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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subject
Introduction Section I . Design WhyGaskets Are Used
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Table 1 - Gasket Materials and Contact Facings Table 2 - EffectiveGasket Width ,..., Table 3 - Gasket Seating Surface Finishes Forces Acting on a Gasketed Joint Bolt Load Formulas , Notation Symbols and Definitions Table 4 - MaximumSg Values ,
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Selecting. the ProperGasketMaterial Non-Metallic GasketMaterials
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MetallicGasket Materials Metal Gaskets ,.., , Solid Metal Gaskets , MetalJacketed Gaskets Metal Clad and Solid Metal Heat Exchanger Gaskets
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Heat Exchanger Gaskets - Standard Shape Index Spiral Wound Gaskets , ,

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SizingSpiralWoundGaskets
Flange Surface Finishes. , Available Spiral Seal Styles ,
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Section III . Installation Installation and Maintenance Tips Gasket Installation Procedures
Bolt Torque Sequence.
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Trouble Shooting Leaking Joints
Manway Problems? . Manway Application Information Other Problem Areas

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Section

IV - Appendix

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ASME Section VIII, Div. I - Design Consideration for Bolted Flange Connections Chemical Resistance Chart - Gasket Metals Maximum Service Temperatures - Gasket Metals Chemical Resistance Chart - Vegetable Fiber Sheet

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Chemical Resistance Chart - Grafoil@ Circumferences and Areas of Circles Torque Required to Produce Bolt Stress Bolting Materials - Stress Table 1 Bolting Data for Standard Flanges

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INTRODUCTION
The cost of leaky joints in industry today is staggering. Out-of-pocket costs run into billions of dollars annually in lost production, waste of energy, loss of product and, most recently, impact on the environment. These problems are increasing, not decreasing. It behooves all of us to consolidate our knowledge and experience to solve or at least minimize these problems. This publication is being produced because we, as gasket manufacturers and suppliers, are constantly called upon to solve sealing problems after the fact. Too often we find insufficient time and attention has been given to: . proper design of flanged joint . installation procedures and . selection of the optimum gasket material required to solve a particular sealing problem. We will endeavor to outline in this publication those areas we believe to be essential in a properly designed, installed and m"aintainedgasketed joint. We believe most people involved with the design, installation, and maintenance of gasketed joints realize that no such thing as "zero" leakage can be achieved. Whether or not a joint is "tight" depends on the sophistication of the methods used to measure leakage. In certain applications the degree of leakage may be perfectly acceptable if one drop of water per minute is noted at the gasketed joint. Other requirements are that no bubbles would be observed if the gasketed joint was subjected to an air or gas test underwater and a still more stringent inspection would require passing a mass spectrometer test. The rigidity of the test method would be determined by: . the hazard of the material being confined . loss of critical materials in a process flow . impact on the environment should a particular fluid escape into the atmosphere . danger of fire or of personal injury All of these factors dictate proper attention must be given to: . design of flange joints or closures . proper selection of gasket type proper gasket material . proper installation procedures Care in these areas will ensure that the best technology goes into the total package and will minimize operating costs, pollution of the environment and hazards to employees and the general public.

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SECTION I
WHY GASKETS ARE USED '--"
Gaskets are used to create a static seal between two stationary members of a mechanical assembly and to maintain that seal under operating conditions which may vary dependent upon changes in pressures and temperatures. If it were possible to have perfectly mated flanges and if it were possible to maintain an intimate contact of these perfectly mated flanges throughout the extremes of operating conditions, a gasket would not be required. This is virtually an impossibility either because of the size of the vessel and/or the flanges the difficulty in maintaining such extremely smooth flange finishes during handling and assembly . corrosion and erosion of the flange surfaces during operations. As a consequence, relatively inexpensive gaskets are used to provide the sealing element in these mechanical assemblies. In most cases, the gasket provides a seal by external forces flowing the gasket material into the imperfections between the mating surfaces. It follows then that in a properly designed gasket closure, three major considerations must be taken into account in order for a satisfactory seal to be achieved. . Sufficient force must be available to initially seat the gasket. Stating this another way, adequate means must be provided to flow the gasket into the imperfections in the gasket seating surfaces. Sufficient forces must be available to maintain a residualstress on the gasket under operating conditions to ensure that the gasket will be in intimate contact with the gasket seating surfaces to prevent blow-by or leakage. The selection of the gasket material must be such that it will withstand the pressures exerted against the gasket, satisfactorily resist the entire temperature range to which the closure will be exposed and withstand corrosive attack of the confined medium.

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DESIGN . By heat, such as in the case of sealing a bell and .

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spigot joint on cast iron pipe by means of molten lead. Note, however, that after the molten lead is poured, it is tamped into place using a tamping tool and a hammer. Gasket lip expansion. This is a phenomenon that would occur due to edge swelling when the gasket would be affected by confined fluid, as in the case of elastomeric compounds affected by the confined fluids, such as solvents, causing the gasket material to swell and increase the interaction of the gasket against the flange faces. Generally, gaskets are called upon to effect a seal across the faces of contact with the flanges. Permeation of the media through the body of the gasket is also a possibility depending on material, confined media, and acceptable leakage rate.

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EFFECTING A SEAL
A seal is affected by compressing the gasket material and causing it to flow into the imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces so that intimate contact is made between the gasket and the gasket seating surfaces preventing the escape of the confined fluid. Basically there are four different methods that may be used either singly or incombination to achieve this unbroken barrier. Compression (Figure 1). This is by far the most common method of effecting a seal on a flange joint and the compression force is normally applied by bolting. Attrition (Figure 2). Attrition is a combination of a dragging action combined with compression such as in a spark plug gasket where the spark plug is turned down on a gasket that is both compressed and screwed into the flange. GASKET SEATING There are two major factors to be considered with regard to gasket seating. The first is the gasket material itself. 'The ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1 defines minimum design seating stresses for a variety of gasket materials. These design seating stresses range from zero psi for so-called self-sealing gasket types such as low durometer elastomers and O-rings to 26,000 psi to properly seat solid flat metal gaskets. Between these two extremes there are a multitude of materials available to the designer enabling him to make a selection based upon the specific operating conditions under investigation. Table No.1 indicates the more popular types of gaskets covered by ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. (can't on page 6)

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75 5.25 1a. 3..50 3.1 GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGS "-" Gasket Factors (m) for Operating Conditions and Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) NOTE: This table gives a list of many commonly used gasket materials and contact facings with suggested design values of m and y that have generally proved satisfactory in actual service when using effective gasket seating width b given in Table UA-49.5 6. b..50 3. b.00 4.25 5500 \< \. Metallic.75 3. c.75 3..50 2. 1d*. c.50 3. Refer to Table UA-49.--.00 10000 2900 3700 4500 5500 J.25 .25 0 200 400 1 (a. d) 4.75 3.00 6500 7600 5500 6500 7600 8000 9000 9000 5500 6500 7600 9000 10100 8800 13000 18000 21800 ( .50 5.-.6500 3700 4500 Spiral-wound metal. d) 2.50 1..50 6.4.3. with nonmetallic filler Corrugated metal. 1 (a.25 3. Reprinted with permission of ASME "-" 4 . b. 1b. 1c*.00 3.75 3.50_- Vegetable fiber 1100 --3. Below 75 Shore Durometer 75 or higher Shore Durometer Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion Gasket factor m 0 Min.75 3.. b. double jacketed with nonmetallic filler r} II 1 (a.75 3.00 I Corruga1ed metal Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3. c.50 3.II 1 (a.3 Solid flat metal -.75 4. d) Softaluminum Flat metal jacketed with nonmetallic filler Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6°/ chrome Stainless steels Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3.00 1.2.75 3.25 3. b) Soft Aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass . Elastomer other gasket types considered as self-sealing Elastomerswithout fabric. d) 2. c.75 Carbon Stainless or Monel 2.TABLE UA-49. design seating stress y (psi) 0 Sketches and notes Use facing sketch Use column - - - 0. The design values and other details given in this table are suggested only and are not mandatory.2* Grooved metal 1 (a.25 4. 5 1.50 26000 18000 21800 26000 6 I Ring joint *The surface of a gasket having a lap should be against the smooth surface of the facing and not against the nubbin.2 Gasket material Self-Energizing types 0 Rings.50 6.00 6. 2.-.-.

N -LNj.. " ~~ ~ ~ ~ .~ //«0 2 N 4 3N 8 3N 8 7N 16 ... b Column I I Column II .'E1J~"'..:':"l~f.."'..>.c.' 3 1/64" Nubbin: ~""'" . (W : N max) w .~ 1 -/(// ---:1 w<.' N' 1b* - Facing Sketch Basic Gasket Seating Width.... ~ 5* .J~/"l""l" ~~ ~ .. I <l Gasket t Face '-' NOTE: The gasket factors listed only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes. sketches 1b and 1d shall be used.:c.>?.. "~'.+://. T. Reprinted with permission of ASME 5 .~".~~.v..N w ..."-.>./... 1c ~~~ N 1d* .i8S 2 1/64" Nubbin !~.. (w : N ma1 w."c> .>..' I '" '"".~ ~ " '..»///0J0~~. when bo > 114 in.. Location of Gasket Load Reaction HG G--. aba b = boowhen bo b = ~ 114in..I--hG--1 °F~'C~O~!~~ --~ b 1--! HG G ---1-.%\'//////////// .hG I ---I.. width spacing.. ~ r: N 2 N 2 S'.2 EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTH ~~~~ggerated '/. *Where serrations do not exceed 1/64 in.'E~~r"...--/'M ~ ~ I-N-i ~ N 4 3N 8 6 w 8 Effective Gasket Seating Width. ~2 .'-' 1a TABLE UA~49. ..~ 2 ""v w+N 4 w +3N 8 w..c/ _fII.. depth and 1/32 in.' S'.'" w<. ~ /"r---I "-'" 4* 1.. T..

The reason for the difference is that with non-metallic gaskets such as rubber. they are based upon the best cross-section of successful design experience currently available. \ ~. Spiral-wound gaskets. ~ TABLE 3 GASKET SEATING SURFACE FINISHES Flange Surface Finish ". there must be sufficient roughness on the gasket seating surfaces to bite into the gasket thereby preventing excessive extrusion and increasing resistance to gasket blowout. which have become extremely popular in the last fifteen to twenty years. ~ \ 'i:ii.':'}:::'i:::iiiii:i:ii ~ \\ 6 ~ .AARH 250-500 Gasket Descrigtion Flat Non-Metallic Flat - Metallic' SEE NOTE 1 \ ~ 63 -. Table3 includes recommendationsfor normal finishes for the various types of gaskets. do require some surface roughness to prevent excessive radial slippage of the gasketunder compression. For example a totally enclosed facing such as tongue and groove will permit the use of a much smoother gasket seating surface than can be tolerated with a raised face. In the case of solid metal gaskets. This requires that the gasket seating surfaces be as smooth as possible to ensure an effective seal. As a general rule..The problem of the proper finish for gasket seating surface is further complicated by the type of the flange design. Semi-metallic gaskets such as spiralwound fall between these two general types.(con't from page 3) The second major factor to take into consideration must be the surface finish of the gasket seating surface.The characteristicsof the type of gasket being used dictate the proper flange surface finish that must be taken into consideration by the flange designer and there is no such thing as a single optimum gasket surfacefinish for all types of gaskets. extremely high unit loads are required to flow the gasket into imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces.J Corrugated metal Corrugated metal with soft filler ~ ~ \~ 63 125 Metal jacketed gaskets ~ \ \. Solid metal gaskets normally require a surface finish not rougher than 63 microinches. however. They are suggested only and not mandatory." 63-80 NOTE: This table gives a list of suggested surface finishes that have generally proven satisfactory in actual service. it is necessary to have a relatively rough gasket seating surface for elastomeric and PTFE gaskets on the order of magnitude of 500 microinches.

..) '\ ----------'. Metaljacketed gaskets (cant. This usually necessitates a bolt area to gaskel area greater than a ratio of 2: 1.250 - Solid metal washer type gaskets require extremely high seating stresses to seal. >-. Note @ . Note <D ' 125 ..L"..AARH 63-80 Solid metal 63 '-" '-....-.--"-'" Hollow metal y . ...TABLE 3 - GASKET SEATING SURFACE GasketDescription \". If this is not possible. it is preferred to use a profiled or serrated gasket to achieve the necessal seating load on the gasket..-') "'.. Spiral wound . I . Flange Surface Gasket Cross-Section Finish /.. FINISHES CONT. SEE NOTE 2 32 .'...Refer to page 23 for more details on flange surface finishes for spiral wound gaskets.

This unknown quantity "X" is what is known as the "m" factor in the ASME unfired pressure vessel code and will vary depending upon the type of gasket being used. They are: Bolt load and/or other means of applying the initial compressive load that flows the gasket material into surface imperfections to form a seal. .125)2 . There are other shock forces that may be created due to sudden changes in temperature and pressure. residual gasket load must be "X" times internal pressure if a tight joint is to be maintained. TEMPERATURE: Temperaturecreates thermo-mechanical effects. the higher the temperature. affecting the gasket material by promoting "creep relaxation" which is a permanent strain or relaxation quality of many soft materials under stress. to contain the hydrostatic end force and. GENERAL CONDITIONS: The type of flange. then the minimum required bolt area Am is determined: A Am2 - Wm1 m1 . '-" BOLT LOAD FORMULAS* The ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. As a rule. The required operating bolt load must be at least sufficient. Am2 . It must be sufficient to maintain a residual load on the gasket/flange interface. Internal pressure acting on the portion of the gasket exposed to internal pressure.(ID)2] AbSa Sg(max) = -.often be rejected because failure occurred due to a poorly cleaned flange face. the proper gasket may . Section VIII. the effective pressure resulting from the bolt loading.FORCES ACTING ON A GASKETED JOINT BOLT LOAD HYDROSTATIC END FORCE GASKET INTERNAL OR BLOW OUT PRESSURE Forces acting on a gasket joint (Figure 1) .0. the type of bolt material. to maintain a residual compression load on the gasketthat is sufficient to assure a tight joint.(ID)2] 4 Spiral Wound -J Gaskets Ail Other Types of -J Gaskets v 8 . It must be sufficient to initially seat the gasket and flow the gasket into the imperfections on the = Wm2 Sa Am = Am1 if Am1 . ~Sa ~ [(aD . .. tending to blow the gasket out of the joint and/or to bypass the gasket under operating conditions. The initial compression force applied to a joint must serve several purposes. ASME defines this bolt load as: Wm1= ~G2P 4 + 2b1TGmP Each of these factors require consideration before an effective gasket material is finally chosen. . . . These details require careful attention. The hydrostatic end force. . Le. etc. under the most severe operating conditions. See Figure 1. Creep relaxation is another factor that may come into the picture. and the more assurance the designer has of obtaining a tight joint. the more critical becomes the selection of the proper gasket. OR Am = Am2 if Am2 Bolts are then selected so that the actual bolt area Ab is equal to or greater than Am Ab = (Number of Bolts) x (Minimum Cross-Sectional Area of Bolt in Square Inches) Ab ~ Am The maximum unit load Sg(max) on th~ gasket bearing surface is equal to the total maximum bolt load in pounds divided by the actual sealing area of the gasket in square inches. ing to unseal a gasketed joint by exerting pressure against the gasket (blowout pressure) and against the flanges holding the gasket in place (hydrostatic end force). gasKet seating surfaces regardless of operating conditions. Figure 1 indicates the three primary forces acting upon a gasketed joint which we will consider for this discussion. or improper bolting-up practice.s:There are three principal forces acting on any gasketed joint. '-' After WM1and Wm2are calculated. Division 1 defines the initial bolt load required to seat a gasket sufficiently as: Wm2 = 1TbGy . However. Initial compression force must be great enough to compensate for the total hydrostatic end force that would be present during operating conditions. that tends to separate flanges wh~mthe system is pressurized.. the spacing and tightness of the bolts." the more conservative the flange design would be. Sg(max)- \ . Actually the "m" value is the ratio of residual unit stress (bolt load minus hydrostatic end force) on gasket (psi) to internal pressure of the system. in addition.. Am1 . The larger the number used for "m. the flange surfaces. expanding or contracting the metals. From a practical standpoint. THE FLANGE LOAD: The total force compressing the gasket to create a seal.I! [(OD)2 .. but if complied with will help eliminate gasket blowout or failure. THE INTERNAL PRESSURE: These are the forces continually try. MEDIUM: The liquid or gas against which the gasket is to seal. The effect of certain confined fluids may become increasingly degrading as temperature rises and attack upon organic gasket materials is substantially greater than at the ambient temperatures (about 75°F)..

