chloride Room Temp. Aluminum Fluoride Room Temp. S. Aluminum Sulphate Ammonia (Anhydrous) Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate Ammonium Sulphate Amyl Acetate Aniline Barium Chloride Beer Benzene Benzol Borax Boric Acid Bromine Butyl Alcohol Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hypochlorite Carbolic Acid Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine-Dry Chlorine-Wet Chromic Acid Citric Acid Copper Chloride Copper Sulphate Creosote (Coal Tar) Crude Oil Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Chloride Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulphate Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Acid) Furfural Gasoline Glue Glycerin Hydrobromic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Room Temp. Steel A A A U B B A U B A A U A B B A A A A A A A A B B U A B A U B A U U B A A A B U B B U A B A A A A U U U A U A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A U A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A U U U A U A A A A A A A A A B B B U U U U t:.Good Resistance B . S.Unsatisfactory Media Acetic Acid Room Temp.S.'-" CHEMICAL A . A A A A B A A A B B U B A A B U B U B B B B A B U U A B B B A A A A U U U B A B B A U A B A A B B B B B U U B B A B B A B B B A A A B B B B A A B U B U B B B A B U U A B A U B A A A U U U A B B B A U A A A A U U A A U A A A U A A B A A A A A U A A B B B A A U U A A U A A A A A A U A A B A U A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A B A A A U U A A B A A A A A A U A A A A B A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U B A B A A A A A A A A A A A U A A U A B U A U U B A B A A A A U A A U A A A U U U U U A A A A A U B A U B U B B A A U A B A B A A A A U U A A A A U U U A U U B U A A A A A U U B U A B A A A A U U U B U U U U A U A '-" "-' 35 .S.Moderate Resistance U .Alloy Hastel. Acetic Anhydride Room Temp.

B A A A U A A A A A A A B A B B B U A A C A U U U A B B B A A A B A B A B A A A B A B A B A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A U A B A A B B B A A A B A B A B A B B B A B B A U A U B B A U U B A B A A A A A B A A A A A A A B A B A B B B A B A A A B B B A B B B B A A A A A A B A A A A A A U A B A A A A U B U A U U U B A A A A A B B A A A B B B B A A A A A A B B B A B A A A B A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A A A A B A A A B A A A A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A A A B B U A A A A A A A A B A B A U B B U U B U A U B U U U U A B A B B B U B A U A A A A A A A A U U U U U A A B B A A A A A A A A A B A U U U U A B B A B B B U U U U B B A B B U U U U U B B A B B U U A U A A A A U A 316 5.CHEMICAL A .5. B A A U A A U U A U A A A B A B A A A A U A A A A A U A A A B A A U U U U U U A A U A U A '-'" Steel A B A B A B U A U U U B B U A U A B B A A B A B B U A B U B A A A U A B B.5.Good Resistance B .) Alurni. A A A A A A A A U U A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A B U U U A B A A A A U A 410 5.5. A A A A B B A U U U U B A A U U B B B '--' Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Hot Sulphuric Acid-Fuming Sulphurous Acid Sulphur-Molten Tannic Acid Tartaric Acid Vinegar Zinc Chloride Zinc Sulphate '--' 36 .Alloy Hastel.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 5.Moderate Resistance U . U A B A A A A A B B B A A A A A U B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A B A B A A A U A A A A A B B B A A A A A A A A B B B A U U U A U U U U U U U A U U U U U A U A A B B A U U U A U U U U U A A U U U U A A A U A U U U A B A B B A A A A A U A U A A A A A B B A B A A A B B .Unsatisfactory Media Lye (Caustic) Manganese Carbonate Manganese Chloride Mangnesium Carbonate MaQnesiumChloride Magnesium Hydroxide Magnesium Nitrate Magnesium Sulphate Methylene Chloride Mercuric Chloride Mercury Muriatic Acid Nitric Acid-Diluted Nitric Acid-Concentrated Nitrous Acid Nitrous Oxide Oleic Acid Oxalic Acid Petroleum Oils-Crude Phosphoric Acid Picric Acid Potassium Bromide Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium Cvanide Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Sulphate Sea Water Sewage Silver Nitrate Soaps Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bisulphate Sodium Bromide Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hyperchlorite Sodium Nitrate Sodium Peroxide Sodium Phosphate Sodium Silicate Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphide Soy Bean Oil Steam Stearic Acid Stannic Chloride Sulphur Chloride Sulphur Dioxide-Dry Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Cold Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Hot Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Cold RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS (CONT.

