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CONTEXT IS THE KEY
Get Higher Scores on Exams! Improve your English! Learn English Easier! Learn English Faster! BY Thomas A. Dyer
INTRODUCTION I am a lifetime learner. I have been studying most of my life. It is a skill that is needed today because the world and jobs are changing. We have to adapt and learn new skills to keep up with change. You will learn some of the ways that are now being used to keep up with the world. . Do you want to learn and be able to speak the words that you read and hear? Good! In the First two books of this series, we dealt with some basics of English words. We will now build on that and learn additional skills to help us on our journey through Life-Long Learning. You will learn about Context. How English writers write to help you learn words with out resorting to a dictionary or a thesaurus. You will learn to look at text in a new way, not as a group of words. But, as a map of knowledge that the writer is trying to convey to you. Even exams try to steer you in a direction. Sometimes it is to the answer, other times away from it. You will learn how to follow the flow of text to get it’s meaning. 70% of what you learn comes through you eyes as text. The Internet, Books, and other Media and even movies(sub titles) are all text based.
Context is a Building Block of good English!
Did you know that in 1980 and 1986 students started to learn techniques to analyze a book or any text before reading it? They were able to learn the structure of any written text. This allowed them to extract what they needed faster than by just reading the book. They found up to 70% of the words were just filler or fluff and only 20-30% of the words in the text had the knowledge they were looking for. This was the start of a revolution in education.
and OTHERS) (BOOK 3 OF THIS SERIES) NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMING (NLP) THE LEARNING MACHINE (FORTHCOMMING) S.C.CONTEXT SKILLS and TECHNIQUES IN USE CURRENTLY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • KEYWORDS SPEED READING/PHOTOREADING AND SPEED READING SOFTWARE FLASHCARDS/NOTECARDS/FLASHCARD SOFTWARE (BOOK 3 OF THIS SERIES) FLASH TESTING NOTEBOOKS/COOKBOOKS/SCRIPT BOOKS FLOW DIAGRAMS and MINDMAPS (INVENTED BY TONY BUZAN) IMAGE STREAMING PROCEDURES/SCRIPTS CHECKOFF SHEETS MUSIC and CONTEXT MEMORY TRAINING/MNEMONICS (HARRY LORAYNE.T. TONY BUZAN. STANDARDIZED TEMPLATE CONSTRUCTION (FORTHCOMMING) 2 .
why. you located words you don’t know. Most of these will be one perhaps two word answers. Would you see words you that don’t know? Yes. All you need to do is go through the book looking for key words that answers who.Classical Context: KEYWORDS or The 6 ‘Ws’. Highlight them also (use a different color if you like). what where. where. What’s more. you preformed a high-speed search for keywords. Who What Where When Why How (yes this is a W too. you would be able tell what the book is about. Did you read the book? No. Later we will look at ways to try to find the meaning of those words. 3 . Look at this page in a mirror WOH) Using these 6 words you could go through a book or other text in under 40 minutes. and how questions. In addition. you would. The only tool you would need is a highlighter.
text-to-text. about ideas the author suggests but does not explicitly state. that will undoubtedly change. In order to make sense of nonfiction text. text-to-world). These strategies include: Reading Strategies • recalling prior knowledge and experiences which relate to the material being read. etc. • developing an understanding of the message the author wishes to communicate by synthesizing the literal textual information into a thematic whole. In high school and college. as well as making connections with other texts and with one’s understanding of the world (text-to-self. • predicting what will happen next. you read for many purposes.STRATEGIES GOOD READERS USE As a student. • making connections from the text to one’s personal knowledge and experiences. • generating questions about author’s purpose. there are certain strategies which proficient readers use to make sense of what they read. In the years before you entered high school. • being mentally aware of when reading does and does not make sense. informational material than you did in the past. confusing passages. and you will find that you are reading a much larger proportion of non-fiction. Proficient readers do not approach reading informational text in the same way that they approach reading a narrative story. you probably spent more time reading fictional stories that you did reading informational text. and knowing what to do when the meaning breaks down. • creating visual images of what the text is saying. skilled readers use the strategies on the next page. such as to • learn to do something • conduct research • seek specific information • relax • be inspired Whatever the purpose. character motivation. • drawing inferences. • thinking of what they already know about the genre or the author. based on the text and their own prior knowledge. • summarizing important ideas and concepts both during and after the reading. 4 .
outline. etc. If your purpose is to find a specific piece of information.) to help you organize the material. BEFORE YOU READ: Preview and skim the material. pay attention to which text structure(s) the author has used to organize the information. and visual aids such as graphs. What can you expect it to tell you? 3. as well as while you are reading. How is the text organized? • Non-fiction text is typically organized using one of the following structures: Generic List Compare/Contrast Sequential List Problem/Solution Description Cause/Effect When you preview the text. 2. timeline. What do you already know about the topic? Think about past experiences with other subjects you know about and how they may connect to what you are going to read.STRATEGIES FOR READING NONFICTION TEXTS A textbook or other text meant to give information is a nonfiction text. Make a graphic organizer (chart. • Read all the boldface print. 4. think about where you 5 . • Read the boldface chapter. • Read the first sentence of each paragraph to determine the topic of each. • Look over all typographical aids such as italics. pictures and diagrams. focus questions. maps. map. 5. charts. 1. other titles and subtitles. headings. and any questions at the beginning of the chapter or text. • Read the last paragraph or summary and any end-of-the-chapter material.
