Chapter 01

Chapter 1 - Swahili Spelling and Pronunciation


The basic principle which was retained to establish the Swahili alphabet, is that every distinct sound or phoneme should always be transcribed by the same distinct written form (either a single letter, or a cluster of letters), and conversely. The Swahili alphabet includes : 23 single letters : a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, y, z. The letters q and x are not used. The letter c, although present, is never used alone. 9 digraphs : ch, dh, gh, kh, ng', ny, sh, th, ts.


A, a E, e I, i O, o U, u [a] [e] [i] [o] [u]


baba (father) debe (gallon) kiti (chair) moto (fire) kuku (chicken)

English equivalent
far, but cut short bed kit off, lot too, to

As you can see in this table, Swahili contains 5 vowels. These are pronounced openly, without diphtongs, like in Spanish or in Italian. They must always be kept short.


Unlike in English, two (or three) written vowels that follow each other never merge together to form a single sound. Each keeps its own sound. For example : ou is pronounced "o-oo" as in "go", au is pronounced "a-oo" as in "cow", ei is pronounced "e-ee" as in

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"bay", ai is pronounced "a-ee" as in "tie", etc. In theory, any vowel can be in succession with any other one. It is not unfrequent to meet two similar vowels in succession : they must be pronounced as one long vowel : Naam ! Zii ! (= Yes ? ) (= Down ! ) Juu Mzee (= on top) (= old) Kuu Jogoo (= principal) (= cock)


W, w Y, y [w] [j]


wewe (you) yeye (he, she)

English Equivalent
why, week yes, you


B, b D, d F, f G, g H, h J, j K, k L, l M, m N, n P, p R, r S, s T, t V, v Z, z [b] [d] [f] [g] [h] [] [k] [l] [m] [n] [p] [r] [s] [t] [v] [z]


baba (father) dada (sister) kufaa (to suit) gari (car) haya ! (O.K. !) juu (on top) kuku (chicken) lala ! (sleep !) Mama (mother) na (and, with) papa (shark) rangi (colour) saa (clock, time) taa (lamp) kuvaa (to wear) -zuri (nice, good) bad do far got hat John kid, cat lot man no pot rat soap toy very

English Equivalent

zoo, easy

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While most of the consonants are similar to the English ones and do not offer any difficulty, special care must be paid to : f : it has always the sound of the "f" in "fat", never that of the "f" in "of". g : it is always hard like in "got". It should never be pronounced soft like the "g" in "gin". s : it has always the sound of the "s" in "sad", never that of the "s" in "is" or "easy".


Ch, ch Dh, dh Gh, gh Kh, kh Ng', ng' Ny, ny Sh, sh Th, th

[] [] [R] [] [] [] [] [] chai (tea)


English Equivalent
chat, church this, that in French : "rare" in Scottish : "loch" singer new shoe think

dhahabu (gold) ghali (expensive) subalkheri (good morning) ng'ombe (cow) nyota (star) shule (school) thelathini (thirty)

Most of the real difficulties of Swahili are concentrated here. It is however important to try and pronounce these sounds correctly : dh and th are both written "th" in English. dh is voiced as in "the", "this", "that", "with" ... While th is unvoiced as in "think", "thin", "both" ... stakabadhi (= a receipt), hadithi (= a story). gh and kh are pronounced at the back of the throat. gh is voiced and close to the French "r" in "rare" : ghali (= expensive), shughuli (= affair, activity). kh is unvoiced and corresponds to a scraping of the throat : subalkheri (= good morning). ng' although similar in sound to the English "ng" in "singing" poses a difficulty, for it usually occurs at the initial of words. It is luckily quite rare : ng'ambo (= foreign), ng'ombe (= a cow).


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The syllable M corresponds to the class prefix MU- (Class 1 and Class 3) whose U has been dropped. However, the "m" doesn't merge with the following consonant and should be pronounced somewhat like "humm !". The M syllabic can be accentuated (stressed syllable) in short words such as : mtu (= a person), mti (= a tree), mji (= a town, a city), etc..