For unusual concentrations.8. further investigation is indicated. 4308.8.8.8. 316 8. Soap Sperry Oil Sulphur Dioxide Super VM&P Naphtha Toluol Transformer Oil Trichloroethylene Tricresyl Phosphate Triethylene Glycol (Neutral Grade) Turpentine Varnish Vegetable Oil Water Wood Alcohol Xylol Not suitable for use with: Acids (Inorganic) Alkalies Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid (Dilute) 37 . 321 8.8. Suitable for use with: Acetone Alcohol Animal Fats & Oils Benzene (Benzol) Benzine (Gasoline) Bunker Oil Butane Butyl Acetate Carbon Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Cresol Dibutyl Phthalate DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Dry Cleaning Fluid Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Freon Fuel Oil Gas Illuminating Gasoline Greases Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Inerteen 70-30 Inks Kerosene Lacquers and Thinners Lubricating Oil Methyl Chloride (Refrigerant) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Detone (MIBK) Naphtha. 501 8.pressures temperatures.METALS SUGGESTED MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURES TYPE IN AIR SERVICE OF 1000 1400 2000 2100 1400 1500 1700 1300 1500 1200 1500 800 500 500 2000 2000 1f~00 1500 1400 500 3000 2000 CONTINUOUS °C 538 760 1095 1150 760 815 925 705 815 649 815 427 260 260 1095 1095 871 815 760 260 1649 1095 '-' Carbon 8teel 304 8.8.8. Coal Tar Paints Petroleum Prestone (Antifreeze) Nitro Benzine Oxygen Silicate of Soda Sulphuric Acid (Dilute) '-' Propylene Glycol Pyranol A13B3B Skydrol 500B Skydrol 7000 Abs. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. 309 8. 4108. 347 8. 310 8. Alloy 20 Aluminum Brass Copper Hastelloy B & C@ Inconel 600@ Incolloy 800@ Monel@ Nickel Phosphor Bronze Tantalum Titanium Note: Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures.GLYCERIN BINDER protein bonded sheet that is suitable for the or fiber sheet is a tough.8. pliable and compressible services listed below to a maximum temperature limit of 2500 F. "-'" CHEMICAL RESISTANCE VEGETABLE FIBER SHEET Vegetable CHART GLUE. Petroleum Naphtha.8.

12 4.25 3.75 10.00 7.25 21..84 1.12 5.12 17. 600.88 2.62 0.75 11.00 6.75 0.12 5.75 Class 900 2.88 12.75 4.38 22.13 17.75 3.62 25.75 0.50 J 00 3.50 10.12 27.38 Nominal Flat No.50 8.38 25.25 4.50 6.00 19.00 20.00 3.00 4.62 8.38 7.12 21.00 16.38 5.62 2.25 1.00 21.91 2.88 28.62 Class 400 2.12 5.50 00 13.75 3.25 16.00 6.12 14.50 25.00 4.62 2..50 32.62 2.75 11.25 1.62 0.12 2.00 Class 300 2.62 .06 1.38 7.25 18.88 6.50 3.00 27.50 3.88 6.00 18.50 5.38 2.00 21.75 0.88 3..50 19.38 4.75 12.21 GASKETDIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.12 9.12 3.88 9.75 25.38 9.12 19.25 3.62 15.25 17. CLASSES 300.5 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS.00 FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.75 0.75 5.00 20.50 30.75 21.50 9.12 8.38 5.62 0.38 8.12 23.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.of Hole BoltCircle Pipe Gasket Ring 10 Holes Diameter Diameter Size 00 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 0.38 16.of Hole BoltCircle Holes Diameter Diameter 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 0.5 CLASS 150 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FullFaceGasket Nominal Flat Gasket Pipe Ring Size 10 00 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 0.50 33.50 5.50 4.62 3.50 9.62 6.00 18.88 5.50 2.50 12.06 1.50 6..00 8.75 4.88 3.12 3.00 1.50 6.38 5.00 18.62 10.88 3./ Gasket 10 0.88 5.84 1.38 11.88 6.25 3.50 25.12 2.88 3.88 4.12 1.38 14.62 20.88 31.00 23.75 20.75 30.00 11.00 Class 600 2.75 14. 8.12 2.75 12.00 7.00 19.88 0.88 3.00 1.66 1.88 2.25 23.38 2.62 0.63 5.00 24.25 FITTINGS FullFaceGasket No.50 16.50 7.62 0.75 14.12 16.50 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 8. 00 13.00 29.75 0.12 26.31 1.88 4.50 3.75 14. AND 900 Gasket 00 NominalPipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 -.00 7.62 10.31 1.50 22.50 19. 400.38 2.56 6.00 16.62 23.12 V 38 .00 14.88 1..00 7.25 2.25 24.50 4.00 7.00 8.62 1.66 1.75 12.62 9.00 24.12 1.91 2.56 6.25 22.75 4.

