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(1990) 142(3), 481-498

**NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF BEAMS UNDER TENSILE AXIAL LOADS
**

A.

BOKAIANt

Nuclear Design Associates, Canute Court, Toft Road, Knutsford WA16 ONL, England (Received 18 September 1989, and in revised form 4 January 1990)

The effect of a constant axial tensile force on natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform single-span beam, with different combinations of end conditions, is presented. Numerical observations indicate that the variati_on of normalized natural frequency parameter, 0, with normalized tension parameter, U, is almost the same for clamped-pinned and pinned-free, and similarly for clamped-clamped and clamped-sliding beams; the variation of the sliding-free beam is only slightly different from that of the latter pair and beams, this the free-free beam. For pinned-pinned, pinn - Tiding and sliding-sliding ;h” 1 + i?. This formula may be used for beams variation may exactly be expressed as 0 = ,‘ with other types of end constraints when the beam vibrates in a third mode or higher. It also gives the upper bound approximation to the fundamental natural frequency of a pinned-free beam. For beam wi h other types of boundary conditions, this approximation may be expressed as 0 = F 1+ yU (y < l), where the coefficient y depends only on the

**type of the end constraints.
**

It is found that when the dimensionless tension parameter U is greater than about 12, then U can be expressed as an analytical function of 0/ CJ,where R is the dimensionless natural frequency parameter. For such a beam in the first few modes, the natural frequency

is independent of the flexural rigidity and the beam behaves like a string. solution gives a lower bound approximation to the natural frequency. The string

1, INTRODUCTION

Lateral vibrations of beams under tensile axial loading is of practical interest, and has wide application in civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering. In the deign of certain spacecraft structural components, for example, it sometimes becomes necessary to deter-

mine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of beam-type components which are in a state of preload or prestress. Current designs for large flexible solar arrays [l] are such that the boom which supports the array is in a state of prestress due to the tension that must be maintained in the solar cell substrate. Another example is a marine riser or a tether (tendon) of a tension leg platform. Both structures have to be maintained in tension to prevent buckling due to self-weight. They derive their lateral stiffness primarily from their axial tensile force. Large vibrational stresses are normally associated with a resonance that exists when the frequency of the imposed force, from whatever source, is tuned to one of the natural frequencies of these structures. A marine riser or tether can be modelled as a long and extremely slender vertical prismatic tube. It may have a wide variety of end constraints [2-41. The case when one end of the tubular member is free, for example, corresponds to a hanging riser during installation or removal phase, or to a standing riser during emergency conditions [5]. This case may also be found in OTEC cold water pipes [6] and in mining engineering [7]. At present these structures are most commonly analyzed by large complex finite t

Present address: Brown & Root Vickers Ltd., 150 The Broadway, Wimbledon, London SW19 1RX.

