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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Assignment - A

Question 1: Some people view conflict as inherently bad whereas others believe that some degree of conflict in organizations is desirable Which view do you subscribe to and why? Answer: A conflict is said to exist when more than one value or perspective opposite to each other exists within an individual or among a group of individuals and if it manifests itself in a variety of situations some of which include: In an individual capacity, when one is not practicing a living according to a value system. When one enters into disputes arising out of non-fulfillment or inadequate fulfillment of obligations When one's values are threatened from an external environment.

Conflicts are viewed bad because of the negative feelings they produce in those undergoing them which are considered bad emotionally and physically, whether in personal or work life; but, such an understanding arises out of confusing it with discomforts and feelings that are produced out of disturbances. While conflicts can be quantified, disturbances and discomforts are not amenable to precise

quantification as they are intangible in nature. Because they are intangible, they become bad. It has to be understood that conflict is not only inevitable but also good as it has been in practice found to help in; Raising and or addressing a problem Enegising the team to work together on issues towards achieving of overall goals instead of getting fragmented Motivating the members in a team to participate in discussions. The recognition of the existence of differences and benefit from such differences. In order to benefit from conflicts, they have to be distinguished from negative ones. A conflict acquires characteristics of negativity when it: Hampers productivity Lowers the morale of those involved in it vague and by being erroneously equated with conflicts, they are labeled as

Results in escalation of further conflicts instead of being resolved Brings in undesirable consequences through inappropriate behaviours

In other words, it is not conflicts per se are bad, but the way they are handled that would make them bad. When handled properly, it undergoes the following stages, viz, a formation, a information on which it is based in terms of ethical issues, and the performance that is the actual way it is handled in order to bring out desired results. Question 2: How can an understanding of transactional analysis be of value to a modern manager? Answer: Managers use cost accounting to support decision-making to cut a company's costs and improve profitability. As a form of management accounting, cost accounting need not to follow standards such as GAAP, because its primary use is for internal managers, rather than outside users, and what to compute is instead decided pragmatically. Costs are measured in units of nominal currency by convention. Cost accounting can be viewed as translating the supply chain (the series of events in the production process that, in concert, result in a product) into financial values. Cost accounting has long been used to help managers understand the costs of running a business. Modern cost accounting originated during the industrial revolution, when the complexities of running a large scale business led to the development of systems for recording and tracking costs to help business owners and managers make decisions. In the early industrial age, most of the costs incurred by a business were what modern accountants call "variable costs" because they varied directly with the amount of production. Money was spent on labor, raw materials, power to run a factory, etc. in direct proportion to production. Managers could simply total the variable costs for a product and use this as a rough guide for decision-making processes. Some costs tend to remain the same even during busy periods, unlike variable costs, which rise and fall with volume of work. Over time, the importance of these "fixed costs" has become more important to managers. Examples of fixed costs include the depreciation of plant and equipment, and the cost of departments such as maintenance, tooling, production control, purchasing, quality control, storage and handling, plant supervision and engineering. In the early twentieth century, these costs were of little importance to most businesses. However, in the twenty-first century, these costs are often more important than the variable cost of a product, and allocating them to a broad range of products can lead to bad decision making. Managers must understand fixed costs in order to make decisions about products and pricing. For example: A company produced railway coaches and had only one product. To make each coach, the company needed to purchase $60 of raw materials and components, and pay 6 laborers $40 each. Therefore, total variable cost for each coach was $300. Knowing that making a coach required spending $300, managers knew they couldn't sell below that price without losing money on each coach. Any price above $300 became a contribution to the fixed costs of the company. If the fixed costs were, say, $1000 per month for rent, insurance and owner's salary, the

company could therefore sell 5 coaches per month for a total of $3000 (priced at $600 each), or 10 coaches for a total of $4500 (priced at $450 each), and make a profit of $500 in both cases. Question 3: How will you determine the personality of a person? Also explain the personality traits that have relevance from the point of view of organizational behavior. Answer: Personalities are primarily considered to be of two broad types, viz, introverts and extroverts. The terms were originally coined by Jung, a psychoanalyst to describe the characteristics of persons. Introverts, according to him, are the ones who enjoy by keeping to themselves, labeled as 'reserved'. In an organizational context, they

would prefer to work in environments, say, in a research laboratory, where there is a minimal interaction with other people. Introverts by nature are preoccupied within themselves with an accompanying disinterest or disinclination in participating in what is going around them outside, that is the real world. On the other hand, extroverts enjoy being with other persons by exhibiting out going characteristics, whether in work or personal life. For this reason they are labeled as outgoing. Extroverts, then in an organizational context, be defined as ones who would like work in such situations which are directed towards outside environment such a work demands, for example, sales, customer relations or any other similar assignment where inter actions with others is a common feature of the job in particular and participating in events around them in the real world in general.