Am1 = total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. Table 2. y = gasket or joint-contact-surface unit seating load.. pounds per square inch. Table 2 = basic gasket seating width. Wm1 = required pounds. Table 2. inches. N Am = total required cross-sectional area of bolts.. P Sa Sb Sg design pressure. bolt load for operating conditions. in inches. required for gasket seating. b bo G = effective gasket or joint-contact-surface seating width. = width. Am2 = total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. Wm2 = minimum required bolt load for gasket seating. inches. inches. '-" *The Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has developed a program to better identify loads based on gasket "sealability". Table 2. minimum design seating stress. = Actual unit load at the gasket bearing surface. 9 . % in. pounds. m When bo . required for the operating conditions. = Ab = actual total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress.NOTATION SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS '-' Except as noted. new design factors are anticipated to appear in upcoming revisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. pounds per square inch. (Lamons is a sponsor of PVRC research). When bo > % in. pounds per square inch. Section VIII. G = outside diameter of gasket contact face less 2b. = diameter at location of gasket load reaction. PSI Table 1 pounds per square inch. inches. square inches. the symbols and definitions below are those given in Appendix II of the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. = allowable bolt stress at ambient temperature. = gasket factor. G = mean diameter of gasket contact face. pounds per square inch. = allowable bolt stress at operating temperature. based upon the possible contact width of the gasket.. taken as the greater of Am1or Am2' square inches. . Table 1. Thus. used to determine the basic gasket seating width bo.

The flange material. ~ 1/6'~ :+ Details of Flange Bolting .250" x 3.444 + 63. From page 22. Appendix S. no additional precautions are necessary. Page 45.0.SAMPLE GASKET APPLICATION PROBLEM For assistance with a particular gasket problem contact Lamons Sales Department.785 x (22. Wm1 = 11 4 G2P + 2bnGmP Wm1 (Design) = 0.500°F Process material . -Av- 231/16"a.500" b = 0. PSI(see Stress Table Analysis The pressure-temperature conditions indicate a metallic type gasket should be used.ASTM A312 Type 316 S. Page 32.14 x 22. Any forces in excess of the force required to compress the gasket will be transmitted to the flange faces and gasket crushing cannot occur. Available load for gasket seating is 524. "Sizing Spiral Wound Gaskets Confined on 1. '\.-2115/16" LD.000 2. Wm1 (Test) J EXAMPLE CONDITIONS: A designer wants a gasket recommendation for a special application sealing steam at 600 psi and 500°F.5" 3.000 PSI. Wm2 = nbGy = 3. it appears our original assumption is correct and the recommendation would be: SpiraSeal Type W Gasket .666 + 95. Since Grafoil@is also compatible with the environment (see page 40).steam Flange details - = 302. Bolt load @ Test Condition: 30. in. according to Stress Table 1.900 psi Design temperature .600 psi Test pressure . From Table 2.175" thick spiral wound gasket is . = 0. the gaskets should have an I. 1. 316 S.000 x 17. Therefore..14 x 22. and "Note". Since the facing is groove to flat face.585 .20.8 thds. of 22" and an 0.D.130" :t . it is selected as the filler material.472 sq.5")2 x 600 PSI + 2 x 0.24 .175"*.250" G = 22. Page 5 N = 1/2" = 0. CONDITIONS: Design pressure .D.005" (See page 23). and available bolt load at test conditions is 524.S. Bolt Material .5" x 3 x 600 PSI = 238. the logical choice for the metal in the gasket is 316 S.0. Page 4 m=3 y = 10. or a technical representative.175" Thick *The optimum compressed thickness for a . Bolt Load @ Design Condition: 20. Allowable Stress @500°F .S.0. and 0. of 23". page 8 Ab = 24 x 0.000 PSI = 176.S.250" x 3.440 Ibs.11/8" . From the above analysis. It is apparent adequate bolting is available.ASTM A193 . and available load at design conditions is 349.625 Ibs.5" x 3 x 900 PSI = 357. The conditions appear to be suitable for a spiral wound gasket. however. Page 27. From formula on page 8. groove to flat.785 x (22.043 Ibs.000 x 17.029 Ibs.160 Ibs. The 1/8" groove depth is within this range. Note: required bolt load at test conditions is 453. the gasket thickness must be . Minimum required bolt at design conditions is 302. is compatible with the steam environment @500°F.440 Ibs.316 S.250" b0 = 0. From Table on Page 42 and definition of Ab.378 = 453.S. J '-" 10 .14 x 0. to prevent leakage under hydrotest it is decided to tighten bolting to 30.e.160 Ibs.250" x 22.472 = 349. Since a positive stop is designed into the flange.000 1 Appendices Page 45. Minimum required bolt loading for gasket seating (Wm2) is 176.000 PSI (See Note at bottom of Stress Table 1.043 Ibs. Allowable bolt stress @Ambient Temperature.160 Ibs.029 Ibs.625 Ibs./Grafoil@ 22" 10 x 23" 00 x 0. i.728 = 17.".B7 Flange Material.472 = 524.5" x 10. Page 45 is only 20. From Table 1.5")2 x 900 PSI + 2 x 0.

. aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. ketones and esters. Charts included in the appendix indicate some very general recommendations for non-metallic and metallic materials against various corrosive media. however. salts and chlorine solutions. alkalies and salt solutions. This discussion will cover the various types of non-metallic materials.70°F and 350°F.SECTION II . It resists weathering. general application data and temperature limitations. alkalies.OROPRENE) (NEOPRENE) Chloroprene is a synthetic rubber that is suitable for use against moderate acids. varying the construction or density. moderate chemicals and ketones. the corrosive characteristics of the fluid or gas to be contained. It is poor in strong oxidizing agents. Itstemperature range is very limited and is suitable only for use from -70°F to 200°F. . chlorinated hydrocarbons. NON-METALLIC GASKET MATERIALS NATURAL ~ RUBBER Natural rubber has good resistance to mild acids and alkalies. ozone. . higher temperatures of corrosive agents will accelerate corrosive attack. aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. '-'" 11 . Of the two types. Its normal temperature range would be between -50°F and 275°F. salts and chlorine solutions. Its temperature range would be from approximately -60°F to 250°F. Its temperature limitations are approximately -65°F to 250°F.) The purity of a corrosive agent. FLUOROCARBON (VITON) Fluorocarbon elastomer has good resistance to oils. require a zero seating stress such as soft rubber and be inexpensive. It is not suitable for use in oils. This synthetic material has good resistance to strong acids. of course. Its temperature range would be between . It is not good in ozone. . SILICONES Silicone rubbers have good resistance to hot air. It is not suitable for use against amines. In general. As a consequence. non-metallic and metallic gaskets. TYPES OF GASKETS For the purposes of this bulletin. It has poor resistance to oils and solvents and is not recommended for use with ozone. gaskets will be separated into two broad categories. dissolved oxygen in otherwise pure water may cause rapid oxidation of steam generation equipment at high temperatures. combining it with other materials. It should be pointed out that these charts are general recommendations and there are many additional factors that can influence the corrosion resistance of a particular material at operating conditions. SBR (STYRENE-BUTADIENE) SBR is a synthetic rubber that has excellent abrasion resistance and has good resistance to weak organic acids. . aliphatic and aromatic hydro- carbons and strong acids. suitable for use against steam. solvents or aromatic hydrocarbons. NBR) Buna-N is a synthetic rubber that has good resistance to oils and solvents. It also has good resistance to caustics and salts but only fair acid resistance. it is often necessary to "field-test" materials for resistance to corrosion under normal operating conditions to determine if the material selected will have the required resistance to corrosion. CIILOROSULFONATED POLYETHELENE (HYPALON) This material has good acid. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The temperature of the corrosive agent. For example. the temperature of the fluid or gas to be contained. Some of these would include Concentration of the corrosive agent. It would have the chemical resistance of PTFE. CR (CIU. (Full strength solutions are not necessarily more corrosive than those of dilute proportions and. sunlight. Its normal temperature range would be between -15°F and 450°F. or by designing the joint itself to overcome some of the limitations. They are unaffected by sunlight and ozone. alcohols. oils. . fuel. Obviously there is no known gasket material that has all these characteristics and each material has certain limitations that restrict its use. It is not good in aromatics or chlorinated hydrocarbons and has poor resistance against chromic acid and nitric acid. alkali and salt resistance. They are not. chlorinated solvents. Obviously. oils and commercial fuels such as diesel and kerosene. mechanical factors are important in the design of the joint but the primary selection of a gasket material is influenced by three factors. It has good resistance to commercial oils and fuels. the pressure of the fluid or gas to be contained. BUNA-N RUBBER (NITRILE. the reverse is also true. ketones or steam.SELECTION '-" SELECTING THE PROPER GASKET MATERIAL The optimum gasket material would have the following characteristics. It is possible to overcome limitations partially by several methods such as including the use of reinforcing inserts. greases and most hydrocarbons. non-metallic gaskets are by far the most widely used. strong acids. the strength of steel. EPDM (ETHYLENE MONOMER PROPYLENE). The temperature range would be between -65°F to 500°F. esters. fats. petroleum oils and gasolines over a wide range of temperature. . It is very poor against strong oxidizing acids. It is suitable over a temperature range of approximately -60°F to 250°F. the heat resistance of graphite.

even at high temperatures. It has a very low surface energy and does not adhere to the flanges.0. The principal advantage in adding fillers to PTFEis to inhibit cold flow or creep relaxation.The jacket's 1.0. Filler Materials ~ PTFE ENVELOPE GASKETS Envelope gaskets utilizing PTFEjacket have become popular for use in severely corrosive services because of their low minimum seating stresses. . caustics and acids except free fluorine and alkali metals. In addition to being used as a gasket.0. PTFEis highly resistantto chemicals.excellent creep resistance. and heat transfer fluids. is approximately equal to the nominal 1. but does sublimate at temperatures over 6000°F. Ceramic material is also used as a filler material in spiral-wound gaskets. of the filler and the envelope lO. Sandwich constructionscombining some of the above On vacuum applications. solvents. Grafoil has outstanding resistance to corrosion against a wide variety of acids.0. It is available with or without a metal insertion. organic compounds. It is satisfactory for service up to approximately 2000°F.0. normally rests within the bolt hole circle and the 1.0.0. Available in sizes up to a maximum 0.high deformability and choice of a variety of ~ The more popular fillers for envelope gaskets are: Rubber sheet Compressed non-asbestos . It does not melt. PTFE(polytetrafluoroethylene)has emerged as the most common plastic gasket material PTFE's outstanding properties include resistance to temperature extremes from -140°F to 450°F (for virgin material). and in adhesive-back tape form for pipe gaskets over 24 inches in diameter. Clearance is required between the 1. nests within the bolts. There are three basic designs of envelopes: Sli t Type J Slit envelopes are sliced from cylinders and split from the outside diameter to within approximately 1/16" of the inside diameter. The bearing surface is determined by 12 . of 24". . Fillerssuch as corrugated metaland rubber sheets are available. double envelopes are frequently used where two jackets are overlapped to protect the 0. Milled envelopes are more expensive than slit type since considerably more material is lost in machining. of 24".0. Formed Tape Type PLASTICS Of all the plastics.GRAFOIL@ This is an all graphite material containing no resins or inorganic fillers.0. to within approximately 1/32" its 1."carbon. as well as the I. alkalies and salt solutions. The Gasket 0. fits flush with pipe bore and its 0.0.D. They can be slit.0. the filler dimensions.S.P. of pipe. milled or formed tape types. Its use against strong oxidizing agents at elevated temperatures should be investigated very carefully. molybdenum disulfite. Available in sizes to a maximum 0. Corrugated metal inserts . Large diameter (over 12" N.) and irregularly shaped envelopes are formed from tape and heat sealed to produce a continuous jacket construction. '-" Milled Type CERAMIC FIBER Ceramic fiber is available in sheet or blanket form and makes an excellent gasket material for hot air duct work with low pressures and light flanges. The jacket is machined from the 0. filler materials to assureoptimumperformance on any specific application. PTFEgaskets can be supplied in a variety of forms either as virgin material or reprocessed material and also with a variety of filler material such as glass. Milled envelopes are machined from cylinder stock. Grafoil makes an excellent packing material and is also used as a filler material in spiral-wound gaskets. etc.

Becomes extremely hard when welded. If severe corrosion is anticipated. Same excellent corrosion resistance as Type 304. The recommended working temperature is 1400° to 1500°F.If a more compressible material is required. 321 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-10Chromium-Nickelsteel with a Titanium addition. Has the highest creep strength at elevated temperatures of any conventionalstainless type. 316-L STAINLESS STEEL Continous maxiumum temperature range of 1400°1500° F. in presence of certain media for prolonged periods of time. Brinell hardness is about 140 316 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-12 Chromium-Nickel steel with approximately 2 % of Molybdenum added to the straight 18-8 alloy which increases its strength at elevated temperatures and results in somewhat improved corrosion resistance. May be used where dampness. the term "pressure temperature conditions" was used indicating that these values are used to help determine the types of material and construction to be used in a gasket. 410 STAINLESS STEEL A 12% Chromium steel with a maximum temperature range of 1200°F. 347 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-10 Chromium-Nickel steel with the addition of Columbium. Nickel 8-10%) Stainless with a maximum recommendedworking temperature of 1400°F. Brinell hardness is approximately 120. of 250 250 500 mining applications. The elastomeric binder makes up a larger percentage of this sheet and thereby becomes a more important consideration when deterNote: On page 8.Excellent corrosion resistance to a wide variety of chemicals. to 1500°F. Maximum working temperature is 1200°F.000 40.. Brinell hardness is approximately 160.in conjunction with an elastomeric binder. METALLIC GASKET MATERIALS . This low carbon content tends to reduce the precipitation of carbides along grain boundaries. Subject to stress corrosion cracking and to intergranular corrosion at temperatures between 800°F..when corrosive conditions are severe. 502/501 4-6% Chromium and 1/2 Molybdenumalloyedfor mild corrosive resistance and elevated service. @ Kevlar is a registered trademark of E. a better grade of stainless steel would probably be a better choice. Not suitable for handling crude acids or aqueoussolutionsof salts in the neutral or acid range. Used for applications requiring good resistance to scaling at elevated temperatures. It is widely used for sealing petroleum products. Is subject to stress corrosion. Recommended workingtemperatureof 14000-1500°F. Materials within any category may vary depending upon a manufacturer's processing techniques. *Temperature limits of gasketing materials are not absolute figures. Lesssubject to intergranular corrosion than Type304.The cork-fiber sheet has the same maximum temperature limitation as the vegetable fiber sheet.320°F.000 75. a combination cork-fiber sheet is available. 304 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-8(Chromium18-20%. In addition. Not as subject to intergranularcorrosion as is Type304. This value is arrived at by multiplying operating pressure times operating temperature. Many of these products have seen extensiveuse since that period howeverthere havebeen enough problems to warrant careful consideration in choosing a replacement material for compressed asbestos. Concentrated acids and most alkalies have little or no action on iron and steel gaskets which are used regularly for such services. Not suitable for extended service within the carbide precipitation range '-" of 800° to 1650°F..!. to 1O00°F.'-" COMPRESSED NON-ASBESTOS SHEETING Early efforts to replace asbestos resulted in the introduction and testing of compressed non-asbestosproducts in the 1970's..03% . Brinell hardness is approximately 160. Most manufacturers of non-asbestos sheet materials use synthetic fibers. A "Rule of Thumb" guide for the selection of gasket materials has evolved over the years. causes steel to fail quickly. alone or coupled with chemical pollution. Is not recommended for use where severe corrosion is encountered but is still very useful for some chemical applications.and in some instances to 1700°F. and in some instances 1600°F. to 1300°F.particularly if conditions are oxidizing. MATERIAL Rubber VegetableFiber Solid Fluorocarbon MAXIMUMP xT 15. etc. flange design and application peculiarities may influence the temperature limit of a material to a greater or fesser degree.. FIBER SHEET VEGETABLE Vegetable fiber sheet is a tough pliable gasket material manufactured by paper making techniques utilizing plant fibers and a glue-glycerine impregnation. gases and a wide variety of solvents. 13 ... A high rate of failure may be expected in hot water service if the material is highly stressed. Carbon content held at a maximum of .. Brinell hardness is about 150.000 MAXIMUM* TEMPERATURE OF MATERIALS. Type321 stainless has the same characteristics as Type 347. like Kevlar@. DuPontCo. grades and types of raw materials used. CARBON STEEL Commercial quality sheet steel with an upper temperature limit of approximately1OOO°F. At least 80% of applications for non-corrosive services can use Type304 Stainless in the temperature range of . Subject to a lesser degree of stress corrosion cracking and also to intergranular corrosion than Type 304. Recommendedmaximum working temperature of 1400° F. 304L STAINLESS STEEL Carbon content maintained at a maximum of . Its maximum temperature limit is 250° F. Brinell hardness is about 140.03% Recommended maximumworkingtemperatureof 1400°F F.Brinell hardnessis approximately160. and has a Brinell hardness of around 130.. Brinell hardness is around 155..

