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ILYA KORSUNSKY

1.1 a. The set of intervals described by I is the following: I0 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 = = = = = = = [0, 8] [1, 13] [2, 16] [3, 17] [4, 16] [5, 13] [6, 8]

Every interval here intersects with all other intervals, so the interval graph is a complete graph with 7 nodes. b. The set of tolerances for each interval is t = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}. In the tolerance graph, the set of edges is described by the relation: xy ∈ E if |Ix ∩ Iy | ≥ min(tx , ty ). The table below represents the intersections (|Ix ∩ Iy |) of each interval. Because the relation is symmetric, I only ﬁlled out the upper triangle. a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 10 9 8 2 2 13 12 8 2 12 8 2 3 4 8 2 5 2 6 Table 1. Edges in tolerance graph are highlighted.

**Date : September 12, 2012.
**

1

2 One example of a tolerance representation for C4 is the following: I1 I2 I3 I4 t’ = = = = = [0. {4. 6)(1. whose size is 5. so they will never have an edge. The corresponding table for this set of tolerances is shown below. 1}. However. 4. 3. its intersection with all other intervals is greater than or equal to its own tolerance. 15] [10. 3)(0. 5. Clearly. 5. 2. 5)(0. the tolerance graph for < I . 5) (2. 1} There is a cycle C = (1. 1)(0. 2. The graphs for (a) and (c) are complete. whose size is 7. 4}. because for every interval. 3. 5)(3. Edges in tolerance graph are highlighted. the largest clique is {0. 15] {∞. 15] [0. 5)} c. ty ) = 1 and ∀xy∈C |Ix ∩ Iy > 1|. 3)(3. The graphs for (a) and (c) are complete. 1 . d. a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 10 9 8 2 13 12 8 2 2 12 8 2 3 4 8 2 5 2 6 Table 2. This makes sense. e. whose size is 3. 1) because for each of these edges. 4)(0. 6} E = {(0. 5] [0.2 ILYA KORSUNSKY The tolerance graph for < I . {ti } > is a complete graph over the 7 nodes. 4)(1. 1. 1. 2)(2. 6. For graph (b). 5. 4)(2. 1. 4)(3. 2)(0. 3. {ti } > is G = (V. 2 and 4 are disjoint. 4)(4. so the largest clique is the whole graph. 2. 6} form a maximal stable set. 4. 3)(1. 3)(2. so the largest stable set size is 1. the min(tx . The set of tolerances for each interval is t’ = {7. 2)(1. ∞. 1. In (b). E ) V = {0.

i ⇒ ii Let G = (V. G’ = (V’. which are all fully connected. 4. cliques do not have chord-less cycles and stable sets do not have cycles (or edges). but since their tolerances are both ∞. N (v6 ) = {2. 1 2 3 5 1 3 5 4 2 4 6 1 2 3 4 6 5 6 1. 5) ∈ / E and so N (v6 ) is not a clique. 1. any edges from V” to V’ that form a cycle does so in such a way that the cycle contains only 1 vertex from V” and all others from V’.3 Using the MCS algorithm provided in section 1. I numbered the graphs in ﬁgure 1. but (5.E’) be the clique subgraph and G” =(V”.E) be a split graph.4.E”) be the stable subgraph.1.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 3 and 3 do intersect. as (1) and (3) are chordal. and by transitivity. 5}.g. 6)(2. get i ⇔ iii.2 by proving i ⇔ ii and ii ⇔ iii. These results are conﬁrmed by theorem 1.8 as shown below. 1. Therefore.3)))).4)(4. (2) fails immediately for vertex 6.5)(5. Moreover.1. whereas (2) is not (e.4 I prove the three equivalences in theorem 1. By deﬁnition. both the subgraphs G’ and G” and their union G are chordal.6)(6. The reverse of the MCS is a PEO for ﬁgures (1) and (3) but not for (2). . cycle (3. they will never have an edge in a tolerance graph.

