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Impedance matching and Smith Chart : Basic Considerations
By K-C Chan & A. Harter
1. Introduction 2. Power transfer with RF signals : reminders 3. Impedance Smith Chart : reminders 4. Admittance Smith Chart 5. Equivalent impedance resolution 6. Matching impedances step by step 7. Matching illustration on Maxim mixer MAX2680 2 2 4 13 16 18 20
Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration
MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 2 / 23
1. Introduction a. When dealing with practical implementation of radio applications, there are always some tasks that appear nightmare for many of us : need to match the difference impedances of the interconnected blocks : antenna to LNA, RFOUT to antenna, LNA output to mixer input, etc… The matching task is required mainly for a proper transfert of signal and energy from a "source" to a "load". The load can be then a source for a next block, etc… b. At high radio frequencies, the spurious (wires inductances, interlayers capacitances, conductors resistances, etc… are important non-predictible contributors for the matching network building. Above few tenth of MHz, theortical calculations and simulations are often not enough anymore. And in-situ RF lab measurements along with tuning work have to be considered for obtaining final correct values. The computations values are required to set-up the type of the structure and target components values. c. There are many possible ways to "do impedance" matching : i. Computer simulations : complex to use since such simulators are dedicated for many stuffs and not only for impedance matching ! One has to be familiarized with many input data to be entered on right formats and be expert to find the useful data among the tons of results coming out ! In addition, one has to recognize that circuit simulators are usually not pre-installed on the notebook. ii. Manual computations : tedious due to the length ("kilometric") of equations and the complex nature of the numbers to be manipulated. iii. Feelings : these can be acquired only one has already many years devoted only for the RF domains. In short term, this is for super-specialist ! iv. Smith Chart. This present article concentrates on the Smith Chart method : the main target here is to refresh its construction background and summarize practical ways to use it by some practical illustration such as finding matching network components values. Of course matching for maximum power transfer is not the only stuff one can do with Smith charts : optimization for best noise figures, quality factors impact, stability analysis, etc,… can be effectivelly covered. These aspects will be handled in an other arcticle (ref : Alphonse Harter). 2. Power transfer with RF signals : reminders a. Before to efficiently introduce the Smith Chart utilities, it is recommended to have a short refreshment on wave propagation phenomenons when Ics wires between ICs on a design are in RF conditions (above 100 MHz). This can be true at many cicumstancies such as in RS485 line, between a PA and an antenna, between a LNA to a donwconverter mixer, etc… b. Maximum power transfer It is well known that for getting a maximum power transfer from a source to a load, the following condition must happen :
Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration
XL Zs Rs E Xs ZL XL RL In this condition. In addition to an efficient power tranfer. this is particularly true for high frequency environments like video lines applications or RF & microwave networks. or : Rs + j.Xs = RL – j.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 3 / 23 Source impedance = complex conjugate of load impedance. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . the energy transferred from the source to the load is maximalized. this condition is required if one wants to avoid reflection of energy from the load back to the source.
The Smith chart is a kind of graphical representation of the Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . etc… We can then define a normalized load impedance : z = ZL/Zo = (R + jX) / Zo = r + jx (equ 2.3) Here one can see the direct relationship between load impedance and its reflection coefficient. Unfortunnally the complex nature of the relation is not practically useful. etc… The ΓL is more useful when dealing with RF frequencies. Its expression has been defined as follow : ΓL = Vrefl Z L − Z O = = Γr + j. Impedance Smith Chart : reminders a. Here Zo (the characteristic impedance) is often a constant and a real industry normalized value : 50 Ω.x − 1 = = = Z L + ZO ( Z L + Z O ) / Z O z + 1 r + j. transconductances.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 4 / 23 3. or more mathematically defined as : the 1. 100 Ω. gain. In order to reduce the number of unknown parameters.1) Since the impedances are complex numbers. How is the Smith chart constructed ? We start from the load where the impedance must be matched. we can rewrite the reflection coefficient formula : ΓL = Γr + j.Γi = Z L − ZO ( Z L − Z O ) / Z O z − 1 r + j. x + 1 (equ 2. 600 Ω.port scattering parameter s or s11 c. b. one expresses its reflection coefficient ΓL. matching impedances with apparent complicate structures can be made without any computation. The Smith chart is a polar plot of the complex reflection coefficient (also called gamma and symbolized by Γ). The only effort to do is to be able to read and follow values along circles. ΓI Vinc Z L + Z O (equ 2. Instead of considering its impedance directly. It appears as a circular plot with a lot of interlaced circles on it. 75 Ω. So : we know the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio between the reflected voltage wave and the incident voltage wave : ZO ΓL = Vrefl Vinc Vinc Vrefl ZL The amount of reflected signal from the load is depending on the degree of mismatch between the source impedance and the load impedance. which is an other manner to characterize a load (such as admittances. It has been "invinted" by a certain Mr Phillip Smith at the Bell Lab in the 1930's. it is useful to freeze the ones that appear often common in the application.2) With this simplification. the reflection coefficient is a complex number too. When correctly used.