• Look at the title. for clues to the content. STRATEGIES FOR READING FICTION TEXTS When reading fictional text or any text that utilizes a story structure. • Think about past experiences you may have had that might connect to the story. • When text becomes difficult. or keep a reading/learning log. • Paraphrase – translate the material into your own words. slow down. • Summarize. • Fill out your graphic organizer or outline. • Predict what will come next. "What did I learn?" Relate this new information to what you already know. pictures. • What do you already know about the genre(Type of Book)? The author? 6 . • Read the blurb or story synopsis on the back cover to get a sense of the overall plot of the story. proficient readers also utilize specific strategies to make sense of what they read. make note cards. AFTER YOU READ: Check your understanding by asking yourself. chapter titles. BEFORE YOU READ: Survey the material.will find it according to your preview and then read only the portion of the text necessary to find your answer. The box below summarizes those strategies. AS YOU READ: Increase your understanding by interacting with the text: • Think of how the information you read fits with your overview. or reread sections as necessary. etc. • Ask yourself questions about the subject.
you will participate in a dialogue with yourself. to get involved with and find meaning in a text--a novel. What is the setting? How does it contribute to the over-all effectiveness of the story? 2. What messages or insights about life might the author be trying to communicate (the theme)? DIALECTICAL JOURNAL The Dialectical Journal is a way for you. What predictions do you make? 8. What are you visualizing in your "mental movie" as you read? AFTER YOU READ: Check your understanding by retelling the story. What is the main character’s conflict or goal? 4.AS YOU READ: Ask yourself questions and answer them. or any other type of literature-by creating thinking and feeling relationships between you an the text. and even the author. almost the way a teacher does. What obstacles or problems stand in his or her way? 5. the reader. What will be the outcome and how will it come about? 6. What is unclear or confusing? 7. short story. You will create this dialogue by: • asking questions • seeing patterns • creating hypotheses • forming associations • making predictions • analyzing style • making connections (text-to-self. While you read. Who are the main characters and what are they like? How do they change? 3. 1. events. text-to-text) You will become personally involved with the situations. essay. and characters in text. play. which enables you to form your own meaning about what you are reading. 7 . poem. the characters. text-to-world.
JOURNALING This a techniques used while you are reading a book or other text and is an efficient way to make sure you get the most out of your reading. anything from the text which you find interesting. DIRECTIONS: As you read. or passage) question. appreciation. •an emotional or intellectual reaction •a question or hypothesis •a possible interpretation •an insight •a judgment •a connection to something else you’ve read or experienced. Your responses become a dialogue with the text. Write the passage down with the page number. NAME ______________________________________ DOUBLE-ENTRY JOURNAL DATE QUOTATION FROM TEXT (sentence. phrase. These may be passages which you •wonder about •find very beautiful •find confusing •find distressing •connect with in some way. keep a two-sided journal. interpretation) •words •passages •lines •quotes. not just a personal reflection.) 8 . MY RESPONSE (connection. You need to stretch your interaction with the text and involve as many of the suggested forms of reaction as possible. (It’s helpful to label your reactions so you can be sure you have variety.
old Maurice. “you’ll start missing everybody. even though he didn’t want to admit it. About all I know is.. I sort of miss everybody I told about. If you do. Don’t ever tell anybody anything. but now it seems like he’s figured out that all the people he hated so much are the people who actually helped mold him. now it seems he is beginning to appreciate them. I realize for myself that even the people who have hurt my feelings or challenged my way of thinking have helped me grow.” Holden spent so much energy hating everybody and everything. Every person who crossed his path touched him in some way and. Even old Stradlater and Ackley. It’s funny. 213 “If you want to know the truth. Sample Journal Entry 9 . I even miss that. In some twisted way they each play their own parts in my life. I’m sorry I told so many people about it. don’t know what to think about it. for instance.EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: p..
. I think the main thing the writer was trying to say was.... This book was better (worse) than the movie version because....because. I predict that. I would say.. If I were (name of character)...READER’S Journal: STARTERS If you are asked to keep a reading journal.... This book made me think. (Event in book) reminded me of (something that happened to me) when. I would (wouldn’t) have.... This book made me feel. I liked the way the writer.... This book made me realize.. the most important word (sentence/paragraph) in this book is. I thought.. I agree (disagree) with the writer about. While I was reading I pictured. This book reminded me of.. (Name of character) reminds me of somebody I know because. I admire (name of character) for. I think the title is a good (strange/misleading) choice because.... My least favorite character was. My favorite part of the book was.......) The most important thing about this book is..because.. When I started reading this book.. 10 . you can use these sentence stems to help you get your best thoughts down on paper........ I changed my mind about.because. (Name of character) reminds me of myself because......... I would (wouldn’t) recommend this book to a friend because..(Draw or write your response........ If I could be any character in this book. This book was similar to (different from) other books I’ve read because it. I would be...because.. What happened in this book was very realistic (unrealistic) because... My favorite character was..... One thing I’ve noticed about the author’s style is.. If I could talk to (name of character)...because.... because.. I still wondered.. A better title for this book would be.... I didn’t like..... I was surprised when. This book was similar to (different from) other books by this writer because it.. In my opinion.because... When I finished this book.
