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ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1

ILYA KORSUNSKY

1.1 a. The set of intervals described by I is the following: I0 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 = = = = = = = [0, 8] [1, 13] [2, 16] [3, 17] [4, 16] [5, 13] [6, 8]

Every interval here intersects with all other intervals, so the interval graph is a complete graph with 7 nodes. b. The set of tolerances for each interval is t = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}. In the tolerance graph, the set of edges is described by the relation: xy ∈ E if |Ix ∩ Iy | ≥ min(tx , ty ). The table below represents the intersections (|Ix ∩ Iy |) of each interval. Because the relation is symmetric, I only filled out the upper triangle. a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 10 9 8 2 2 13 12 8 2 12 8 2 3 4 8 2 5 2 6 Table 1. Edges in tolerance graph are highlighted.

Date : September 12, 2012.
1

1. 6)(1. the tolerance graph for < I . 6} E = {(0. However. 4. 1)(0. 1}. 5] [0. 2. {ti } > is G = (V. 2 and 4 are disjoint. The corresponding table for this set of tolerances is shown below. 5)} c. 4)(1. 5) (2. whose size is 7. 4}. In (b). 5)(3. 2. 4. {ti } > is a complete graph over the 7 nodes. The graphs for (a) and (c) are complete. 3. whose size is 5. a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 10 9 8 2 13 12 8 2 2 12 8 2 3 4 8 2 5 2 6 Table 2. because for every interval. The graphs for (a) and (c) are complete. the min(tx . 1. d.2 ILYA KORSUNSKY The tolerance graph for < I . {4. 5. e. Clearly.2 One example of a tolerance representation for C4 is the following: I1 I2 I3 I4 t’ = = = = = [0. For graph (b). its intersection with all other intervals is greater than or equal to its own tolerance. 1. The set of tolerances for each interval is t’ = {7. 15] {∞. 5. 3. 15] [0. 1) because for each of these edges. 1 . 4)(2. 3. 6. the largest clique is {0. Edges in tolerance graph are highlighted. 4)(4. whose size is 3. 2)(1. so the largest clique is the whole graph. so they will never have an edge. 3)(2. ∞. 4)(3. 2)(0. 4)(0. 15] [10. E ) V = {0. 1. 6} form a maximal stable set. 5. 2. 5)(0. ty ) = 1 and ∀xy∈C |Ix ∩ Iy > 1|. 2)(2. so the largest stable set size is 1. 1} There is a cycle C = (1. This makes sense. 3)(1. 3)(0. 3)(3.

5) ∈ / E and so N (v6 ) is not a clique.E) be a split graph. 1 2 3 5 1 3 5 4 2 4 6 1 2 3 4 6 5 6 1.4 I prove the three equivalences in theorem 1. 6)(2. N (v6 ) = {2.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 3 and 3 do intersect. 1. These results are confirmed by theorem 1.4)(4. cliques do not have chord-less cycles and stable sets do not have cycles (or edges). Moreover.E”) be the stable subgraph. any edges from V” to V’ that form a cycle does so in such a way that the cycle contains only 1 vertex from V” and all others from V’. (2) fails immediately for vertex 6.E’) be the clique subgraph and G” =(V”. which are all fully connected.8 as shown below.5)(5. get i ⇔ iii.g. By definition. they will never have an edge in a tolerance graph. I numbered the graphs in figure 1. both the subgraphs G’ and G” and their union G are chordal. 4. but since their tolerances are both ∞. cycle (3.4. 5}.6)(6.1. 1. as (1) and (3) are chordal. Therefore. . and by transitivity.1. i ⇒ ii Let G = (V. whereas (2) is not (e.2 by proving i ⇔ ii and ii ⇔ iii. G’ = (V’. but (5.3)))). The reverse of the MCS is a PEO for figures (1) and (3) but not for (2).3 Using the MCS algorithm provided in section 1.