13) (Γr − (equ 2.Γr + + Γ − = i 2 2 r +1 1+ r (r + 1) (r + 1) 2 r 2 i (equ 2.(1 − Γr + jΓi ) 1 + Γr2 − 2.11) (equ 2.Γr + Γi2 By equalling the real parts and the imaginary parts of (equ 2.Γr + (r + 1).12) (Γr − r 2 1− r r2 1 ) + Γi2 = + = 2 r +1 1 + r (1 + r ) (1 + r ) 2 r 2 1 2 ) + Γi2 = ( ) r +1 1+ r (equ 2.r.Γr + Γi2 2.Γr + r.5) (1 + Γr + jΓi ).6) : r + r.5) we obtain 2 independent new relations : r= 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 1 + Γr2 − 2.6) x= (equ 2. the equation must be re-written in order to extract standard geometrical figures (likes circles or stray lines).r.7) By developing (equ 2.4) (equ 2.10) (equ 2.Γi2 = 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 Γr2 + r. By reversing the (equ 2.Γr2 − 2.Γr + Γi2 = r +1 1+ r 2 2.Γi 1 + Γ − 2.r.Γi r + jx = = (1 − Γr − jΓi ).Γr + Γi2 2 r (equ 2.3) : z = r + jx = 1 + ΓL 1 + Γr + jΓi = 1 − ΓL 1 − Γr − jΓi (equ 2.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 5 / 23 above equation.Γr2 − 2. In order to build the chart.(1 − Γr + jΓi ) 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 + j.Γ = 1 − r 2.r 1− r Γr2 − .2.r r r2 1− r 2 Γr2 − .Γr + r.Γi2 + Γi2 = 1 − r (1 + r ).Γ − 2.14) Parametric equation of the type (x-a)² + (y+b)²=R² Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .8) (equ 2.9) (equ 2.
0) and having a radius of 1.18) (equ 2. Γi r =0 (short) r =1 The points situated on a circle are all the impedances characterized by a same real impedance part value.7) : x + x.5.0) The 0 ohms circle (r=0. the circle R=1 is centred at coordinate (0.0) There is no negative resistors (if r <0. A shortcircuit as load gives according to the formula a circle centred at coordinate (0.Γr2 − 2.Γi 1 + Γ − 2.Γi / x 2 Γr2 − 2.19) Again.Γi2 = 2.16) (equ 2. this is also a parametric equation of the type (x-a)² + (y+b)²=R² Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . the circle is degenerated as a single point (circle centred at coordinate 1.5 1 r =∞ (open) For a open-circuit load. 0) and having a radius of 1/(1+r).Γ = 2. of a circle centred at coordinate (r/r+1 .Γr + x.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 6 / 23 This above relation is a parametric equation.15) (equ 2.0) and having a radius of 0. 0.5.Γr + .Γr + 1 + Γi2 − Γi + 2 − 2 = 0 x x x 1 1 (Γr − 1) 2 + (Γi − ) 2 = 2 x x 2 r 2 i (equ 2. no resistive part) is the biggest one The infinite resistor circle is reduced to one point at (1. in the complex plan (Γr. then we are in face of amplifier or oscillators) Changing a resistor is just to select an other circle corresponding to the new r value By developing (equ 2.x.17) (equ 2.Γr + 1 + Γi2 − Γi = 0 x 2 1 1 Γr2 − 2.Γi). For example.0) which is the reflection zero point (the load is matched with the characteristic impedance). It include the point (0.0 and having a radius of 0) : this correspond to a maximum reflection coefficient of 1 : all the incident wave is totally reflected) Γr 0 Some particular cases to be noticed : • • • • • All the circles have one unique same intersecting point at the coordinate (1.
