EVALUATION OF FABRIC AND APPAREL FINISHES

2 5 TH A P R I L 2 0 1 3

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Presented by :

SUPRIYA NANDA
(Roll no. 25)

YASHASVI SHAILLY
(Roll no. 28)

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TEXTILE TESTING
Textile testing as a whole refers to the vigorous testing done on textile materials which may be inside the laboratory as well as natural setting or in day-to-day uses, using various testing acids, equipment, simple as well as sophisticated technical instruments by use of different chemicals and reagents in different physical, physiological and environmental conditions upon various natural biological mineral elements and resources under different reactive and nonreactive situations for the development of textile industry for effective and satisfied textile consumer ship.

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OBJECTIVES OF TESTING
 Research

 Selection of raw materials
 Process-control

 Product development
 Product testing

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NEEDS OF TEXTILE TESTING  CHECKING RAW MATERIALS  MONITORING PRODUCTION  ASSESSING THE FINAL PRODUCT  INVESTIGATION OF FAULTY MATERIAL  PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH 5 .

processes and services are fit for their purpose. standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules. to ensure that materials. products.STANDARDS IN TESTING According to ISO. guidelines or definitions of characteristics. LEVEL OF STANDERDS  COMPANY STANDERDS  INDUSTRY STANDERDS  GOVERENMENT STANDERDS  FULL CONSENSUS STANDERDS 6 .

STANDARDIZING ORGANIZATIONS  AATCC-American Colorists Association of Textiles Chemists and  ASTM-American Society for Testing and Materials  ANSI-American National Standards Institute  BSI-British Standards Institution  BIS-Bureau of Indian Standards 7 .

 If the testing is not done under standard atmospheric conditions. in order that reliable comparisons be made among different textile materials and products and among different laboratories. then this should be clearly stated in the test and report. 8 . This results in varying amount of moisture contained by a hygroscopic material exposed to the atmosphere.STANDARDS CONDITIONS FOR TESTING  Under normal conditions.  Such conditions are 65+ 2% relative humidity and 21+1 C. which will result in a change in the physical properties of this material. it is necessary to standardize the humidity and temperature conditions to which the textile materials or product is subjected prior to and during testing. and the relative humidity and temperature at which the testing was done should be mentioned. the amount of moisture in the air is continuously changing.  Therefore.

TESTING OF FABRIC FINISHES 9 .

TESTING OF TEXTILE FINISHES BASED ON BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AATCC Test Method 90-2011 (Antibacterial Activity Assessment of Textile Materials: Agar Plate Method) The objective is to qualitatively detect bacteriostatic activity on products that are treated with antimicrobials and are capable of producing a zone of inhabitation. 10 .

AATCC Test Method 147-2011 (Antibacterial Activity Assessment of Textile Materials: Parallel Streak Method)  The Parallel Streak Method has filled a need for a relatively quick and easily executed qualitative method to determine antibacterial activity of diffusible antimicrobial agents on treated textile materials. 11 .  The Parallel Streak Method has proven effective over a number of years of use in providing evidence of antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

Assessment on Textile Materials: Mildew and Rot Resistance of Textile Materials)  Developed in 1946 by AATCC Committee RA31  The two purposes of this test method are to determine the susceptibility of the textile materials to mildew and rot and to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides on textile materials. 12 .AATCC Test Method 30-2004 (Antifungal Activity.

AATCC Test Method 103-2009 (Bacterial Alpha-Amylase Enzymes used in Desizing)  Developed in 1962 by AATCC Committee RA41. Jurisdiction transferred to RA34 in 1987 and returned to RA41 in 1993. 13 . expressed in Bacterial Amylase Units (BAU). is readily calculated from the dextrinizing time. The amylase content of the sample.  Principle: Dextrogenic amylase activity is measured in terms of digestion time required to produce a color change denoting a definite stage of dextrinization of the starch substrate. It is not applicable to products which contain beta-amylase in addition to alpha-amylase.  This test method is intended for the assay of bacterial amylases employed commercially for textile desizing.