481 0022-460X/90/210481 + 18 %03.00/O @ 1990 Academic Ress Limited

(1) where Y(x) is the transverse displacement of a typical segment of the beam located at the distance x from the left-hand end. indicate constant coefficients.cosh Ml+c.-(N’ cos equation associated with these relationships is (U+m)“‘ cosh(U+m)“*sin(-U+m)“‘ (-U+~)““sinh(U+~)“‘ cos(-U+~)“r=O. and the shear deformation and rotary inertia are negligible. By introducing the dimensionless beam co-ordinate 5 = x/ 1.+(cos N)c4=0. f2 = wl*/ CY is the dimensionless natural frequency parameter and (Y= m (a list of symbols is given in the Appendix).482 A. E the Young’ s modulus. and M and N are defined as M=I{(T/2EZ)+[(T/2EZ)*+(pA/EZ)w2]”*}”’ =(U+~)”*. the differential equation for small deflection is EZ d4Y(x)/dx4T d*Y(x)/dx*-pAo*Y(x) =O.+(M*cosh MC. where OS 56 1. (4) N)c. BOKAIAN element programmes [8]. These techniques need to be further clarified. the solution of equation (1) may be written as Y(x)= c. It is an extension of the author’ s earlier work [ 121. N)c. Implementing these conditions on equation (2) will result in the following relationships: c*+ cq = 0. One technique ignores the pipe bending stiffness. . which is equal to the tension at the bottom ball joint plus one-half of the pipe weight [ll]. subjected to a constant tensile force T. d Y(O)/dx = 0. A few simpler linear techniques are also available [9. and to provide a tool for performing simple initial design calculations without resorting to large computer codes. 2. The other takes the stiffness into account but simplifies the calculation by assuming a uniform tension. N=I{-(T/2EZ)+[(T/2EZ)Z+(pA/EZ)w2]”2}”’ =(-U+~)”2.--(N’ sin N)c. both as an aid to the better understanding of marine riser structural behaviour. sin Nl+c. p the mass density of the beam material and w the circular natural frequency.a.+(sin M)c. M)c. + Nc3 = 0. On the assumption that the beam material is linearly elastic. sinh Ml+c. ANALYTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Column 1 of Table 1 depicts uniform beams of length I with different combinations of end conditions. along the pipe length. c3 and c. which are cumbersome and expensive to use. (5) . The numerical results and the novel closed form solution presented in this manuscript provide designers and analysts with a quick simple estimate of natural frequencies of beams under tensile loads. c2. Consider the clamped-pinned beam for which the boundary conditions are Y(0) = 0. Z the second moment of are.=O. lo]. (sinh M)c. (3) where U = TZ*/2EZ is the dimensionless tension parameter. This paper is concerned with natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform beam under a constant tension with various end constraints. Y(Z) = 0 and d* Y(Z)/dx’ = 0.cos N& (2) in which c.+(cosh (M’ sinh The characteristic M)c. A the cross-sectional area.

Clamped-clamped dx %!XO dx Y(0) = 0. dYo=O d’ Y(U ~-dx3 d3Y(U dx’ d2Y(0_0 dx’ d2Y(0_0 dx’ dx T dY(UEO El Pinned-free dx Pinned-pinned Y(0) = 0. Clamped-sliding r-@-g-T Y(0) = 0. Clamped-pinned Y(0) = 0. CL!!=0 d3 Y(l) _ o dx Y(/)=O. dx2 d* Y(0) _ o dx’ dYozO dx Y(l)=O. ’ dY(O)=o dx* dZ Y(O)_ o ’ ’ ’ d2W)_0 dZW_O dx= T dY(I) El d3 Y(I) -------_O dx3 dx T dY(O_O El Clamped-free dx Y(0) = 0.TABLE 1 Characteristics Boundary Left-hand (2) (3) end Right-hand end conditions of beams under tensile axial loads Beam description (1) Sliding-free dx dx’ _T Y(0) = 0. !$?E!LO Y(I)-0. T-‘ -g d2Y(O)_ o dZW)_O dx= Y(I) = 0. ’ dx’ dZY(O_O dx3 dx2 !!wO Sliding-pinned dx dYozO ’ ’ dx -T d3Y(O)_ o Sliding-sliding dYoEO d2W)_0 dx’ dZY(/) dx d3Y(0) 7 dY(0) d7 Y(0) -=O dx’ ’ d2W_0 ’ dx’ ++-=O El dx dx= dx’ ~+J~dYo=O Free-free J- ’ _ dx’ El dx .

(5) (2) (U+~)3’ 2cosh(U+~)1/2 xsin(-lJ+JUL+RZ)1’ 2 +(-cJ+JiXzy xcos(-lJ+my T2EI 2 xsinh(U+m”‘ =O 412 (4i-1): - (2.1)*7r* 8 (Zi-1). [ sin N -- M M2 sinh M + MN sin N 1 2 1 fi=vGE 0 N M2 cash M + N2 cos N (-U+~)3’ 2cosh(U+~)1/2 sin (-U+JiFZF)“* -(u+vvTiry 7T2EI -[ I2 TT2EI xsinh (4i+l).. equation Variation of n with iJ (4) u ..1)2mZ 8 [ 1 2 1 M2 sinh M + MN -M2coshM+NZcosN 0 N sinh M M sin N R2+RU sinh (U +m)“’ xsin(-U+JFGF)‘ /2 +(2U2+f12)cosh(U+~)“z ?r’ EI 412 (2i .TABLE l-continued Mode shape coefficients Characteristic PC. (7) (8) (‘ d) cf.I. . ( U+JU~+~~~)‘ /~ i27r2 2 0 M2 sinh M -N’ sin N 0 i2?r2 2 I’ (i7r)’ 1 0 . (6) 0.