Personality traits can be defined as a set of complex thoughts, emotion and or behaviour that remains stable over a period of time and many situations. Personality traits are important in the context of organization because they reveal a wealth of insights into mind and behaviour that would decide the capabilities of each personality into a job and or performance situation. Any organization performs in a dynamic environment and the way its people think, feel and act is critical to the survival and success of it.

Question 4: To provide optimal incentive to the people at work to achieve desired results the management must understand the prevailing level and nature of motives because without such information, it would not be possible to use suitable incentives both tangible and intangible to effectively mobilize and direct human efforts towards the attainment of organizational goals. Elucidate the statement.

Answer: It is common knowledge that in an organizational setting, two factors are said to play a critical in the determination of incentives to the work force. They are an assessment of the behavior of an individual and application of factors that would influence such behavior of individuals that would enable the organizations to realize the desired performance from them. While there are a variety of motivational theories which are available before a manager in determining such choices, the

limitation of them is no can apply totally to any given situation.

While the starting point could be Maslow's theory of Hierarchy of needs, there is no end point with which one can say that by applying such a point an optimal outcome could be derived. In other words, the elucidation of this statement requires an application of more than one theory. Each theory is complex in nature and is not independent of another for each one contains some elements of overlapping from another.

Within the constraints described above, the statement could be explained further by observing that there is a common thread that links them and this thread is that motivation is dependent on behaviour and behaviour is directed by complex factors from levels of existence to achievement. Individuals possess in themselves a set of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and all of them combined together reflect in their behaviors in the form of intensity, direction and persistence towards achievement of the goals of an organization. Maslows theory could serve only as a starting point, for subsequent theories have proved that it is not necessary that the individuals transform from one need to another after satiating that particular need and simultaneous fulfillment of more than one need could be present at the same time in which case it becomes rather ticklish for a manager to decide which one among the two or multifarious should be given priority in providing optimal incentives.

While a number of other theories could apply, in answering the question, they could further be reduced to the ones relating to Theory of Needs refined by other scholars as McClelland, Theory of X and Y by Douglas McGregor and the Expectancy Theory of vroom. Within these, Expectancy Theory perhaps would have more applicability for it deals with the tendencies of individuals to act in different ways deepening upon the perception of the outcomes of their expectations. The importance of the statement in the question, I believe, lies in driving the point that behavior and motivation are two

inseparable factors and if a performance evaluation isolates one from another while conducting it, it may become a faulty exercise for both are needed to capture a holistic picture in determining the performance of an individual and deciding an incentive system. Question a. b. c. d. e. 5: Write notes on any three of the following. Various perspectives and approaches to management theory. Process of Social Learning Mintzbergs Managerial Roles Sigmund Freuds theory on personality development. Barriers to effective communication

Answer: 5b. Process of Social Learning Learning is relatively permanent change on behaviour that results due to experience or reinforced practice. It also refers to concerted activity that increases the capacity and willingness of individuals, groups, organizations and communities to acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills, to grow, develop and mature successfully. Such learning empowers individuals and organizations to make wise choices, solve problems. Nature & characteristics of Learning Learning through observation & experience Learning involves changes Learning develop ones personality

Theories of Learning Trial & Error learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Trial & Error Learning When a person make error , get trial & learn many things from that error. This is the foundation stage of learning. Classical Conditioning: In this stage, a person react towards an artificial stimulus, in the same time her/his mind responding towards that natural stimulus. For example create saliva when think about a favourite dish as meat or milk. Operant Conditioning Work something with an expectation to achieve goal. Social Learning Social Learning means what a person learn from the society. The social learning centre may be a family, school, peer, institution or ones surrounding. Methods of Social Learning Observation:

Observe others and follow what they are doing. Imitation: Follow others philosophy & idea & carry out that in her/his practical life. Modeling: Copy others attitude, facial expression, way of talking, behaviour Process of Social Learning: Attention process Retention process Motor reproduction process Reinforcement process