ILLUSTRATE Make the point or idea clear by giving examples. DIAGRAM Make a drawing of something and label its parts. tell how it looks or happened. CRITIQUE Point out both the good and the bad points of something. when. EXPLAIN Give the meaning of something. COMPARE Show how two things are similar as well as different. OUTLINE Make an organized listing of the important points of a subject. include details or examples.KEY WORDS USED IN TEXTBOOK READING OBJECTIVES AND WRITING PROMPTS ANALYZE Break the subject (an object. strengths and weaknesses. Then explain the various parts and how they relate to the whole. details and main points. CONTRAST Show how two things are different. give facts and details that make the idea easy to understand. include details or examples. DEFINE Give an accurate meaning of a term with enough detail to show that you really understand it. INTERPRET Tell about the importance or meaning of the subject. how. DESCRIBE Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it. action or event. and why. including important characteristics. DISCUSS Give a complete and detailed answer. EVALUATE Give your opinion of the value of the subject. discuss its good and bad points. where. event. including who. what. 11 . Explain the results or the effects of it. or concept) down into parts. JUSTIFY Give good reasons to support a decision.
ANTONYM A word that means the opposite of another word. REVIEW Go back over the material you just read and be able to tell what happened and in what order. the second step. FACT Ideas that can be proven to be true or false by research or observation. KEY WORDS USED IN READING TESTS: CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER The order events happen in over a period of time. but may also be based purely on feelings. CLUES TO A WORD’S MEANING What can you do when you encounter words you do not know in a text? Most of the time you do not need to stop to look up the word in a dictionary because its exact meaning is not critical to a passage. 12 . (The first step. SUMMARIZE Briefly cover the main points. SEQUENTIAL ORDER The order in which events happen over time or the order required to produce some thing. RETELL Tell the story or main thoughts over again in your own words. you can use the following textual clues to determine a word’s meaning and keep reading.) SYNONYM A word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. OPINION A person’s judgment. May be a conclusion drawn from facts. etc. STATE Give the main points in brief. PROVE Show that something is true by giving facts or logical reasons. clear form. Instead. RELATE Show how things are alike or connected. making note of the word until you can ask someone or take the time to use the dictionary. or that you are a particular person or character and describe what this is like. use a paragraph form.PRETEND Make-believe or imagine you are in a particular situation.
shouldn’t climb mountains. Here. In fact. even if you have never seen the word written or 13 . and the definition of recluse does mean a person who lives a life away from society. The example that he lives alone on the edge of town and he only comes out of his house to go to work suggests that Mr. Mr. The underlined word. Sometimes the unknown word is used in contrast to a word that is familiar in order to help the reader determine the meaning of the word. Sometimes an unfamiliar word can be figured out using your knowledge about the world or an understanding of a particular situation. 4. Sometimes a definition is included in the sentence itself. Jones likes to be alone. 3. Probably you have seen a baby become quiet after someone put an object which looks like the nipple on a baby bottle into the baby’s mouth. Example: When the baby-sitter put a pacifier in the baby’s mouth. so mellow must mean calm. is 2. the baby stopped crying. acrophobia.CONTEXT CLUES The context of a word consists of the sentence containing the unknown word as well as the other sentences that surround it. is suggested by the example given in the rest of the sentence (or a following sentence that might serve the same purpose). mellow is shown in contrast to extremely nervous. he lives alone on the edge of town and he only comes out of his house to go to work. Benton is very mellow. Here the meaning of the underlined word. Example: People who suffer from acrophobia. The construction of the sentence may contain clues to the word’s meaning. Example: Mr. Sentences Containing an Example. recluse. The Logic of the Sentence. gentle. mellow means mild. Example: Unlike Mr. or fear of heights. Jones is a real recluse. Remembering this might give you a clue for the meaning of pacifier. Dixon. This often occurs in textbooks. and agreeable. defined as fear of heights within the sentence itself. Sometimes an example is included to illustrate word meanings. who is extremely nervous. 1. Sentences Containing a Definition. Sentences Containing Words That Show Contrast.