50 67.38 32.50 32. AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 22 (1) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 10 22.25 56. 400 AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 .44 51.00 40.50 50.50 54.12 54.56 30.47 SERIES B (OR API 605) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.12 45.00 32..38 37.88 29.12 41.75 62.00 55.00 32.50 33. 300.25 58.25 47.00 39.47 SERIES A (OR MSS-SP-44) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.25 65.69 36.25 Class 600 28.31 46.00 54.12 37.00 44.44 55.00 52.75 35.25 40..62 41.63 32.21 (CONT. 300. FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.50 58.88 37.50 39.25 57.47.88 37.62 62.50 41.75 39.81 38.00 48.00 58.25 42.00 28.00 30.00 42.25 Class 600 30.50 45.12 47.75 GENERAL NOTE: Dimensions are in inches.88 38.19 Class 300 30.75 66.00 50.25 43.88 62.12 Class 400 29.00 48.75 61.62 56.00 34.88 31.50 44..26 44.31 44.00 54.25 54.75 37.00 56.00 44. Gasket 10 26.44 53.12 52.12 43.50 56.25 49.25 45.00 36.00 Class 75 27.00 52..75 60.56 34.00 52.25 52.00 46.50 65.75 61.88 48.00 26.00 46.00 63.38* 46.00 59.75 48.. 39 .25 63.25 34.50 43.00 42.00 Class 150 26.31 40. 400. 150.19 67.) '-' FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.44 57..25 39.50 34.88 35.12 36.00 56.00 30.56 32.25 58 60 GENERALNOTE: Dimensions are in inches.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.50 67.31 42.75 45.00 50.50 48. "'""NOTE: (1) NPS 22 for reference only. CLASSES 75.00 38.19 64.75 63.00 60.50 52.00 38.00 28.00 36.88 60.75 35.38 48.00 34.38 31.00 41.25 43.50 Class 300 27.88 41..75 Class 400 27.25* 62.00 40. Size not listed in ASME 816.00 30.75 34.50 50.88 40.25 41.62 44.00 39.88 Class 150 28.62 58.75 32.88 57.62 59.50 48.00 50.88 45.00 50.26 59.00 42. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.88 34.25 44.00 60.88 35.00 41.00 61. CLASSES 150..50 43.75 64.25 51.88 33.88 60.75 53.00 58..00 38.00 50.12 32.12 49.75 65.88 53.62 36.88 55.26 54.75 57.

. Citric acid Formic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluosilicic acid Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen sulfide-water Lactic acid Monochloracetic acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Oleic acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Stearic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Ammonium hydroxide Monoethanolamine Sodium hydroxide Alum Aluminum chloride Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium thiocyanate Arsenic trichloride Calcium chlorate Calcium hypochlorite Copper sulfate Cupric chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Manganous sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Phosphorous trichloride Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium hypochlorite Stannic chloride Sulfur monochloride Zinc ammonium chloride Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate Concentration Per Cent All All All All All 0 .63 All 0 .20 All All All All 0 ..J 40 I . aq.85 86 .10 All All All All All All All All All All All 0-4 0 . up to of All All All All All 200 All All All All All All All All All 185 140 100 All All All All All All 338 300 160 Not Rec.. soln.90 91 ..20 Over 20 All All 0 .25 All All All All All "-' ALKALIES SALTSOLUTIONS -.J Chemical Reagent ACIDS Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Arsenic Acid Boric acid Carbonic Acid Chromium trioxide..85 All All 0 .70 71 .10 10 .10 All All All All 0 .95 Over 95 All All All All All All All All All All 0 . All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 90 All All All All All All All All All All Room Room All All All All All -.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART Fluid Temp.

