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Dr. A.B. Zavatsky HT08

**Lecture 6 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
**

Transformation equations for plane stress. Procedure for constructing Mohr’s circle. Stresses on an inclined element. Principal stresses and maximum shear stresses. Introduction to the stress tensor.

1

**Stress Transformation Equations
**

σy

y

y1

y τy1x1 τx1y1 σx1 θ x1

τyx τxy

x

σy1

σx τxy τyx

σx

σx1 τx1y1

x τy1x1 σy1

σ x1 = τ x1 y1 =

σ x +σ y

2

+

σ x −σ y

2

( σ x −σ y ) − sin 2θ

2

cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ

+ τ xy cos 2θ

If we vary θ from 0° to 360°, we will get all possible values of σx1 and τx1y1 for a given stress state. It would be useful to represent σx1 and τx1y1 as functions of θ in graphical form.

2

σ x1 − σ x +σ y 2 = σ x −σ y 2 τ x1 y1 = ( σ x −σ y ) − sin 2θ 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ Eliminate θ by squaring both sides of each equation and adding the two equations together. ⎛ ⎜ σ x1 − ⎜ ⎝ σ x +σ y ⎞ 2 2 ⎟ + τ x1 y12 = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 + τ xy 2 Define σavg and R σ avg = σ x +σ y 2 R= ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 + τ xy 2 3 . we must re-write the transformation equations.To do this.

Substitue for σavg and R to get (σ x1 − σ avg ) 2 + τ x1 y12 = R 2 which is the equation for a circle with centre (σavg. It provides a simple and clear picture of an otherwise complicated analysis. after the German civil engineer Otto Mohr (1835-1918).0) and radius R. 4 . The construction of Mohr’s circle is one of the few graphical techniques still used in engineering. This circle is usually referred to as Mohr’s circle. He developed the graphical technique for drawing the circle in 1882.

The reason for doing this is that 2θ is then positive counterclockwise.Sign Convention for Mohr’s Circle y1 σy1 y τy1x1 τx1y1 σx1 θ σx1 τx1y1 τy1x1 σy1 x x1 (σ x1 − σ avg ) 2 + τ x1 y12 = R 2 2θ σavg R σx1 τx1y1 Notice that shear stress is plotted as positive downward. Notice that although 2θ appears in Mohr’s circle. 5 . θ appears on the stress element. which agrees with the direction of 2θ used in the derivation of the tranformation equations and the direction of θ on the stress element.

Draw a set of coordinate axes with σx1 as abscissa (positive to the right) and τx1y1 as ordinate (positive downward). Draw a line from point A to point B. Points A and B (representing stresses on planes at 90° to each other) are at opposite ends of the diameter (and therefore 180° apart on the circle). Note that point A on the circle corresponds to θ = 0°. Locate point B. Locate the centre of the circle c at the point having coordinates σx1 = σavg and τx1y1 = 0. . 6. 3. representing the stress conditions on the y face of the element by plotting its coordinates σx1 = σy and τx1y1 = −τxy. This circle has radius R.Procedure for Constructing Mohr’s Circle 1. 5. Note that point B on the circle corresponds to θ = 90°. draw Mohr’s circle through points A and B. Locate point A. Using point c as the centre. 2. a diameter of the circle passing through point c. (based on Gere) 6 4. representing the stress conditions on the x face of the element by plotting its coordinates σx1 = σx and τx1y1 = τxy.

B σy B (θ=90) -τxy c τxy R A (θ=0) σavg τx1y1 σx σy y τyx τxy x σx τxy τyx σx A σx1 7 .

the point on Mohr’s circle corresponding to the x1 face moves counterclockwise through an angle 2θ. which has coordinates σx1 and τx1y1. The angle 2θ locates the point D on the circle. So. Point E. On Mohr’s circle. Point D represents the stresses on the x1 face of the inclined element. because point A corresponds to θ = 0 and hence is the reference point from which angles are measured. 8 . 3. is located at an angle 2θ + 180° from cA (and 180° from cD).Stresses on an Inclined Element 1. which is diametrically opposite point D on the circle. Thus point E gives the stress on the y1 face of the inclined element. (based on Gere) 2. 4. measure an angle 2θ counterclockwise from radius cA. as we rotate the x1y1 axes counterclockwise by an angle θ.

B σy1 B (θ=90) E (θ+90) -τx1y1 τx1y1 c R 2θ A (θ=0) σx1 σx1 σx τxy τyx σy y x τyx τxy σx 2θ+180 A σx1 D (θ) y1 σy1 y τy1x1 τx1y1 σx1 θ x1 E D τy1x1 σy1 9 x τx1y1 τx1y1 .

Principal Stresses B (θ=90) σx B σy y x τyx τxy σx 2θp2 τxy τyx A σ2 c R σ1 2θp1 A (θ=0) σx1 y σ2 P2 σ1 θp2 σ1 θp1 P1 x τx1y1 σ2 10 .