.2 zi2 9 N ‘ A + ._ 00 . : z N ? “ c: + ” c + 3 .

925 Jl + 0.y) $ tan[U(-l+JZJ]“* 0.TABLE Mode shape coefficients for a large U in first few modes .926ii tan[U(-l+J$)]“* n’ j u3 $(Zi+l)JB - --- - =(-l+Jl+RZ/Uy - - I.1) 1 _ 0.925 ij 1 2(2i-1)JD I -1 -x 1 -1 2fiJ-D _~ 7r(2i .m (19) c... (18) c.. (20) Value of R for first few modes \ Upper bound value for d (24) l-continued Mode shape coefficients for a large Cl Characteristics equation for a large U I (13) elm =.. c. (14) (15) (16) Lower bound value for R (25) .13 0 01 0 0 1 0 . (21) c.926 Jl+O.

I I I I I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 487 .

. equation (8) was employed. These coefficients vary with CJ in a complicated fashion.488 A. while column 5 shows the critical buckling load Umi corresponding to mode i [12].. sliding-pinned and sliding-sliding beams..= ci. versus the normalized tension parameter U = U/ U. with the normalized natural frequency parameter b = n/n. The mode shape coefficients of these beams are constant values. c3 = -M/N and cq = (Ml N) tan N. Instead. = 1. where wi is the circular natural frequency of beam under no axial force in mode i and ai is its corresponding dimensionless parameter.. This figure depicts the normalized amplitude K defined as the vibration amplitude divided by the maximum amplitude along the beam length.. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS For the pinned-pinned. In this case the characteristic equation is further reduced to tan (n/m)=@/U-tan [(0/2U)+irr] or 0-27riU/(m-11)~ &Tin. 3. The mode shape coefficients are further simplified as c. = (2 U/n) tan (a/m) = (2U/R) tan k-O(c{. Note that for a very large value of U. The characteristic equation may be rewritten in the following form: tanh (U+m)“’ tan (-U+vZGZ)‘ i2= u+JiKZ ( -U+JiZZ 1 ‘ I2 ’ (6) When the value of U is large (U b 12) the numerator of the term on the left side of equation (6) approaches unity. when the tension T = I’ . = -2 U/0 = -m/(ni) and c. the equation fi = m defines the variation of the normalized natural frequency parameter with the normalized tension parameter for all modes. and the above expression is simplified to (7) The solution of equation (7) is U = tan-’ I ( -1+m fllU 1 +i7r *I[--1 +m]. Cam= -M/N and c. BOKAIAN It is assumed that c.) the tension effect on the mode shapes is small. those of the last two beams being identical. Figures 2. the computer was unable to calculate the hyperbolic functions of equation (5) as they became exceedingly large. The observations for ten vibration modes are plotted in Figure 1. Column 7 indicates Ri = oil*/a. These are also the case when the beams are under a compressive load but u in the above formula should be replaced by . against the beam co-ordinate ratio 5 for the first three modes. The variation of 0 with U was obtained by solving equation (5) numerically.11. which is equivalent to w = (h/l)-. a tensile force has the effect of increasing the motion frequency. the value of 0 in the first few modes is considerably smaller than U. Shown in Figure 2 is the effect of axial loading on the mode shapes of the beam.I? [ 121...= 1). The constant coefficients of mode shape in equation (2) are simplified as clm=l. Column 6 indicates the exact critical buckling load in the first mode..=(M/N)tan N.i.. The results indicate that when the value of U is large. The above observations are conveniently tabulated in line 5 of Table 1. czm=-l. The corresponding results for beams with other types of boundary conditions are similarly presented in Table 1 and drawn in Figures 3. As expected. From equations (4) it is deduced that cZ= -tanh M. 10 and 11 indicate that despite the heavily applied tension (equal to the critical buckling load P.. 1 (8) The variation of 0 with U was readily obtained by giving a fixed value to 01 U and solving equation (8) for U.