Attention process People only observe & learn from a model when they recognize & play attention to its features. Retention process Retention process means how an individual quire knowledge & remember models action when she/he is not available or present. Motor reproduction process Learn something by observation & convert that things by performing activities. Reinforcement process If the model's behaviour is positive, an individual will motivated, give more attention, learn better, utilise those things in her/his practical life & perform more. Answer: 5c. Mintzbergs Managerial Roles Mintzberg's Ten Management Roles are a complete set of behaviours or roles within a business environment. Each role is different, thus spanning the variety of all identified management behaviors. When collected together as an integrated whole (gestalt), the capabilities and competencies of a manager can be further evaluated in a role-specific way. The Ten Management Roles The ten roles explored in this theory have extensive explanations which are briefly developed here: Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority. Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness. Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager. One must network and engage in information exchange to gain access to knowledge bases. Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a department's success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained.

Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organisation and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organisation. Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process. Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisation is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support. Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources. Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles.

As a secondary filtering, Mintzberg distinguishes these roles by their responsibilities towards information. Interpersonal roles, categorised as the figurehead, leader and liason, provide information. Informational roles link all managerial work together by processing information. These roles include the monitor, the disseminator and the spokesperson. All the remaining roles are decisional, in that they use information and make decisions on how information is delivered to secondary parties. Answer: 5d: Sigmund Freuds theory on personality development. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the father of psychoanalysis, spent much of his life developing an intricate theory of how the psyche, or mind, operates. Central to Freud's theory, and perhaps his greatest contribution to psychology, is the notion that our psyche is composed of parts within our awareness and beyond our awareness. Specifically, the psyche consists of parts that are conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious Freud proposed that the conscious part of the psyche is that part which you are currently aware of or are actively thinking about. It consists of all the thoughts that presently occupy your mind. The preconscious part of the psyche consists of the thoughts, memories, and knowledge that you are not currently aware of, but that are available to you. It's your storehouse of memories and knowledge. Freud's most unique contribution towards understanding the psyche is the idea that part of our psyche is unconscious, or outside of our awareness. Freud proposed that the unconscious is a part of our psyche that we do not have access to. It holds thoughts, memories, impulses that we are not aware of and that we cannot be aware of because they may be potentially damaging to us (i.e., cause anxiety). Even though we are not aware of the contents of our unconscious, Freud proposed that the impulses and drives within it cause much of our behavior. Freud posited that in addition to conscious, preconscious, and unconscious components of our psyche, the psyche also is composed of three structures: the id, ego, and superego. Some of these structures operate unconsciously, and others are within our awareness.

The Id Freud referred to the most primitive part of our psyche as the id. We are born with the id and it residues within the unconscious. The id is driven by primitive animal instincts including sexual and aggressive impulses. It functions according to the pleasure principle in that it seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize any discomfort. The id is illogical in that it seeks pleasure without thought to what is practical, safe, or moral. Freud argued that we are not aware of the id, but it influences our behavior. The Ego Freud posted that the ego is the second part of the psyche to develop. During toddlerhood, particularly during toilet training, children come to realize that they are individuals. They recognize that they have their own desires, wants, and needs; the ego forms. The ego refers to your identity, or sense of self. It grows out of the id and can control the id, to an extent. The ego functions according to the reality principle because its job is to gratify the id in accord with reality. Because the ego is concerned both with reality and the id, it operates on all three levels of awareness (the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels of the psyche). The copyright of the article Freud's Theory of Personality: Development of the Psyche in Developmental Psychology is owned by Tara Kuther. Permission to republish Freud's Theory of Personality: Development of the Psyche in print or online must be granted by the author in writing. The Superego The last part of the psyche to develop is the superego. At five or six years of age, we begin to learn about the norms, rules, and values of society. Freud argued that children internalize these rules to form the superego, which functions as a very strict conscience. The superego operates according to the morality principle in that it seeks what is good and moral above all else. In that sense, Freud argued that it is just as illogical as the id. Like the ego, the superego functions on all levels of awareness. The ego, or that part of the psyche that is your sense of self, has a very difficult job. It must satisfy both the id and superego. It must gratify the id's primitive, instinctual needs within the constraints of reality and within the moral standards of the superego. For example, imagine that it's breakfast time. The id may prompt your for a chocolate doughnut. The superego may push you to eat something healthy like bran cereal or oatmeal. The ego attempts to gratify both desires: something healthy that tastes good. The outcome may be cereal with fruit, and some hot chocolate. As you can imagine, the ego has a difficult job. Although we are not aware of this internal struggle between the id, superego, and ego, Freud posited that it influences much of our behavior.