the word order shows us that beat is not a verb or a noun but is a descriptive word. an adjective explaining how the subject "I" feels. or an adverb? Looking at the grammar of a sentence—whether or not you can remember the grammatical name of the part of speech–may especially help you on standardized tests where you may be given a word in a sentence and asked to choose which word in another sentence has the same meaning." Instead." To understand the word. beat is not the action word or verb in the sentence. especially if it is a word that has multiple meanings. Indeed. an area that in a sense "belongs" to him. Indeed. an adjective. Is the word being used as a verb. You know from the sentence that beat refers to some kind of action—something the Celtics "did"--and is not a thing or an object. a noun. In this example. Your knowledge of English grammar and sentence structure tells you that beat in this first sentence is an action word or verb even if you do not know what the word means in this context." which suggests that beat in this case must be a possession or a thing that can be "owned. The Grammar--or Word Order--Within the Sentence. you already know that beat as it is used here means to defeat. beat is preceded by "his. Again. in this second example beat is a noun meaning an area the policeman oversees on a regular basis. the verb is "walked. you would look for further clues in other sentences about what thing the policeman owns. Where a word is located and the grammatical use of a word in a sentence may give clues to its meaning. In this second example. Of course.heard it spoken before. 14 . Example 1: The Celtics beat the Lakers by ten points. a pacifier is a device that imitates a baby bottle for babies to suck upon. Example 3: I feel beat today. Example 2: The policeman walked his beat. other sentences that follow might contain clues to what "I" feels that further suggest the meaning of beat. 5. Beat in this context means exhausted.
you can test your predicted meaning and see if other sentences that follow have something to do with the idea of earth’s heat. etc. 15 . If a standardized test had examples 2. you would be able to see that beat in example 4 is used in the same grammatical way as it is in example 1. These clues may suggest that the meaning of the word geothermal is something to do with the earth’s heat. In this final example. but you can definitely eliminate other choices based on grammar. Knowing some of these important word parts can greatly increase your ability to figure out and understand new words. roots. and suffixes. Note: The similarity of grammatical use does not guarantee that the word beat in example 4 means the same as the word beat does in example 1. Likewise. or history." you may know that the prefix "geo" means "earth." Then you could use the root word "therm" to think of "thermometer" or "thermos" which have to do with temperature and heat. If you recognize "geo" from the word "geography. The only way to know for certain that a word uses these parts is to look up the word’s etymology (origins). knowing the meaning of beat as an action word meaning to defeat in example 1 would also help you to draw the conclusion that it means to defeat in example 4.Example 4: My brother beat me at a game of Monopoly. Example: Many politicians still favor the use of geothermal energy. The one problem in using word parts is that not all words are made of Latin or Greek parts. CLUES WITHIN THE WORDS THEMSELVES--WORD PARTS (SEE “BUILDING BLOCKS BOOK 1” IN THIS SERIES FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS TOPIC) Many English words are made from combinations of Greek and Latin prefixes. and 4 as choices. beat is again a verb. and some words may look promising but may not actually follow the pattern. 3. in a collegiate dictionary. Geothermal actually refers to heat within the earth’s interior that may come to the surface in forms such as the steam from geysers. As you read on.
cor contra. contro. de dec. architect automobile benefactor. decim demi di dia dis dys Meaning off. ad. absent. demitasse dichromatic diameter discourage. al. both to. circumference cooperate. anti arch auto bene. com con. December. arrive. chief self good. toward. adjacent. decimal demigod. away from bad. abs a. ap.COMMON WORD PARTS PREFIXES Prefixes come at the beginning of words and change their meanings. away not. near Examples avocation. counterclockwise descend. antipathy archetype. ab. append. ar. antemeridian against first. associate. undoing ten half twice. away. double across. ac. an ambi. A knowledge of common prefixes with some knowledge of the common word roots will help you to increase your vocabulary rapidly. dysfunctional 16 . away. poor antagonist. an. decem. ag. well two hundred around together. af. colleague. combine. as. ambidextrous acquire. abstract atypical. amphi a. without around. correspond contradict. debark. beneficial bilateral. allude. dehydrate decade. antediluvian. Prefix a. through not. annex. ben bi cent circum co. with counter against down. from. anonymous amphibious. at ante ant. col. bicycle centipede circumnavigate. attract before in time or order antecedent. disobey dyslexia. concurrent.
ef. synchronize television. emigrate. ex equi extra fore geo homo hyper hypo i. ir in. in. inter intra. incorrect(ly) not over. efface. surtax syllable. irradiate interurban. back backward half under. transcription. sum super sur sy. parachute perfect. im. paradox. il. sym. hypertension hypodermic. beneath above over. promise. suc. succumb. tele trans un Meaning out. reaction retrospective semicircle submarine. postscript preamble. erode. immature. escarpment. together distant. extrasensory equivalent extraterrestrial previous forecast. para per post pre pro re retro semi sub. sympathy. opposite of Examples eclipse. too little not. into. contrary to. suffer. without on. homonym hyperactive. telescope transcend. ineligible. equal outside. irreplaceable induct. beyond with. illegible. for again. beyond in front of. misspell nonsense. introspect misbehave. earth same. above. im. foreleg geography homogenized. out of eccentric. preview proceed. transoceanic unburden. inside wrong(ly). among within. es. imprint. intercontinental intramural. thoroughly after in time or order before in time or order before in time or order forward. intro mis non ob par. ir in. prologue. syn tel. illuminate. suf. toward between. beyond through. similar over. far across. through. perennial postgraduate. syl. excessively under. toward beside. lack of.Prefix e. imbibe. nontaxable obstruct parallel. uninhibited 17 . suggest more than superior surpass. beyond not. il. hypothyroid ignore. sug. against. ec. reappear.