ADMIRALTY Arsenical Admiralty 443 has 71% Copper.3% Tungsten. and small amounts of Manganese and Iron. ALUMINUM Alloy 1100is commercially pure (99% minimum). Maximum recommended temperature limit of 500° F. Subject to stress corrosion cracking when exposed to fluorosilic acid. and water containing sulfides. Resistant to nitric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Maximum temperature range of 1400°-1500°F. INCOLOY 800@ 32. High resistanceto cold nitric acid of 14 J . Brinell hardness is about 150. and even higher under controlled conditions. Outstanding in oxidizing environments.Very good in handling corrosives. Frequently used to overcome the problem of stress corrosion. 28% Zinc. and the balance is Nickel. Corrosion resistance makes it useful in caustic alkalies and where resistance in structural applications to corrosion is a prime consideration. '-" ALLOY 20 45% Iron. 46% Iron. oxidation. Brinell hardness is approximately 65. Resistant to hot. mercury. PHOSPHOR BRONZE 90-95% Copper. 4. Brinell hardness is about 110. holds up extremely well against salt and brackish waters. 20% Chromium. and potassium cyanide. Excellent corrosion resistance even at high temperatures. but is not suitable for such materials as acetic acid. Known as the "Best solution" to chloride ion attack.5-7% Iron. Maximum recommended temperature limit of 500° F. Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Brinell hardness is about 215. Contains 67% Nickel and 30% Copper. v CUPRO NICKEL Contains 69% Copper. Brinell hardness is about 150. TITANIUM Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. Its excellent corrosion resistance and workability makes it ideal for double jacketed gaskets. 13-17. Designed to handle high stresses. Recommended maximum working temperature of 500° F. Maximum temperature range of 500° F. Brinell hardness is approximately 230. Note Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures. 3. stronger alloys like 5052 and 3003 are used. BRASS Yellow brass 268 has 66% Copper and 34% Zinc. concentrated hydrochloric acid.5%Chromium.7-5. Also resists the corrosive effects of wet hydrogen chlorine gas. With PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). Good resistance to hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid. COPPER Nearly pure copper with trace amounts of silver added to increase its working temperature. HASTELLOY B@ 26-30% Molybdenum. ammonia. Maximum continuous service temperature of 800° F. mercuric chloride and mercury. and small amounts of Molybdenum and Copper. Limited to low temperature steam applications. MONEL@ Maximum temperature range of 1500° F. it finds its greatest application in areas where high temperatures and pressures combined with high velocity and destructive turbulence would rapidly deteriorate many less resistant alloys. chromic acid. Useful for high temperature strength.Developed specifically for applications requiring resistance to corrosion by sulphuric acid.Brinell hardness is 58. it is widely used for hydrofluoric acid service. Brinell hardness is about 64. For solid gaskets. Most alkaline solutions have little if any effect upon it. ammonia. acetylene. Brinell hardness is about 210. and 4-6% Iron. and trace amounts of phosphorus.Brinell hardness is about 70. but not suitable for acetylene. Brinell hardness is about 160. Offers excellent to good corrosion resistance in most environments. 24% Nickel. Has excellent mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperature range. Excellent resistance to most acids and alkalies. and should not be used with these media. Brinell hardness is about 80. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. 1% Tin and trace amounts of Arsenic. and carburization. INCONEL 600@ Recommendedworking temperatures of 2000°F. Brinell hardness is about 120. sulphuric and phosphoric acids and reducing salt solutions. Is a nickelbase alloy containing 77% Nickel. Excellent corrosion resistance. 21% Chromium. Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. varying concentrations as well as boiling nitric acid up to 70% concentration. Recommended maximum temperature of 1600° F. HASTELLOY C-276@ 16-18%Molybdenum.5% Nickel. Excellent cold working capacity. Recommended maximum continuous working temperature of 5000 F. Excellent high temperature strength. and is some instances 2150°F. 15% Chromiumand 7% Iron. except strong oxidizing acids. The Brinell hardness is approximately 35. Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. 30% Nickel. and salt. 62% Nickel. NICKEL 200@ Recommended maximum working temperature is 14000 F. Ideal for carrying corrosive cooling waters at relatively high temperatures. Resistant to elevated temperatures. 5-10% Tin. High corrosive resistance. Does not have the allaround excellent resistance of Monel.

MATERIAL HARDNESS CONVERSION SCALE Brinell hardness figures are approximate guides only. plain surface finishes and high clamping forces in order to seal. however. solid metal gaskets that require very smooth. hydraulic presses. heat exchangers. METAL GASKETS Metallic gaskets are available in many forms including. the profile gasket may be supplied with either a single-jacketed or a double-jacketed shield. ~ Rockwell "B" 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 40 30 20 10 Brinell 3000 Kg. Most materials ordered by Lamons are specified "dead soft". Flat metal gaskets are relatively inexpensive to produce and can be made of virtually any material that is available in sheet form. radial gouges or scores would be almost impossible to seal using solid metal gaskets. '-"" Profile type gaskets offer the desirable qualities of plain washer types and the added advantage of a reduced contact area provided by the V-shaped surface. but flange protection is required as well. Load 241 210 183 163 146 134 122 108 95 89 83 75 67 62 57 KAMMPROFILE KAMMPROTM The design features of the grooves in combination with the special properties of the facing materials result in optimal performance and consistency. They can be used when compressibility is not required to compensate for flange surface finish. It flange conditions require a profile type gasket. SOLID METAL GASKETS PLAIN FLAT METAL GASKETS A PROFILE GASKET WITH A METAL JACKET "'" Flat metal gaskets are best suited for applications such as valve bonnets. . Under no circumstances should the surface finish exceed 125 microinches. warpage or misalignment and where sufficient clamping force is available to seat the particular metal selected. The hardness of gasket metal must be less than the hardness of the flanges to prevent damage to the gasket seating surface of the flange. PROFILE GASKETS . ammonia fittings. It is used when a solid metal gasket is required because of pressure or temperature or because of the highly corrosive effect of the fluid to be contained and also when bolting is not sufficient to seat a flat washer. combinations with soft fillers such as doublejacketed and spiral-wound that can tolerate greater surface roughness and will seat with lesser compressive forces. This will provide protection for the flanges and will minimize damage to the flange faces due to the profile surface. however. NOTE: Without exception all of the solid metal gaskets require a very fine surface finish on the flanges. This allows each to perform individually to their optimum. Lamons manufacturesKammpro in a wide range of metals and alloys to exact specifications. Larger gaskets can be fabricated by welding. In addition.careful attention must be given to machining details of the flanges and sizing of the gaskets. and light cross section gaskets that are self-sealing and require minimum clamping forces for effective sealing. This requires heavy compressive forces. The simultaneous action of high compressibilityfacing material on the outside of the grooved metal in combination with limited penetration of the tips of the solid metal core enhance the interactionof the two materials. 15 . In all cases. A flange with a flange surface roughness of 63 microinches or smoother is desired. Size limitation is normally restricted to the sheet size. tongue-and-groove joints. different thicknesses and different heats of the same material will vary in hardness. They must be sealed by the flow of the gasket metal into the imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces of the flange. .

The more common materials used for this type of gasket would be aluminum.ROUND CROSS SECTION. Monel@. tool or chatter marks. These gaskets will seat with a small bolt load since the contact area is very small and gasket seating pressures are very high. soft iron or steel. MISCELLANEOUS METAL GASKETS The BX ring gasket differs from the standard oval or octagonal shape in that it is square in cross section and tapers in each corner. 16 -.J Round cross section solid metal gaskets are used on specifically designed flanges grooved or othewise faced to accurately locate the gasket during assembly. A lens type gasket is a line contact seal for use in high pressure piping systems and in pressure vessel heads. They can only be used in API 6BX flanges.5. The hardness of the ring should always be less than the hardness of the flanges. and 300 series stainless steels. an oval cross section and an octagonal cross section. Bridgeman gaskets are frequently silver plated or lead plated to provide a softer surface and minimize the force required to flow the gasket metal into the flange surface. DELTA GASKET API RING JOINT GASKETS API ring joint gaskets come in two basic types. In ordering lens gaskets.J In addition to the commonly used. there are specialty items available that. Extremely smooth surface finishes of 63 microinches or smoother are required when using this type of gasket. SOLID METAL GASKETS LENS TYPE GASKET "-. The lens cross section is a spherical gasket surface and requires special machining on the flanges. They seal by an initial line contact or a wedging action as the compressive forces are applied. This makes an ideal gasket for low pressures. API6A.000 psi. and ASME/ANSI B16. nickel. The dimensions are standardized and require specially grooved flanges. Internal pressure forces the gasket material to expand when the pressure forces tend to separate the flanges. The newer flat bottom groove design will accept either the oval or the octagonal cross section. above-listed gaskets. RX ring gaskets are similar is shape to the standard octagonal ring joint gasket but their cross section is designed to take advantage of the contained fluid pressure in effecting a seal. Dimensions for ring joint gaskets and grooves are covered in ASME B16. The weld is then polished to the exact wire diameter. They are fabricated from wire formed to size and welded. These . can provide a very effective seal. The sealing surfaces on the ring joint grooves must be smoothly finished to 63 microinches and be free of objectionable ridges. complete drawings and material specifications must be supplied.. copper. Normally the gasket material should be softer than the flange. A delta gasket is a pressure actuated gasket used primarily on pressure vessels and valve bonnets at very high pressures in excess of 5000 psi. These gaskets seal by a line contact which provides an initial high seating stress at low bolt loads. The octagonal cross section has a higher sealing efficiency than the oval and would be the 'preferred gasket.20. in specific applications. only the oval cross section can be used in the old type round bottom groove. As with the lens gasket. '-' BRIDGEMAN GASKET BX AND RX RING GASKETS The Bridgeman gasket is a pressure activated gasket for use on pressure vessel heads and valve bonnets for pressures of 1500 psi and above. complete drawings and material specifications must be supplied. These basic shapes are used in pressures up to 5. The cross section of the gasket is such that internal pressure acting against the ring forces it against the containing surface making a self-energized seal. They are both made to API 6A. However.

enhancing its compressive characteristics. this particular gasket style is very popular. They are available in virtually any material that is commercially availablein 26-gauge sheet. METAL JACKETED GASKETS CONSTRUCTION GASKETS OF JACKETED . They are also extensivelyused in standard flanges where the service is not critical and at temperatures beyond which a soft gasket such as rubber can be used. the C~seal can be a relatively low cost gasket.The standard filler is normally sufficientfor applications up to 900°F. and smooth surface finishes are a must. so-called because their cross section is essentially the same as the letters C & V. Note: Double-jacketed gaskets are sometimes used with a very-light coating of gasket cement or lubricant which will assist in flowing the metal portion of the gasket into the tool marks on the flange seating surface. would be provided by the outer lap.. signee] gfbo\!es ta effectiVely seal. Since most doublejacketed gaskets are custom made. C-seals and V-seals. On most heat exchanger applications the outer lap is also under compression. 316. V-seals are similar t8 the Q~§eale}(cept fcJr tAefa81 that they are essEHltiailyFnael1lAe §§ffiI39neht8 Wl1iehmakes the cost df the. Always install double jacketed the nubbin. They can be obtained with various platings in order to enhance their sealing abilities and to meet specific applications requirements.. that there is little advantage to this particular design. when applicable. there is virtually no limit to the size. using a double-jacketed gasket. gasket with smooth side toward DOUBLE-JACKETED CORRUGATED GASKETS DOUBLE-JACKETED GASKET The double-jacketed corrugated gasket is an improvement on a plain jacketed gasket in that the corrugations on the gasket will provide an additional labyrinth seal. This particular type of gasket is very versatile and can be used in a myriad of applications. Since the size and shape are not a problem and since most materials can be obtained 17 . All these specialty items do reqLilre initial consultation witH the manufacturer in order to determine the practicability and the economics involved.. The primary seal is still dependent on the inner lap of the gasket abing the brute work and the secondary seal. For large quantity applications.ih~IVifJuai ~a§~etfather high: flley al§§ require verY flhe sldftae8tIAI§h@§ and specially §e= commercially. providing a secondary seal.soft steel. In some cases nubbins are provided on heat exchanger designs to provide an intermediate seal.. The hollow metal O-rings are available vented for high pressure applications and pressure filled for high temperature applications.502. effecting the seal. It also provides the advantage of reducing the contact area of the gasket. 347.. shape or configuration in which these gaskets can be made. the various brasses.Inconel@and stainless steel types 304. As a consequence the entire inner lap must be under compression. The intermediate part of a double-jacketed gasket does very little to effect the sealing capability of the gasket. Frequently the outer lap is not under compression and does not aid in the sealing of the gasket. Experience has indicated. This nubbin is normally 1/64" high by 1/8"'wide.410. For small quahtity appllcati. A double-jacketed corrugated gasket still relies on the primary seal on the inner lap. Obviouslythe choice of the metal used for the jacketed part of the gasket would depend upon the corrosive conditions being encountered. are aluminum. Lamons jacketed gaskets are normally supplied with a non-asbestoshigh temperaturefiller.ens. 321.) """ Double-jacketed gaskets are probably the most commonly used style of gasket in heat exchanger applications. the cost can be rather high because of initial t§§IIA~ fequirements. Other softfillers are availablefor higher temperaturesor special applications including Grafoil~ Standard metals used to make jacketed gaskets. C-seals are self-energized gaskets requiring specific attention be paid to the design of the grooves to contain the gasket. regardless of the type. however.. C-seals can be used either for vacuum applications or for high pressure applications. This particular section flows. copper.'-" miscellaneous gaskets would include hollow metal 0rings. It must be remembered that the primary seal against leakage. is the metal inner lap where the gasket is thickest before being compressed and densest when compressed. Monel@. (Cont. nickel.

The most widely used French type gaskets are fabricated using a copper sheath. FRENCH TYPE GASKETS DOUBLE-JACKETED DOUBLE-SHELL GASKET v French type gaskets are available in a one-piece jacketed construction for narrow radial widths not exceeding 1/4" and in two. double-shelled gasket is similar to the double-jacketed gasket except that instead of using a shell and a washer. The doublejacketed construction is preferred over the French or single-jacketed construction.They are made by encasing a soft filler on one face.0. and the 0. where practical. 18 . Iit¥Js~~l SINGLEJACKETED GASKET This particulartype of gasketis normally used with very light flanges on duct work handling hot gases. This type of gasket can also be used with the jacket on the external edge of the gasket when the application requires the outer edge of the gasket to be exposed to fluid pressure. gasket seating surfaces are narrow and relatively low compressive forces are available for seating the gasket. a double-jacketed gasket or doublejacketed corrugated gasket is normally recommended. v . Its temperature limitations depend upon the type of metal and filler used in construction. The double-jacketed.aa:1I't~. for wider applications.lJMS:tAd . This type of gasket is widely used in air tool applications and engine applications where space is limited.thed gasket with none of the soft filler exposed. however. For applica._". This type of gasket is used when total enclosure of the soft filler material is required and when the flange width makes it impractical to use a double-jacketed gasket. SINGLE-J ACKETED OVERLAP When using a gasket compound or lubricant it is important to remember to use only a very light coating. adding greater stability to the gasket.. Its construction consists of two French type shields welded together with a Cerafeltfiller materialon either side of the metal. since it provides a totally shea. Double-shell gaskets are normally restricted to use in high pressure applications. as shown in the sketches. both edges and a portion of the other face with a metal. It has the advantage of a double lap at both the 1. to act as a shield.. of the gasket.and three-piece constructions..t~~ J4d\ii)g~R2.. two shells are used in the fabrication of the gasket. The construction will withstand higher compressive loads.0. The majority of applications for single-jacketed gaskets are normally 1/4" or less in radial width.m. MODIFIED FRENCH TYPE illttboo. Excessive amounts of lubricant or compound may cause total gasket failure if the joint is exposed to high temperature and/or pressure. In the single-jacketed overlap construction the maximum flange width is approximately 1/4". v Single-jacketed gaskets are normally used for relatively narrow applications similar to the French type. Most single-jacketed gaskets are supplied with copper as the jacketing material.. other materials are available.0. Metal thickness is normally 26 gauge.JJ. rolled on the 1.tions in excess of 1/4".