Assignment - B

Question 1: What are the main characteristics or Organization Development? Do you think OD might work in the organization you are familiar with? Explain why or why not? Answer: The term 'organization' in a common parlance is used to denote a person or a group of persons organizing himself/herself or themselves to accomplish a goal or a set of goals. When applied to business, the size can range from one person to thousands of them. An organization can be viewed from different perspectives as organisms, families, groups etc., but the development is considered to be the heart of any organization for organizations have to grow like living organisms to achieve a level of maturity and sustain that maturity. Being social systems, they have to then contain characteristics that promote such growth. These characteristics could be sub grouped into structural and contextual dimensions.

The structural characteristics include centralization, formalization, hierarchy, specialization and training. All these characteristics are associated with one or more unique sub-characteristics. For instance, centralization is the extent to which functions are dispersed, formalization is the placing in the rule book the policies and procedures, hierarchy, can be seen as the extent to which the structures configured into formal levels of management, specialization is as to how work processes are segmented and training could be viewed as the extent to which an organization goes to equip its staff with knowledge and skills to discharge their roles.

Contextual characteristics primarily relate to culture, environment, and technology. Culture denotes the values and beliefs considered unique to individual organizations that are shared by its members, the environment is the external circumstances that influence the working of such an organization, the technology is what the organization considers appropriate to accomplish the goals set before it.

I consider organizational development would work in my organization as in reality there is no organization which does not undergo development over a period of time for when an organization loses the dynamic characteristic fundamental to development, it starts to decay and die. Nonetheless, since each organization has its own culture and culture has a close connection with familiarity, I would consider there is no one size that fits all and each individual's choice would be unique based on his/her perception of such developmental characteristics.

Question 2: Stress is a dynamic condition supposed to accompany opportunities and yet is characterized by individual exhaustions and diminished organizational accomplishments. Do you agree? Discuss Answer: I partially agree to the statement as it is considered an event which is said to consist of uncontrollable, unpredictable, challenging and at the same threatening characteristics all bundled into that event. Such a stress could arise from working with inadequate resources in an

organizational context which in such cases could result in diminished accomplishments. However, my agreement to the statement is only partial as I believe stress has specific causes and is amenable to control. I can explain it with an example of first time supervisors or managers. This situation is considered to be the most challenging, because such promotions take place based on their technical and not managerial expertise. When they assume the job, they are confronted with a wide range of policies and regulations and get a feeling being buffered between the lower level staff whom they have to supervise and upper level management to whom they have to report. When they are baffled with such managerial responsibilities of which they do not have any prior exposure, this results in the work 'not done' or a 'feeling' that can 'never be done'. It is actually the 'stress' that is the root cause of such feelings of inability and fortunately such stresses are manageable through adequate training. Hence in the ultimate outcome stress is considered to be positive in making individuals to learn more, organize themselves and increase the productivity in an organization. Managing one is crucial to effective management of others and stress is a part and parcel of life which when accepted and acted upon brings out positive outcomes by mitigating the negative consequences. Question 3: Identify the leadership style of your superior under whom you have worked either in academic setting or in a work setting and analyze its impact on your work performance and satisfaction. Answer: Common leadership styles are autocratic, democratic, participatory, hands on/hands off etc and I consider a leadership style a contextual factor for it varies depending upon the exigencies of situations prevailing at any given point of time and the life cycle in which an organization is placed. I again consider the approaches followed by a leader to be more important rather than the styles per se. By approaches I mean the conceptual application of leadership styles in enabling the harmonious discharge of day-today functions in an organization that would ultimately result in the accomplishment of its goals on a continuous basis. I would categorize them into Strategic, Transformational, Authentic and Adaptive by adding, however, the qualifying statement, that they are by no means exhaustive. I have pinpointed these categorizations only to stress upon the fact that I would prefer to work with such leaders who are endowed with the combination of all the above or most of the qualities mentioned there in. The reasons are:

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Strategy is important to any operation, whether, in ordinary life or extra-ordinary events as a military action. Strategy leads to tactics and tactics leads to application and from applications outcomes emerge.