biennial anthropoid. dormant lead educate. yield color time kill citizen know body order. react. bibliophile biosphere. pachyderm diary diction. credulity culprit. dicta dorm duce. incognito corporal. corpuscle. anachronism germicide. chromatic chronological. bicycle deity. divinity demographics dermatitis. seize. altruism annual. cipi capit cede. believe blame wheel. creed. Root act. proceed. suicide civilization. div. circle god. divin dem derm dia dic. recipient. audition. bene bibli bio cap. audi. A knowledge of some of these common roots will give you a key to thousands of English words and will help you to increase your vocabulary. enni anthrop aqua. dictation dormitory. edict. decapitate precede. creed. produce. cess chrom chron cide civ cogn corpor. audit bell ben. amphibious precept. ceed. altercation. godlike people skin day say. uncivil recognize. act. aqueduct audit. hold captive. misanthropy aquatic. audible antebellum. corpus cosm cred. good book life take. ducat. corpse. diva. accept capital. dict.COMMON WORD ROOTS Many English words are derived from Greek and Latin roots. secession monochrome. duct Meaning drive other. head go. induct 18 . agitate alternative. credit. cosmos. cosmetic credible. culpability cyclone. cept. corps. belligerent benevolent. alter. change year man water hear war well. benefit bibliography. aque aud. corpse cosmopolitan. altr annu. ag do. credul culp cycl dei. speak sleep Examples action. credit. world trust.
dead many change born ship. magnificent malady. microfilm promise. ora. fect. lum magn mal man. fidelity fluently. polymorph mortal. navy necropolis. confection. omnibus oral. conjunction. orat orth pan pater. make. isotope reject. malcontent. logy luc. luminous magnitude. panacea. telegraph helium. fract gam grad. flux frag. manu mater. orthodox pantheism. psychology translucent. mediocre microcosm. ocultist omnipotent. conjugate liberal. pray straight. mortify multitude. infraction monogamy. egomania factory.Root ego fact. multiply mutate. hydrant isometric. mit morph mort multi mut nasc. cause faith. mutable native. oracle. study light large. mission. fluct. projectile junction. grammar graphics. nat nav necr neo ocul omni or. die new eye all speak. malodorous manual. correct all father Examples egotist. fict fid. oratory orthodontics. polygamous regress. ill hand mother middle small send shape death. patr Meaning I do. miss. great bad. hemorrhage dehydration. influx fragility. heliocentric hemoglobin. sail dead. matr medi micr mis. trust flow break marry step. fiction confidential. graduation monogram. equal throw join free word. logo. manicure. remit anthropomorphic. fide flu. patriot 19 . mortuary. fluctuate. nascent navigate. mouth. pantheon paternity. innate. necrosis neoclassical. go write write sun blood water same. juga liber log. matrimony mediate. manufacture maternal. gress gram graph heli hem hydr iso ject junc. neologism binocular. grade. liberate logical.
isotherm tribute. quest. vict Meaning child foot hang love fear sound many carry power first mind fire ask. sacrosanct conscious. importation potent. quis rupt sanct sci. video convince. consecutive solo. tig term terr. contact. disturb unify. attribute turbulent. pod pend. visu vinc. suspense philharmonic. tact. conscription section. polytheism thermos. philosophy phobia. scio scrib. earth god heat pay agitate one city empty word see conquer Examples pediatrics. segment. spectacles. secut sol soph spec. interrupt sanctify. pedagogue pedal. protagonist psyche. visual.Root ped ped. inspect tactile. provide. quir. spect. adverb evidence. centipede. ter the. vis. phonograph polygon. spic tang. philo phob phon. inter theology. look at touch end land. proto psych pyr quer. podium. agoraphobia telephone. impede depend. theo therm trib turb uni urb vac verb vide. portat pot prot. pede. victim 20 . pens phil. psychic pyrotechnics. vision. export. phono poly port. terminate terrain. polytheistic deportment. desolate wisdom sophisticated. omniscient scribble. sect sequ. scribe. union urbane. intersect sequel. describe. suburban vacuous. tributary. pyrite inquiry. script seg. ques. inquisitive erupt. tangent terminal. evacuate verbatim. disrupt. ting. sophomore specimen. potential prototype. seek break holy know write cut follow alone wise.