. . . 4 . . -000600000 . .FREQUENCIES OF AXIALLY TENSIONED BEAMS 489 0 0 omc~ononru~o .

BOKAIAN .490 A.

Variation of ii with ti for a pinned-pinned....FREQUENCIES OF AXIALLY TENSIONED BEAMS 491 9- 7- II. Variation of ii with u for a pinned-free beam.. a pinned-sliding and a sliding-sliding beam.... '0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 Figure 5. 7IC '0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 6. .

BOKAIAN .492 A.

.FREQUENCIES OF AXIALLY TENSIONED BEAMS 0 493 E _o” m m+ln*- - - a .- ...

pinned-free. A. -.61 0 Figure 11. free-free. +. or sliding-sliding. clamped-clamped. Sliding-free. clamped-pinned.494 A.4 0.).6 ’ ’ I.4 ’ ’ 0. second. (c) i = 3. third and the tenth modes of Figures 1 and 3-9 in Figure 12. Variation ’ 0. pinned-pinned. The data for the beams fall below the curve fi = se1 + 0. BOKAIAN -0.2 - -0. clamped-sliding. clamped-free. the variation of fi versus u is almost the same for clamped-pinned and pinned-free and similarly for clamped-clamped and clamped-sliding beams. 0.6 I.2 ’ ’ 0. a large scatter Figure 12. 0. 0. Variation of ji with Q V. (a) i = 1.2 0. It is seen that in the fundamental mode.0 of P with t for a sliding-free beam (I. . An attempt was made to compare the variation of fi with i? for beams with different end constraints. X. or sliding-pinned. this is also the case when these beams are under a compressive load [ 121. II. This was done by replotting the data associated with the first. (b) i = 2. The variation of the sliding-free beam is only slightly different from the latter air and from the free-free beam.4-O-6- -0. T = PC.6 ’ ’ 0. T = 0.6 0. However.00 ll 0.

[ 13] presented the formula o. the first mode data of Figures 1. In particular. for the first three modes in the range T < PC. when u is replaced by -u. which shows that for this beam. The static and dynamic mode shapes of most other beams are sufficiently similar for this relationship to be applicable. this solution is represented by fi = s”1-CyU. and is identical to that in the case when the beam is under a compressive force [17. It is interesting to note that the clamped-clamped and clamped-sliding beams.. Equation (10) may instead be evaluated with vibration and buckling treated separately a different approximation to evaluate the integrals): that is. EZ(d’ Y/dx2)2 dx ’ 1 (10) This relationship (10) is exact if the exact Y(x) is employed. In replotting the data of these figures. the Rayleigh quotient then may be written as w2 = I:. 161. The solid lines above the dotted lines are the upper bound solution to the natural frequent With the exception of the pinned-free beam. (9) where PC. which have the same numerical values of d versus 0. (d Y/dx)’ dx ’+ j. and Gorman [ 141 similarly presented the variation of R versus 77’ /( T’ EI) for the six modes of clamped-pinned and clamped-clamped beams).FREQUENCIES OF AXIALLY TENSIONED BEAMS 495 of data is seen in the first mode. sliding-sliding and pinned-sliding beams. w. EI(d2 Y/dx2)2 dx opAY’ dx I’ T I:. the value of which is smaller than 8 =x&?? (for most compressed beams..(dY/dx)2dx I:.= & EZ(d’ Y/dx’ ) dx/lL (d Y/dx)’ d x is the exact critical buckling load of a beam with no vibration. the clamped-free beam data exhibit a considerable deviation from the other data sets. The scatter becomes smaller in the second mode. To check the accuracy of this prediction. pA Y2 dx = 1+ Tj:. EZ(d2 Y/dx2)’ dx 1 112 w. Shaker [I] numerically calculated the variation of 0 against T/P.18]. Expression (9) can be rewritten in the form d = J”-1 + yU and can be evaluated by using the well-known eigenfunctions for a beam with no axial load [15. This is almost certainly due to the dissimilarity of mode shapes in buckling and vibration. at ii = 0 the value of fi is slightly different from 1. Suppose Y(x) is the actual (unknown) mode shape for transverse vibration in the presence of the axial force.1)(7r/2)12. w2 = w: (1 + T/P. For a pinned-free beam.) or d = J(I+ u. exact numerical values were used in the calculation of fl and 0 (which affect only the clamped-pinned and clamped-free data). and y is a coefficient which de ends only on the type of end conditions. = ( i2r2a/ Z')Jl + 77’ / i2EZr’ for a pinned-pinned beam.. The value of y is shown in Table 1. = [IA EZ(d2 Y/dx2) dx/]A pA Y2 dx]“’ is the fundamental natural frequency of the beam with no axial force. In higher modes all data fall onto one another and the relationship between d and 0 becomes fi = m (Timoshenko et al. and is only true if the oscillating mode shape is identical with the buckling mode shape. the former expression also giving the upper bound value while the latter gives the lower bound [ 121). .(dY/dx)Zdx I:. This is the case for pinned-pinned.Jl+ yT/Pcr. the latter gives the upper bound solution (see column 24 of Table 1). The Rayleigh quotient for the fundamental natural frequency of a beam may be written as jbEZ(d2Y/dx2)2+Tj. This is because the root of the associated characteristic equation (under no axial load) is somewhat different from the approximate value of [(2i . have also the same coefficients of y. The reason for this can be found in Figure 4. 3-9 are replotted in Figure 13 as dotted lines.