Transformation is needed because nothing in this world is static and in my career I would like to be transformed from an ordinary level of accomplishment to an extra-ordinary level which could be possible for me only by choosing a leader who himself/herself has got transformed over a period of time.

Authenticity reduces conflicts arising out of vagueness and I consider a superior who gives me vague instructions to be incompetent of having leadership qualities. Adaptiveness gives the flexibility to a leader to brush off the weaknesses of a subordinate and exploit the strong points which has been identified in him/her. By being adaptive, a leader acquires transformational characteristics. Ultimately, I consider 'adaptiveness' as a single critical characteristic which I would look into a leader under whom I would work. In the academic environment, I find my professor has the adaptive qualities that have made me a better student.

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CASE STUDY Space organization and Human Behaviors

The Records Room of the Exchange Control Department of the Welfare Cooperative Bank is a work unit manned by ten record clerks and the supervisor, Ms. Janki. Mr. Bhisnoi is the manager in charge of the Records Room (RR), a responsibility that is rather insignificant compared to his other duties. The RR serves to store the files sent by the various sections as and when customers applications are disposed off and the case is treated as closed and retrieve them as and when needed by the sections. Centralization of the records maintenance function and maintenance of the records at the farthest end of the ground floor of the bank and helped to present a pleasant and neat appearance of the customers and improve customer service, since the respective sections could get the files from the RR without loss of their time in searching for these in their cabinets. Requests for stored files used to be sent generally to RR by the concerned sections every day at 10.00 AM and 3.00 PM. In case of urgent need, the clerks from the sections would request the files in person and these were always made available to them without delay. Ms. Janki was in overall in charge of supervising the staff and all paper work connected with the movement of the files. The tasks were invariably carried out smoothly and efficiently by the RR staff. The Records room was spacious, and enclosed by walls on three sides and a strong steel wire mesh on the fourth side, facing the front side of the hall, with a door. The movement of the files was through the door. A second door on the wall on the east opened to the street and was always kept bolted from within, except when one of the staff had to use it to go out or come in form the street side. Access to the RR was limited, and a messenger boy always stood guard at the front entrance door. He would permit admission only to other messenger boys and clerks with request challans. None else could come in. This tight safeguard was necessary so that people could not come in anytime they wanted and remove the files themselves. The ten record clerks worked harmoniously and helped one another whenever there was a flood of requests for files. At such times, they would often stay 30 minutes to an hour late in the evening or come early in the morning to organize the returned files. They took great pride in efficiently servicing the sections during the day without delays. On certain days the crew would have less work and spend their time chatting, tossing clips and rubber bands at each other, or solving crossword puzzles. People outside the RR had no direct view of what was going in there, but many envied the group for the spirit of camaraderie that prevailed in it. The bank recently bought extra computers to speed up its ever expanding operations and reduce the cumbersome and tedious manual record keeping procedures. Since no space was initially earmarked for the incoming computers, the premises department of the bank decided to house the computer facilities in the RR area and move the Records Room to the third floor of the building, where the manager, Mr. Bhisnoi had his office. The decision to move was communicated to the RR staff, and the shifting was done during the weekend. On Monday when the RR crew reported for work, they found that the third floor office was smaller and rectangular in space in contrast to the big square room they had on the first floor. The RR was exposed in view to the other sections on the floor, and the manager, Mr.

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Bhisnoi, was sitting in his cabin right outside the RR. Some of the specially designed cabinets used for temporarily storing the returned files were retained by the computer division for their use, and thus, the RR also ran short of cabinets. Ms. Janki tried to get the cabinets returned and stacked against the steel mesh as before, but the director of the computer lab requested her to put up with the inconvenience till the new file cabinets ordered for the lab were received. The RR clerks felt they were exposed to the whole world and were unhappy that they could no longer talk to each other freely, solve crossword puzzles, or operate as before without attracting the attention of those sitting outsides. To make matters worse, Mr. Bhisnoi frequently instructed Janki to make sure that the returned files were stored neatly and not thrown all over the place, making the area look untidy and shabby. Her complaints regarding lack of cabinets fell on deaf ears. The unique privileges the RR group once enjoyed were no more theirs to enjoy. Ms. Janki, who had always got along well with her staff who rendered efficient services to the sections, was now getting nervous and full of anxiety about her future. Her stress was heightened when Mr. Bhisnoi called her one day and said that he observed clerks throwing clips at each other and if were not able to control them, she should either resign or seek a transfer. The RR clerks who liked Ms. Janki and did not want to cause her any trouble, thereafter pretended to be quiet and hardworking whenever thy saw Mr. Bhisnoi come out of his cabin. They hid all the returned files in a corner where nobody could notice them, even as thy continued to talk, throw clips, and solve crossword puzzles when nobody was observing them. Ms. Janki just found, to her utter dismay, that about 300 returned files were lying in a hidden corner of the room unattended, and the requisition slips, which were hitherto promptly serviced, now lay piling up inside the clerks desk drawers.