AIR. 'Au reomyci n" HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .". Trichlorethylene Xylene 90 . '-" Benzene Benzene hexachloride Benzyl sulfonic acid Butyl alcohol Butyl "Cellosolve" Carbon tetrachloride "Cellosolve" solvent Chloral hydrate "Chlorethylbenzene" Chloroform "Deoxidine" Dichloropropionic acid Diethanolamine Dioxane Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethyl mercaptan-water Fatty acids Folic acid Refrigerants 11 and 12 Gasoline Glycerine Isopropyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl ether Kerosene Mannitol Methyl alcohol Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorbenzene Monovinyl acetate Octyl alcohol Paradichlorbenzene Paraldehyde Tetrachlorothane.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE CHART (CONT.) Fluid Temp. sym.60 All All All 60 All All All All All All All - RECOMMENDATION '-" HALOGENS.100 All All All All 0 -8 All All Saturated All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 41 I . WATER Chemical Reagent Air Bromine Bromine water Chlorine-dry Chlorine dioxide Chlorine water Fluorine Iodine Steam Water "Dowtherm" (all types) Petroleum-oil based "Therminol" (all types) "Ucon:' (all types) Acetone Amyl alcohol Aniline Aniline hydrochloride . Up to OF 850 Room Room All 158 Room 300 Room 1200 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 338 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All Concentration Per Cent All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 0 .

-- -- .H. (chloride) All Nickel plating solns. (sulfate) 15 Nitric acid plus 5 hydrofluoric acid All "Parkerizing" solution All Rayon spin bath 25 Sodium hypochlorite plus sodium hydroxide 96 Sulfuric acid plus .GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART MIXTURES (CONT.0% 99. J .solutions Amino acid plus hydrochloric and sulfuric acids Ammonium persulfate plus Over 20 sulfuric acid All Anodizing solutions All Butyl acrylate plus acrylic acid 30 Calcium chloride 10 plus calcium chlorate All Chlorinated ethyl alcohols All Chrome plating solutions Cresylic acid plus sulfuric acid Electropolishing solutions (sulfuric All plus phosphoric acids) Over 20 Hydrochloric acid All sat.5 ml/hr 900 psi . with chlorine All Nickel plating solns. EXAMPLE: a metal spiralwound gasket with a GRAFOIL@ filler material.) Fluid Temp.018 . Up to of All All Room All All 140 All Room All 140 All All All 140 All All 200 Not Rec.H.052 .07 MPa) @ 12 psi (.08 MPa) TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TYPICAL THERMAL PROPERTIES 42 Functional/TemperatureRange -400 to 5400oF Neutral or Reducing Atmosphere -400 to 850oF* Oxidizing Atmosphere Standard Grades -400 to 975°F* Oxidation Resistant Grades GT"'J and GT'M K Thermal Conductivity Along Length & Width 960BTU-in/ft2.oF Through Thickness 36BTU-in/ft2.03 MPa) @ 8 psi (.03 nitric acid TYPICAL TYPICAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES GRAFOIL@ SHEET PROPERTIES 70 Ib/fP 100 ppm 50 ppm 95.5% 40% 20% <5% <0. Chemical Reagent Concentration Per Cent J All Acidified starch .157 '-' Density Leachable Chloride Content-Maximum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Carbon Content-Minimum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Compressibility (ASTM F-36) Recovery(ASTMF-36) Creep Relaxation (ASTM F-38) Sealability (ASTM F-37) TensileStrength Along Length & Width Coefficient of Friction Against Steel @ 4 psi (.of * The fluid temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere may considerably exceed the indicated temperature without oxidation of the GRAFOIL@ providing that the bulk temperature of the GRAFOIL@ gasket is below these temperatures or that the fluid being handled does not come into direct contact with the graphite.