. sliding-pinned. clamped-clamped and clamped-sliding beams have the same shape coeficients. sliding-sliding sliding-free. the natural frequency in the first few modes is independent of the flexural rigidity EZ and the structure behaves like a string. It is interesting to mention that in his study of the influence of rigidity on static curvature of risers. gives the beam natural frequency provided tha. Sparks [ 191 similarly found that the pipe bending stiffness plays a relatively insignificant role in their behaviour. Column 18 of Table 1 shows that for the pinned-pinned. Furthermore. the value of U is large but the mode number i is not. A tether is usually long [19]. the expression R = fi&Jii’ which is equivalent to wi = (jr/I)-. irrespective of the type of the end constraints. the mode shape coefficients are directly proportional to only m. Variation of d with 0 in the first mode and its lower and upper bound approximations. It is no surprise that the above prediction gives a lower bound approximation to the natural frequency (see column 25). and falls below the dotted line in all cases.496 A. Furthermore. The fundamental mode prediction represented by this column is plotted as a solid line in Figure 13. but with different proportionality constants. it indicates that similar relationships hold for beams with other types of end constraints. for a large U in the first few modes. BOKAIAN Figure 13. with the exception of a free-free beam. Note that for a large U the clamped-free. The above observations clearly indicate that for this structure or a deep-water riser. clamped-pinned and clamped-clamped beams.