Maximum Shear Stress B (θ=90) τmin 2θs c τmax R A (θ=0) σs τx1y1 σs τmax τmax σs σx τxy B σy y x τyx τxy σx A τyx σx1 Note carefully the directions of the y shear forces. σs θs τmax τmax σs 11 x .

2 = −15 ± 69.6 σ2 c B 80 MPa 50 MPa y x 80 MPa σ1 R B (θ=90) σ A 25 MPa 50 MPa τmax τ τ max = R = 69.Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below.6 MPa σ 2 = −84. c = σ avg = R= σ x +σ y 2 = − 80 + 50 = −15 2 σ 1.6 σ 1 = 54.6 MPa (50 − (− 15)) 2 + (25)2 A (θ=0) R = 65 2 + 25 2 = 69.6 MPa σ s = c = −15 MPa 12 . Draw the Mohr’s circle. determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stresses. and draw the corresponding stress elements.2 = c ± R σ 1.

6 MPa 84.50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa 25 = 0.5° A (θ=0) σ2 y 54.0 + 180° = 201° 25 MPa 50 MPa θ1 = 100.6 MPa o σ1 2θ2 2θ1 c R B (θ=90) σ 100.5o x 2θ τ 54.6 MPa 13 .3846 80 − 15 2θ 2 = 21.0° tan 2θ 2 = 2θ1 = 21.5 84.6 MPa 10.5° θ 2 = 10.

5° 14 .0 + 90° = 111.0° 2θ s max = 21.0) = −69.0° y 80 MPa x 80 MPa θ s min = −34.6 MPa θ s max = 55.5 o -34.5o x 15 MPa τmax τ 2θ 2 = 21.0° 2θ s min = − (90 − 21.5° 25 MPa 50 MPa τmin taking sign convention into account A (θ=0) 2θsmin 2θ2 2θ σ R B (θ=90) y 15 MPa 15 MPa c 2θsmax 55.50 MPa 2θ 2 = 21.0° 15 MPa 69.

15 MPa 2θ2 D -60+180° σ B (θ=90) -30 o x 25.8 MPa y1 4.8 MPa x1 .Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below. 50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa C (θ = -30°) A (θ=0) 25 MPa -60° σx1 = c – R cos(2θ2+60) σy1 = c + R cos(2θ2+60) τx1y1= -R sin (2θ2+60) σx1 = -26 σy1 = -4 τx1y1= -69 50 MPa y 25.15 MPa C 68. Find the stresses on an element inclined at 30° clockwise and draw the corresponding stress elements.8 MPa D (θ = -30+90°) 2θ τ θ = -30° 2θ = -60° 15 4.

each based on two principal stresses: σ1 and σ3 σ1 and σ2 σ2 and σ3 A (θ=0) σ3 σ2 σ1 B (θ=90) σ τ 16 . the third principal stress is zero.6 MPa.6 MPa But we have forgotten about the third principal stress! Since the element is in plane stress (σz = 0).Principal Stresses σ1 = 54.6 MPa σ2 = 0 MPa σ3 = -84.6 MPa This means three Mohr’s circles can be drawn. σ2 = -84. σ1 = 54.

σ3 σ1 σ1 σ3 σ3 σ3 σ2 σ1 σ σ1 σ3 σ1 σ1 σ3 σ1 σ3 τ 17 .

3) = 2 = 2 2 τx1y1 σ1 − σ 3 σ1 τ = = overall maximum max(1.3) 2 2 18 .2) = 1 A 2 σ −σ3 σ 2 τ max(2. What is the maximum shear stress? σx B σy y x τyx τxy σx B τxy τyx A σ3 σ2 σ1 σx1 σ −σ2 τ max(1.The stress element shown is in plane stress.

Introduction to the Stress Tensor y σyy τyz σxx τzy τyx τxy τzx τxz σzz z σxx x ⎛ σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ τ yx σ yy τ yz ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ τ zx τ zy σ zz ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ σyy Normal stresses on the diagonal Shear stresses off diagaonal τxy = τyx. τyz = τzy The normal and shear stresses on a stress element in 3D can be assembled into a 3x3 matrix known as the stress tensor. τxz = τzx. 19 .

the shear stresses must be zero.From our analyses so far. In terms of the stress tensor. 20 . We also know that if the principal stresses are acting. we know that for a given stress system. ⎛ σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ τ yx σ yy τ yz ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ τ zx τ zy σ zz ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎞ ⎛ σ1 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0 σ2 0 ⎟ ⎜0 ⎟ 0 σ 3⎠ ⎝ In mathematical terms. this is the process of matrix diagonalization in which the eigenvalues of the original matrix are just the principal stresses. it is possible to find a set of three principal stresses.