.'~!S~ At temperatures in excess of the range of 900°F to 10000 F where the standard soft filler is normally not recommended. = + 1/16" Gasket 0. Groove 0. style 360G. The corrugations proviae resilier1t8.0.. instead of tape. a double-jacketed corrugated metal gasket with a corrugated metal filler is frequently used.0. Gasket 1. makes an excellent heat exchanger gasket for high pressure.015" to .0I. GASKETS CONFINED = ON O. depending upon metal selected. style 360. The CMG. in addition.0. are economical for use on relatively low pressure applications that require low bolt loads for gasket seating.0.015 thick layers of Grafoil@ tape applied to each face. adhered to both gasket faces.030". = Bore + minimum 1/8" Gasket 0. tHe primary seal would be the inner lap 5f metal. Because of the corrugations and thin metal thicknesses (. STANDARD TOLERANCES Up to 6" Diameter Gasket 6" to 60" 60" and Above 1- + 1132" ..0. As in the case of double-jacketed metal gaskets and double-jacketedcorrugated metal §askets. ONLY - GASKETS CONFINED Gasket 1. = Bore + minimum 1/8" Gasket 0. and thickness of material.D. 0 19 .would be the outer lap 6f metal and some degree of labyrinth sealing can be achieved with the corrugations. Corrugated gaskets can be fabricated in a wide variety of shapes with almost no size limitation.031"). This type of gasket niakes an excellent product for both standard flange gaskets and heat exchanger type gaskets where there is low bolt load or high availablegasket stresses.D. . On flange width less than 1/2" please consult Lamons engineering department. since the filler is normally the same material as the gasket itself.0.$. then the following must be specified: (a) Bolt hole circle diameter (b) Bolt hole diameter (c) Number of bolt holes (d) Desired gasket 0. + 1116" .0. Required bolt loads are substantially less tHan the solia metal types such as flat metal.D. AND LD. 1/16" GASKETS UNCONFINED ON O.0. is manufactured with flexible graphite sheet. A superior sealing surface can be created using . similar to the 360G. This construction has all the advantages of the doublejacketed corrugated metal gasket and.. -1/16" ON O.032"and flexible graphite thickness in . Lamons corrugated gaskets. profile 5F §errateai faBricated of the same material.'/16" + 0 3/32" Other methods of enhancing a seal include cementing non-asbestosor fiberglass cord to the corrugated faces or the use of a gasket compound...010" to .. Available in metal thicknesses of .D.%2" __-"'D. a . the amount of which depends on their ~itth.D. depth. the sec8RtJarysea! . il1@ bJ~pertemperature limit would be determined by the metal BeihgU§et30 this tYpeof gasket. + 0 .015"to . high temperature applications.0.SIZING METAL JACKETED GASKETS- The following sizings and tolerances are not mandatory but are suggested values based upon experience.0.0 + 3132" - + 0 . The temperature range for this type of gasket depends on the media to be sealed and the selection of the metal and/or facing materials. AND I. Groove 1. Also availablewith anti-stick graphite. = Up to a maximum of the bolt hole circle diameter minus one bolt hole diameter unless gasket is to be full face. relatively light bolt forces are required to flow the gasket materials at the points of contact with the flange. Gasket 1. If gasket is to be full face.DOUBLE-JACKETED CORRUGATED GASKET WITH A CORRUGATED METAL FILLER CORRUGATED AND CORRUGATED INLAID GASKETS STYLE ~ eaD10JJ. = Recess 0.

Distance from centerline of gasket to centerline of ribs 9. Inside Diameter 3. 2. Outside diameter. Shape per Standard Shapes Index 4. Materials (metal or metal and filler) 7. holes -cp -St v ~ J 20 . or type of construction 5. Thickness 6. Lamons style per catalog. Radii Ct " --<t Ct Examples: Qty.LAMONS METAL CLAD AND SOLID METAL HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS J INFORMATION NEEDED TO FILL AN ORDER: 1. Rib size 8.

LAMONS HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS .STANDARD SHAPE INDEX '-" 08CJOO§@8 8 0e90 @§~@j R C-1 C-2 D-1 D-2 E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 F-1 F-2 F-3 G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 @8S~EB ~@8 G-5 G-6 G-7 G-8 G-9 H-1 H-2 H-3 '-" §@@e@9~E9 e @@C§j@@~~ H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 @@@~-@@§EB 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 '"""'" @~E9C9 ~@~@ ~ ~ H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 .

D.e. less than 1" I. +3/64 Gasket Diameter Up to 1" 1" to 24" 24" to 36" 36" to 60" I 0. This type gasket can be used in all pressures from vacuum to the standard 2500 psi flange ratings. In addition to all these advantages of the spiral-wound gasket.1/16" GASKET UNCONFINED I. ONLY Gasket I. therefore. AND O. tooling costs are very nominal.D. This of course would account for the higher bolt loads that have to be applied to the gasket in high pressure applications. teflon fillers c. the density of the gasket can be controlled over a wide range. = Recess a. ~~ ~ Large Male and 'female Joint un:n? Raised Face Flange .010 -.D. Thickness + .SPIRAL-WOUND GASKETS SIZING SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS Spiral-wound gaskets must be sized to ensure the spiral-wound component is seated between flat surfaces. Spiral-wound gaskets can also be manufactured with variable densities. In the winding process.D. They can be used over the complete temperature range from cryogenic to approximately 2000°F. Centering Guide aD. variations of pressure and vibration. They are more resilient than any other type of metallic gasket with the exception of pressure sealing metal gaskets and. AND O. As a general rule.D. mechanical damage and leakage may occur. greater than 26" I. Gasket I.D. can compensate for flange movement that may occur due to temperature gradients. 22 STANDARD TOLERANCES (STYLE W) 1. as a consequence. 1" or larger flange width. If it protrudes beyond a raised face or into a flange bore. v ~ J~jnt i Large Tongue an. the alternating plies are maintained under pressure.. Varying the pressure during the winding operation and/or the thickness of the soft filler.d Groove " .0.015 -.D. The softer gaskets would require a seating stress in the range of 5. = SeatingSurfacea. Gasket I. = Seating Surface 1. they can be used against virtually any corrosive m~dium dependent upon the choice of the metal and filler.D.D.0. = Groove a. +0 -'/32 +0 -'/32 +0 -'/16 -0 + '/32 -0 +3/64 -0 + '/'6 -0 +0 -'/'6 60" and above I +3/32 -0 +0 _3/32 Thickness + . .I GASKET CONFINED ON I..-1/16" GASKET CONFINED ON O.000 psi. + Minimum 1/4" Gasketa. = Bore + Minimum 1/4" GasketaD.000 for most other sizes and materials v ..~ Small Tongue and Groove Joint ~ Spiral-wound gaskets have become extremely popular due to the wide variety of available styles and sizes. low winding pressure and thick soft fillers are used for low pressure applications. +1/16" Gasket a. When special sizes are required.000 on special Gaskets with: a.D.000 psi.D. relatively low density gaskets for vacuum service up to extremely high density gaskets having a seating stress of approximately 30.0.D. Spiralwound gaskets can be fabricated of any metal which is available in thin strip and which can be welded.D.D. eter of Bolt - Minimum1/4" - = Bolt Circle Diameter Diam- VARIABLE DENSITY Spiral-wound gaskets are manufactured by alternately winding strips of metal and soft fillers on the outer edge of winding mandrels that determine the inside dimensions of the wound component.D. b. i. = Groove I.D. they are a relatively low cost. Thin fillers and high pressure loads are used for high pressure applications.

.125".05 12. Normally the outer guide rings are furnished in mild steel. 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 4.0901.de-d.19 6.mmum for production purposes 'Innerrings are required for Class 900.cal m. LAMONS' STYLE WR LAMONS' STYLE WR-RJ .075/.75 17..69 23.63 Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available in a vari- ety of styles to suit the particular flange facing being utilized on the flanges. ASME 816. Refer to table below for dimensions of inner ring ID.200" .10 10.05 12. After the gasket is compressed.06 1. acts as an antiblowout device. 31 2500 11-31 ~ for Spiral-Wound Flange Size INPS) 300 0.75 16.50 13.80 7. gasket properly in the flange joint.56 0. . or Class 2500 flanges NPS 14 and larger 'The inner-ring inside diameters shown for NPS 1 1/4 through NPS 2 1/2 in Classes 1500 and 2500 w. The inner ring serves several functions..31 1.D.19 2.0625" 9' 3jg" .04 5.56 0.175".10 4.175" 75" 1" .75 17.75 9.56 12.81 1.75 19.06 2.25 23... Style WR gaskets consist of a spiral"wound sealing component with a solid metal outer guide ring.055" .90 5.50 12. of the sealing component and the flange bore is minimized.0.19 5.e Cia. of the flange bore.06 1. a pract. It provides radial support for the gasket on the 1.19 4.25 23.75 9.. the Ins.81 1.06 1.06 inch See ASME 816.75 9. 2) % % 1 1'1.135" .19 2.35 17. NPS 4 through NPS 12 gaskets.75 15.131 inches.25 14. * Width * Thickness . The followingchart indicates the size range that can normally be fabricated in the various thicknesses along withthe recommended compressed thickness of each and the maximum flange width.75 Diameters (Inches) 1500 12.62 3.250" 160" 1114" .10 13.25 19. Class 900 flanges NPS 1/2 through NPS 2 1/2 (use Class 1500).50 3.19 8.80 7.ameter tolerance.25 15.50 3.81 1.nch. Standard Inner-Ring Inside Gaskets P.50 AVAILABLE SPIRAL SEAL STYLES 2'1."..75 Style W is a spiral-woundsealing component only that is normally used on tongue and groove joints.285" 160" 1114" .05 6. Its 1.0.50 12.10 7. 150 0:56 0.06 1.220" *These limitationsare intended as a general guide only...'s for flanges up to 24-inch diameter and 2500 PSI.125/. NPS 24 gaskets. These gaskets are used on plain flat face flanges and on raised face flanges."-'" AVAILABLE SIZES AND THICKNESSES Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available in thicknesses of .125' 40" 3/4" .25 19.250".s I 0.85 4.50 10.62 3. is normally sized slightly larger than the 1.05 6. NPS 12 through NPS 24 gaskets: and Class 2500.50 1.. LAMONS' STYLE WRI FLANGE SURFACE FINISH Use of spiral-wound gaskets gives the designer and the usera wider tolerancefor flangessurfacefinishesthan other metallic gaskets.63 2. LIMITATIONS OF SIZE AND THICKNESS Maximum Recommended Gasket Maximum Flange Compressed Thickness I. . Class 1500. The inner rings are normally supplied in the same material as the spiral-wound component. .2001.10 8.56 0. Note: The inner-ring thickness shall be 0.56 12.69 23.20 calls for the use of inner rings with PTFE filled spiral wound gaskets "There are no Class 400 flanges NPS 1/2 through NPS 3 (use Class 6001.080" .1801.04 505 6.19 4.50 10.19 6.69 11.10 13.0501.50 3.19 5.. male and female flange facings and groove to flat flange facings. provides radial support for the spiralwound component. LAMONS' STYLE W 16 18 20 24 15.12 .81 1.112 .Materialsof construction and flange width of gasket can drastically affect the limitations listed.0625". The outer guide ring serves to center the This style gasket is identical to a Style WR in construction features but is specially sized to be used as a replacement gasket for flanges machined to accept oval 23 .10 8.63 2.69 19.100" .06 1..04 5.69 19.63 0.50 1..31 1..75 400 (1) 600 0.85 4.69 11.75 15.nch: for larger sozes the Inside-diameter tolerance IS I 0. 1% 2 0.1I produce inner-ring widths of 0.75 2.75 22. minimizing turbulence in process flow. experience has indicated that the appropriate flange surface finishes used with spiral-wound gaskets are as follows: 125 to 250 AARH Optimum 500 AARH Maximum Style WRI is identical to style WR with the addition of an inner ring.75 219 2. and .50 1.285".75 18.10 3.50 13.35 17.75 2.69 11. Forsizes NPS 1 1/4 through NPS 3. .19 8. While they can be used against most commercially availableflange surface finishes.10 3.90 5.25 14.100" 12" Vz" . to help prevent the occurrence of buckling or imploding..50 gOO (1.62 3.10 4. and acts as a compression gauge to prevent the spiral-wound component from being crushed.03 .06 2.81 1. but can be supplied in other metals when required by operating conditions.100".00 23.20 for minimum pipe wall fhicknesses that are suitable for use with standard inner rings.0.50 16.56 0.10 10.0. the flanges would normally be in contact with the inner ring and hence erosion and corrosion of the flange surface between the 1.

The sealing component is located between the 1. The double-jacketed partition strips are normally slightly thinner than the spiralwound component in order to minimize the bolt loading required to properly seat the gasket. This is due to the fact that spiral-wound gaskets are wrapped under tension and therefore tend to buckle inward when the gaskets are removed from the winding mandrel. Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available with a guide made entirely of spiral metal windings.that is as acompression limiting and acentering device. obround. As a rule of thumb. including a sketch or blueprint or a sample cover on which the gasket is to be used. dimensional drawings or sample cover plates should be provided in order to assure proper fit. for proper centering of the spiral-wound component on the gasket seating surface. GASKETS WITH WOUND GAUGE RINGS These gaskets are available in round. The Lamons Gasket Company has tooling available for manufacturing most of the standard handhole and tubecap sizes of the various boiler manufacturers. and oval shapes and are used for standard manhole cover plates. The spirally wound ring is normally supplied in the same metal as the metal inthe gasket. NOTE: When spiral-wound hand hole and manhole gaskets with a straight side are required it is necessary that some curvature be given to the flat or straight side to prevent buckling of the gasket.) These are also available in special sizes and shapes. Referto Lamon SpiraSealCatalog for dimensions of Style WR-RJ gaskets for flanges up to 24-inch d.0.or octagonal ring joint gaskets. (Refer to our SpiraSealCatalog. obround.) When special gaskets are required. In new construction.J LAMONS' STYLE WP OR WRP When a guide ring is required that is too narrow for practical fabrication of solid metal guide rings. LAMONS' STYLE H These gaskets are similar to Style Wand Style WR with the addition of pass partitions for use with shell and tube heat exchangers. Partitions are normally supplied with a double-jacketed construction of the same material as the spiral-wound component. The Style L is considerably more difficult to produce than the Style WR and therefore more expensive. diamond. it is necessary to submit complete information. They are available in round. (Referto Lamons SpiraSealCatalog for standard available shapes and sizes. This type of wound guide ring is normally limited to a V4" radialwidth or less. To order special gaskets. it is recommended that a Style WR gasket be used in lieU of a Style L gasket because of the obvious advantages of the outer solid metal gauge ring. The partition strips can be soft soldered. raised face flanges should be utilized.ofthe groove machined in the flange and the flange bore. " J LAMONS' STYLE L Style H gaskets are for use on boiler handhole and tubecap assemblies.ameter and 1500 psi. rectangular. oval and pear shapes. The spiral-wound components of Style L are identical to those of Style Wand in addition have a wire loop welded to the outer periphery of the gasket. where spiral-wound gaskets are intended to be used. LAMONS' STYLE MW AND MWC The Lamons Style L gasket is available for raised face and flat face applications where it is not practical to supply an outer gauge ring. Whenever possible. square. These spiral metal windings serve the same basic purpose as the solid metal ring. These are intended to be used as replacement parts and are considered a maintenance item. sized so as to fit over diametrically opposite bolts. tack welded or silver soldered to the spiral-wound component. the ratio of the long 10 to the short 10 should not exceed 3 to 1. J 24 . '-.

of the spiral wound sealing element. The Kammpro "Kammpro" inner ring metal can be ordered with or without PTFE coating and then faced with either .) regarding flange bore sizes for which this gasket may '-'" STYLE. WRI HF GASKETS This gasket was developed for H. STYLE.F. The design of our gasket allows it to be compressed with less bolt load to seat compared to the conventional type spirals. The carbon steel outer ring can be coated with special H. acid detecting paint if desired. The "WRI-LP" allows the spiral winding to be PTFE-Coated constructed with the required metal and soft filler specified by the user.005 normally.D.acid applications. The uniqueness of the "kammpro" design allows numerous choices on its construction. It consists of a Monel and PTFE spiral wound gasket with a carbon steel centering ring and a PTFE inner ring. Graphite or PTFE Facing 25 . This gasket combines the corrosion and oxidation resistance of mica with the excellent sealability of flexible graphite. WR-AB Spiral wounds that inwardly buckle are a concern in the industry and Lamons has introduced a spiral wound that addresses this historical concern. There are many additional advantageous design features to this product to reduce inward buckling.47 series A or B flange or for special applications WRI-LP Winding '-" A Spiralwound gasket with a conventional outer guide ring with a special inner ring design. Lamons has a new style spiral called "WR-AB" that does not require an inner ring. WRI-HTG For applications requiring a spiral wound when oxidation may occur. The soft filler materials commonly used are graphite and PTFE.5 and ASME B16.STYLE.020" thick PTFE. Thickness of the PTFE inner ring is .150 ::1:. ""-' WR-LC The need for a low compressive load spiral wound gasket in 150# and 300# class ASME/ANSI B16.F. The mica along with the metal winding serves as a barrier between oxidizing process conditions and the external air and the graphite. Lamons has developed the "WRI-HTG". When selecting PTFE for your filler material the use of an inner ring is recommended (style WRI-LC).5 pipe flange applications resulted in the development of the "WR-LC" spiral wound. Inner ring I. This special inner ring design is our "Kammpro" profile style LP-1. This gasket can be ordered for any ASME/ANSI B16. (Contact Lamon's Technical Department or may not be appropriate. The PTFE inner ring reduces corrosion to the flanges between the bore of the pipe and the I. graphite or other materials.'sare the same as standard metal inner rings unless otherwise requested.D. usually at higher temperatures. The traditional method to reduce inward buckling is to order an inner ring and that is still the best practice today.