 The actual moisture regain values of textile materials.04(2012) Standard Table of Commercial Moisture Regains for Textile Fibers  The value listed for the commercial moisture regain of a specific fiber type is not an experimentally determined quantity but a purely arbitrary value arrived at for commercial purposes by interested parties. 14 . when in moisture equilibrium with the standard atmosphere for testing. bear no consistent relation to the commercial moisture regain values listed herein.ASTM D1909 .

the partitioning of overall color difference into differences in lightness.TESTING OF TEXTILE FINISHES BASED ON COLORFASTNESS AATCC Test Method 173-2009 (CMC: Calculation of Small Color Differences for Acceptability)  Developed in 1989 by AATCC Committee RA36  The CMC (l:c) formula is a modification of the corresponding CIELAB color-difference formula. 15 . chroma. and hue components which is present in the CIELAB color-difference formula. in modified form. It has color-difference symbol Decmc.  The CMC (l:c) formula retains.

printed or otherwise colored. alkaline cleansing agents and alkaline street dirt. 16 .  Principle: The specimens are steeped in or spotted with the required solutions by means of simple laboratory equipment. whether dyed. alkaline sizes. The tested specimens are examined for changes in color. sizes.AATCC Test Method 6-2011  (Colorfastness to Acids and Alkalis)  Developed in 1925 by AATCC Committee RR1  Test specimens are evaluated for resistance to simulated action of acid fumes. These test methods are applicable to textiles made from all fibers in the form of yarns or fabrics.

The test method is neither suitable for the evaluation of the durability of textile finishes.  Principle: A specimen of the textile in contact with cotton fabric. 17 . This test method gives an indication of results to be obtained from three commercial dry cleanings.AATCC Test Method 132-2009 (Colorfastness to Dry cleaning)  Developed in 1969 by AATCC Committee RA43  This test method is intended for determining the colorfastness of textiles to all kinds to drycleaning. multi fiber swatch and no corrodible steel discs is agitated in perchloroethylene and then dried in air. Any change in color of the specimen is then assessed with the Standard Gray Scale for Color Change. nor is it intended for use in evaluating the resistance of colors to spot and stain removal procedures used by the drycleaner. Any staining is assessed by using the Gray Scale for Staining or the Chromatic Transference Scale.

18 . prior to the production of washable textiles.  This procedure is most appropriately used during the dye selection process. or finishes that may be applied to the textile during production. The color difference between the test specimen and the original textile is assessed instrumentally or visually.  Principle: A specimen of the dyed textile is laundered.AATCC Test Method 190-2010 (Colorfastness to Home Laundering with Activated Oxygen Bleach Detergent: Accelerated)  Developed in 2001 by AATCC Committee RA60  This test method is a diagnostic test intended to screen dyed cotton textiles sensitive to oxygen bleach detergents. rinsed. bleach concentration and time to assess whether fading will occur after multiple home launderings.  This method does not reflect the contribution to shade change of optical brighteners. which are present in some commercial washing products. Specimens are tested under defined conditions of temperature. and dried.

1 (Colorfastness to Light: Outdoor)  Developed in 2012 by AATCC Committee RA50  This test method provides the general principles and procedures for determining the colorfastness to light of textile materials outdoors under glass. The test options described are applicable to textile materials of all kinds and for colorants. 19 .AATCC Test Method 16. finishes and treatments applied to textile materials.

Such treatment usually result in improvements in the hand. fuzz and pill appearance of cellulosic fabrics together with the removal of linters and immature/dead cotton fibers.  Principle: This test method determines the reaction of cellulosic fabrics to treatment with acid cellulase enzymes. 20 . drape.TESTING OF TEXTILE FINISHES BASED ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AATCC Test Method 191-2009 (Acid Cellulase Enzymes: Top Loading Washer)  Developed in 2002 by AATCC Committee RA41  This test methods provides a simple testing procedure to evaluate the effect of acid cellulase enzymes on cellulosic by laundering. The agitation in the washer simulates the action in rotary drum machines. paddle machines and jets.

rinsed. 21 . Tensile Loss: Multiple Sample Method)  Developed in 1965 by AATCC Committee RR35  This test method is a simplified procedure for testing multiple samples to determine the potential damage that may be caused by chlorine bleaching.  Principle: The samples are chlorine bleached in a domestic-type laundry machine. The damaging action of the retained chlorine is calculated from the difference in tensile strength before and after pressing. dried and pressed between hot metal plates.AATCC Test Method 114-2011 (Chlorine Retained.

 This test method is primarily for use by fabric finishers to evaluate the likely performance of soil release finishes in actual use. 22 .AATCC Test Method 130-2010 (Stain Release: Oily Stain Release Method)  Developed in 1969 by AATCC Committee RA56  This test method is designed to measure the ability of fabrics to release oily stains during home laundering.