3 1186.10 485.9 1194.94 46.62 53.5184 .49 16.50 143.05 51.90 48.83 298.73 36.57 87.10 240.26 615.86 712.21 829.9 1075.54 556.24 94.84 30.3712 .497 5.71 80.30 443.84 989.52 287.46 258.65 Diam.04 62.68 82.32 928.98 170.37 44.5 1272.57 21.45 250.14 779.7 102.09 38.79 65.57 593.4 124.44 51.92 156.69 754.85 120.87 50.26 572.02761 .35 223.01227 .21 207.46 93.3 101.82 74.64 302.75 113.83 52. 53.7 111.946 9.0 106.8 118.6 137.033 97.29 70.356 2.621 10.26 61.141 3.18 268.02 20.4 115.98 230.2 114.81 21.86 466.15 67.01 261.784 37.00 75.68 71.033 15.26 626.6013 .939 6.57 76.2 1418.967 27.18 654.2 127.33 57.69 49.871 41.4 1393.91 26.05 367.27 291.43 84.4 126.8 136.07 220.96 99.456 55.3 1443.33 233.25 83.5 133.396 67.76 760.69 724.82 85.885 95.00076 .6 1134.5 120.21 74.98 33.7 133.662 76.178 1.86 61.4 104.80 996.8 103.664 90.58 43.30 48.48 49.7 1401.8 116.7 124.24 19.374 1.01 42.66 40.90 22.4 106.74 100.1104 .97 55.61 64.8 114. 8 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 9 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 10 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 11 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 12 V8 V4 3/8 V2 0/8 3f4 7/8 13 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 14 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3f4 \la 15 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 \/a 16 Vs V4 3fs V2 5/S 3f4 \18 Cire.88 140.81 96.2 1126.032 9.06 334.50 69.39 86.04 541.7854 .97 842.22 63.75 67.2 1328.7 1179.0 115.61 742.47 420.97 804.3926 .8 105.1963 .05 40.5 129.06 934.088 56.8 1024.52 36.72 58.2 1385.00 567.25 481.69 38.91 37.2 1312.8 1369.12 36.30 861.07669 .69 159.2 118.35 88.1963 .31 785.761 3.49 354.76 45.96 77.62 42.82 380.9 119.1 111.491 7.75 78.87 173.92 90.11 461.43 62.64 95.95 35.18 76.6 126.66 188.6 1469.81 283.26 50.52 25.82 393.52 666.17 12.60 86.2 136.21 85.78 12.108 28.16 45.2 1460.47 71.515 82.23 92.4 117.0 1039.78 87. 109.00 424.79 868.3097 .16 23.464 30.12 700.7 1503.80 610.58 65.80 272.20 588.18 546.22 52.1 120.64 73.03 95.2 125.83 660.69 60.6 117.54 78.10 91 .48 38.45 816.3 1511.64 84.13 108.36 350.1 129.51 47.8 127.90 982.69 452.24 810.8 125.20 32.72 69.186 15.2 1209.16 56.23 41.80 148.25 Diam.97 247.3 1053.6 V4 5/.99 975.03 294.159 2.570 1.14 78.265 51.67 130.617 65.96 88.13 167.97 490.1 131.31 15.13 433.70 27.4 135.0981 .59 213.6 \la 15/'6 1 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 2 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 '-' 3 V8 V4 3/8 V2' 5/a 3f4 \18 4 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 5 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 22 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 23 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/a 24 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 6 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 7/S 7 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is \Is 25 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 \18 '-' 43 .29 59.72 185.48 306.647 22.5 1352.65 358.61 75.411 5.9 1032.665 19.34 24.122 38.4 102.95 677.71 91.60 948.516 84.20 21.55 429.029 70.60 10.03 84.58 265.976 4.1 1171.718 44.5 1060.71 179.73 438. 17 V8 V4 3/8 '/2 5/8 3f4 \18 18 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 \la 19 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 20 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 21 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 Area 226.18 65.5 122.34 35.7 1256. 81.854 8.86 106.3 130.06 18.00 86. 