Questions 1: What are the required and emergent behaviors of the Records room group in the old and the new setting? What were the factors influencing the emergent behaviors in both situations? What were the consequences of the emergent behaviors in each case? Answer: The required behaviors of those manning the Records Room include retrieving of closed files and when needed by the other staff of the Bank and also acting on a priority basis as and when such files are needed urgently by them. As and when they are not engaged in such transit activities, they should take care of the maintenance of the records by storing them neatly and keeping in mind easy accessibility. Such emerging behavior demanded that they are flexible in their working hours, either by coming to the office early or leaving it late as and when demanded. They also have to keep a harmonious relationship within themselves and the supervisor under whom they work. The required behaviours were earlier existent in the forms of adequate space, freedom and flexibility to accomplish the job.

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The emergent behaviours resulted in not accomplishing any of the above objectives and arising out of loss of all of the above pre-requisites mentioned above. Questions 2: What were the norms of the group before and after the shift? How did these norms affect group cohesion and performance? Answer: The earlier norms included a specious Records room wherein all the records could be accommodated and stacked in a neat manner covered well by all sides of the room. The staff was not exposed to other members working in the Bank and could spend the time whichever way they wanted subject to their completing the work assigned to them leaving the flexibility to spend the free time in the manner they liked that would promote the groups cohesion without attracting the disproving eyes of the manager, Bhisnoi who was over and above the supervisor, Ms.Janaki. Since the access to the Records Rooms was limited they had little chance of being invaded by unauthorized and unintended visitors. These conditions enabled the ten RR clerks to work in a harmonious manner and also adjust to emergencies by acting in a cohesive manner and respond well to them by working early or late.

After the shift, the entire group was deprived of the large space in which they were working earlier and in addition had to contend with the lack of cabinets which they originally had to neatly stack the files. They were constantly exposed to the roving eyes of the manager Mr. Bhisnoi. This resulted in a secretive resentment in the group that affected their cohesiveness and work performance. They found that their supervisor, Ms. Janaki was subjected to frequent interference and advice by Mr.Bhisonoi and since they wanted her not to be further be stressed at his hands, pretended as though they were doing their work properly which, however, was found to be not the case subsequently. Loss of space, freedom and flexibility all had contributed to the loss of group cohesiveness and resulting in inefficient and or negative performance. Question 3: If you were Mr. Bhisnoi, what would you do now? Answer: From the details available of the beahvaiour of Mr. Bhisnoi one factor that emerges out is that he is an ineffective leader, for, without complying with the requests of Ms. Janaki to provide with the cabinets she needed to stack the files, he had been pointing out that they have been kept untidy. He does not seem to be having the capability to resolve the issue and at the same time the timidness to abuse his authority to harass Ms. Janaki. If I were in his position, I would first stop complaining without competence and try to set right the situation and if I am not capable of it relinquish that responsibility by requesting the management to assign it to a much more capable person.

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Assignment C

Q1. The four systems of management were provided by-a. Likert b. Blake and Mouton c. Fred Fiedler d. Hersey and Blanchard

Q2. Crossed transactions are also called-a. Gallows transactions b. Complementary transactions c. Non-complementary transactions d. Ulterior transactions Q3. Expert Power is based on-a. Special knowledge and expertise b. Punishment and influence c. Charisma d. Power and Status Q4. The tendency of a tightly knit group to bring individual thinking in line with group thinking is called-a. Polarization b. Delphi Technique c. Group shift d. Group think Q5. The developmental branch of MBO was developed by-a. Drucker b. Odiome c. Mc. Gregor d. Keith Davis Q6. Job- involvement is a type of-a. Belief b. Attitude c. Value d. Personality Q7. The concept of transactional analysis was introduced by-a. Dorothy Jongeward b. Thomas Harris c. Eric Berne d. Murial James Q8. The process through which a new employee is introduced to the job /organization is-a. Internal Mobility b. Selection c. Placement