The use of this test on garments is not precluded. or where standard specifications are involved. The stained fabric is then laundered in a prescribed manner and the residual stain rated on a scale from 5 to 1 by comparison with a stain release replica showing a graduated series of stains. or in any case where comparisons between laboratories are being made. An amount of the staining substance is forced into the fabric by using a specified weight.  In referee situations.  Principle: A stain is applied to a test specimen. 23 . 1993 AATCC Standard Reference Detergent should be used. the parties should agree to use the same ballast and detergent. If this test method is used as part of a contract between buyer and seller.

or combination of fibers.  Principle: A test specimen is folded and compressed under controlled conditions of time and force to create a folded wrinkle. jurisdiction transferred to Committee RA61 in 1995  This test method is used to determine the wrinkle recovery of woven fabrics. The test specimen is then suspended in a test instrument for a controlled recovery period. It is applicable to fabrics made from any fiber. 24 .AATCC Test Method 66-2008 (Wrinkle Recovery of Woven Fabrics: Recovery Angle Method)  Developed in 1951 by AATCC Committee RR6. after which the recovery angle is recorded.

TESTING OF APPAREL FINISHES 25 .

 Principle: A colored test specimen is immersed in a perspiration test solution for a specified period of time and immediately exposed to light in a fading apparatus for a specified period of time. jurisdiction transferred to Committee RA50 in 1996  This purpose of this test method is to determine the effect of the combination of perspiration solution and light exposure on the colorfastness of a colored textile specimen. 26 . Therefore. only perspiration solutions will be used in this procedure.AATCC Test Method 125-2009 (Colorfastness to Perspiration )  Developed in 1967 by AATCC Committee RA23.

Perchloroethylene is placed on the center of the specimen. is placed specimen side up on a glass plate. attached to a piece of white blotting paper. Principle: A specimen.AATCC Test Method 157-2010 (Colorfastness to Solvent Spotting: Perchloroethylene) Developed in 1978 by AATCC Committee RR92 This test method is designed to measure the degree of color migration that occurs when a fabric is spotted with a drycleaning solvent. The staining of the blotting paper is evaluated. 27 . Perchloroethylene is used because it is a common drycleaning solvent. The test is carried out at room temperature.

AATCC Test Method 104-2010 (Colorfastness to Water Spotting)  Developed in 1962 by AATCC Committee RA23  This test method is designed to evaluate the resistance to water spotting of dyed. printed. or otherwise colored textile fabrics. 28 .  The test method does not determine whether the discoloration is removable.

29 . When drying conditions are not constant and/or uniform. or shade differences between the face and back. or between side and center of the fabric. causing shade variations during a run. uneven migration may occur.AATCC Test Method 140-2011 (Dye and Pigment Migration in a Pad-Dry Process) Developed in 1974 by AATCC Committee RA87 This test method provides a means of assessing the migration propensity of a pad liquor system containing dyes or pigments. and which may also contain different types and amounts of migration inhibitors. subsequently referred to as colorants.

 Principle: This test method determines the reaction of cellulosic fabrics to treatment with acid cellulase enzymes. The agitation in the washer simulates the action in rotary drum machines.AATCC Test Method 191-2009 (Acid Cellulase Enzymes: Top Loading Washer)  Developed in 2002 by AATCC Committee RA41  This test methods provides a simple testing procedure to evaluate the effect of acid cellulase enzymes on cellulosics by laundering. drape. paddle machines and jets. fuzz and pill appearance of cellulosic fabrics together with the removal of linters and immature/dead cotton fibers. 30 . Such treatment usually result in improvements in the hand.

alternative machine wash cycles and temperatures.  Principle: Textile end product items are subjected to standard home laundering practices.AATCC Test Method 143-2011 (Appearance of Apparel and Other Textile End Products after Repeated Home Laundering)  Developed in 1975 by AATCC Committee RA61  This test method is designed for evaluating the smoothness appearance of flat fabric and seams. Evaluation is performed using a standard lighting and viewing area by rating the appearance of specimens in comparison with appropriate reference standards. 31 . and the retention of pressed-in creases in garments and other textile products after repeated home laundering. and alternative drying procedures. A choice is provided of hand or machine washing.

AATCC Test Method 76-2011 (Electrical Surface Resistivity of Fabrics)  Developed in 1954 by AATCC Committee RA32  The purpose of this test method is to determine the electrical surface resistivity of fabrics.  Principle: Specimens at equilibrium with specified atmospheric conditions of relative humidity and temperature are measured for electrical resistance between parallel electrodes by means of an electrical resistance meter. The surface electrical resistivity may influence the accumulation of electrostatic charge of a fabric. 32 .