This can contribute heavily to a leaky joint. they cannot be brought back to parallel. before loss of lubricant (or bolt seizing). 11. Therefore. With Raised face and flat face installation. Radial tool marks on a gasket seating surfaces are virtually impossible to seal regardless of the type of gasket used. Repeat Step 8. (If the joint is vertical. 10. including installation procedures.) Then. every attempt should be made to minimize these. 10. Success has also been reported with heat exchangers. Torque the bolts up to a maximum of 30% of the final torque." However. 7. Each bolt should be numbered so that bolt torque sequences can be easily followed. install all bolts and nuts to a hand-tight or snug condition. 5. Torque the Bolts.RECOMMENDED GASKET INSTALLATION PROCEDURES INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE TIPS FOR ALL GASKETS All too often we hear "the gasket leaks. it is the joint that leaks. Loosely install stud bolts. cracks. Verify that the material is as specified and visually inspect the gasket for any obvious defects or damage. In many cases. and the gasket is only one of several components that make up the joint. Often times. nuts and washers. to keep the gasket in position 26 until the flanges are tightened. in a minimum of four stages as specified in Steps 8. Inspect the gasket seating surfaces. 8. Bolts should be torqued in a proper bolting sequence. the gasket has the ability the overcome these occurrances. 3. 2. increasing the torque to approximately 60% of the final torque required. it may be necessary to use a minimum amount of cup grease. etc. or pitting by corrosion. Identify the proper bolting sequence and number bolts accordingly.SECTION III . Retorque all studs. Our experience in investigating leaky joints over the years has indicated that the most common cause of leaky joints is the use of improper gasket installation procedures. vibration. Use only new studs or bolts. and any flange movement that may occur due to thermal and pressure changes. and 11. regardless of the amount of subsequent torquing. 12. when used as a bolt and nut lubricant. Repeat Step g. Some flange joints should be retightened just before being put in operation. improper gasket installation procedures. Then. the gasket is expected to compensate for deficiencies in flange connection design. Look for tool marks. 9. Insert the gasket between the flange facing to allow the bolts to center the gasket on the assembly.value required following the recommended bolt torque sequence. Technically. gasket cement. All studs should be retorqued using a rotational pattern of retorquing to the final value of torque until no further rotation of the nuts can be achieved. 4. to account for bolt and gasket relaxation. increasing the torque to the final torque value. In a recessed or grooved installation. Failure to follow proper bolt torque sequences can result in cocking flanges. center the gasket midway into the recess or groove. J *For specific gasket types and application assistance contact Lamons Technical Department J . loosely install the stud bolts on the lower half of the flange. 9. J 6. Lubricate all thread contact areas and nut facings. when bolting is retightened during initial heat up. Inspect the gasket. It is important that the correct gasket has been chosen for the bolted flange connection. but only when careful attention has been given to all of the aspects of gasket selection. This may require several retorquings as torquing of one stud causes relaxation in adjacent studs. or some other adhesive compatible with the process fluids. See charts for recommended bolting sequences. An anti seize compound. Install the remaining bolts and nuts and bring all to a hand-tight or snug condition. GASKET INSTALLATION PROCEDURES (AND BOLT TORQUING) 1. that is not entirely true. will facilitate subsequent disassembly. scratches. Continue torquing until equilibrium has been achieved. Make sure they are of good quality and appropriate for the application. with certain gasket types* and flange facings. The importance of proper lubrication cannot be overstated! A proper lubricant will provide a low coefficient of friction for more consistent achieved bolt stress.

BOLT TORQUE SEQUENCE 8-Bolts '"'" 12-Bolts Sequencial Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Rotational Order 1 5 3 7 2 6 4 8 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 '-' Rotational Order 1 5 9 3 7 11 2 6 10 4 8 12 16-Bolts 9 12 11 10 ...... Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 Rotational Order 1 2 9 10 5 6 13 14 3 4 11 12 7 8 15 16 27 .....

The use of manpower to tighten the bolts. retorque the bolts to 100% of the allowable stress for the particular grade material. however. the hydrostatic test pressure that the flange joint must pass is one and a half times the design pressure. As a consequence.) ~ . (See Page 32) ~ . When this is required. relievethe bolts to approximately 50 percent of the prestress required. that in order to pass hydrostatic tests. Appendix S. As a consequence it may be necessary to use high tensile bolts or studs in order to achieve a satisfactory test. tensioning devices. this would be an extremely costly and impractical approach to determine the true measure of bolt stress. I 14 2 Rotational 1 13 5 17 9 3 15 7 19 11 9 Order 2 14 6 18 10 4 16 8 20 12 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 24-Bolts 12 4 3 11 10 2 Rotational 1 9 17 5 13 21 3 11 19 7 15 23 Order 2 10 18 6 14 22 4 12 20 8 16 24 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22 23-24 NOTE: Allowable bolt stresses. (Once again it is imperative that a proper lubricant be used on the bolts when replacement is being made. . In cases where low yield bolt material is being used. any joint that is designed in strict accordance with the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and is subjected to hydrostatic tests in excess of the design pressure. Use high tensile bolts or studs for hydrostatic tests following the procedures outlined above for gasket installation. In addition. Section VIII of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. in most cases. After a successful hydrostatic test has been achieved. As each bolt is replaced. In practice. strenuous and is a very dangerous practice. states. or drilling the studs and inserting heaters to preheat the stud to a specific temperature that will ultimately create the proper tension on the bolt. bolts may be stressed to whatever level is required to satisfactorily pass the test. The newer techniques are much more reliable. As a con28 . the stresses required in bolts sufficient to satisfactorily pass the test may exceed the yield point of the bolt material. the following procedures should be followed.20-Bolts 13 16 3 4 15 sequence the trend in industry today is the use of torque wrenches. by sledgehammers. striking wrenches and pieces of pipe on the end of the wrench is becoming less and less a standard practice. will require a higher initial stress on the stud to successfully pass the hydrostatic test. It is time-consuming. a flange designer will determine his required bolting for a 600 psi application at a given operating temperature specifically in accordance with allowable stresses for the bolt material at the operating temperature. no additional stressing of the bolt will alleviate the problem of leakage. torque it to the value of the other bolts. These allowable stresses are based on the particular material and their strength at operating temperature. Replace the bolts or studs one at a time with the proper grade bolt for operating conditions. Once this occurs. hydraulic wrenches. However. specifically recognizes the problem of initial bolt stresses. As a consequence. This introduces additional problems. After all the bolts have been replaced. TORQUE VALUES Probably the only true measurement of bolt stress is by bolt or stud elongation. in essence. in most cases the design of the flange is based upon the allowable bolt stress of the particular material at design temperature and at the design or operating pressure. For example. the same bolt material will have an allowable stress at ambient conditions as specified. Appendix S of Section 8 of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code speaks in great length on this problem and.

Select softer gasket material to lower required seating stresses. Provide additional bolts if possible to obtain better load distribution.. n___.. Make certain proper sequential bolt up procedures are followed.. ~ select replacement material with better load carrying capacity ~--~ ---n_. provide means to prevent crushing the gasket by use of a stop ring or re-design of flanges... Provide stiffness to flange by means of back-up rings. Select gasket material with lower seating stress. more Gasket grossly crushed Select replacement material with better load carrying capacity._no..n. Indicative of "flange bridging" between bolts or warped flanges. re-machine or use softer gasket material. Gasket unevenly compressed around circumference '-' ----------------- Gasket thickness varies periodically around circumference. Make certain gaskets are properly centered in joint. Improper bolting up procedures followed..e. Gasket substantially thinner on 0. Provide reinforcing rings for flanges to better distribute bolt load. Reduce gasket area to lower seating stresses.0. --- Gasket mechanically damaged due to overhang of raised face or flange bore.-------------------------------------------------- i.TROUBLE SHOOTING LEAKING JOINTS '-' One of the best available tools to aid in determining the cause of leakage is a careful examination of the gasket in use when leakage occurred. 29 . material with better cold flow properties. Review gasket dimensions to insure gaskets are proper size. Reduce gasket area to allow higher unit seating load. If flanges are warped. than 1. Alter gasket dimensions to move gasket reaction closer to bolts to minimize bending movement.. Select replacement dense.0.. ~ ------------- -- -_u ~---~------------ Observation -~ ~ ~ ~ Possible Remedies n_- Gasket badly corroded Gasket extruded excessively Select replacement ------ material with improved corrosion resistance. ~--- . Select thicker gasket material. -. Select softer gasket material.. Indicative of excessive "flange rotation" or bending. No apparent gasket compression achieved.

A spiral wound gasket must be installed in such a manner that the winding is compressed across its entire face without interruption. The following page is an information sheet that would help us to assist you. . If a spiral wound gasket falls into the clearances between a manway cover and boiler opening. a "pinching" effect may occur. these assemblies have a couple of bolts to secure the gasket during installation and provide some degree of initial seating load. causing mechanical damage to the gasket. there is often a large amount of clearance between the manway cover and the opening in the boiler. the inner ring helps to position the gasket on the manway cover. Normally. It is possible to "bridge" the clearances in many boiler applications utilizing an integral solid metal ring along the inside circumference of the spiral windings. "-" LAMONS STYLE MWI Style MWI manway gaskets consist of a winding with a solid metal inner ring to position the winding and help avoid mechanical damage. Lamons has the answer In a typical oval or obround manway cover assembly. the cover sets inside of the boiler and internal pressure is relied upon to create the sealing force. A Lamons technical representative could help with sizing of the inner ring and the sf3in~1 WiHaing. in this type of manways. NOTES: ~ 30 .MANWAY PROBLEMS? If installationand service problems are experienced with spiral wound gaskets in manways. The thickness of the solid metal ring allows for adequate compression and helps to avoid crushing of the gasket. Our experience indicates that. Lamons style MWI. Essentially.

(C) OD of Gasket Surface on Boiler Dim. TX 77001 Fax (713) 547-9502 31 Width (Short Side) Shape (check one): Oval c=::J c=::J Obround Other c=::J (Drawing Required) '-' .LAMONS GASKET COMPANY . B Pressure Dim. Application Information Sheet For Oval or Obround Manways Boiler Manway Cover 1 ~ OD of Gasket Surface on goyer Dim. A Dim. (B) t t '-" 1 r Boiler Please provide the following information: Length (Long Side) Dim... Box 947 Houston. C Dim. (D) i BoilerOpening Dim.. PO.. (A) t ID of Gasket Surface on Cover Dim. D Temperature Service (Typically Steam) Lamons Gasket Co.

If using solid metal gaskets .005". 2.030". lASKET . 3.015" . If using jacketed or spiral wound gaskets . BOLT . WASHER SLEEVE GASKET FLANGE FLANGE - GASKET WASHER FLANGE NUT WASHER NUT - FLANGES BADLY COCKED OR SEPARATED TOO FAR: Solution: Do not try to correct problem with flange bolts . Do use spacers to correct problem with gasket on each side. BOLT . '-' Flanges badly mis-aligned GASKET ~ ! ~ Note: 1. SPACER GASKET FLANGES OUT OF PARALLEL: Flanges too far apart n\ I GASKET ~ '-=f~: WAVY SURFACE FINISH Total allowable out of parallel: ~1 + ~2 = 0. more leeway is possible . If using rubber.deviation should not exceed 0.Deviation on right is less critical than deviation on left since bolt tightening will tend to bring flanges parallel due to flange bending. ~~ v j 32 1 .can overstress.perhaps total of 0.deviation should not exceed 0.015". J Note . TAPERED SPACER Flanges cocked GASKET.OTHER PROBLEM JOINT MUST COMPENSATE FOR WIDE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS: Solution: Consider use of sleeve around bolts to increaseeffectivebolt length: AREAS Or consider use of conical spring washers in place of sleeve to eliminate torque losses over wide temperature ranges.

as a result of creep in the bolt and/or flange or gasket material. the possibility of similar difficulties arising from yielding of the flange or gasket material.. determiningthe number It is possible for the bolt stress to decrease after initial tightening.. Such yielding can also occur when there is very little margin between initial bolt stress and yield strength. whereas any pronounced decrease due to such effects can result in such a loss of bolt load as to be a direct cause of leakage. and it is the intent of this Division of Section VIII that such a practice is permissible. Even if no damage is evident. In any event. or when the bolt material has a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the flange material. However. may cause the flange to yield. flange deflection. it is advisable when designing a joint for high-temperature service to give attention to the relaxation properties of the materials -involved. This prestress should not be confused with initial bolt stress. to insure. Excessive bolt stress.especially for temperatures where creep isthe controlling factor in design. starting from the prestressed condition. In the other direction.SECTION IV "-" - APPENDIX APPENDIX S ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION I PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOLTED FLANGE CONNECTIONS The primary purpose of the rules for bolted flange connections in Parts A and B of Appendix II is to insure safety.. A decrease in bolt stress can also occur in service at elevated temperatures. and sometimes a single such operation. because of slow creep or relaxation of the gasket. that it is adequate to provide against all conditions that tend to produce a leaking joint. even though the bolts may not yield.. provided it includes necessary and appropriate provision to insure against excessive flange distortion and gross crushing of the gasket. under like circumstances or from other causes. must be developed in the tightening operation.. viz. On the other hand. The yield strength of mild carbon steel. on the one hand. it is common practice to retighten the bolts. superposed on the load already existing. Any resulting excessive deflection of the flange. a high temperature. a distinction must be kept carefully in mind between the design value and the bolt stress that might actually exist or that might be needed for conditions other than the design pressure. is sufficient to correct the condition. When this results in leakage under service conditions. can cause yielding of the bolt material. The first important consideration is the need for the joint to be tight in the hydrostatic test.. or perhaps even under normal operation. The initial tightening of the bolts is a prestressing operation. whatever the reason. in some cases. However. should also be considered. a high design pressure. In the great majority of designs the practice that has been used in the past should be adequate. In addition to the difficulties created by yielding of the bolts as described above. this is an oversimplification.. The considerations presented in the following discussion will be important only when some unusual feature exists. and the amount of bolt stress developed must be within proper limits. This is especially likely with bolts of small diameter and with bolt materials having a relatively low yield strength. portioningof the bolting. To avoid chronic difficulties of this nature. particularly in the case of the "softer" gasket materials. further bolt strain develops during the test. that is not so excessive that yielding of the bolts and/or flanges can produce relaxation that also can result in leakage.Le.. An initial bolt stress of some magnitude greater than the design value therefore must be provided. if a stress-strain analysis of the joint is made.. severe temperature gradients. and certain of the nonferrous bolting materials can easily be exceeded with ordinary wrench effort in the smaller bolt sizes. In either case. however. The maximum allowable stress values for bolting given in the various tables of Subsection C are design values to be used in determining the minimum amount of bolting required under the rules. in which case it may suffice merely to retighten the bolts. This can happen when there is an appreciable differential in temperature between the flanges and the bolts. an unusual gasket arrangement. retightening of the bolts may be necessary. accompanied by permanent set. An increase in bolt stress. The test pressureis usually 11/2 times the design pressure. and on the other hand. above any that may be due to internal pressure. Such an analysis is one that considers the changes in bolt elongation.but there are certain practical matters to be taken into consideration in order to obtain a serviceable design. and so on. and gasket load that take place with the application of internal pressure. This may be the cause of leakage in the hydrostatic test. excessive initial bolt stress can present a problem in the form of yielding in the bolting itself.. "-" and size of the bolts. but it must not be forgotten that the effects of repeated retightening can be cumulative and may ultimately make the joint unserviceable. Any increase in bolt load due to this thermal effect. and on this basis it may be thought that 50 percent extra bolt stress above the design value will be sufficient. to follow the design rules in Appendix II and tighten the bolts sufficiently to withstand the test pressure without leakage. If it is not. annealed austenitic stainless steel. One of the most important of these is the prof . because. on the one hand. it is evident that an initial bolt stress higher than the design value may and. the safety factor against leakage under test conditions in general need not be as great as under operating conditions. might occur in service during startup or other transient conditions. S1'used in the design of Part B flanges. or perhaps several repeated at long intervals. and may occur in the tightening operation to the extent of damage or even breakage. any additional load generated when internal pressure is applied can produce further yielding with possible leakage. such as a very large diameter. which tends to part the joint and thereby to decompress the gasket enough to allow leakage. it may indicatethat an initial bolt stress still higher than 11/2 times the design value is needed. can produce a leaking 33 . with consequent relaxation.