Mb Mch Mf Mg Mj Mk Ml Mm Mn Mp Ms Msh Mt Mv Mz

Mbuyu Mchezo Mfano Mgeni Mji Mke Mlango Mmea Mnara Mpira Msafiri Mshahara Mtoto Mvuvi Mzungu baobab game example


guest, foreigner town, city wife door plant, crop minaret, tower ball, pipe, tube traveller salary child fisherman white man


The Swahili syllable is said to be open, for it always ends on a vowel sound. For example : KI-SWA-HI-LI NG'O-MBE (= Swahili) (= a cow) JA-MBO N-NE (= hello !) (= four) M-ZU-NGU TA-NZA-NI-A (= a white man) (= Tanzania)

An extra vowel is usually added in loanwords, in order to conform to the open syllable pattern. For example : O-I-LI PE-TRO-LI (= oil) (= petrol) SHI-LI-NGI NA-NA-SI (= shilling) (= pineapple) BE-NKI SHA-TI (= bank) (= shirt)

The stress usually falls on the last but one syllabe of a word. There are however a small number of exceptions, on words of Arabic origin. For example : lazima (= it is necessary) : /'lazima/ . Compare also : barabara (= a road) : /bara'bara/ , and barabara (= very well) : /ba'rabara/ .

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kiu. mgonjwa. cheo. huo. dau. tatu. nyota. jambo. pana. au. hii. Baba. jembe. kiasi. choo. nyang'anya. chai. ng'ambo. bwana. leo. dawa. la. sahihi. safisha. kavu. njia. mstari. debe. siri. tele. EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Read aloud the following words : a. Tafadhali. starehe. kaka. kuzoea. fisi. tafuta. marahaba. mfalme. haba. yao. maana. c. Chui. uongo. baada. kuchemsha. mpaka. duka. we invite you to visit the following page on Hassan O. masalkheri. nyeupe. mvua. gari. jaa. juu. robo. nyuma. hodi. haraka. njaa. nukta. shida. dada. hafifu. mama. subalkheri. mji. chache. barabara. njoo. jogoo. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:27 PM . sababu. jibu. kufaa. kukaa. hayo. mayai. mzee. hao. bata. ndoo. siagi. faida. yeye. ghafula. kiumbe. vema. huu. mashariki. kujua. ghali. zii. Mbu. ng'oa. shughuli. kioo. mamlaka. juzijuzi. bei. muwa. b. fua. wiki. e. bado. neno. mlima. fedha. papa. ruka.Chapter 01 http://mwanasimba. msaada. hadithi. zaidi. raia. kuoa. mnazi. chafu. kiswahili. bilauri. kulia. maharagwe. kidogo. mbwa. Ali's excellent Swahili site : useful_swahili_words. nyoka. kuzuia. sauti. dhahabu. naam. ramadhani. afya. ya. pia. lipa. matuta. shule. lakini. mzungu. thumni. nywele. taa. shikamoo. Wewe. kuvaa. kupaka. cheo. d. na. mkate. nanasi. mjinga. f. nyeusi. kugawa. wao. laini. yai. uvivu. lugha. kuu. adui. Kaa. magharibi. kibaba. ng'ombe. mswaki. hapa. viti. kupoa. mchanganyiko. asante. gunia. tisa. thelathini. mchezo. kujenga.htm To listen to examples of words and phrases pronounced in Swahili. mhindi. dharau. kubali. barua. sisi. saa. shilingi.