0) 0. x can be positive or negative : this explain the duplicate mirror circles at the bottom side of the complex plan. in the complex plan (Γr.1) and having a radius of 1. the circle x=1 is centred at coordinate (1. Γi The points situated on a circle are all the impedances characterized by a same imaginary impedance part value x. The infinite reactance is a degenerated circle to one point situated at (1. of a circle centred at coordinate (1 . For example.Γi). 1 0 1 • • • • • • Some particularities to be noticed : The zero-reactance circle (thus a pure resistive load) is just the horizontal axis of the complex plane. All constant reactance circles have the same unique intersecting point at (1.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 7 / 23 This above relation is a parametric equation.0) Positive reactance’s (inductors) are on circles on the half upper part of the chart.0). while negative reactance’s (capacitors) are on the half bottom part of the chart Changing a reactance is just then to take an other circle of the family corresponding to the new value x. 1/x) and having a radius of 1/x. All circles (constant x) include the point (1. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . All the circles centres are placed on the vertical axe intersecting the point 1.5 Γr In difference with the real part circles.
MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 8 / 23 Now. find the 2 circles passing both on that point and read the values r and x corresponding to the found circles. Thus knowing the impedance in the for of r + jx. to complete our Smith Chart. Γi 0 0. the plot gives immediately the corresponding reflection coefficient : one has only to find the intersection point of 2 circles : one circle corresponding to the value r and one circle corresponding to value x. we superpose the 2 circles families and one can see that every circle of a family does intersect ALL the circles of the other family. The opposite operation is also trivial : knowing the reflection coefficient.5 1 Γr 1 Now we can do following tasks (the list is not complete) : • • • • • • Situate any impedance as a spot on the Smith Chart Find the reflection coefficient Γ for a given impedance (and knowing the characteristic impedance) Find the impedance when knowing Γ Convert impedance to admittance and vice-versa Find equivalent impedance Find components values for a wanted reflection coefficient (in particular find elements of a matching network) Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 9 / 23 Since the Smith Chart resolution technique is basically a graphic method. the precision of the solutions depends a lot on the graph definitions. Here below we joined a typical Smith Chart used by all the RF engineers : Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 10 / 23 • Example 1 : situate on the Smith chart and by considering a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms.68 –j18 z5 = ∞ Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . Z3 = j200 ohms Z4 = 150 ohms Z1 = 100 + j50 ohms Z2 = 75 –j100 ohms Z5 = open-circuit Z6 = short-circuit Z7 = 50 ohms Z8 = 184 –j900 ohms First thing to do : normalize first the impedance (division by the characterise impedance) : z2 = 1.5 –j2 z3 = j4 z4 = 3 z1 = 2 + j z6 = 0 z7 = 1 z8 = 3. the here below listed impedances.
875 + 0.0.5 Γ8 = 0. Solution : Once the impedance point well situated on the plot (intersection point of a constant resistor circle and of a constant reactance circle).48j Γ7 = 0 Γ4 = 0.96 .1j Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . just read the rectangular coordinates : projection on the horizontal axis will give Γr (real part of the reflection coefficient) and the projection on the vertical axis will give Γi (imaginary part of the reflection coefficient).MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 11 / 23 • Example 2 : Direct extraction of reflection coefficient Γ on the Smith Chart.4j Γ6 = -1 Γ3 = 0.51 . Γ1 = 0.0.2j Γ5 = 1 Γ2 = 0. Γi Constant resistor r Constant reactance x Γr 0 1 • Example 3 : Take the 8 cases handled in example 1 and extract their corresponding Γ directly on the Smith Chart.4 + 0.