making G chordal. Let G and G G consists of G’.2. C4 . if G does not contains 2K2 . you could construct a larger ¯ . Using the algorithm presented in section 1. 1.3. 5 4 b. which clique with with v and v’. Because 2K2 = C ¯ made for G. but G is not a split graph. In G ¯ would make G not chordal. v. and the argument Let G ¯ above can be used to show that G is chordal.4. Each edge is numbered according to the order in which it was oriented and the contradiction edge is labeled ’X’.v’. By definition. G must be a split graph. then G cannot Likewise. G ¯ is a split graph.4 ILYA KORSUNSKY ¯ be the complement of G. 4. 2. the same argument can be cycles.5 a. 3. I constructed the following TRO of figure 1 2 6 3 1. And this pair of vertices must both be disjoint from 2 vertices (u and u’) in G’. Since C4 in G ¯ is 2K2 in G. . G contain 2K2 . Therefore.4. then it by definition cannot have C4 or C5 as induced subgraphs. G’s maximal clique and G”. If they weren’t. and u’ will form a 4 vertex. it does not contain any chord-less ¯4 and C5 = C ¯5 . or C5 .. chord-less cycle. This is a contradiction and therefore.2. So I prove this by contradiction. ii ⇒ iii If G is chordal. ii ⇒ i ¯ be chordal. The argument for each of these graphs is based on the algorithm for TRO construction in section 1. G” must have a pair of vertices (v and v’) with an edge between them.u. which is not a stable set. ¯ cannot have C4 if it is chordal. iii ⇒ ii Any chord-less cycle Cn for n ≥ 6 can be pruned to yield 2K2 by recursively removing vertices at opposite ends of the cycle if n is even or removing 1 vertex if n is odd.

6 ¯ and I prove this by contradiction. i) from F2 . i → j → k without i → k is an illegal construction in a TRO. two of these edges had to be included in either F1 or F2 . j ) and (k. Without loss of generality. j ) came from F1 and (k. there must be 3 vertices whose orientations are not transitive. However.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 5 1 X 2 5 3 4 5 1 1 7 2 8 5 1 1 4 2 3 2 X 5 8 1. F1 . Specifically. Therefore. graph G ∪ G F must have this inducible subgraph: k i j 4 6 7 5 3 6 3 X 3 4 5 6 6 4 2 3 1 4 2 6 Because F1 and F2 are disjoint. In order for F to not be a TRO for the complete F = F1 ∪ F2 is not a TRO of G ∪ G ¯ . Let F1 be a TRO for G and F2 be a TRO for G ¯ . assume (i.

x14 . ¯ 20 . Therefore. By theorem 1. this will never cause an unfulfilled transitive relation. .1. Then for each vertex in the clique.4. x13 . G20 is an interval graph if it is chordal and coTRO. . x8 . Because the clique is fully connected. .20). . x7 . for i = 1:20 % choose vertex with highest count (vi) [~. 1. {v1 .1). . This proof is by induction on G and stable set {v10 . . x5 . counts = zeros(1. . and F must be a TRO in the complete graph. c. v2 . . . b. .i) = vi. x17 . According to theorem 1. 1.1. . . x4 . Using the MATLAB code below and algorithm described in section 1. % put it in the MCS array and set its count to -inf % increment the count of all of its neighbors mcs(1. x12 . x16 . . G20 is chordal. Because {v1 . x15 . x19 . vv8 } have no edges among themselves and must form a stable set. add a directed edge from an existing vertex in the TRO towards that new vertex.’descend’). x2 .20). we have reached a contradiction. For each vertex in the stable set.7 If the stay of each new researcher is modeled as an interval. . . vi = sortedInds(1. I found a MCS ordering on G20 . each color is a new office and an office will only be reassigned when its previous tenant leaves. which is of size 11. x20 . x11 . . x10 . . v20 } form a clique. there are no edges in the stable set that would create an incomplete transitive relation among vertices in the stable set.6 ILYA KORSUNSKY cannot be a TRO. Vertices 9 through 20 form a clique and all edges from vertices 1 through 8 connect to that clique. v9 } G20 is coTRO. x6 . . v8 } form a stable set and {v9 . v20 }. which is a split graph of clique {v1 . we know by theorem 1. Because G20 was proven to be chordal.sortedInds] = sort(counts. do the same. then the scheduling of offices to all the employees can be done with a greedy coloring algorithm on the corresponding interval graph. v3 } is trivially TRO.1 that the reversal of its MCS ordering is a perfect elimination ordering. mcs = zeros(1. reversing the ordering obtained by the code below is a peo for G20 : {x9 . The largest clique is {v9 . The triplet {v1 . x18 . . x3 .8 a. . G20 is chordal if it is a split graph.3. Also. Therefore. . This is complete and will never introduce a contradiction because this is a valid transitive relation for any pair of vertices in the clique. . v20 }. . x1 }. G20 is both a split graph and chordal. Here.