Jambo ! .Marahaba ! = I am fine ! = We are fine ! = Thank you. ? (= What are the news of .Jambo ! ! . in that case you use Habari za ..Habari ? . There are two possibilities : either you are expecting a precise answer : in this case you use Habari ya . ? ). and possibly about his/her close relations.Salama ? . his/her activities. the health. without any precise intention.Jambo ! ..Sijambo ! . All these questions start with the word HABARI which means "news"..Hatujambo ! .What are your news ? 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:28 PM . that will make you pass for a real "mswahili" : .Chapter 02 http://mwanasimba. It is only after this good humoured though formal exchange that you will brooch into the heart of the matter. on the time of the day. or that you'll take leave of the person. with abundant goodbyes ! 1. ? ).htm Chapter 2 .. Sir. prefer using these more authentic greetings. = Are you fine ? = How are things ? .Jambo Bwana. Politeness recommends that you dedicate some moments to greeting a person and enquiring about his/her health.. THE EXCHANGE OF NEWS : These simple greetings are often followed by more precise questions. . especially if you didn't meet each other for quite a while.Mambo (vipi) ? = Hello ! = Hello..Habari yako / zako ? . the children.Jambo Mama. .online. .Poa tu ! / Safi ! ANSWERS = Hello ! = Hello ! = Hello ! = Fine ! = Cool ! But this is just for the tourists ! Whenever possible.Hamjambo ! .Salama ! . etc.Shikamoo ! = How are you ? = How are you ? (Plur) = My respects ! (to an elder person) . = Hello. ? (= What's the news of . the family. 2.. or you are simply asking out of mere politeness.How are you ? . Madam.What's new ? .. COMMON GREETINGS : GREETINGS .Greetings Swahili people pay a lot of importance to the exchange of greetings.Hujambo ! ..Habari gani ? .

say.Habari ya / za jioni ? .And you (are you well) ? .Haya ! Bwana Chaku habari gani ? . etc. .Habari ya / za leo ? .Njema ! or .htm .Nzuri ! or .Masalkheri ! .Habari ya / za kazi ? .Good evening ! (Arabic greeting) .Chapter 02 http://mwanasimba.Habari ya / za asubuhi ? .So ! Mr Chaku how are you ? . ! / Let's go ! 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:28 PM .Haya ! .How are you this afternoon ? .K. OTHER COMMON EXPRESSIONS : .How are you this evening ? .Hamjambo nyumbani ? . are you mad ? 3.Habari ya / za nyumbani ? .Habari ya / za mtoto ? .Your health is good ? .Good morning ! (Arabic greeting) .I am well..How are you this morning ? .) you will invariably answer with : .How is/was your journey ? Except in case of misfortune (death.U mzima ? .How is the child ? .What about your home ? . serious illness.So ! / O.(Ni) mzima .And you ? .Salama ! = Fine ! Chakubanga .online.I should return your question.How are you today ? .Na wewe ? .How is the family ? .Habari ya / za mchana ? .Subalkheri ! .Na wewe pia ? . you who piled your skirt on your head.How are you ? ..U hali gani ? .Habari nikuulize wewe uliyelundika kichwani ukaacha mapajani je una kichaa ? nguo .What about your work ? .fr/E_Chap02.Habari ya / za safari ? .

No ! .Hamna shida .Don't mention it / No problem When a person feels poor or has undergone a bereavement.Asante ! .online.Please .Asante (sana) .htm .Karibu ! .Naam ! .Pole ! .You're all welcome ! (To several people) .You're welcome ! . VISITING SOMEBODY AT HOME : To announce your presence to somebody.My sincere sympathy ! When a person goes on a journey.Thank you ! .fr/E_Chap02. you shout in front of the door : .Pole na safari ! .Chapter 02 http://mwanasimba.Asanteni ! .No .Aha ! .Hodi ! To which the person anwers : .Tafadhali .Thank you (very much) .Have a good journey ! 4. you can also tell him / her : .Be careful ! .Thank you ! .Anybody's home ? 5.Asante ! . GOOD-BYES : 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:28 PM .Pole na msiba wako ! .Siyo / Hapana .Ndiyo .Karibuni ! .Yes ? (In answer to a call) .Feel at ease ! . you tell him / her : .Sorry ! .Starehe ! to which you always answer : .Yes .Thank you ! (To several people) .Safari njema ! The expected answer is naturally always : .