One has not to conclude that G=1/R and B=1/X !!! which are wrong ! By normalising by y = Y/Yo : y = g + j. The admittance is expressed in Mho or Ω-1 (in the older time as Siemens or S). we found a point situated at the same distance to (0. but not enough to make circuit resolution when dealing with elements in parallel. Y = 1/Z and Z = 1/Y.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 12 / 23 Working with admittance The Smith Chart is built by considering impedance (resistor and reactance). since Z is complex.B where G is called “conductance” and B the “susceptance” of the element. This method is OK for making conversion. Of course. That is because the plot is an impedance plot and the new point is in fact an admittance. different reflection value. while Z and 1/Z do represent exactly a same component. z Γi 180° -Γr Γr Constant conductance g circle -Γi Constance susceptance b circle y Of course. if we know z. etc…). the new point appears as a complete different impedance (different point in the Smith chart.0) but in the opposite direction. summing elements in parallel needs some additional consideration in the Smith Chart. Unfortunally. The same result can be obtained by making a rotation of 180° angle around the centre point. The value read on the chart has then to be read as mho. Y is also complex.b What happen with the reflection coefficient ? Γ= Z L − Z O 1 YL − 1 YO YO − YL 1 − y = = = Z L + Z O 1 YL + 1 YO YO + YL 1 + y One can see the expression for Γ is opposite in sign compared to its expression with z : Γ(y) = -Γ(z) Thus. Y = G + j. Adding elements in series are trivial : they correspond to moves along circles. by inverting the signs of Γ. We know that by definition. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
Γi = = 1 − y 1 − g − jb = 1 + y 1 + g + jb (equ 3. Admittance Smith Chart Above.11) (Γr + (equ 3.12) Parametric equation of the type (x-a)² + (y+b)²=R² Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .g .2) (equ 3.Γ = 1 − g 2.Γi g + jb = = (1 + Γr + jΓi ).g 1− g Γr2 + .10) (Γr + g 2 1− g g2 1 ) + Γi2 = + = 2 g +1 1 + g (1 + g ) (1 + g ) 2 g 2 1 2 ) + Γi2 = ( ) g +1 1+ g (equ 3.3) (1 − Γr − jΓi ).Γr + g .3) we obtain 2 independent new relations : g= 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 1 + Γr2 + 2.8) (equ 3.g g g2 1− g 2 2 Γr + .Γr2 + 2.Γ + 2.4) : g + g.1) By reversing the (equ 3.(1 + Γr − jΓi ) 1 + Γr2 + 2. 0).7) (equ 3. we have seen that every point in the impedance Smith Chart can be converted into an admittance counterpart by making a rotation of 180° around the origin of the Γ complex plane.Γr + Γi2 By equalling the real parts and the imaginary parts of (equ 3.Γi2 + Γi2 = 1 − g (1 + g ).g.Γr2 + 2.6) (equ 3. With that plot. the intersecting point of all the circles (constant conductance’s and constant susceptances) is at the point (-1.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 13 / 23 4.Γr + Γi2 = g +1 1+ g 2 2. Thus.Γi 1 + Γ + 2.(1 + Γr − jΓi ) 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 − j. adding element in parallel becomes trivial.9) (equ 3.2. This is great since one has not to build an other chart : the same can be used ! Automatically.1) : y = g + jb = 1 − ΓL 1 − Γr − jΓi = 1 + ΓL 1 + Γr + jΓi (equ 3. an Admittance Smith Chart can be obtained by rotating the whole Impedance Smith Chart by 180°.g.Γr + Γi2 2 r (equ 3. One can also mathematically demonstrate the Admittance Smith chart construction : ΓL = Γr + j.Γr + + Γi − = 2 2 g +1 1+ g ( g + 1) ( g + 1) 2 r 2 i (equ 3.Γr + ( g + 1).Γr + g .Γi2 = 1 − Γr2 − Γi2 Γr2 + g.5) By developing (equ 3.Γr + Γi2 − 2.4) b= (equ 3.