10 Standard Specification for Finished Woven Glass Fabrics  This specification covers finished fabrics woven from "E" electrical glass fiber yarns that are intended as a reinforcing material in laminated plastics for structural use. 33 .ASTM D4029 / D4029M .  This specification permits the application of sizing materials to the glass fiber yarn during manufacture that helps facilitate weaving.

ignition loss. breaking strength. twist level.  The materials shall meet the required fabric count. mass per unit area. These organic materials are typically removed from the greige Fabric and replaced with a finish that is compatible with a specified resin matrix. thickness. and appearance. yarn designations. fabric weave type. yarn number. filament diameter. strand construction. 34 . finish level. length. width. twist direction.

Textile. Home Furnishing. textile. 35 . home furnishing.  These definitions and descriptions employ common meanings used not only by textile technologists but also by consumers. or in some temporary form of communication such as a sticker or hangtag. The terms used should be consistent with those used on care labels.04(2008)e1 Standard Terminology Relating to Care Labeling for Apparel.  The wording on a care label should be brief. and Leather Products  This terminology provides a uniform language for the disclosure of care instructions on labels that are to be attached to apparel. Manufacturers are encouraged to place more detailed explanations in or on package covers.ASTM D3136 . and leather products.

steam cabinets or wands. Set water temperature control on washer to use hot water directly from the hot water supply. Use any home-type or coin-operated washing machine following the manufacturer's instructions as appropriate for the product. maximum temperature 50°C (120°F). Set water temperature control on washer to use cold water directly from cold water supply. Do not use steam in pressing. Use special leather care methods designed for sueded leathers 36 having a raised surface. Item not to be smoothed or finished with an iron. Hot Warm Cold Only non-chlorine bleach when needed Do not bleach Dry in shade Do not iron Iron reverse side only Do not steam Steam only No steam Do not dryclean Suede leather clean . Turn article inside out for ironing or pressing. Do not use steam in any form. maximum temperature 30°C (85°F) Use non-chlorine bleach only when necessary. finishing. Self-explanatory. Dry away from the sun.LABEL TERMS DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS Inside-out Machine wash Turn garment inside-out before cleaning to protect the face of fabric. maximum 40°C (105°F). Use steam without contact pressure. No bleaches may be used. Chlorine bleach may not be used. Set water temperature control on washer to use warm water.

 Any of these methods may be used in material specifications to evaluate requirements for a specific end use as related to a particular job.ASTM D4851 .  These test methods include only testing procedures and do not include specifications or tolerances.07(2011) Standard Test Methods for Coated and Laminated Fabrics for Architectural Use  The procedures in this standard can be used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments of coated and laminated fabrics for architectural use since these test methods have been used extensively in the trade for acceptance testing.  They are intended as a guide for specifications. 37 .

shrinks and then grows. or remains the same when subjected to a specified range of humidity and temperature conditions. and furniture systems. when applied over a substrate.  Panel and screen systems include acoustic panels. office partitions. and its suitability for a specified use.ASTM D6207 . indicating it will not bubble or sag over time. free standing screens. grows and then shrinks. 38 .03(2011) Standard Test Method for Dimensional Stability of Fabrics to Changes in Humidity and Temperature  The measured dimensional stability of a fabric determines whether a fabric has the potential to retain its original shape and remain stable.  This test method covers the determination of the dimensional stability of fabrics that are intended for use on panel and screen systems to cycled changes in humidity and temperature.  This test method is used in industry to determine if a fabric grows.

TESTING OF TRIMS USED IN APPAREL 39 .

Durability of finish of zippers to laundering[66] The evaluation is done using a Launderometer . The effect of test coating is evaluating by noting the loss of coating on the zipper chain or components or both. Color fastness to Dry-cleaning[67] It is tested by subjecting the zipper stringer to commercial dry cleaning with a multi-fiber fabric.EVALUATION OF ZIPPERS Zippers can be evaluated using any one of the following ASTM Test methods. Color fastness to light and crocking[68.69] 40 .

After the mans impact the button. cracking or chipping.  Individual buttons are placed on a surface centered under a tube through which a preselected mans from a preselected height. 41 .Evaluation of buttons  The durability of buttons can be tested by an impact test ASTM [91] . This practice is used for acceptance testing of buttons. the button is removed from the testing device and visually examined using 5x magnifying glass for breakage.

com/testing_methods.htm  http://textilelearner. 81-146 273-275  TEXTILE TESTING By Jewel Raul Pg no.BIBLIOGRAPHY LINKS  http://www.aatcc.astm.htm  http://www.html BOOKS  MANAGING QUALITY IN APPAREL INDUTRY By Mehta and Bhardwaj Pg no.blogspot.apparelsearch. 1-98 42 .html  http://www.org/Standards/textile-standards.in/2012/03/importance-of-textile-testing-reasons.org/testing/methods/topical.