Tutaonana kesho.See you tomorrow ! .Good night ! At the time of sleeping. you can wish : . or "Best of luck !" . When taking leave at night.Sweet dreams ! NOW. LEARN THE SONG : JAMBO : Jambo ! Jambo Bwana ! Habari gani ? Nzuri sana ! EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Click on the lion to get the exercise : 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:28 PM .Kwa heri ! .Asubuhi njema.htm The word to say goodbye is Kwa heri ! which means literally : blessing. .fr/E_Chap02.Good bye ! (To several people) .online.Kwa herini ! .See you again.Good bye ! (To a single person) . you can also wish : .Lala salama ! .Kwa heri ya kuonana ! .Tutaonana ! .Chapter 02 http://mwanasimba. or happiness.Have a good morning ! .See you soon ! . .Usiku mwema ! .

. the same to you.Thank you very much. you. 8.Hamjambo nyumbani ? .I am fine.Jambo mama ! . 5.What about home ? . 5. Kwa heri ya kuonana ! .Hello ! .Fine.Good bye.Hello ! . EXERCISE 3 : Translate into Swahili : 1. 2. 6. 9.My respects . Haya. . 3. .How is the health ? . 3. 8. . .OK ! . 7.Fine. . . 7.How is work ? .Hello ! How are you ? . 4. 9.Well.htm EXERCISE 2 : translate into English : 1. 4. sweet dreams ! .online. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:28 PM .Anybody's home ? .Thank you.Haya ! Tutaonana kesho. 10.Starehe ! . Habari zako ? . 10.Nzuri sana. kwa heri ! .Njema.Sorry ! . . 6.Chapter 02 http://mwanasimba.Hodi ! .Good night.Asante. .Karibu ! . See you tomorrow.Welcome ! .Jambo bwana ! .

In order to be functional.The Infinitive 1.htm Chapter 3 . to hit to catch to There are however a few exceptions. The general position scheme of these affixes in relation to the verb radical is as follows : Pre-Prefix + Subject Prefix + Tense marker + Object Infix + RADICAL + Derivation + Suffix + Post-Suffix Luckily enough. which end in -E. we must attach to it a certain number of affixes : 2. the infinitive is shown by the word TO placed before the verb. to find. THE INFINITIVE In English. GENERALITIES The main characteristic of the Swahili verb is its agglutinative aspect. the radical of the Swahili verbs of Bantu origin ends in -A in the infinitive. -I or -U. KU + RADICAL EXAMPLES : KU-FIKA KU-FANYA KU-JUA KU-SIKIA KU-ANGALIA to arrive to do to know to hear to look at KU-PATA KU-PIGA KU-KAMATA KU-SOMA KU-WEKA to have. All these affixes possess a precise position and function. In Swahili. 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:30 PM . according to the situation. it is very rare for a verb to possess all these affixes at one and the same time ! These different affixes and their functions will all be explained along the following chapters.Chapter 03 http://mwanasimba. to get to strike. to be conjugated and be part of the sentence. to learn to put As shown through these different examples.attached to the verb radical. especially with verbs of Arabic origin. infixes and suffixes. the infinitive is marked by the prefix KU.

to tell to stop to look for to want to throw to sell to be able 5. We also note that the U of KU.weakens into W before the vowel E or I of the radical. to take to fit to follow to close to open to stay.htm 3. although to live to cut. THE NEGATIVE INFINITIVE : 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:30 PM . MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Ku-fa Ku-ja Ku-la Ku-nywa to die to come to eat to drink Ku-wa Ku-wa na Kw-enda Kw-isha to be to have to go to end NOTE : The last two verbs.Chapter 03 http://mwanasimba. SOME VERBS OF ARABIC ORIGIN : Ku-badili Ku-baki Ku-faulu Ku-fikiri Ku-furahi Ku-haribu to exchange to stay to succeed to think to rejoice to destroy Ku-jaribu Ku-jibu Ku-keti Ku-rudi Ku-safiri Ku-samehe to try to answer to sit to return. Kw-isha and Kw-enda. have been included in this table because they behave like monosyllabic verbs in their to reduce to bring to wait to buy Ku-ona Ku-penda Ku-pika Ku-safisha Ku-sema Ku-simama Ku-tafuta Ku-taka Ku-tupa Ku-uza Ku-weza to see to love to cook to clean to say. A LIST OF COMMON VERBS : Ku-anguka Ku-chukua Ku-faa Ku-fuata Ku-funga Ku-fungua Ku-kaa Ku-kata Ku-leta Ku-ngoja Ku-nunua to fall to seize. to come back to travel to forgive 4. 6.