For example.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 14 / 23 This above relation is a parametric equation.0) which is the reflection zero point (the load is matched with the characteristic admittance). Γr g =∞ (short) -1 0 For a short-circuit load.Γi). g =0 (open) Γi The points situated on a circle are all the admittances characterized by a same real part (conductance) value. An open-circuit as load gives according to the formula a circle centred at coordinate (0.5.0) and having a radius of 0. of a circle centred at coordinate (-g/g+1 .5. 0) and having a radius of 1/(1+g). in the complex plan (Γr. the circle is degenerated as a single point (circle centred at coordinate -1. the circle g=1 is centered at coordinate (-0.0) and having a radius of 1. It include the point (0.0 and having a radius of 0) : this corresponds to a maximum reflection coefficient of -1 : all the incident wave is totally reflected) Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
All circles (constant b) include the point (-1.14) (equ 3.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 15 / 23 By developing (equ 3. For example. in the complex plan (Γr.Γ = −2. of a circle centred at coordinate (-1 . the circle b=1 is centred at coordinate (-1.b.Γi / b 2 Γr2 + 2.17) Again.Γi2 = −2. Γi The points situated on a circle are all the admittances characterized by a same imaginary part value b.Γr + .Γi).Γr2 + 2.16) (equ 3. -1/b) and having a radius of 1/b.-1) and having a radius of 1.Γi 1 + Γ + 2.5) : b + b.13) (equ 3.0) Γr -1 0 Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .Γr + b.Γr + 1 + Γi2 + Γi + 2 − 2 = 0 b b b 1 1 (Γr + 1) 2 + (Γi + ) 2 = 2 b b 2 r 2 i (equ 3.15) (equ 3. this is also a parametric equation of the type (x-a)² + (y+b)²=R² This above relation is a parametric equation.Γr + 1 + Γi2 + Γi = 0 b 2 1 1 Γr2 + 2.
Equivalent impedance resolution When solving problem where elements in series and in parallel are mixed together. Step 5 : Rotate the plane by 180° : we are now in the impedance mode. the spot on the Smith chart comes immediately : intersection circle r=1 and circle x=1. While susceptance (b) is positive for capacitance and negative for inductance.4 x=1 Z=? b = 1. This means we need to switch to the impedance Smith Chart. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . which is here a resistor of 1. After doing this. x = 0. This has to be made in the anti-clock wise direction (negative value).9 Z=? b = 1. one can use the same Smith Chart and rotate it at any instant when conversions from z to y or y to z are previously performed before to rotate the chart. we obtain point B.1 b = -0. The shunt element can be added by going along the conductance circle by a distance corresponding to 0.3 r=1 x = 0. convert the previous point into admittance : this gives the spot A’. We mark this point by A Step 2 : The next element is an element coming in shunt (parallel) : we will have to switch into the Admittance Smith Chart (rotation by 180° of the whole plane). This gives the spot B’.9 x = -1.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 16 / 23 5.1 x = -1. Step 4 : We have an element to be inserted in series. reconvert the previous point into impedance (it was an admittance). The series element is added by circulating along the resistance circle by a distance corresponding to 1. first.4 A B C D Z • • • • • Step 1 : We start from the end. Since this is in series with an inductor of 1 ohm.4. Before to do this rotation. This has to be made in the anti-clock wise direction (negative value). Step 3 : Rotate the plane by 180° : we are now in the admittance mode. After doing this. The best way to expose the method is to do this through an example : Let’s consider the network here below (the elements are normalized with Zo=50 ohm): Serie reactance (x) is positive for inductance and negative for capacitor.3. Before to do this. we obtain point C.3 r=1 The circuit has to be cut in different portions such as : x=1 b = -0.
2 +j0. then Z = 10 + j25 ohms Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . there is a shunt element. since the value is positive.5 : thus z = 0. same operations as already described above (conversion into admittance followed by plane rotation of 180°. Then apply move by distance 1. along the constant conductance circle).2 and circle reactance 0.1 in the clock-wise direction. If the system characteristic impedance is 50 ohms. We obtain point D. We obtain the asked value : z situated in the intersection of circle resistor 0.5.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 17 / 23 • • Step 6 : Again. Step 7 : Recon version into impedance prior to add the last element (series inductor).