Using the algorithm presented in section 1. If they weren’t. 3. And this pair of vertices must both be disjoint from 2 vertices (u and u’) in G’. and u’ will form a 4 vertex.v’. Therefore.u. ¯ cannot have C4 if it is chordal. but G is not a split graph. chord-less cycle.3. So I prove this by contradiction. 4. 2. C4 . Since C4 in G ¯ is 2K2 in G. Because 2K2 = C ¯ made for G. which is not a stable set. This is a contradiction and therefore. which clique with with v and v’.4. ii ⇒ iii If G is chordal.. you could construct a larger ¯ . if G does not contains 2K2 . then G cannot Likewise. iii ⇒ ii Any chord-less cycle Cn for n ≥ 6 can be pruned to yield 2K2 by recursively removing vertices at opposite ends of the cycle if n is even or removing 1 vertex if n is odd.4 ILYA KORSUNSKY ¯ be the complement of G. G contain 2K2 . 1. ii ⇒ i ¯ be chordal. it does not contain any chord-less ¯4 and C5 = C ¯5 .5 a. then it by deﬁnition cannot have C4 or C5 as induced subgraphs.2. making G chordal.4. G” must have a pair of vertices (v and v’) with an edge between them. 5 4 b. . G must be a split graph. I constructed the following TRO of ﬁgure 1 2 6 3 1. or C5 . Let G and G G consists of G’. Each edge is numbered according to the order in which it was oriented and the contradiction edge is labeled ’X’. By deﬁnition. and the argument Let G ¯ above can be used to show that G is chordal. v. The argument for each of these graphs is based on the algorithm for TRO construction in section 1. G’s maximal clique and G”. In G ¯ would make G not chordal. the same argument can be cycles.2. G ¯ is a split graph.

i → j → k without i → k is an illegal construction in a TRO. In order for F to not be a TRO for the complete F = F1 ∪ F2 is not a TRO of G ∪ G ¯ . However. assume (i. graph G ∪ G F must have this inducible subgraph: k i j 4 6 7 5 3 6 3 X 3 4 5 6 6 4 2 3 1 4 2 6 Because F1 and F2 are disjoint. Let F1 be a TRO for G and F2 be a TRO for G ¯ . Without loss of generality. there must be 3 vertices whose orientations are not transitive. Speciﬁcally.6 ¯ and I prove this by contradiction. Therefore. two of these edges had to be included in either F1 or F2 . i) from F2 .ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 5 1 X 2 5 3 4 5 1 1 7 2 8 5 1 1 4 2 3 2 X 5 8 1. F1 . j ) came from F1 and (k. j ) and (k.

% put it in the MCS array and set its count to -inf % increment the count of all of its neighbors mcs(1. which is of size 11.20). for i = 1:20 % choose vertex with highest count (vi) [~. reversing the ordering obtained by the code below is a peo for G20 : {x9 . x16 . G20 is an interval graph if it is chordal and coTRO.20). x4 . x15 .3. x7 . Because G20 was proven to be chordal. Because the clique is fully connected. v20 }. . . Therefore. v2 . By theorem 1.8 a. The largest clique is {v9 . there are no edges in the stable set that would create an incomplete transitive relation among vertices in the stable set. .’descend’). . For each vertex in the stable set. . mcs = zeros(1. x8 . . Here. Because {v1 . counts = zeros(1. . x20 . ¯ 20 . v3 } is trivially TRO. v9 } G20 is coTRO. . x2 . x17 . vi = sortedInds(1. do the same. According to theorem 1.6 ILYA KORSUNSKY cannot be a TRO. x1 }.1. G20 is chordal. . . this will never cause an unfulﬁlled transitive relation. x6 . x10 . . . {v1 . G20 is chordal if it is a split graph.4. then the scheduling of oﬃces to all the employees can be done with a greedy coloring algorithm on the corresponding interval graph.1. x18 . G20 is both a split graph and chordal. Therefore. Using the MATLAB code below and algorithm described in section 1. . which is a split graph of clique {v1 . . This proof is by induction on G and stable set {v10 . v20 } form a clique.1). . x12 . we have reached a contradiction. v8 } form a stable set and {v9 . x13 .sortedInds] = sort(counts. x5 . . x14 . . . 1. This is complete and will never introduce a contradiction because this is a valid transitive relation for any pair of vertices in the clique. add a directed edge from an existing vertex in the TRO towards that new vertex.7 If the stay of each new researcher is modeled as an interval. .i) = vi. . each color is a new oﬃce and an oﬃce will only be reassigned when its previous tenant leaves. we know by theorem 1. b. . . and F must be a TRO in the complete graph. Vertices 9 through 20 form a clique and all edges from vertices 1 through 8 connect to that clique. x11 . The triplet {v1 . Then for each vertex in the clique.1 that the reversal of its MCS ordering is a perfect elimination ordering. v20 }. x19 . . Also. 1. x3 . c. vv8 } have no edges among themselves and must form a stable set. I found a MCS ordering on G20 .