magistrate ant ary ate 21 . vivid vocal. worthy of profitable. the job. dependence resistance. dotage editorial. condition adj. secretary. refusal. He works carefully. assailant honorary. manual tolerance. library imitate. a place verb/adj. ible ac. they do not change the root meanings of words. the work being done. ial. pertaining to noun ending: used to form nouns from adjectives and verbs adj. viv voc. ual ance. evidence tolerant. a person. tend to. revive. In the second sentence it is an adverb directing attention to the activity. divulge zoologist./noun ending: pertaining to. vok vulg zo Meaning life. Suffix able. Paleozoic SUFFIXES Word endings or suffixes change the grammatical function of words. personal. maniac foliage. live voice./noun ending: having. one who does adj./noun ending: in the act. He does a careful job./noun ending Examples able to. revoke vulgar. voca. In the first sentence the word is an adjective directing attention to the end result. ence Effect or Meaning adjective ending: adj. A form of the word care is used in both sentences. collegiate. edible cardiac. vocation. iac age al.Root vit./noun ending: of. affected by noun ending: collection. call common animal Examples vital.
/adv. eer er est ful fy hood ic. engineer more rarer. tendency freedom.Suffix cy. serfdom dependent. missile anxious childish. having character of verb ending: make or become noun ending: state. ending: comparative-adj. satisfy. quality adj. heroic. characterized by adj. evident. belief Examples stony. aromatic novice. condition noun/adj. prettier most noisiest. tic ice il. belonging to. egotism ism 22 . fossil. or. selfish. performing the action of noun ending: a person adj. somewhat noun ending: condition./noun ending: quality or state of being noun ending: state or condition adj. superintendent leader. rainy. stupefy childhood. ending: having. angelic./noun ending: having the quality of. ratify. ile ious ish verify./adv. avarice civil. accomplish mannerism. y dom ent Effect or Meaning adj./noun ending adj. punish. fastest beautiful. senator. adulthood mechanic. ending: full of. like. helpful er. able to./verb ending: of. ending: superlative degree-adj. of. ending: pertaining to. resembling containing noun ending: person.
ending noun ending: result of. ending Examples machinist. blameless homelike. geology godly. sion ize. extension sympathize. like noun ending: skill. weekly. state of being adj. sial. government. controversial ship tial. ending: resembling noun ending: speech. ty ive Effect or Meaning noun ending: indicating a person noun ending: state. study of adv. laziness famous./adj. pleasantly achievement. verisimilitude 23 . action of noun ending: state or quality of being adj. typist. liberty. cial tude noun ending: state or quality of rectitude. ending: full of. ominous. advise thoughtless. realist quality sincerity. populous ownership.Suffix ist ity. ious goodness. tion. astonishment ion. ending: without adj. loyalty massive. of the nature of noun ending: condition action verb ending adj. disruptive indignation. condition of. ending: relating to. horsemanship essential. manlike biology. condition adj. ise less like logy ly ment ness ous.
This machine helped a student to read and understand much faster then normal. the gunners on bombers and Naval ships were able to shoot down the enemy airplanes much more quickly. and knowledge. This makes the information permanent in you memory. The Famous Science Fiction writer Robert A. Say the word that is on the OTHERSIDE (SEE SAY). In addition. and to identify enemy airplanes warships in under a second. Heinlein knew of this and used it in some of his books. one side could have a Chinese word the other side a word that is in another language like English. memory. Nowadays companies sell software to FLASH LEARN almost any topic you want. This saved the lives of thousands of aviators and sailors during the war. Something had to be done. He came up with a method to see using the whole brain and in a FLASH. Later do it silently. 24 . To do without the Tachistoscope we use FLASHCARDS. It used a special machine called a Tachistoscope. I as a student used this method as a boy in school. Later in high-risk situations. The LEARNING MACHINE takes this step one-step further by using a TIME function to check to see how long you can remember the information. why not use a simple card? It can boost your context learning. It is sometimes very expensive to go this route. First: Place the information you wish to learn on it. Enemy fighters were shooting down the American bombers and sinking ships that were fighting against Germany and Japan. A psychologist named Dr. The principle simple. when applied to police training it helped identify a criminal or a hostage quickly.ADVANCED CONTEXT: FLASHCARDS FLASHCARDS and the idea of FLASH LEARNING was developed during World War 2. However. This method was so successful it became a key part of the SRA reading program in America. take a small card ( a blank business cards works well). Samuel Renshaw found the answer. Hold it in your hand and only look at it for an instant. For example. So. (Any information may be learned this way) Next: FLASH it. Check yourself by looking at other side to see if you are right.