26 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 27 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/a 28 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 29 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 30 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 31 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \18 32 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 33 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/8 3f4 \Is 34 Va V4 3/a V2 5/S 3f4 7/8 Cire.13 25. 35 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 36 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 37 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 38 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 \la 39 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 40 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 41 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 42 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 43 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 Cire.95 599.54 67.320 11 .1 109.7 131.83 Diam.88 881.6 104.0 104.75 621.758 24.2 1320.3 121.5 100.35 13.5 Area 530. 25.2 107.79 632.39 475.CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES Cire.24 314.044 11.98 44.2 105.848 53.8 Area 962.11 58.6 1486.4 137.94 57.95 13.66 29.46 82.9 1435.546 3.61 921 .8 107.5890 .793 12.86 766.55 34.19 43.8 129.71 125.60 402.3 119.1 133.8 1119.35 551.43 11 0.767 1.227 1.9 110.74 505.54 649.4 1089.14 89.00 115.7854 .65 12.21 10.73 201 .99 773.904 16.405 2.41 888.41 31.7 109.02 31.13 14.635 20. .9 123.71 683.76 562.690 23.7 18.55 45.90 70.57 835.92 914.3 1280.7 122.54 56.49 689.540 86.552 2.178 45.3 123. 1132 1/16 Cire.6 V2 9/16 5/8 11/.41 42.3 112.3 108.32 90.67 93.4417 .6 1264.76 718.78 1003.73 797.10 80.29 695.04 73.1 122.669 8.426 60.05 330.246 8.6 3f4 13/.4 1111.98 706.9 1410.97 66.88 28.471 35.38 22.74 194.87 39.83 63.70 237.35 99.38 11.4 113.01 Area 50.93 63.89 81.9817 1.588 78.43 73.93 79.1 100.73 135.89 92.9 132.6 1360.99 97.0 1156.534 3.9 112.74 14.77 34.45 18.77 23.767 2.1 1494.48 151.79 54.6 1225.03 406.38 97.45 29.3 132.6902 .6 1426.84 19.75 89.364 14.1 1049.53 89.27 122.068 7.92 15.05 29.0 1377.10 338.13 145.37 33.94 643.86 823.0 117.43 476.73 47.566 13.79 500.76 56.82 197.1 1477.28 371 .283 6.319 4.65 51.712 5.51 791.94 254.11 968.862 63.52 14.9 130.39 75.32 68.37 604.46 388.6 3/8 7/.7 1452.06 204.850 25.539 80.31 26.33 46.30 874.08 49.35 637.:.9 1248.2 103.6 135.36 77.13 384.42 95.04908 .1 1141.32 79.63 471.16 318.09 322.00 894.0 128.85 83.70 515.21 96.40 53.07 71.882 72.22 671.01 447.63 31.74 Area .64 748.97 415.44 40.3 1336.06 326.908 5.590 88.88 17.068 7.461 7.65 62.80 32.919 33.424 9.27 39.6 106.0 113.54 375.49 91.9 134.06 93.8 1017.639 9.27 28.6 118.3 134.748 2.07 82.16 34.663 47.37 55.7 1067.52 243.2 1304.6 1164.1 102.0 135.18 127.173 48.5 111.20 397.484 39.274 29.430 4.01 64.72 520.51 58.61 736.6 115.7 120.84 363.39 848.720 18.675 7.282 42.95 24.7 1097.62 103.82 941.86 72.817 10.93 536.09 27.0 124.800 17.23 30.0 137.1 1104.56 23.9 1217.90 59.484 1.35 310.11 69.55 577.69 191 .63 20.9 108.25 346.29 137.67 182.60 96.183 34.4 1233.19 54.295 8.44 276.629 21.0 126. .963 2.85 94.2 116.30 37.9 101.00306 .17 87.46 117.141 3.1 1240.762 92.3 110.84 41.1503 .16 342.83 855.2 1082.890 6.49 410.50 80.200 69.927 4.08 60.59 32.6 128.71 510.28 '-' Diam.39 210.80 43.707 Diam.27 17.58 54.47 27.48 162.25 72.87 495.64 730.5 107.42 20.945 3.7 113.20 153.61 901.82 217.9 V8 3/.9940 1.19 132.70 525.5 1149.41 955.105 5.4 128.17 98.7 1010.25 907.3 1288.9 121.402 101.679 31.12 47.70 16.2485 .36 66.073 2.759 74.79 76.99 11.10 16.40 64.132 61.78 98.56 98.5 131.205 99.2 1291.4 1344.29 165.87 583.5 1202.1-1 279.47 60.78 176.745 58.