The design values for flange materials may be as high as five-eighths or two-thirds of the yield strength. it should be noted that a dual set of stresses is given for some of the materials in Table UHA-23. is: S = 45. all at atmospheric temperature. and what special means of tightening. simple wrenching without Verification of the actual bolt stress meets all practical needs. irregular permanent distortion of the flange due to uneven bolt load around the circumference of the joint can warp the flange face and its gasket contact surface out of a true plane. must be employed. It is too conservative to assume that local yielding isfollowed immediately by overall yielding of the entire flange.joint when other effects are superposed. it will be impossible to develop the desired stress in very large bolts by ordinary hand wrenching. Section VIIi. Even if a "plastic hinge" should develop. the design stress values are governed by the creep rate and stress-rupture strength.when using standard wrenches.At elevated temperatures. but if not. It can also damage the flange by making it more difficult to effect a tight joint thereafter.000 y'd where S is the bolt stress and d is the nominal diameter of the bolt.the margin against flange yielding is not as great. if any. and that the lower values should be used in order to avoid yielding in the flanges. Ordinarily. and it is advantageous to have designs that require no more than this. The design stress values for bolting in Subsection C have been set at a conservative value to provide a factor against yieJding. Another very important item in bolting design is the question whether the necessary bolt stress is actually realized. resort may be had to such methods as preheating the bolt. Yielding is far more significant if it occurs first in the ring. size and material that will prevent gross crushing of the gasket. but the limitation in the rules on the combined hub and ring stresses provides a safeguard. the ring portion of the flange takes up the portion of the load the hub and shell refuse to carry. however. On the other hand. the highest stress in a flange is usually the bending stress in the hub or shell.Reprinted from ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. It can be seen that smaller bolts will have excessive stress unless judgment is exercised in pulling up on them. Some pitfalls must be avoided. For example. In this connection. it is apparent that the bolt stress can vary over a considerable range above the design stress value. but in all cases the bolt stress can be regulated within reasonable tolerances by measuring the bolt elongation with suitable extensometer equipment. unless the gasket has a stop ring or the flange face detail is arranged to provide the equivalent. too. consideration must be given to the selection of gasket type. and measured control of the stress is employed only when there is some special or important reason for doing so. The full initial bolt load is imposed entirely on the gasket. Any higher bolt stress existing before creep occurs in operation will have already served its purpose of seating the gasket and holding the hydrostatic test pressure. can be overloaded. even without excessive boltstress. Theoretically. or using hydraulically powered bolt tensioners. The probable bolt stress developed manually. J J Reprinted with permission from ASME. J 34 . Most joints are tightened manually by ordinary wrenching. Impact wrenches may prove serviceable. especially if effective thread lubricants are employed. and is more or less localized. With some of these methods. However. From the foregoing. Div. control of the bolt stress is possible by means inherent in the procedure. Without such means of controlling the compression of the gasket. and is not needed at the design pressure and temperature. The gasket.

150°F Hydrocyanic Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluosilicic Acid Hvdroqen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulphide Kerosene Lactic Acid Linseed Oil RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS Alurni. B A A B A A A A A A A A A A U A B A U U A U B A B A A A U B A A A B A A A A U U U C U U C A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A 8 A A A B B B A B A A A B A B A A A A B U B A A B B B U B B B A U U A B B U B A A A U U U A B B B A B A B B A B B B B B U U B B A B.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 316 410 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 S.S. Acetone Aluminum Chloride Room Temp. Aluminum Fluoride Room Temp. S. Aluminum Sulphate Ammonia (Anhydrous) Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate Ammonium Sulphate Amyl Acetate Aniline Barium Chloride Beer Benzene Benzol Borax Boric Acid Bromine Butyl Alcohol Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hypochlorite Carbolic Acid Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine-Dry Chlorine-Wet Chromic Acid Citric Acid Copper Chloride Copper Sulphate Creosote (Coal Tar) Crude Oil Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Chloride Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulphate Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Acid) Furfural Gasoline Glue Glycerin Hydrobromic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Room Temp. Steel A A A U B B A U B A A U A B B A A A A A A A A B B U A B A U B A U U B A A A B U B B U A B A A A A U U U A U A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A U A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A U U U A U A A A A A A A A A B B B U U U U t:.Good Resistance B . S.Unsatisfactory Media Acetic Acid Room Temp.S.'-" CHEMICAL A . A A A A B A A A B B U B A A B U B U B B B B A B U U A B B B A A A A U U U B A B B A U A B A A B B B B B U U B B A B B A B B B A A A B B B B A A B U B U B B B A B U U A B A U B A A A U U U A B B B A U A A A A U U A A U A A A U A A B A A A A A U A A B B B A A U U A A U A A A A A A U A A B A U A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A B A A A U U A A B A A A A A A U A A A A B A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U B A B A A A A A A A A A A A U A A U A B U A U U B A B A A A A U A A U A A A U U U U U A A A A A U B A U B U B B A A U A B A B A A A A U U A A A A U U U A U U B U A A A A A U U B U A B A A A A U U U B U U U U A U A '-" "-' 35 .S.Moderate Resistance U .Alloy Hastel. Acetic Anhydride Room Temp.

B A A A U A A A A A A A B A B B B U A A C A U U U A B B B A A A B A B A B A A A B A B A B A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A U A B A A B B B A A A B A B A B A B B B A B B A U A U B B A U U B A B A A A A A B A A A A A A A B A B A B B B A B A A A B B B A B B B B A A A A A A B A A A A A A U A B A A A A U B U A U U U B A A A A A B B A A A B B B B A A A A A A B B B A B A A A B A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A A A A B A A A B A A A A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A A A B B U A A A A A A A A B A B A U B B U U B U A U B U U U U A B A B B B U B A U A A A A A A A A U U U U U A A B B A A A A A A A A A B A U U U U A B B A B B B U U U U B B A B B U U U U U B B A B B U U A U A A A A U A 316 5.CHEMICAL A .5. B A A U A A U U A U A A A B A B A A A A U A A A A A U A A A B A A U U U U U U A A U A U A '-'" Steel A B A B A B U A U U U B B U A U A B B A A B A B B U A B U B A A A U A B B.5.Good Resistance B .) Alurni. A A A A A A A A U U A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A B U U U A B A A A A U A 410 5.5. A A A A B B A U U U U B A A U U B B B '--' Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Hot Sulphuric Acid-Fuming Sulphurous Acid Sulphur-Molten Tannic Acid Tartaric Acid Vinegar Zinc Chloride Zinc Sulphate '--' 36 .Alloy Hastel.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 5.Moderate Resistance U . U A B A A A A A B B B A A A A A U B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A B A B A A A U A A A A A B B B A A A A A A A A B B B A U U U A U U U U U U U A U U U U U A U A A B B A U U U A U U U U U A A U U U U A A A U A U U U A B A B B A A A A A U A U A A A A A B B A B A A A B B .Unsatisfactory Media Lye (Caustic) Manganese Carbonate Manganese Chloride Mangnesium Carbonate MaQnesiumChloride Magnesium Hydroxide Magnesium Nitrate Magnesium Sulphate Methylene Chloride Mercuric Chloride Mercury Muriatic Acid Nitric Acid-Diluted Nitric Acid-Concentrated Nitrous Acid Nitrous Oxide Oleic Acid Oxalic Acid Petroleum Oils-Crude Phosphoric Acid Picric Acid Potassium Bromide Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium Cvanide Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Sulphate Sea Water Sewage Silver Nitrate Soaps Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bisulphate Sodium Bromide Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hyperchlorite Sodium Nitrate Sodium Peroxide Sodium Phosphate Sodium Silicate Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphide Soy Bean Oil Steam Stearic Acid Stannic Chloride Sulphur Chloride Sulphur Dioxide-Dry Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Cold Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Hot Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Cold RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS (CONT.

For unusual concentrations.8. further investigation is indicated. 4308.8.8.8. 316 8. Soap Sperry Oil Sulphur Dioxide Super VM&P Naphtha Toluol Transformer Oil Trichloroethylene Tricresyl Phosphate Triethylene Glycol (Neutral Grade) Turpentine Varnish Vegetable Oil Water Wood Alcohol Xylol Not suitable for use with: Acids (Inorganic) Alkalies Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid (Dilute) 37 . 321 8.8. Suitable for use with: Acetone Alcohol Animal Fats & Oils Benzene (Benzol) Benzine (Gasoline) Bunker Oil Butane Butyl Acetate Carbon Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Cresol Dibutyl Phthalate DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Dry Cleaning Fluid Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Freon Fuel Oil Gas Illuminating Gasoline Greases Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Inerteen 70-30 Inks Kerosene Lacquers and Thinners Lubricating Oil Methyl Chloride (Refrigerant) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Detone (MIBK) Naphtha. 501 8.pressures temperatures.METALS SUGGESTED MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURES TYPE IN AIR SERVICE OF 1000 1400 2000 2100 1400 1500 1700 1300 1500 1200 1500 800 500 500 2000 2000 1f~00 1500 1400 500 3000 2000 CONTINUOUS °C 538 760 1095 1150 760 815 925 705 815 649 815 427 260 260 1095 1095 871 815 760 260 1649 1095 '-' Carbon 8teel 304 8.8.8. Coal Tar Paints Petroleum Prestone (Antifreeze) Nitro Benzine Oxygen Silicate of Soda Sulphuric Acid (Dilute) '-' Propylene Glycol Pyranol A13B3B Skydrol 500B Skydrol 7000 Abs. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. 309 8. 4108. 347 8. 310 8. Alloy 20 Aluminum Brass Copper Hastelloy B & C@ Inconel 600@ Incolloy 800@ Monel@ Nickel Phosphor Bronze Tantalum Titanium Note: Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures.GLYCERIN BINDER protein bonded sheet that is suitable for the or fiber sheet is a tough.8. pliable and compressible services listed below to a maximum temperature limit of 2500 F. "-'" CHEMICAL RESISTANCE VEGETABLE FIBER SHEET Vegetable CHART GLUE. Petroleum Naphtha.8.

12 4.25 3.75 10.00 7.25 21..84 1.12 5.12 17. 600.88 2.62 0.75 11.00 6.75 0.12 5.75 Class 900 2.88 12.75 4.38 22.13 17.75 3.62 25.75 0.50 J 00 3.50 10.12 27.38 Nominal Flat No.50 8.38 25.25 4.50 6.00 19.00 20.00 3.00 4.62 8.38 7.12 21.00 16.38 5.62 2.25 1.00 21.91 2.88 28.62 Class 400 2.12 5.50 00 13.75 3.25 16.00 6.12 14.50 25.00 4.62 2..50 32.62 2.75 11.25 1.62 0.12 2.00 Class 300 2.62 .06 1.38 7.25 18.88 6.50 3.00 27.50 3.88 6.00 18.50 5.38 2.00 21.75 0.88 3..50 19.38 4.75 12.21 GASKETDIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.12 9.12 3.88 9.75 25.38 9.12 19.25 3.62 15.25 17. CLASSES 300.5 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS.00 FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.75 0.75 5.00 20.50 30.75 21.50 9.12 8.38 5.62 0.38 8.12 23.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.of Hole BoltCircle Pipe Gasket Ring 10 Holes Diameter Diameter Size 00 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 0.38 16.of Hole BoltCircle Holes Diameter Diameter 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 0.5 CLASS 150 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FullFaceGasket Nominal Flat Gasket Pipe Ring Size 10 00 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 0.50 33.50 5.50 4.62 3.50 9.62 6.00 18.88 5.50 2.50 12.06 1.50 6..00 8.75 4.88 3.12 3.00 1.50 6.38 5.00 18.62 10.88 3./ Gasket 10 0.88 5.84 1.38 11.88 6.25 3.50 25.12 2.88 3.88 4.12 1.38 14.62 20.88 31.00 23.75 20.75 30.00 11.00 Class 600 2.75 14. 8.12 2.75 12.00 7.00 19.88 0.88 3.00 1.66 1.88 2.25 23.38 2.62 0.63 5.00 24.25 FITTINGS FullFaceGasket No.50 16.50 7.62 0.75 14.12 16.50 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 8. 00 13.00 29.75 0.12 26.31 1.88 4.50 3.75 14. AND 900 Gasket 00 NominalPipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 -.00 7.62 10.31 1.50 22.50 19. 400.38 2.56 6.00 16.62 23.12 V 38 .00 14.88 1..00 7.25 2.25 24.50 4.00 7.00 8.62 1.66 1.75 12.62 9.00 24.12 1.91 2.56 6.25 22.75 4.

50 67.38 32.50 32. AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 22 (1) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 10 22.25 56. 400 AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 .44 51.00 40.50 50.50 54.12 54.56 30.47 SERIES B (OR API 605) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.12 45.00 32..38 37.88 29.12 41.75 62.00 55.00 32.50 33. 300.25 58.25 47.00 39.47 SERIES A (OR MSS-SP-44) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.25 65.69 36.25 Class 600 28.31 46.00 54.12 37.00 44.44 55.00 52.75 35.25 40..62 41.63 32.21 (CONT. 300. FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.50 58.88 37.50 39.25 57.47.88 37.62 62.50 41.75 39.81 38.00 48.00 58.25 42.00 28.00 30.00 42.25 Class 600 30.50 45.12 47.75 GENERAL NOTE: Dimensions are in inches.88 38.19 Class 300 30.75 66.00 50.25 43.88 62.12 Class 400 29.00 48.75 61.62 56.00 34.88 31.50 44..26 44.31 44.00 54.25 54.75 37.00 56.00 44. Gasket 10 26.44 53.12 52.12 43.50 56.25 49.25 45.00 36.00 Class 75 27.00 52..75 60.56 34.00 52.25 52.00 46.50 65.75 61.88 48.00 26.00 46.00 63.38* 46.00 59.75 48.. 39 .25 63.25 34.50 43.00 42.00 Class 150 26.31 40. 400. 150.19 67.) '-' FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.44 57..25 39.50 34.88 35.12 36.00 56.00 30.56 32.25 58 60 GENERALNOTE: Dimensions are in inches.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.50 67.31 42.75 45.00 50.50 48. "'""NOTE: (1) NPS 22 for reference only. CLASSES 75.00 38.19 64.75 63.00 60.50 52.00 38.00 28.00 36.88 60.75 35.38 48.00 34.38 31.00 41.25 43.50 Class 300 27.88 41..75 Class 400 27.25* 62.00 40. Size not listed in ASME 816.00 30.75 34.50 50.88 40.25 41.62 44.00 39.88 Class 150 28.62 58.75 32.88 57.62 59.50 48.00 50.88 45.00 50.26 59.00 42. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.88 34.25 44.00 60.88 35.00 41.00 61. CLASSES 150..50 43.75 64.25 51.88 33.88 60.75 53.00 58..00 38.00 50.12 32.12 49.75 65.88 53.62 36.88 55.26 54.75 57.

. Citric acid Formic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluosilicic acid Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen sulfide-water Lactic acid Monochloracetic acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Oleic acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Stearic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Ammonium hydroxide Monoethanolamine Sodium hydroxide Alum Aluminum chloride Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium thiocyanate Arsenic trichloride Calcium chlorate Calcium hypochlorite Copper sulfate Cupric chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Manganous sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Phosphorous trichloride Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium hypochlorite Stannic chloride Sulfur monochloride Zinc ammonium chloride Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate Concentration Per Cent All All All All All 0 .63 All 0 .20 All All All All 0 ..J 40 I . aq.85 86 .10 All All All All All All All All All All All 0-4 0 . up to of All All All All All 200 All All All All All All All All All 185 140 100 All All All All All All 338 300 160 Not Rec.. soln.90 91 ..20 Over 20 All All 0 .25 All All All All All "-' ALKALIES SALTSOLUTIONS -.J Chemical Reagent ACIDS Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Arsenic Acid Boric acid Carbonic Acid Chromium trioxide..85 All All 0 .70 71 .10 10 .10 All All All All 0 .95 Over 95 All All All All All All All All All All 0 . All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 90 All All All All All All All All All All Room Room All All All All All -.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART Fluid Temp.