W. 15. B. GORMAN 1975 Free Vibration Analysis of Beams and Shafts. Natural frequencies and critical buckling loads of marine risers. 12. 13. Natural frequencies of beams under compressive axial loads. F. E. 200-205. pinned-sliding and sliding-sliding beams is d = &%. 11. Design of floating vessel drilling riser. KIM 1986 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. DAREING and T. F. M. BENNETT and M. R. 175-184. SAROHIA 1982 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The effect of end constraints on natural fre uency is significant only in the first two modes. New York: John Wiley. in the first few modes. Effects of axial load on mode shapes and frequencies of beams. E. YOUNG. 2. FELGAR 1949 The University of Texas. 6. Buckling of risers in tension due to internal pressure: nonmovable boundaries. TIMOSHENKO. 8. 359-381. . R. FISHER and R. OTC 2776. See pp. PATEL and S.FREQUENCIES OF AXIALLY TENSIONED REMARKS BEAMS 497 4. Offshore Deep Seas Symposium. This expression is found to give the upper bound approximation to the natural frequency of a pinned-free beam. R. the variation of a sliding-free beam is only slightly different from the latter pair and from that of the free-free beam. Dynamic analysis as an aid to the design of marine risers. 14. 272-280. F. D. so that I/ > 12. For such a beam. 5. H. It is found that when a beam is long or heavily tensioned. 1974 Vibration Problems in Engineering. the parameter 0 is considerably smaller than U. PAULING 1979 O$shore Technology Conference. J. Natural frequencies of marine drilling risers. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of coupled axial and lateral motions of marine risers. H. NG 1984 Engineering Structures 6(3). Modem production risers. 4th edition. The influence of non-linear marine riser behaviour on methods of analysis and design. 3. 442-449. 813-818. M. C. W. l-25. J. The numerical variation of fi with 0 is almost the same for clamped-pinned and pinned-free and similarly for clamped-clamped and clamped-sliding beams. 7. For other beams this approximation is in the form d = m (y < l). G. M. 9. D. HUANG 1976 Journal of Petroleum Technology. YOUNG and R. Paper No. W. where the coefficient y depends only on the type of the end constraints. Furthermore. FISHER and M. New Orleans. Finiteelement analysis of the marine riser. 10. See pp. Houston. Tables of characteristic functions representing normal modes of vibration of a beam. New York: John Wiley. JR. 453-455. KOKKINIS 1983 American Society ofMechanical Engineers. J. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 100. 139-148. SAROHIA and K. see pp. R. MORGAN 1980-1985Petroleum Engineer-International (a series of articles published). 4. Ftfth Symposium on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. S. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 105. SHAKER 1975 NASA Lewis Research Centre Report NASA-TN-8109. FOWLER. OTC 3543. M. P. then U can be expressed as an analytical function of L!/ U. D. WEAVER. Y. 277-281. Publication No. REFERENCES 1. 4913. 49-65. D. PATEL. BERNITSAS and T. J. the natural frequency is roughly independent of the flexural rigidity and the beam behaves like a string. METCALF 1977 O@hore Technology Conference. A. Paper No. A. D. For higher modes the equation fi = ? 1 + 0 may be used for all beams. CONCLUDING The variation of the normalized natural frequency parameter fi with the normalized tension parameter 0 for pinned-pinned. LUKE 1978 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Frequency domain analysis of OTEC CW pipe and platform dynamics. S. LUDWIG 1966 Journal of Petroleum Technology. H. the cable solution gives a lower bound approximation to the natural frequency. For a large U. YOUNG and W. BOKAIAN 1988 Journal of Sound and Vibration 126.

498 A. 20. Author’ 19. cZm. R. c. A. G. BOKAIAN 1988 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. P. N. dimensionless critical buckling load for vibration mode i Uln. Formulas for integrals containing characteristic functions of vibrating beams. mode shape coefficients for a large U clla?. Estimation of natural frequencies of marine risers and TLP tendons. STEPHEN 1989 Journal of Sound and Vibration 131.1415927 dimensionless beam co-ordinate. Mechanical behaviour of marine risers: mode of influence of principal parameters. 17. BOKAIAN 16. FELGAR 1950 The University of Texas. c. APPENDIX: A Cl 9 c2 9 c3 9 c4 LIST OF SYMBOLS cross-sectional area mode shape coefficients elm. 351... c:cc mode shape coefficients for a large U in the first few modes E Young’ s modulus I second moment of area vibration mode number beam length parameters as defined in text M N T axial tensile force critical buckling load in the first mode PW lJ dimensionless tension parameter.. 345-350. 18. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 102. U/ U. c. Seventh Symposium on O$shore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. s reply.. X distance from the left-hand end of the beam beam deflection Y(X) F normalized vibration amplitude dimensionless parameter... c&J. P. Circular No. circular natural frequency of beam under axial load circular natural frequency of beam under no axial force in vibration mode i mass density of beam material 3. C. m dimensionless natural frequency -parameter. 14. 772/2EI U normalized tension parameter. SPARKS 1980 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. BOKAIAN 1989 Journal of Sound and Vibration 131. R/R. Beam vibration under compressive axial load-upper and lower bound approximation. A.. w12/(Y dimensionless natural frequency parameter of beam under no axial force in vibration mode i normalized natural frequency parameter.214-222. x/ 1 a coefficient .

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