4 7542.2 7504.8 4447.6 7814.3 4071 .6 1590.0 148.2 278.4 201.0 2452.7 294.8 3356.1 186.0 5313.4 3671.0 3658.7 195.5 2922.3 165.1 144.8 191.3 163.4 1856.1 4001.7 4963.1 4029.1 228.7 219.3 216.0 6756.7 164.5 215.3 241.3 174.3 3408.8 1652.2 4067.7 2175.6 254.0 168.9 4995.4 2540.1 3460.6 6683.2 202.2 2529.1 2518.4 310.5 5944.8 4870.0 2474.2 1707.9 1866.0 4185.7 6976.5 166.4 1934.3 152.9 176.3 3945.7 2608.1 281.7 184.3 4626.2 3698.4 2946.5 4359.2 233.1 3987.5 3318.3 263.9 6013.4 5775.8 264.6 269.6 139.7 7972.9 1634.1 Area 1520.4 190.5 186..6 203.2 3875.8 6720.9 5641.1 2332.0 245.0 139.4 148.3 161.4 2408.0 223.0 2653.9 1744.4 244.9 3229.3 2630.2 7125.5 5910.0 5808.7 206.7 3067.8 Diam.8 2032.5 4242.4 3166.0 2002.6 298.1 2585.3 314.7 217.9 145.1 7658.4 226.3 270.8 140.2 158.7 Diam.7 197.7 188.4 2934. 166.5 162.4 170.0 203.4 139.7 283.7 7013.2 311.8 246. 71 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/a 72 Va % 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 7/B 73 VB V4 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 74 VB V4 3/B V2 5fs 3f4 'l'B 75 V4 V2 3f4 76 V4 112 3/4 77 % V2 3f4 78 % V2 3/4 79 % V2 3/4 80 % V2 3f4 81 V4 112 3/4 82 V4 112 3f4 83 '/4 V2 3f4 Cire.6 6468.2 204.5 1529.9 1680. 263.1 2507.3 229.9 218.9 1953.6 2827.8 7427.4 3191.7 2642. 84 % V2 3/4 85 % V2 3f4 86 % V2 3f4 87 % '/2 3/4 88 % V2 3/4 89 V4 V2 3/4 90 V4 V2 3/4 91 V4 112 3/4 92 % '/2 3/4 93 V4 112 3/4 94 % 112 3/4 95 % V2 3f4 96 V4 V2 3f4 97 V4 V2 3/4 98 % '/2 3/4 99 V4 V2 3/4 100 % V2 3f4 Cire.4 255.7 4778.3 2113.4 3780.9 4344.1 303.0 234.3 296.7 144.1 153.6 5978.3 176.2 3043.1 188.9 4257.7 1924.1 162.5 2269.9 7581.1 4378.1 292.3 2710.5 5707.3 1905.7 2886.4 1762.5 291.5 3382.1 197.0 214.4 150.7 228.5 284.8 3685.8 2386.2 189.0 2185.8 2311.4 179.0 157.8 2062.2 53 1IB % 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 54 Va % 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 55 1Ia V4 3/8 VL 5/B 3f4 7/B 56 Va % 3/B 112 5/B 3/4 'l'B 57 VB V4 3/B 112 5fs 3f4 7/B 58 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/B 59 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/a 60 1IB % 3/B 112 5/B 3f4 7/B 61 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3f4 'l'a 3019.9 3080.8 224.6 287.8 200.2 2365.1 237.5 228.9 2012.8 222.3 3631.5 3525.4 299.9 1847.6 2994.2 300.7 261.2 1564.6 3538.2 1608.4 203.2 267.9 7466.0 2862..5 313.1 248.0 212.8 5216.2 3421 .3 307.2 4043.4 210.0 3031.5 306.9 156.1 6291.7 186.9 229.8 7050.5 273.8 297.8 2780.2 7275.9 163.3 4809.6 4686.4 4403. 232.5 204.7 3848.4 6186.2 224.7 3739.0 267.1 2154.4 4566.5 2970.5 2551.7 4171.4 2664.1 219.8 301.4 3862.6 5378.9 205.7 3369.1 252.6 148.6 150.8 6539.0 2619.6 2290.2 245.6 172.2 2103.0 296.9 4717.8 275.9 152.0 201.2 256.5 173. 44 Va % 3/B '/2 5/a 3/4 7/B 45 Va % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 46 VB % 3/B V2 5/a 3/4 7/B 47 Va V4 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 48 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 49 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 50 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 51 VB % 3/B '/2 5/B 3f4 7/B 52 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'8 Cire.5 155.0 2093.7 272.3 1983.3 285.3 2419.3 1716.2 3129.7 1800.0 6829.7 6151.3 303.7 3712.2 211.3 2687.0 172.1 1993.5 2982.J 44 .9 227.3 3512.7 230.3 185.1 175.2 5153.2 145.6 4099.6 247.2 3578.0 311.9 7313.0 5089.1 1753.8 149.5 1876.4 2322.8 3267.0 1781.5 1725.6 7775.8 2722.8 3552. 