AIR. 'Au reomyci n" HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .". Trichlorethylene Xylene 90 . '-" Benzene Benzene hexachloride Benzyl sulfonic acid Butyl alcohol Butyl "Cellosolve" Carbon tetrachloride "Cellosolve" solvent Chloral hydrate "Chlorethylbenzene" Chloroform "Deoxidine" Dichloropropionic acid Diethanolamine Dioxane Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethyl mercaptan-water Fatty acids Folic acid Refrigerants 11 and 12 Gasoline Glycerine Isopropyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl ether Kerosene Mannitol Methyl alcohol Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorbenzene Monovinyl acetate Octyl alcohol Paradichlorbenzene Paraldehyde Tetrachlorothane.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE CHART (CONT.) Fluid Temp. sym.60 All All All 60 All All All All All All All - RECOMMENDATION '-" HALOGENS.100 All All All All 0 -8 All All Saturated All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 41 I . WATER Chemical Reagent Air Bromine Bromine water Chlorine-dry Chlorine dioxide Chlorine water Fluorine Iodine Steam Water "Dowtherm" (all types) Petroleum-oil based "Therminol" (all types) "Ucon:' (all types) Acetone Amyl alcohol Aniline Aniline hydrochloride . Up to OF 850 Room Room All 158 Room 300 Room 1200 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 338 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All Concentration Per Cent All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 0 .

-- -- .H. (chloride) All Nickel plating solns. (sulfate) 15 Nitric acid plus 5 hydrofluoric acid All "Parkerizing" solution All Rayon spin bath 25 Sodium hypochlorite plus sodium hydroxide 96 Sulfuric acid plus .GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART MIXTURES (CONT.0% 99. J .solutions Amino acid plus hydrochloric and sulfuric acids Ammonium persulfate plus Over 20 sulfuric acid All Anodizing solutions All Butyl acrylate plus acrylic acid 30 Calcium chloride 10 plus calcium chlorate All Chlorinated ethyl alcohols All Chrome plating solutions Cresylic acid plus sulfuric acid Electropolishing solutions (sulfuric All plus phosphoric acids) Over 20 Hydrochloric acid All sat.5 ml/hr 900 psi . with chlorine All Nickel plating solns. EXAMPLE: a metal spiralwound gasket with a GRAFOIL@ filler material.) Fluid Temp.018 . Up to of All All Room All All 140 All Room All 140 All All All 140 All All 200 Not Rec.H.052 .07 MPa) @ 12 psi (.08 MPa) TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TYPICAL THERMAL PROPERTIES 42 Functional/TemperatureRange -400 to 5400oF Neutral or Reducing Atmosphere -400 to 850oF* Oxidizing Atmosphere Standard Grades -400 to 975°F* Oxidation Resistant Grades GT"'J and GT'M K Thermal Conductivity Along Length & Width 960BTU-in/ft2.oF Through Thickness 36BTU-in/ft2.03 MPa) @ 8 psi (.03 nitric acid TYPICAL TYPICAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES GRAFOIL@ SHEET PROPERTIES 70 Ib/fP 100 ppm 50 ppm 95.5% 40% 20% <5% <0. Chemical Reagent Concentration Per Cent J All Acidified starch .157 '-' Density Leachable Chloride Content-Maximum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Carbon Content-Minimum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Compressibility (ASTM F-36) Recovery(ASTMF-36) Creep Relaxation (ASTM F-38) Sealability (ASTM F-37) TensileStrength Along Length & Width Coefficient of Friction Against Steel @ 4 psi (.of * The fluid temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere may considerably exceed the indicated temperature without oxidation of the GRAFOIL@ providing that the bulk temperature of the GRAFOIL@ gasket is below these temperatures or that the fluid being handled does not come into direct contact with the graphite.

3 1186.10 485.9 1194.94 46.62 53.5184 .49 16.50 143.05 51.90 48.83 298.73 36.57 87.10 240.26 615.86 712.21 829.9 1075.54 556.24 94.84 30.3712 .497 5.71 80.30 443.84 989.52 287.46 258.65 Diam.04 62.68 82.32 928.98 170.37 44.5 1272.57 21.45 250.14 779.7 102.09 38.79 65.57 593.4 124.44 51.92 156.69 754.85 120.87 50.26 572.02761 .35 223.01227 .21 207.46 93.3 101.82 74.64 302.75 113.83 52. 53.7 111.946 9.0 106.8 118.6 137.033 97.29 70.356 2.621 10.26 61.141 3.18 268.02 20.4 115.98 230.2 114.81 21.86 466.15 67.01 261.784 37.00 75.68 71.033 15.26 626.6013 .939 6.57 76.2 1418.967 27.18 654.2 127.33 57.69 49.871 41.4 1393.91 26.05 367.27 291.43 84.4 126.8 136.07 220.96 99.456 55.3 1443.33 233.25 83.5 133.396 67.76 760.69 724.82 85.885 95.00076 .6 1134.5 120.21 74.98 33.7 133.662 76.178 1.86 61.4 104.80 996.8 103.664 90.58 43.30 48.48 49.7 1401.8 116.7 124.24 19.374 1.01 42.66 40.90 22.4 106.74 100.1104 .97 55.61 64.8 114. 8 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 9 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 10 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 11 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 12 V8 V4 3/8 V2 0/8 3f4 7/8 13 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 14 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3f4 \la 15 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 \/a 16 Vs V4 3fs V2 5/S 3f4 \18 Cire.88 140.81 96.2 1126.032 9.06 334.50 69.39 86.04 541.7854 .97 842.22 63.75 67.2 1328.7 1179.0 115.61 742.47 420.97 804.3926 .8 105.1963 .05 40.5 129.06 934.088 56.8 1024.52 36.72 58.2 1385.00 567.25 481.69 38.91 37.2 1312.8 1369.12 36.30 861.07669 .69 159.2 118.35 88.1963 .31 785.761 3.49 354.76 45.96 77.62 42.82 380.9 119.1 111.491 7.75 78.87 173.92 90.11 461.43 62.64 95.95 35.18 76.6 126.66 188.6 1469.81 283.26 50.52 25.82 393.52 666.17 12.60 86.2 136.21 85.78 12.108 28.16 45.2 1460.47 71.515 82.23 92.4 117.0 1039.78 87. 109.00 424.79 868.3097 .16 23.464 30.12 700.7 1503.80 610.58 65.80 272.20 588.18 546.22 52.1 120.64 73.03 95.2 125.83 660.69 60.6 117.54 78.10 91 .48 38.45 816.3 1511.64 84.13 108.36 350.1 129.51 47.8 127.90 982.69 452.24 810.8 125.20 32.72 69.186 15.2 1209.16 56.23 41.80 148.25 Diam.97 247.3 1053.6 V4 5/.99 975.03 294.159 2.570 1.14 78.265 51.67 130.617 65.96 88.13 167.97 490.1 131.31 15.13 433.70 27.4 135.0981 .59 213.6 \la 15/'6 1 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 2 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 '-' 3 V8 V4 3/8 V2' 5/a 3f4 \18 4 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 5 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 22 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 23 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/a 24 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 6 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 7/S 7 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is \Is 25 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 \18 '-' 43 .29 59.72 185.48 306.647 22.5 1352.65 358.61 75.411 5.9 1032.665 19.34 24.122 38.4 102.95 677.71 91.60 948.516 84.20 21.55 429.029 70.60 10.03 84.58 265.976 4.1 1171.718 44.5 1060.71 179.73 438. 17 V8 V4 3/8 '/2 5/8 3f4 \18 18 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 \la 19 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 20 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 21 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 Area 226.18 65.5 122.34 35.7 1256. 81.854 8.86 106.3 130.06 18.00 86. 26 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 27 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/a 28 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 29 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 30 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 31 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \18 32 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 33 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/8 3f4 \Is 34 Va V4 3/a V2 5/S 3f4 7/8 Cire.13 25. 35 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 36 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 37 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 38 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 \la 39 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 40 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 41 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 42 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 43 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 Cire.95 599.54 67.320 11 .1 109.7 131.83 Diam.88 881.6 104.0 104.75 621.758 24.2 1320.3 121.5 100.35 13.5 Area 530. 25.2 107.79 632.39 475.CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES Cire.24 314.044 11.98 44.2 105.848 53.8 Area 962.11 58.6 1486.4 137.94 57.95 13.66 29.46 82.9 1435.546 3.61 921 .8 107.5890 .793 12.86 766.55 34.19 43.8 129.71 125.60 402.3 119.1 133.8 1119.35 551.43 11 0.767 1.227 1.9 110.74 505.54 649.4 1089.14 89.00 115.7854 .65 12.21 10.73 201 .99 773.904 16.405 2.41 888.41 31.7 109.02 31.13 14.635 20. .9 123.71 683.76 562.690 23.7 18.55 45.90 70.57 835.92 914.3 1280.7 122.54 56.49 689.540 86.552 2.178 45.3 123. 1132 1/16 Cire.6 V2 9/16 5/8 11/.41 42.3 112.3 108.32 90.67 93.4417 .6 1264.76 718.78 1003.73 797.10 80.29 695.04 73.1 122.669 8.426 60.05 330.246 8.6 3f4 13/.4 1111.98 706.9 1410.97 66.88 28.471 35.38 22.74 194.87 39.83 63.70 237.35 99.38 11.4 113.01 Area 50.93 63.89 81.9817 1.588 78.43 73.93 79.1 100.73 135.89 92.9 132.6 1360.99 97.0 1156.534 3.9 112.74 14.77 34.45 18.77 23.767 2.1 1494.48 151.79 54.6 1225.03 406.38 97.45 29.3 132.6902 .6 1426.84 19.75 89.364 14.1 1049.53 89.27 122.068 7.92 15.05 29.0 1377.10 338.13 145.37 33.94 643.86 823.0 117.43 476.73 47.566 13.79 500.76 56.82 197.1 1477.28 371 .283 6.319 4.65 51.712 5.51 791.94 254.11 968.862 63.52 14.9 130.39 75.32 68.37 604.46 388.6 3/8 7/.7 1452.06 204.850 25.539 80.31 26.33 46.30 874.08 49.35 637.:.9 1248.2 103.6 135.36 77.13 384.42 95.04908 .1 1141.32 79.63 471.16 318.09 322.00 894.0 128.85 83.70 515.21 96.40 53.07 71.882 72.22 671.01 447.63 31.74 Area .64 748.97 415.44 40.3 1336.06 326.908 5.590 88.88 17.068 7.461 7.65 62.80 32.919 33.424 9.27 39.6 106.0 113.54 375.49 91.9 134.06 93.8 1017.639 9.27 28.6 118.3 134.748 2.07 82.16 34.663 47.37 55.7 1067.52 243.2 1304.6 1164.1 102.0 135.18 127.173 48.5 111.20 397.484 39.274 29.430 4.01 64.72 520.51 58.61 736.6 115.7 120.84 363.39 848.720 18.675 7.282 42.95 24.7 1097.62 103.82 941.86 72.817 10.93 536.09 27.0 124.800 17.23 30.0 137.1 1104.56 23.9 1217.90 59.484 1.35 310.11 69.55 577.69 191 .63 20.9 108.25 346.29 137.67 182.60 96.183 34.4 1233.19 54.295 8.44 276.629 21.0 126. .963 2.85 94.2 116.30 37.9 101.00306 .17 87.46 117.141 3.1 1240.762 92.3 110.84 41.1503 .16 342.83 855.2 1082.890 6.49 410.50 80.200 69.927 4.08 60.59 32.6 128.71 510.28 '-' Diam.39 210.80 43.707 Diam.27 17.58 54.47 27.48 162.25 72.87 495.64 730.5 107.42 20.945 3.7 113.20 153.61 901.82 217.9 V8 3/.9940 1.19 132.70 525.5 1149.41 955.105 5.4 128.17 98.7 1010.25 907.3 1288.9 121.402 101.679 31.12 47.70 16.2485 .36 66.073 2.759 74.79 76.99 11.10 16.40 64.132 61.78 98.56 98.5 131.205 99.2 1291.4 1344.29 165.87 583.5 1202.1-1 279.47 60.78 176.745 58.

4 7542.2 7504.8 4447.6 7814.3 4071 .6 1590.0 148.2 278.4 201.0 2452.7 294.8 3356.1 186.0 5313.4 3671.0 3658.7 195.5 2922.3 165.1 144.8 191.3 163.4 1856.1 4001.7 4963.1 4029.1 228.7 219.3 216.0 6756.7 164.5 215.3 241.3 174.3 3408.8 1652.2 4067.7 2175.6 254.0 168.9 4995.4 2540.1 3460.6 6683.2 202.2 2529.1 2518.4 310.5 5944.8 4870.0 2474.2 1707.9 1866.0 4185.7 6976.5 166.4 1934.3 152.9 176.3 3945.7 2608.1 281.7 184.3 4626.2 3698.4 2946.5 4359.2 233.1 3987.5 3318.3 263.9 6013.4 5775.8 264.6 269.6 139.7 7972.9 1634.1 Area 1520.4 190.5 186..6 203.2 3875.8 6720.9 5641.1 2332.0 245.0 139.4 148.3 161.4 2408.0 223.0 2653.9 1744.4 244.9 3229.3 2630.2 7125.5 5910.0 5808.7 206.7 3067.8 Diam.8 2032.5 4242.4 3166.0 2002.6 298.1 2585.3 314.7 217.9 145.1 7658.4 226.3 270.8 140.2 158.7 Diam.7 197.7 188.4 2934. 166.5 162.4 170.0 203.4 139.7 283.7 7013.2 311.8 246. 71 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/a 72 Va % 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 7/B 73 VB V4 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 74 VB V4 3/B V2 5fs 3f4 'l'B 75 V4 V2 3f4 76 V4 112 3/4 77 % V2 3f4 78 % V2 3/4 79 % V2 3/4 80 % V2 3f4 81 V4 112 3/4 82 V4 112 3f4 83 '/4 V2 3f4 Cire.6 6468.2 204.5 1529.9 1680. 263.1 2507.3 229.9 218.9 1953.6 2827.8 7427.4 3191.7 2642. 84 % V2 3/4 85 % V2 3f4 86 % V2 3f4 87 % '/2 3/4 88 % V2 3/4 89 V4 V2 3/4 90 V4 V2 3/4 91 V4 112 3/4 92 % '/2 3/4 93 V4 112 3/4 94 % 112 3/4 95 % V2 3f4 96 V4 V2 3f4 97 V4 V2 3/4 98 % '/2 3/4 99 V4 V2 3/4 100 % V2 3f4 Cire.4 255.7 4778.3 2113.4 3780.9 4344.1 303.0 234.3 296.7 144.1 153.6 5978.3 176.2 3043.1 188.9 4257.7 1924.1 162.5 2269.9 7581.1 4378.1 292.3 2710.5 5707.3 1905.7 2886.4 1762.5 291.5 3382.1 197.0 214.4 150.7 228.5 284.8 3685.8 2386.2 189.0 2185.8 2311.4 179.0 157.8 2062.2 53 1IB % 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 54 Va % 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 55 1Ia V4 3/8 VL 5/B 3f4 7/B 56 Va % 3/B 112 5/B 3/4 'l'B 57 VB V4 3/B 112 5fs 3f4 7/B 58 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/B 59 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/a 60 1IB % 3/B 112 5/B 3f4 7/B 61 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3f4 'l'a 3019.9 3080.8 224.6 287.8 200.2 2365.1 237.5 228.9 2012.8 222.3 3631.5 3525.4 299.9 1847.6 2994.2 300.7 261.2 1564.6 3538.2 1608.4 203.2 267.9 7466.0 2862..5 313.1 248.0 212.8 5216.2 3421 .3 307.2 4043.4 210.0 3031.5 306.9 156.1 6291.7 186.9 229.8 7050.5 273.8 297.8 2780.2 7275.9 163.3 4809.6 4686.4 4403. 232.5 204.7 3848.4 6186.2 224.7 3739.0 267.1 2154.4 4566.5 2970.5 2551.7 4171.4 2664.1 219.8 301.4 3862.6 5378.9 205.7 3369.1 252.6 148.6 150.8 6539.0 2619.6 2290.2 245.6 172.2 2103.0 296.9 4717.8 275.9 152.0 201.2 256.5 173. 44 Va % 3/B '/2 5/a 3/4 7/B 45 Va % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 46 VB % 3/B V2 5/a 3/4 7/B 47 Va V4 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 48 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 49 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 50 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 51 VB % 3/B '/2 5/B 3f4 7/B 52 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'8 Cire.5 155.0 2093.7 272.3 1983.3 285.3 2419.3 1716.2 3129.7 1800.0 6829.7 6151.3 303.7 3712.2 211.3 2687.0 172.1 1993.5 2982.J 44 .9 227.3 3512.7 230.3 185.1 175.2 5153.2 145.6 4099.6 247.2 3578.0 311.9 7313.0 5089.1 1753.8 149.5 1876.4 2322.8 3267.0 1781.5 1725.6 7775.8 2722.8 3552. 194.0 2463.8 268.1 4015.4 3216.5 217.2 178.7 210.8 178.8 1546.6 170.9 1670.2 182.0 4128.0 1914.9 3889.3 227.3 3821.6 5443.2 3486.1 274.9 293.6 6082.4 288.3 4596.6 258.1 1617.3 292.0 199.4 6361.8 158.4 2164.6 214.0 221 .2 147.0 1689.1 5026.1 2768.6 192.4 1837.1 2216.4 2839.0 159.8 312.0 190.6 161.2 3434.4 3395.8 182.4 277.6 157.5 2248.3 187.5 240.0 256.9 242.7 316.1 151.0 150.2 180.3 209.1 241.0 3343.1 208.2 3092.6 265.8 1581.2 213.4 3931.6 181.2 169.1 285.9 143.9 209. 223.7 208.4 234.7 2133.5 6611.9 3204.1 1698.9 249.4 232.9 154.8 169.4 212.0 5184.6 2898.9 315.6 221.6 179.1 215.1 (CONT.7 153.6 2227.9 1828.8 180.8 160.2 2430.6 309.3 218.8 202.0 192.4 159.0 2485.1 217.11 6256.0 170.4 223.3 207.6 159.5 184.8 3903.2 6503.6 1963.3 4199.2 191.8 235.8 290.9 141.0 3144.5 7620.4 237.3 231.8 1661.4 6792.1 4417.6 5876.7 175.9 1643.5 195.4 2195.8 2343.2 138.3 4271.9 165.1 1537.8 233.6 3645.2 2973.5 1555.5 1973.5 153.3 154.1 3292.1 1943.6 236.3 196.2 149.5 5121.7 3605.1 184.4 221.1 164.7 177.8 4315.4 157.8 3117.3 252.9 216.1 142.1 6116.0 3565.9 260.9 2144.9 185.1 6432.9 2072.1 2441.5 7238.9 231.9 6939.0 181.9 282.5 5058.7 151.1 1809.0 146.1 173.0 7200.0 2496.) Area 3959.8 2874.4 248.7 1772.3 4747.0 289.6 276.3 4329.3 4476.7 7389.3 205.9 174.0 179.0 3793.4 4666.8 5607.4 3280.5 144.1 177.2 171.6 146.4 2733.0 2237.0 5410.2 2851.3 1790.2 4142.5 142.2 2803.6 3807.7 4214.6 201.8 213.9 3179.4 2958.8 193.0 300.3 7932.9 207. 138.1 206.3 183.8 226.8 2052.9 2676.8 204.9 5741.6 232.8 7697.7 142.6 212.7 250.7 199.7 162.4 168.6 3006.0 1572.7 4901.5 177.9 220.7 1895.7 1734.0 3618.9 211.2 622.9 238.8 3766.6 2397.9 4506.5 164.4 192.9 271.4 3591.8 257.5 6647.7 155.4 146.9 2815.5 2123.7 5574.8 2690.8 5248.1 6902.5 151.5 175.2 160.3 220.0 210.4 188.5 208.3 198.7 7736.8 4286.7 2562.5 295.6 168.5 3104.0 278.4 255.142.6 190.8 7341.7 7853.2 167.5 7163.4 1599.9 183.5 197.2 3725.2 2300.4 214.2 193.3 259.5 4156.1 270.5 2757.4 6866.8 308.8 5842.6 243.3 Area 2206.2 156.2 '-' / .3 274.8 189.6 182.7 239.9 196.2 289.6 4536.0 161.6 6575.5 2354.3 143.0 1625.1 155.5 4085.0 3834.7 173.9 2574.5 302.8 4388.8 4114.0 2375.8 279.4 - Area 5541.1 5674.0 5508.1 226.1 4228.0 2258.CIRCUMFERENCES Diam.8 167.9 AND AREAS Diam.4 181.3 3499.5 3242.0 4839.8 2042.1 259.9 2745.2 222.3 172.5 206.5 2910.6 280.7 6397.8 3305.9 7088.6 Area OF CIRCLES Diam.3 141.5 2792.8 2022.0 7893.5 219.8 147.6 234.9 304.2 5476.9 198.5 262.1 314.3 4300.9 2083.1 3254.4 2596.8 215.2 235.6 225.6 3.1 1885.5 230.8 5281.5 1818.9 187.2 200.2 6047.1 3473.1 195.3 281.7 166.6 3917.4 199.5 226.0 307.2 5345.5 140.1 230. 62 Va % 3/a V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 63 VB % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 'l'8 64 Va % 3/B V2 5fs 3/4 7/B 65 1Ia % 3/B '/2 5/B 3/4 7/B 66 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 67 1IB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 68 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'B 69 Va V4 3/B 112 5fs 3/4 7/B 70 V8 V4 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'a Cire.1 140. Cire.2 6326.0 .7 305.5 251.0 225.2 3752.0 2279.8 171.8 253.6 4932.8 286.1 3447.6 193.4 3055.9 194.3 3331.