For this equation to be true. Find the principal stresses. Solving the latter equation (the “characteristic equation”) gives us the eigenvalues λ1 and λ2.Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below. Ar – λr = 0 or (A – λI) r = 0 where I is the identity matrix. either r = 0 or det (A – λI) = 0. 50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa ⎛ σ x τ xy ⎞ ⎛ − 80 − 25 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ M =⎜ ⎟ ⎜τ yx σ y ⎟ ⎜ − 25 50 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ We must find the eigenvalues of this matrix. We are looking for values of λ such that: Ar = λr where r is a vector. and A is a matrix. 21 . 25 MPa 50 MPa Remember the general idea of eigenvalues.

54.6 MPa. we substitute the eigenvalues into the equation (A – λI ) r = 0 one at a time and solve for r. as before.6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ − 25 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ y 50 54 . To find the eigenvectors.6. 6 0 − ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ − 134. the principal stresses are –84. These can be used to find the angles at which the principal stresses act. Knowing the eigenvalues.6 MPa and 54.186 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ is one eigenvector. we can find the eigenvectors.186 y ⎛ − 0.6 So. ⎛ − 80 − λ − 25 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ − 25 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ y 50 0 − λ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ − 25 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎛ − 80 − 54. ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 22 . 64 y 0 ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ x = −0.⎛ − 80 − λ − 25 ⎞ ⎟ det ⎜ =0 ⎜ − 25 ⎟ 50 − λ ⎠ ⎝ (−80 − λ )(50 − λ ) − (−25)(−25) = 0 λ2 + 30λ − 4625 = 0 λ = −84.6 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − 25 − 4 .

factors AT det C ⎛ − 0.6 ⎟ D=⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎟ − 84 .186 5. we can check to see if the eigenvectors are correct.033 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 23 C −1 = .6 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ − 25 134.967 ⎞ − 1 C =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0. 0 ⎞ ⎛ 54.388 y ⎛ 5.179 0.388 ⎞ is the other eigenvector.6 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ y⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜ 0⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x = 5. ⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Before finding the angles at which the principal stresses act.6) ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − 25 50 − (−84.6) ⎠ ⎝ y ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4. 6 ⎝ ⎠ D = C −1M C ⎛ − 0.⎛ − 80 − λ − 25 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ − 25 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 50 − λ ⎠ ⎝ y ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ − 25 ⎛ − 80 − (−84.388 ⎞ ⎟ C =⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ − 80 − 25 ⎞ M =⎜ ⎜ − 25 50 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 where A = matrix of co .179 0.

179 0. det R = (0. as we found earlier for one of the principal angles. 24 .983)(0. 6 − ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ To find the angles.186 ⎞ ⎛ − 0.388 ⎞ ⎛ 54.983 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 5.983) − (0.6 ⎟ ⎟ D=⎜ =⎜ ⎜ 0.186 5.183 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟→⎜ ⎜ 0.388 ⎞ ⎛ 0.183 0.183 ⎞ R=⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.5°.033 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ − 25 50 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 0 84 .983 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ 0.183) = 1 The rotation matrix has the form ⎛ cosθ R=⎜ ⎜ sin θ ⎝ − sin θ ⎞ ⎟ cosθ ⎟ ⎠ D ′ = RT M R So θ = 10.967 ⎞ ⎛ − 80 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ − 0.179 0.183 ⎟ ⎟→⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ And then assemble them into a rotation matrix R so that det R = +1.938 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.983 − 0. we must calculate the unit eigenvectors: ⎛ − 0.0 ⎞ ⎛ − 0.183)(−0.

6 MPa 10.6 MPa o 100.183 ⎞ ⎛ − 80 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ 0.983 ⎟ ⎜ − 25 50 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ − 0.983 0. 54.183 0.Using the rotation angle of 10. the transformation equations.983 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎝ 0 ⎞ ⎛ − 84.983 − 0.6 ⎟ D′ = ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎟ 54 .5 84. Mohr’s circle. the matrix M (representing the original stress state of the element) can be transformed to matrix D’ (representing the principal stress state).6 MPa 25 .5°. D ′ = RT M R ⎛ 0.183 0.5o x So.6 MPa 84. and eigenvectors all give the same result for the principal stress element. 6 ⎝ ⎠ y 54.183 ⎞ D′ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 0.

5 ⎞ R=⎜ ⎜ sin( −30°) cos(−30°) ⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜ 0. the transformation equations.866 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ M ′ = RT M R ⎛ 0.15 ⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜ τ yx σ y1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Again.866 0.8 MPa x1 .866 − 0.8 MPa 26 y y1 4. ⎛ cos(−30°) − sin( −30°) ⎞ ⎛ 0.5 ⎞ M′ = ⎜ ⎜ 0.5 0.15 MPa 68.866 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ − 25 50 ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ − 0.Finally.8 MPa -30 o x 25.8 − 4.866 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎛ − 25.5 0.15 MPa 25.5 0.5 ⎞ ⎛ − 80 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ 0. we can use the rotation matrix approach to find the stresses on an inclined element with θ = -30°.866 0. Mohr’s circle. 4. and the stress tensor approach all give the same result.8 − 68.8 ⎞ ⎛ σ x1 τ xy ⎞ ⎟ M′ = ⎜ ⎜ − 68.

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