Great Britain and America. The knowledge is then broken down using the keywords that were highlighted when you first began analyzing the text by sub-topic and branches are added to the shapes using single lines. This method uses a graphical organizer to draw a map or flow of context thoughts or knowledge. Smaller shapes/pictures are drawn around the central shape/picture. This method revolutionized learning in China. processes. In Mind Mapping. Microsoft Visio is a software tool that utilizes many graphical organizers to aid in the breaking down of information into useful chunks. This created the Flow Charting system which is still being used today to map out software and system processes prior to coding. and Finance industries and is applicable to any subject that you may be studying. It is being used in Business. IBM used a template of standardized symbols to map out thoughts. and ideas. “Pictures are worth a thousand words”. This method allows for great flexibility and the use of imagination. 25 . Aerospace. the Computer. we take the keywords we obtained by going through text as shown under Classical Context and build a picture of the material we wish to learn.MIND MAPPING (Tony Buzan) AND FLOW CHARTING (IBM). A shape/picture is drawn in the center of the paper with the main topic written inside. Color(a major key) and small pictures can enhance the meaning and highlight important key facts. Mind Mapping and FLow Charting are part of this package as well as many others. on these lines additional keywords written in to describe the attributes of the subtopic using the “6 Ws”.
and you save valuable time and money. The United Nations has used it to save lives all over the world. Students rarely keep their Notebooks organized or set them up to be used as Cookbooks or Procedural Manuals. as you perform a task you check that you did it and sign that you did it. So. At the end of that 10 years you must be able to do the task you put in your notebook. The secret is write your notebook as if you will not see it for 10 years. A cookbook is formatted and in a step by step manner to follow to create wonderful meals. On the right side is a small blank line where you put your initials to say “I did it”. with your pen. a method when used in emergency rooms has saved thousands of lives. It is being applied to almost any job or task in the workplace today. Copy this method for your notebooks. In 2009 and 2010 a doctor took this idea and created a Checklist. Cookbooks and Procedural Manuals. you make fewer mistakes. colored lines showing flow to other pages. Or someone else signs that you did it. Your work becomes more professional. Foldable Tables and Charts and other information can be made part of the notebook Go to any bookstore and look at any cookbook. McDonalds uses this method to create the world’s most popular fastfood franchise in the world and many other companies have copied this method. So. Do it! Use IT! 27 . Colored index tabs. This ensures you did the right thing and someone makes sure you did do it. time and money same time! Take and organize your notes at school. A Checklist is a simple list of tasks or things to do in a numerical order with small open boxes on the left side. Saves lives. How is this Done? By using Notebooks. Do It Right and Accountability all on one form. or task. it should be organized in a step by step format to allow you to perform a task or operation even if you have forgotten the knowledge in the first place. work and the office. To “check you”.NOTEBOOKS/COOKBOOKS/CHECKLISTS IBM the #1 computer company in the world because of its ability to take highly complex knowledge and simplify it so any person can duplicate what is to be done or perform an operation. You “check” the boxes as you do.
and 7 Speed Reading just to name a few. which could not be perceived by the conscious mind. In 1986. Your eyes become the scanning machine moving at up to about 1. You start to make use of the full vision field of the eye to move down the page vertically being able to see and process blocks of text instead of one word at a time. In one system used by the US military. PHOTOREADING is currently in its 4th generation and in its newest edition. EYE-Q. Howard S. The most famous method is the Evelyn Wood program. It is like a Tabistoscope without the machine. Berg. Many PC Software packages teach speed-reading at home or office. it becomes possible for students to perform SYNTOPICAL READING.000 words per minute. having once read 13 books in an hour and a half. "the World's Fastest Reader" in the Guinness Book of World records for speed-reading. With the reading speeds now available. This gives much better overall learning of skills and understanding. the ability to read multiple books on a given topic in a short time and build an almost 3D picture of the topic in their mind. Developed by Paul Sheele. a method to use of the “Other than Conscious Mind” to process text was developed. Studies had shown the Subconscious Mind could read a page in a few seconds. Based on Neuroliguistics and Super-Learning this technique is called PHOTOREADING. it became available in the Chinese language around 1999. 28 . businessmen and lawyers music is incorporated to make faster reading possible.SPEED READING/PHOTOREADING/SPEED READING SOFTWARE Speed-reading has been around in many forms since the 1950’s. Moving beyond the left to right scanning techniques you can boost yourself to almost 5. books can be finished in 30 to 35 minutes with a high rate of skill transfer to the student. ACE READER PRO.000 words a minute as you scan material and absorb knowledge.
Bach. has this type of music as well. Russia uses this technique at the Moscow Language Institute. This became know as the “Mozart Effect”. Another program called Baby Einstein. Later in the 1980’s it was introduced into American Exceptional Student Programs. While in America. next time you want to study. 29 . The Secret: Baroque Music Mozart. it was routine for to have Chinese mothers and others bring babies into classroom to listen to lectures. Music used in teachings has good effects. In China it is also called the “Beethoven Effect” and you can purchase a set of 6 CDs with the music on it. So. Music started being used in Shanghai and other Chinese schools to aid learning in context. sit back and learn. Beethoven. Around the year 2000.MUSIC AND CONTEXT In the 1960’s it was re-discovered that music enhances the learning process for language and other subjects. At the Suggestopedia institute in Bulgaria psychotherapist Dr. It allows the mind to relax and let information go directly into the brain. which is still being taught 3 decades later. put on some music. Recently a concert held in Shanghai for pregnant mothers to help their babies become smarter while still in the womb. Georgi Lozanov who invented the process. and others of this period in time wrote music that followed a specific pattern.