000 PSI Torque Ft.507 . 203 STRESS 15. 810 45.155 1. Inch) .093 . 1 Com pression. 2 Compression.240 .294 .302 .292 5.324 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 355 500 680 800 1100 1500 2000 2200 3180 4400 5920 7720 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 21840 27870 34650 42150 50400 59400 69120 79560 102690 128760 157770 189720 12 18 30 45 68 90 150 240 368 533 750 1020 1200 1650 2250 3000 3300 4770 6600 8880 11580 2025 3060 4185 5670 7290 9090 13590 18855 24795 32760 41805 51975 63225 75600 89100 103680 119340 154035 193140 236655 284580 16 24 40 60 90 120 200 320 490 710 1000 1360 1600 2200 3000 4000 4400 6360 8800 11 840 15440 2700 4080 5580 7560 9720 12120 18120 25140 33060 43680 55740 69300 84300 100800 11 8800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440 45 I .294 1.126 . Lbs.515 1. 4.405 1.454 . Lbs.744 2.588 1. 8 Compression.162 . Lbs. The tables below reflect the results of many tests to determine the relation between torque and bolt stress..615 1.731 .507 .185 ISo. some of which are: 1.302 .680 1..304 2. Lbs. . Lbs.728 .000 PSI Torque Ft.980 2.890 1..068 .620 .259 6.045 ..400 .693 ..713 1.088 1.652 3.338 2.202 .093 . Data for Use with Machine Bolts and Cold Rolled Steel Stud Bolts Load inPounds on Bolts and Stud Bolts wh~n Torque Loads Are Applied NOMINAL DIAMETER OF BOLT (Inches) % 5/16 NUMBER DIAMETER AREA OF AT ROOT AT ROOT THREADS OF THREAD OF THREAD (Per Inch) 20 (Inches) .294 . 30 50 80 123 195 273 365 437 600 775 1050 1125 675 1020 1395 1890 2430 3030 4530 6285 8265 10380 13350 15810 19410 22725 26160 30735 34500 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 390 545 730 875 1200 1550 2100 2250 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 20760 26700 31620 38820 45450 52320 61470 69000 Data for Use with Alloy Steel Stud Bolts Load inPounds on Stud Bolts when Torque Loads Are Applied NOMINAL DIAMETER OF STUD (Inches) % 5/16 NUMBER DIAMETER AREA OF AT ROOT AT ROOT THREADS OF THREAD OF THREAD IPer Inch) 20 (Inches) .620 .731 .049 2.423 4. 1215 60.202 . Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces.027 STRESS 30.838 . 6 Compression. 1620 3/8 7/16 V2 9/16 '-'" 5/8 3/4 \18 1 1 V8 1% 13/8 11/2 15/8 13/4 1\18 2 2% 2V2 23/4 3 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 .454 .162 . Type and number of threads on bolt. 810 3/8 7/16 V2 9/16 \.419 . Lbs.463 1.283 1. 2.551 .963 1.345 .345 .551 .838 .TORQUE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE BOLT STRESS The torque or turning effort requiredto produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent upon a number of conditions.588 2.068 .185 ISa. Lbs.240 . Values are based on steel bolting well lubricated with a heavy graphite and oil mixture. Material of bolt.838 2. 3.000 PSI Torque Ft. 4 Compression..000 PSI Torque Ft.419 .045 .158 1.838 . Lbs.088 2. Condition of nut bearing surfaces. Lbs. Inch) .054 1. 405 30.. 5/8 3/4 \18 1 1 V8 1% 13/8 1 V2 1% 13/4 1\18 2 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5V2 5 5 4V2 .500 PSI Torque Ft..213 1. 4 Compression. Lbs. It was found that a non-lubricated bolt has an efficiency of about 50 percent of a well lubricated bolt and also that different lubricants produce results varying between the limits of 50 and 100 percent of the tabulated stress figures.939 1.389 1..000 PSI Torque Ft.929 1.300 2 3 5 8 12 15 25 40 62 98 137 183 219 300 390 525 563 338 510 698 945 1215 1515 2265 3143 4133 5190 6675 7905 9705 11363 13080 15368 17250 4 6 10 15 23 .064 1.490 1..338 1.400 .711 . Diameter of bolt.126 . 5. Lbs.027 7. Lbs.

(Table UCS-23. F 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 6.800 6.000 psi. F 200 19.650 11.000 1.000 8.650 16.250 4.800 10.500 7.750 16.800 300 18. (1) Not permitted above 450F.500 400 18.000 20. UNF-23) -20to 650 Stress Table 1 Maximum Allowable Stress Valus (psi) For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg. Notes Maximum Allowable Stress Values (psi) For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg.300 10. Table UHA-23.750 2.000 5.20F to 400F.750 20.000 13.100 Notes (2)(6) (2)(4)(7) 18.800 10.300 11.750 18.) (7) For temperatures below 100F.000 20. (Table UCS-23.850 11.750 800 13.200 750 1.000 11.Bolting Materials ASTM Specification Number Grade B A307 * (UCS-.750 ASTM .400 18.800 750 14.000 20.250 3.800 11.000 20.950 11.000 20.750 8.500 7.900 8.650 12.900 12.000 20.000 15.850 700 15.000 20. L9.000 20.000 15.500 13.650 1400 850 12. (Table UHA-23.400 20.450 11.Grade B6 B8 B8C B8T -.000 5.000 15.300 15.500 5.250 18.000 1000 7. stress values equal to 20% of (3) Between temperatures of .300 11.650 500 17.000 4.450 2.000 - 20.900 11.750 11.600 1050 6.850 10. UHA-. stress values equal to 20% of time without retightening is required.650 15. (Table strength. Refer to ASTM Specification A320 for details.700 1.000 - - 4.) bolted joints.000 15.000 20.200 1. For higher.100 11.- These materials are for low temperature service.) lower of the following will be permitted: 20% of the specified tensile v Note: * It is often necessary to tighten bolting to much higher stresses than those given in the Table in order to prevent leakage under hydrotest and also to obviate frequent retightening due to relaxation.000 10.000 20.000 11. F Notes (1) - 700 - 750 - 800 - 850 - 900 - 950 - 1000 - 1050 - 1100 - A325 - A354 BB BC BD B7 B5 B14 B16 (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) -20 to 100 20.000 950 7.000 20.000 1.450 1450 900 11.) and bolts.600 13.000 20. L10 B8F B6 For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg.300 14.300 11.250 6.) (2) These stress values are established from a consideration of (5) These stress values apply only when the carbon is 0. (Table UHA-23.800 8.200 600 17.300 13.250 - A193 2.600 2.550 1.000 .250 17.750 20.300 11. (Tables UCS-23 and UHA-23.250 14.000 3.200 18. and corresponding relaxation properties.750 - 12.000 9. allowable stress value 7.050 10.300 10.300 1500 (2) (2)(4)(5) (2)(4)(5) (2)(4)(5) (2) B8 (2)(4)(5) B8C (2)(4)(5) B8T (2)(4)(5) ASTM A320 Grade L7.000 1.900 650 16.550 1.200 12.000 12.000 17.000 16.650 16.750 18.500 11.750 8.04% or strength only and will be satisfactory for average service.650 11.750 11.000 15.000 2.650 - - - v 8.700 12.250 11.200 17.400 1. The Code does not prohibit this practice and the stress values listed are rather to be considered as applying in the design of flanges.000 7. stress values equal to the the specified minimum tensile strength will be permitted.000 20.) solution treated.A193 .600 3.500 10.700 2. or 25% of the specified yield strength.000 20.500 10.) (4) These stress values permitted for material that has been carbideUCS-23.750 2. I 46 . is based on bolt diameter.500 8. Tensile range given in Materials Table 2 (page 6). lower stress values may be necessary as determined from the relative flexibility of the flange the specified minimum tensile strength will be permitted.800 2.750 16. where freedom from leakage over a long period of (6) For temperatures below 400F.

. . of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt Circle (Inches) 3V2 33/4 a 1 1Ve 1 1Ve 1% 1% 13/4 4% 5Va 53/4 6314 73/4 9 103/4 123/4 2 2 2V2 23/4 .BOLTING DATA FOR STANDARD FLANGES 150 PSI SERIES 300 PSI SERIES 400 PSI SERIES 600 PSI SERIES '-' NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (Inches} % Dlam... of Num- Dlam..... of Bolt (II c:w 331a V2 3/4 1 W.. of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt Circle (Inches) 3% 3V2 4 4 Dlam.. ........ Dlam. 4 4 Dlam... of (Ig':a} Bolt (I) Dlam. .... of (Ig':a) Bolt (I} Dlam... of Flange (Inches) 5% 5% Number of Bolts \. of (r} Numel: Dlam.... of Num- Dlam. of r:) Num- Dlam... ... of Bolt Dlam........ .. of (r) 4314 5Va Number of Bolts Dlam. .. W2 2 2V2 3 3V2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 3V2 3a 4% 4% 5 6 7 7% 8V2 9 10 11 13V2 16 19 21 23V2 25 27V2 32 ':I: 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 I (r} 2% 2% 3% I::Sf (Ig... ...... . . 20 20 Ha 2 2V2 27 29V2 35Y2 36 383/4 46 16 16 3 3V2 20 16 39 '-' 47 . of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt (ICircle Inches) 3% 3V2 Dlam. ..... ..... 1 1% lV2 2 2V2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 5a 6% 7 8V2 9% 9V2 11V2 133/4 15 18V2 21Y2 24 25% 273/4 31 333/4 41 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 a a 1 a 1 e We 1% 1Ve 13/e 1% 13/e 1Y2 151a 4 43/a 4a 6V2 7% 7% 9% 11 12V2 15V2 18% 21 22 24% 6% 7 8V2 951a 10V2 12% 143/4 15V2 19 23 26V2 29V2 32Y2 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 a 7/a 4 43/a 1 7/a 4a 6V2 1 1Ve 1% 1Y2 13/a 7V2 8 9V2 11V2 12V2 1% Ha 2 2% 2V2 23/4 15V2 19 22V2 25 273/4 30V2 323/4 6% 7% 8 9% 10V2 12 14 16V2 19 213/4 26% 30 ..... . .. "" 14Y2 17% 21% 24% . of Flange (Inches) 43/4 5Va 5'l'a Number of Bolts. 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 ....:':a} (I} I::Sf (Ig:S} V2 V2 V2 V2 % % 51a % % 5/a 51a 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/a 7/a 1 1 1Va Wa 1% 3% 33/4 4% 4a 5% 6Va 43/4 6V2 5V2 7V2 6 8% 7 9 7V2 10 8V2 11 9V2 12% 113/4 15 14% 17V2 17 20% 183/4 23 21% 25Y2 223/4 28 25 30% 29% 36 2% 23/a 23/4 3Va 3% 3a 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24 V2 V2 % 51a % 3/4 5/a 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 a 1 Wa 1Va 1% 1% 1% 1V2 3% 33/4 40/a 3V2 4a 37/a 5% 4V2 6Va 5 6V2 7'/2 57/a 65/a 8% 7V4 9 77/a 10 9% 11 1051a 12V2 13 15 15% 17'/2 173/4 20V2 20% 23 22Y2 25V2 243/4 28 27 30V2 32 36 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24 V2 V2 51a % % 3/4 % 314 3/4 7/a 7/a 7/a 7/a 1 1Va 1% 1% Pia 1% 1V2 13/4 2% 2% 3% 3V2 3a 4V2 5 5a 65/a 7% 7a 9% 105/a 13 15% 173/4 20% 22V2 243/4 27 32 33/a 33/4 4% 47/a 5% 6Va 6V2 7V2 8% 9 103/4 13 14 16V2 20 22 233/4 27 29V4 32 37 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24 V2 V2 o/a 5/a 5/a 314 5/a 3/4 3/4 7/a 7/a 1 1 1Va 1% 1% 13/a 1V2 1% 15/a 17/a 2% 2% 3% 3V2 3a 4V2 5 5a 60/a 7% 8% 10V2 1W2 133/4 17 19% 203/4 233/4 253/4 28V2 33 900 PSI SERIES 1500 PSI SERIES 2500 PSI SERIES NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (Inches) Y2 3/4 Dlam. ..

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