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d. Orientation

Q9. _______ theories assert that specific behavior differentiate leaders from non- leaders. a. Systems theories. b. Contingency theories c. Behavioral theories d. Trait theories Q10. Theory Z represents the adaptation of-a. Chinese management b. American management c. Japanese management d. British Management Q11. Formal conflict is a type of-a. Goal conflict b. Organizational conflict c. Role conflict d. Group conflict Q12. Which of the following are core disciplines contributing to organizational behavior? a. Economics, Semantics & physiology b. Psychology, sociology & anthropology c. Mathematics & engineering d. Political science, economics & history Q13. The horizontal system of communication is also known as-a. Interactive system b. Abandoned system c. Popular system d. Representative system Q14. Culture is transmitted to employees through-a. Rituals b. Stories c. Jargons d. All the above Q15. The father of scientific management is-a. F W Taylor b. Henry Fayol c. F W Lanchester d. James Mooney Q16. The carrot and stick theory of motivation is related to-a. Theory X b. Theory Y c. Theory Z d. Hertzberg's 2 factor theory

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Q17. The basic assumption of organizational behavior relates to-a. Nature of people and organization b. Technology c. External social system d. Internal resource chanellisation

Q18. Stereotyping refers to judging people based on-a. Single Characteristic b. Group characteristic c. Attribution d. Motives & desires Q19. A mechanism by which the superior & subordinate jointly set the goals and plan the activities needed for the purpose is-a. Planning b. MBO c. MBE d. Strategic management Q20. Management grid incorporates ___________ major styles of leadership. a. Five b. Three c. Seven d. Nine Q21. The layers of management are technically referred to as-a. Managerial design b. Managerial hierarchy c. Managerial levels d. Managerial status Q22. The ability & power to develop new ideas is referred to as-a. Innovation b. Creativity c. Productivity d. All the above Q23. One of the objectives of organizational change is-a. Changes in an organization's level of adaptation to its environment b. Increased motivation c. Greater innovation d. Increased productivity Q24. Who has (have) formulated 'Life Cycle Theory' of leadership-a. Hersay & Blanchard b. Fiedler c. Reddin d. Likert Q25. Laswell formula of communication deals with-a. Synchronic & diachronic modes

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b. Communication sequence c. Communication competence d. Communication control

Q26. Theories of Learning does not include-a. Classical Conditioning b. Operant Conditioning c. Natural Learning d. Cognitive Learning Q27. The 'Big Five' dimensions of personality includes-a. Extroversion b. Agreeableness c. Conscientiousness d. All the Above Q28. Father of administrative management is-a. L. Urwick b. F W Taylor c. Max Weber d. Henry Fayol Q29. _________ is a unit of recognition. a. Stroke b. Ego-State c. Transaction d. Life-Position Q30. Which among them is a not an element of perception? a. Control b. Interpretation c. Registration d. Stimulus Q31. Max Weber is associated with-a. Administrative Theory b. Scientific Management c. Hawthorne experiments d. Bureaucracy Q32. One of the sub-systems of OD is-a. Management Development b. Managements Diversion c. Management Disintegration d. Management integration Q33. Resistance to change can be overcome by-a. Participation & involvement b. Manipulation & cooptation c. Facilitation & Support d. All the above

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Q34. Which is positively associated with group cohesiveness? a. Expert power b. Referent Power c. Legitimate Power d. Reward Power

Q35. System restructuring approach to conflict management involves-a. Rotation of Personnel b. Change of perception c. Authoritative command d. Collaborative behaviors Q36. Who has conducted the Auto kinesis experiments? a. Sheriff b. Merceil c. Shaw d. Pavlov Q37. Mc. Celland's theory of motivation does not include-a. Achievement motivation b. Power motivation c. Affiliation motivation d. Money motivation Q38. Angular & Duplex transactions are type of-a. Simplex transactions b. Complex transactions c. Crossed transactions d. Complementary transactions Q39. The set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior is-a. OB Mod b. OD techniques c. Control techniques d. MBTI Q40. Divergent Perceptual sets may cause-a. Industrial conflicts b. Attitude c. Absenteeism d. Indiscipline

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