the available time of a plane accounts for its arrival time and ground time between flights. and a.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 7 counts(vi) = -inf. 1. I modeled the flights in terms of their departure and availability intervals and colored the intervals using a greedy algorithm under the constraint that no flight from {1.j) + 1. The color corresponds to the type of plane (B757 or B737). Thus.c. which are available. I added 75 minutes to the arrival time. 6. LALE can meet its schedule.16 a.11 In this problem.d. To compute it. I took the same approach with this augmented schedule. end end end 1. Therefore. The B757s were colored a and b. This means that the schedule required 2 B757s and 4 B737s. the airline needs 3 B757s to account for the three colorings of B757 flights.f.e and f. I assigned them to B737. For colors that could be both. The results of the coloring are in the table below. Interval Departure Time Available Time Color Airplane model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7:00 11:30 13:00 16:00 9:00 10:30 19:00 16:30 15:00 13:45 18:15 19:45 22:45 20:45 16:15 25:05 20:45 25:05 Table 3 a d e f b c d c a 757 737 737 737 757 737 737 737 757 b. 5. and g.j) = counts(1. . while the B737s were colored c. for j = 1:20 if vi + j >= 18 counts(1. B737s were colored with e. 8}. 9} could share the same color as that from {2. B757s were colored with b. to meet this schedule.d. a. as this was optimal in this scenario.

I prove that S is a stable set by induction on the construction of the set Stable. |It ∩ It−1 | = 0 and the addition of It keeps Stable a stable set. K is a clique cover. we do not need to worry about the other intervals in Stable because we know that they precede It−1 in the stable set. I first prove that S is a stable set and then that it is maximum. Because no more intervals can be added to S without making in unstable. Inductive case: Interval It is about to be added to the stable set Stable. Therefore. The set of intervals that are in Active at any time form a clique. Specifically. Therefore. the elements of every Ki form a . Let It−1 be the last interval already in Stable. S is maximal because every interval Ix ∈ / Stable must overlap with some Iy ∈ Stable. is a minimum clique cover. Active was cleared out. they all open before any of them close. Prove that K = K1 ∪ . Specifically. Ix cannot be added to S without intersecting with Iy . . the only reason an interval Ix was not added to Stable is that it was cleared from Active before the sweep reached its right endpoint. ∪ Kk . because Stable \ {I } = ∅. Because It−1 was added to Stable when it was closed and It was added to Active when it was opened. Base case: The first interval I added to Stable cannot intersect with intervals in Stable \ {I }. so they must have some overlap with one another. Because two intervals are in Active iff they overlap. It must therefore be in Active. It must have been added to Active after It−1 was added to Stable.8 ILYA KORSUNSKY Interval Departure Time Available Time Color Airplane model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 7:00 11:30 13:00 16:00 9:00 10:30 19:00 16:30 15:00 6:30 14:30 21:00 13:45 18:15 19:45 22:45 20:45 16:15 25:05 20:45 25:05 14:45 21:15 24:45 Table 4 b e f g c d e d a a b c 757 737 737 737 757 737 737 737 757 757 757 737 Prove that S is a maximum stable set. S must be maximal. It must have opened after It−1 closed. Because every Ki is formed by adopting the elements of Active. the sweep reached the right endpoint of another interval Iy ∈ Active first. When It−1 was added to Stable. Therefore. .

Ki ∪ Kj does not represent a clique. as there is at least one pair of vertices between them that does not have an edge. are disjoint. Moreover. which can be done by quicksort in Θ(nlog (n)). This is a contradiction and therefore K must be minimum. then two cliques (Ki . Therefore. which are also in Ki and Kj . Therefore. the time complexity of this algorithm is dominated by sorting the 2n endpoints of the n intervals. b. respectively.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 9 clique. every interval is in Active at some point during the algorithm. The sweep is linear but assumes an ordering among the endpoints. . However. because Stable is a stable set. Therefore. then the ith and j th elements of S . If K is not a minimum clique cover. I prove that K is minimum by contradiction. Kj ) can be joined together to form another clique cover. K partitions all the intervals into cliques and forms a clique cover.

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