Graphically. there is only one solution from A’ to D but the intermediate point B (and hence B’) needs to be localized by “test-and-try” until one falls on the point D. matching networks) to realize a same matching. Other inputs can be provided or fixed : filter type structure. We know the direction (C in shunt means in the clock-wise direction in the admittance Smith chart). Since the next element is a series element. but the problem is that there may exists infinite ways (i. Apparently. The best method to explain the approach is to illustrate the tasks with the help of a practical example : Matching network ZS = 25 . Thus a point B’ will be obtained. choose the value in the same range than load/source values (question of readability on the Smith chart). Since we don’t know the value of C. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . The network structure has been fixed as a low pass L type.3 zL = 2 – j0. If not given. Step 4 : Detect the arc portion that the next point will appear after the connection of the capacitor C. it looks like as easy as finding equivalent impedance. the point B has to be back converted in impedance. An other manner to see the problem is to say how to force the load to appear like an impedance of value = Zs* (complex conjugate of Zs). Here. we don’t know where to stop.5 – j0.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 18 / 23 6. quality factor. etc… The approach is to add series and shunt elements on the chart until the desired impedance is achieved. limited choice of element values.e. Step 3 : The first element connected to the load is a capacitor in shunt : conversion in admittance (see previously described methodology). The task is to design the network to be inserted between them in order to insure impedance matching. This point B’ has to be situated in the same resistor circle than D.j15 Ω ZL = 100 – j25 Ω C=? Vs L=? Z* = 25 + j15 Ω Here the problem consists to match a source impedance Zs to a ZL load at the operation frequency of 60 MHz. it appears to find the way to link 2 spots on the Smith Chart. Step 1 : First normalize the different impedance values. We obtain a point A’.5 Step 2 : Situate the 2 points on the chart. Graphically. The point B will be an admittance.3 and z*s = 0.5 + j0. Matching impedances step by step This is the reverse operation of finding equivalent impedance of a given network. We mark A for zL and D for Z*. Here we take Zo = 50 ohms Thus zs = 0. the impedances are fixed at the 2 access ends (often the source and the load).
B’.106) = 41.L = X.2 and thus X = 1.π.78 * Yo = 0.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 19 / 23 Step 5 : after having found the points B.60.0156 mho Since ω.π.0156/(2.f) = 60/(2.78 and thus B = 0.106) = 159 nH Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .4 pF The arc B’-D measures x = 1. then L = X/ω = X/(2. After apprx 15 minutes .π. The first gives the normalised susceptance value of C and the second gives the normalised reactance value of L.f) = 0.C = B.2 * Zo = 60 ohm Since ω. then C = B/ω = B/(2.60. we can then measure the lengths of arc A’-B and arc B’-D. one found the points B and B’ : The arc A’-B measures b = 0.π.
72 + j7.5GHz into output IF frequencies from 10 MHz to 500 MHz. Here we have zL = 1 and zs* = 3. In their datasheet.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 20 / 23 7.94 • Step 2 : Plot the zL and zS* on the chart Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . The external matching networks on the RF input and IF output ports determine their operation modes. needs to pass or filter out DC. The Zs has been given for the 3 different devices and for the 3 standard IF frequencies : Zs MAX2680 MAX2681 MAX2682 IF = 45 MHz 960-j372 934-j373 670-j216 IF = 70 MHz 803-j785 746-j526 578-j299 IF = 240 MHz 186-j397 161-j375 175-j296 The datasheet contains a table with elements values for the same above defined 3 standard IF frequencies : IF Matching L1 C2 R1 IF = 45 MHz 390 nH 39 pF 250 Ω IF = 70 MHz 330 nH 15 pF Open IF = 240 MHz 82 nH 3 pF open Let us verify on the Smith chart the data for the MAX2680 at IF = 240 MHz. Impedance matching illustration on Maxim mixer MAX2680 Practical application on MAX2680-MAC2681-MAX2682 which are down converters mixers able to handle input RF signal on the range 400MHz to 2. Q-factor. 900 MHz. range limits of components. a typical matching structure has been proposed with elements values for some “standardized” frequencies : • Input RF at 400 MHz. compute the normalized values zL and zs*. etc…) will fix the best choices. Their structures and elements are various and quasi infinite. The applications nature (i.e. 70 MHz and 240 MHz The question many of us are asking or will ask is : how to proceed if the application used other frequencies ? The above highlights on impedance matching will help us to handle the issue : Let us first consider the proposed IF output matching network : Zs C2 L1 R1 Load ZL 50 Ω MAX2680 MAX2681 MAX2682 IF Matching network Zs is the IF output stage internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent) that needs to be matched with the external line of 50 Ω. • First step : Choose the characteristic impedance : here Zo = 50 Ω. 1950 MHz and 2450 MHz • Output RF at 45 MHz.