provides you a potential listener for that all-essential focus. or phone to call up a friend and keep him or her on the line.IMAGE STREAMING (Win Wenger) What is Image Streaming? SELF CONTEXT Image streaming is a mental exercise for visualization and accessing subconscious solutions to problems. a live listener to serve as that external focus. will come as you describe — be alert to this happening. Each full-flow Image-Streaming session should run from 10 to 30 minutes. More. and more. or weren't certain whether you were just making up the idea rather than seeing an image — — Yet whatever you got. It is believed that it causes the subject to become more aware of his/her mental imagery and creates links between visual and verbal thinking. even better. How to Image-Stream What you need is an external focus to describe your images to. Your images will become rich and vivid and even their meanings — as Image-Stream contents are often symbolic or metaphoric — will start to become apparent. A tape recorder with blank tape. Examine whatever images happen to be playing in your mind's eye at the time. trivial-seeming impressions or whatever: describe them in such richly textured detail as to force anyone listening to experience 30 . clear. and describe the new impressions when they come. Of that half of you who did get an image. or a simple Dictaphone like every office used to have. Call in a friend. a faint impression which you might think was hardly worth describing. That is Image-Streaming. the key is to examine and describe it aloud. though. in as rich detail as possible even if you feel at first as if you are "forcing" it and "making up" some of it to fill your description to your external focus listener. Even minimum. A combination of Albert Einstein's method of day dreaming and the Socratic method of repeated questioning. some found a strong. definite image or set of images. while others just got a glimpse. and you have. while describing them in rich detail to a live or potential listener (person or tape recorder).
so that your inner visual circuits aren't distracted away from these initially subtler signals.and see what you are describing. Instead of saying. the smell of salt. in order to see more freely. "I'm at the beach" or "This is Virginia Beach.. including improved intellectual performance and creativity. Explanation takes you away from that sensory immediacy. please keep eyes closed during such processing. just go ahead and flow it through (and see what comes with it). Describe faster than you can stop to judge whether or not something is worth mentioning. This improvement is even stronger if — 1. In other words.. You describe in as sensory-textured detail as possible. and so they can operate at full sensitivity. Describe as rapidly as you can.. to get more and more detail in. — And you will also have experienced some of the other benefits of Image-Streaming as well." detail instead the warmth of sand under your toes. 31 . works with sensory images even in profoundly intellectual matters. 10 to 20 minutes at a time. This is a kind of "brainstorm" only with description instead of ideas or answers. 2. All this is done most easily with eyes shut. you will be astonished at how much more so it quickly becomes when you describe it in this way. practice several hours of Image-Streaming and you will have mastered the basic skills needed to make other forms of visual thinking work for you. the sound of surf. express it!" Really rapid-flow describing exerts almost a Venturi force or suction pulling other perceptions into focus. 3. black and white of the gulls on that paler white far above you . The major part of your brain that we want to bring on line. the wheeling of the gulls above you in the almost-white sky. Even if your imagery is already clear and vivid. while continuing to examine it. and has a similar rule to brainstorming "if it occurs to you.
whatever's there. these symbols in common will form the core of the answer or “message” from the subconscious. further scenes and images are described. The facilities are then asked for help in understanding the messages of the images as they are often symbolic. the image streaming faculties are thanked by the image streamer for showing them an answer. a tree or bush. 3. Relate. 32 . 7.Steps of what is being done. with attention to sensory detail. Feature-questioning. A feature is picked out. The feedback should add further to an understanding of what has just occurred. This is done in a rapid-flow. 5. 2. Inductive inference. This involves speaking to a live listener or tape recorder. and describing aloud whatever images come “off the top of your head”. As more free images emerge. Further questions are used to trigger further images. 4. The question. Once a set of images from this purportedly constant flow have run dry. 6. 1. Examining connections: When there are similarities in any stream of images. The whole image streaming experience is reported to another individual (directly or by telephone) or to notebook or computer. The original forgotten question is revisited and the core elements are interpreted to fit the answer. relaxed with eyes closed. The image stream. Debrief. such as a wall. Asking oneself a question.
it really doesn’t matter because each format can be translated to any of the others. With E-books a student can carry into class up to 5000 books in his backpack. Adobe’s PDF and Kindle’s lrf are the most popular. China also has document standards isilo being one. Adobe developed a format some years ago for electronic documentation. Microsoft has its lit format. There is now too much information.com’s business is in E-Book sales. Readers must become more efficient and faster to become leaders in the 21st century. which is easily transferable to the new machines.com. Overall. The other machines use different formats. Now.Conclusion E-Books: Wave of the future It is almost impossible to go to a store in China today and not see an E-Book reader of some kind. over 80% of Amazon. made famous by the online bookstore Amazon. and the builder and user of electronic reading machines. Finally plain text txt is still in widespread usage. China is poised to become the premier country to use E-books. PDF is the name of Adobe’s format. you can have access to almost the entire sum of human knowledge and be able to carry it in your backpack. 33 . Almost every computer in the world has a PDF reader. The Kindle is one of the first of a host of machines to replace the paper book. e-book publishing. So now. Context learning is very important.