to eat. kusema. kuanguka. to catch. kuleta. b. not to stay. is sometimes added before the radical. to know. not to catch. not to read.Chapter 03 http://mwanasimba. kufa. not to know. not to come back. kusamehe. It is obtained by inserting the infix -TO. to do. to look at. kufungua. To Kutokuwa. kuuza. kutokuja. to answer. which is compulsory in the case of monosyllabic verbs. to see. kuweza. b. to succeed. not to try. not to do. not to hear. to be. kutofurahi. Kuweka. to come back. to strike. kuketi. kutokuweza. kwisha. to have.between the infinitive prefix KU. kufunga. kutosafiri. kununua. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:30 PM . not to sell. kukaa. not to buy. kubadili. to wait. kufurahi. kutofaulu. not to say. kutofika. to come. kutotaka. to want. not to stop. kusafiri. to love. kujaribu. kutokunywa. to hear. kutokula. kutafuta. to sit. kujibu. An extra KU-. to clean. not to bring. kusimama. kutokuona. kutoweka. to try. to not to wait. to go. kutokupika. kufuata. to arrive.and the radical of the verb.htm Swahili possesses a negative infinitive. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. kubaki. to drink. kutofaa. kufaa. KU + TO (+ KU) + RADICAL EXAMPLES : Affirmative Kusoma Kufanya Kujibu Kurudi Kula Kufa to read to do to answer to come back to eat to die -> Kuto(ku)soma -> Kuto(ku)fanya -> Kuto(ku)jibu -> Kuto(ku)rudi -> Kutokula -> Kutokufa Negative not to read not to do not to answer not to come back not to eat not to die EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into swahili : a. Not to find. kutofikiri. kupika.

behave as verbs of Bantu origin in the second person singular. In the second person plural. as would a boss to an employee. I ou U) : Jaribu ! Rudi ! (Ni-)samehe ! try ! come back ! forgive(-me) ! Jaribuni ! Rudini ! (Ni-)sameheni ! try ! come back ! forgive(-me) ! 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM .htm Chapter 4 .online. If we take the verb KUFANYA for example. which gives : FANYA ! = do ! The Direct Imperative possesses only 2 persons : the second person singular (= "you" singular) and the second person plural (= "you" plural). SOME VERBS IN THE DIRECT IMPERATIVE : 2 Fanya ! Funga ! Fungua ! Kamata ! Ngoja ! Safisha ! Sikia ! Soma ! nd person singular do ! close ! open ! catch ! wait ! clean ! hear ! read ! / learn ! Fanyeni ! Fungeni ! Fungueni ! Kamateni ! Ngojeni ! Safisheni ! Sikieni ! Someni ! 2 nd person plural do ! close ! open ! catch ! wait ! clean ! hear ! read ! / learn ! PARTICULAR CASES: Monosyllabic verbs keep the prefix KU. The plural is formed by replacing the ending -A of the radical by the suffix -ENI.Chapter 04 http://mwanasimba. The Direct Imperative : The Direct Imperative is used to give an "abrupt" order.The Imperative 1.of the infinitive : Kula ! Kunywa ! eat ! drink ! Kuleni ! Kunyweni ! eat ! drink ! Verbs of Arabic origin. we simply remove the infinitive prefix since it is simply made of the verb radical. or a parent to a child. without modifying the final vowel (E. It is the most simple verbal form. we add -NI at the end of the radical.