194.0 2463.8 268.1 4015.4 3216.5 217.2 178.7 210.8 178.8 1546.6 170.9 1670.2 182.0 4128.0 1914.9 3889.3 227.3 3821.6 5443.2 3486.1 274.9 293.6 6082.4 288.3 4596.6 258.1 1617.3 292.0 199.4 6361.8 158.4 2164.6 214.0 221 .2 147.0 1689.1 5026.1 2768.6 192.4 1837.1 2216.4 2839.0 159.8 312.0 190.6 161.2 3434.4 3395.8 182.4 277.6 157.5 2248.3 187.5 240.0 256.9 242.7 316.1 151.0 150.2 180.3 209.1 241.0 3343.1 208.2 3092.6 265.8 1581.2 213.4 3931.6 181.2 169.1 285.9 143.9 209. 223.7 208.4 234.7 2133.5 6611.9 3204.1 1698.9 249.4 232.9 154.8 169.4 212.0 5184.6 2898.9 315.6 221.6 179.1 215.1 (CONT.7 153.6 2227.9 1828.8 180.8 160.2 2430.6 309.3 218.8 202.0 192.4 159.0 2485.1 217.11 6256.0 170.4 223.3 207.6 159.5 184.8 3903.2 6503.6 1963.3 4199.2 191.8 235.8 290.9 141.0 3144.5 7620.4 237.3 231.8 1661.4 6792.1 4417.6 5876.7 175.9 1643.5 195.4 2195.8 2343.2 138.3 4271.9 165.1 1537.8 233.6 3645.2 2973.5 1555.5 1973.5 153.3 154.1 3292.1 1943.6 236.3 196.2 149.5 5121.7 3605.1 184.4 221.1 164.7 177.8 4315.4 157.8 3117.3 252.9 216.1 142.1 6116.0 3565.9 260.9 2144.9 185.1 6432.9 2072.1 2441.5 7238.9 231.9 6939.0 181.9 282.5 5058.7 151.1 1809.0 146.1 173.0 7200.0 2496.) Area 3959.8 2874.4 248.7 1772.3 4747.0 289.6 276.3 4329.3 4476.7 7389.3 205.9 174.0 179.0 3793.4 4666.8 5607.4 3280.5 144.1 177.2 171.6 146.4 2733.0 2237.0 5410.2 2851.3 1790.2 4142.5 142.2 2803.6 3807.7 4214.6 201.8 213.9 3179.4 2958.8 193.0 300.3 7932.9 207. 138.1 206.3 183.8 226.8 2052.9 2676.8 204.9 5741.6 232.8 7697.7 142.6 212.7 250.7 199.7 162.4 168.6 3006.0 1572.7 4901.5 177.9 220.7 1895.7 1734.0 3618.9 211.2 622.9 238.8 3766.6 2397.9 4506.5 164.4 192.9 271.4 3591.8 257.5 6647.7 155.4 146.9 2815.5 2123.7 5574.8 2690.8 5248.1 6902.5 151.5 175.2 160.3 220.0 210.4 188.5 208.3 198.7 7736.8 4286.7 2562.5 295.6 168.5 3104.0 278.4 255.142.6 190.8 7341.7 7853.2 167.5 7163.4 1599.9 183.5 197.2 3725.2 2300.4 214.2 193.3 259.5 4156.1 270.5 2757.4 6866.8 308.8 5842.6 243.3 Area 2206.2 156.2 '-' / .3 274.8 189.6 182.7 239.9 196.2 289.6 4536.0 161.6 6575.5 2354.3 143.0 1625.1 155.5 4085.0 3834.7 173.9 2574.5 302.8 4388.8 4114.0 2375.8 279.4 - Area 5541.1 5674.0 5508.1 226.1 4228.0 2258.CIRCUMFERENCES Diam.8 167.9 AND AREAS Diam.4 181.3 3499.5 3242.0 4839.8 2042.1 259.9 2745.2 222.3 172.5 206.5 2910.6 280.7 6397.8 3305.9 7088.6 Area OF CIRCLES Diam.3 141.5 2792.8 2022.0 7893.5 219.8 147.6 234.9 304.2 5476.9 198.5 262.1 314.3 4300.9 2083.1 3254.4 2596.8 215.2 235.6 225.6 3.1 1885.5 230.8 5281.5 1818.9 187.2 200.2 6047.1 3473.1 195.3 281.7 166.6 3917.4 199.5 226.0 307.2 5345.5 140.1 230. 62 Va % 3/a V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 63 VB % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 'l'8 64 Va % 3/B V2 5fs 3/4 7/B 65 1Ia % 3/B '/2 5/B 3/4 7/B 66 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 67 1IB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 68 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'B 69 Va V4 3/B 112 5fs 3/4 7/B 70 V8 V4 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'a Cire.1 140. Cire.2 6326.0 .7 305.5 251.0 225.2 3752.0 2279.8 171.8 253.6 4932.8 286.1 3447.6 193.4 3055.9 194.3 3331.