turn anti-clock wise (because capacitor in series thus negative reactance) of a quantity still to be determined.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 21 / 23 • Step 3 : Start from zL. The operations are illustrated in the following Smith Chart. shunt R1 must be added if the intermediate point is to far for reaching zs*. Optionally. The end point must be situated on the constant r=1 circle in a such way that the L1 shunt (anti-clock wise rotation in the admittance chart) will end to zs*. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
5 units. x=0) and we know the first element is a series capacitor : thus next point is B situated somewhere on the circle r=1. it corresponds to subtract a value. The point B transformed into admittance must give a point C situated 180° phase. These results for C2 = 3. The shunt resistor allows a decrease in constant g circle in the Admittance Smith chart.6 pF and L1=89 nH Values are thus very close for a same IF frequency on the 3 products MAX2680. its recon version into impedance must fall into Zs (point E).7 for the arc BC and 0.45 meaning 111.2 mho normalized conductance). these end then with C2 = 12 pF and L1 value is 310 nH At IF = 45 MHz.1 ohms at 45 MHz and giving L1 = 390 nH By considering also the need to use standardized components values.65 meaning 82. thus Z = 50/0. We measure arc AB : 1. After having placed the Zs and the ZL spots on the chart. The “price” to pay is a little bit a degradation of the Q factor.5 = 225 ohms Thus C2 = 1/(225*ω) = 1/(225*2*π*f) = 1 / (225*2*π*240 106) = 2. the arc lengths AB and CD are very close to the cases at IF = 240 MHz.37 for the arc CD.3 = 167 ohms Thus L1 = 167 / ω = 167 / (2*π*f) = 167 / (2*π*240 106) = 110 nH The same manipulations for MAX2681 give same results since the impedance is quasi identical.3 units. an identical set of operations on the Smith Chart give 3. As explained above. The case at 45 MHz is illustrated in the hereafter Smith Chart. After the manipulation on the chart.MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 22 / 23 The arc A-B gives the value of the capacitor C2 The arc C-D gives the value of the inductor L1 It is not necessary to add the shunt resistor R1 in this case. Value of arc A-B measured on the plot : r = 4. start from ZL (point A : r=1. We choose (apprx) 250 ohms (0. For the MAX2682.94 pF Value of arc C-D measured on the plot : s = 0. It is a shift of point C into D along a constant susceptance circle starting from C. one can measure arc AB = 1.5 ohms at 45 MHz and giving C2 = 42 pF We measure then arc CD : 0. one find the data given in the datasheet. One D is obtained.65 (resulting in a 42 pF value for C2) and arc CD = 0. Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration . the shunt resistor is required if we want to avoid too big inductance. it will be added a shunt resistor : converted into conductance.5 (resulting on an inductor value L1 of 351 nH). thus Z = 50 * 4. One can observe both the AB and the CD arcs are shorter than the situation without the shunt. MAX2681 and MAX2682 At IF = 70 MHz.
MAXIM France – Field Application Engineering – Technical article – Jan 2000 – KCC/AH – Page 23 / 23 Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration .
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