1.d. which are available. the available time of a plane accounts for its arrival time and ground time between ﬂights.j) = counts(1. To compute it. a. and a. for j = 1:20 if vi + j >= 18 counts(1. Thus. For colors that could be both. Therefore.d. The B757s were colored a and b. end end end 1. I modeled the ﬂights in terms of their departure and availability intervals and colored the intervals using a greedy algorithm under the constraint that no ﬂight from {1.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 7 counts(vi) = -inf. to meet this schedule. The results of the coloring are in the table below. I took the same approach with this augmented schedule. 8}. while the B737s were colored c. This means that the schedule required 2 B757s and 4 B737s. I added 75 minutes to the arrival time.j) + 1.16 a.c.f. B757s were colored with b. as this was optimal in this scenario. B737s were colored with e. 6. . 9} could share the same color as that from {2. The color corresponds to the type of plane (B757 or B737). I assigned them to B737. 5.11 In this problem. the airline needs 3 B757s to account for the three colorings of B757 ﬂights.e and f. Interval Departure Time Available Time Color Airplane model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7:00 11:30 13:00 16:00 9:00 10:30 19:00 16:30 15:00 13:45 18:15 19:45 22:45 20:45 16:15 25:05 20:45 25:05 Table 3 a d e f b c d c a 757 737 737 737 757 737 737 737 757 b. LALE can meet its schedule. and g.

It must have opened after It−1 closed. S is maximal because every interval Ix ∈ / Stable must overlap with some Iy ∈ Stable. Let It−1 be the last interval already in Stable. It must have been added to Active after It−1 was added to Stable. Ix cannot be added to S without intersecting with Iy . K is a clique cover. The set of intervals that are in Active at any time form a clique. I prove that S is a stable set by induction on the construction of the set Stable. Because It−1 was added to Stable when it was closed and It was added to Active when it was opened. Speciﬁcally. Therefore. When It−1 was added to Stable. S must be maximal.8 ILYA KORSUNSKY Interval Departure Time Available Time Color Airplane model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 7:00 11:30 13:00 16:00 9:00 10:30 19:00 16:30 15:00 6:30 14:30 21:00 13:45 18:15 19:45 22:45 20:45 16:15 25:05 20:45 25:05 14:45 21:15 24:45 Table 4 b e f g c d e d a a b c 757 737 737 737 757 737 737 737 757 757 757 737 Prove that S is a maximum stable set. they all open before any of them close. Because every Ki is formed by adopting the elements of Active. Base case: The ﬁrst interval I added to Stable cannot intersect with intervals in Stable \ {I }. Prove that K = K1 ∪ . the sweep reached the right endpoint of another interval Iy ∈ Active ﬁrst. . . Inductive case: Interval It is about to be added to the stable set Stable. Active was cleared out. because Stable \ {I } = ∅. |It ∩ It−1 | = 0 and the addition of It keeps Stable a stable set. the elements of every Ki form a . the only reason an interval Ix was not added to Stable is that it was cleared from Active before the sweep reached its right endpoint. ∪ Kk . Therefore. Therefore. we do not need to worry about the other intervals in Stable because we know that they precede It−1 in the stable set. Because no more intervals can be added to S without making in unstable. It must therefore be in Active. is a minimum clique cover. Speciﬁcally. I ﬁrst prove that S is a stable set and then that it is maximum. Because two intervals are in Active iﬀ they overlap. so they must have some overlap with one another.

are disjoint. Therefore. then the ith and j th elements of S . as there is at least one pair of vertices between them that does not have an edge. the time complexity of this algorithm is dominated by sorting the 2n endpoints of the n intervals. K partitions all the intervals into cliques and forms a clique cover. Therefore. which can be done by quicksort in Θ(nlog (n)). Ki ∪ Kj does not represent a clique. This is a contradiction and therefore K must be minimum. I prove that K is minimum by contradiction. every interval is in Active at some point during the algorithm.ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY: HW1 9 clique. then two cliques (Ki . b. If K is not a minimum clique cover. which are also in Ki and Kj . respectively. Moreover. Kj ) can be joined together to form another clique cover. The sweep is linear but assumes an ordering among the endpoints. However. Therefore. because Stable is a stable set. .

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