Chapter 04 http://mwanasimba. SUBJECT PREFIX + VERB RADICAL + E SOME VERBS IN THE POLITE IMPERATIVE : 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM .Chakubanga ! Una kunguni tumboni siku hizi ? . the more you lengthen the verbal formula when giving an order. Compare for instance in English : Come ! / Can you come ! / Are you coming ? / Would you like to come ? / I wish you would come / etc. The second person singular begins with the pronominal prefix U-. .htm EXCEPTIONS : The verb KULETA (= to bring) makes LETE ! (= bring !) instead of LETA in the second person singular. .fr/E_Chap04. While the second person plural begins with the pronominal prefix M-. as in many other languages. the more you soften its "abruptness". (See: Chapter 33 . and the more you show yourself polite. Chakubanga . THE POLITE IMPERATIVE : In Swahili. A common way of easing the rough edge of an order is to use the subjunctive.of the infinitive and by replacing the ending -A with -E.Chakubanga ! Have you got bugs in your stomach these days ? 2.The Subjunctive. Nenda kaipashe moto tena. The verb KWENDA (= to go) makes NENDA ! (= go !) and NENDENI ! (= go !). Go and warm it hiyo chai imepoa.) This is done by removing the prefix KU. The verb KUJA (= to come) makes NJOO ! (= come !) and NJOONI ! (= come !).I can see the tea is cool..

(= you) by TU.Chapter 04 TU + VERB RADICAL + E SOME EXAMPLES : 1 person plural Tufanye ! Tufunge ! Tufungue ! Tulete ! Tupike ! let's make ! let's close ! let'sopen ! let's bring ! let's cook ! st 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM . Actually. simply replacing the subject prefix U. THE IMPERATIVE OF THE 1st PERSON PLURAL : So far we have studied the imperative of the 2nd person (singular and plural).online. It's now time to see the imperative of the 1st person plural (we). it is built exactly on the same pattern as the polite imperative.(= we).htm 2 Ufanye ! Ufunge ! Ufungue ! Ulete ! Upike ! Usafishe ! nd person singular do ! close ! open ! bring ! cook ! clean ! Mfanye ! Mfunge ! Mfungue ! Mlete ! Mpike ! Msafishe ! 2 nd person plural do ! close ! open ! bring ! cook ! clean ! VERBS OF ARABIC ORIGIN : Ujaribu ! Urudi ! Usamehe ! try ! come back ! forgive ! Mjaribu ! Mrudi ! Msamehe ! try ! come back ! forgive ! MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Uende ! Uje ! Ule ! Unywe ! go ! come ! eat ! drink ! Mwende ! Mje ! Mle ! Mnywe ! go ! come ! eat ! drink ! 3.

htm Tusafishe ! let's clean ! VERBS OF ARABIC ORIGIN : Tujaribu ! Tusamehe ! let's try ! let's forgive ! MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Twende ! Tule ! Tuwe ! let's go ! let's eat ! let's be ! 4. insert the negative infix -SI. THE NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE : There is only one negative form corresponding both to the direct imperative and to the polite the plural. The negation is formed in the following way : Remove the prefix KU.Chapter 04 http://mwanasimba. add the pronominal prefix U. replace the verb ending -A with -E in the case of verbs of Bantu origin.for the singular and EXAMPLES : Bantu verb : Arabic verb : Monosyllabic verb : KU-FANYA KU-JIBU KU-LA -> -FANYA -> -JIBU -> -LA -> U-SI-FANY-E -> U-SI-JIBU -> U-SI-L-E SUBJECT PREFIX + SI + VERB RADICAL + E SOME VERBS IN THE IMPERATIVE : 2nd person singular Usifanye ! Usifuate ! Usiharibu ! Usijibu ! Usile ! don't do ! don't follow ! don't destroy ! don't answer ! don't eat ! Msifanye ! Msifuate ! Msiharibu ! Msijibu ! Msile ! 2nd person plural don't do ! don't follow ! don't destroy ! don't answer ! don't eat ! 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM .between the pronoun and the radical.of the infinitive.

kuja. kuleta. kuja. kupika. kusafiri. kufikiri. kwenda. kufika. kula. kujaribu. kujibu. kuangalia. kupika. kwenda. kubaki. kwenda. EXERCICE 3 : Put these verbs in the 1st person plural of the Imperative : Kubadili. kuleta. kubaki. kujaribu. kupenda. kusamehe. kubaki. kufuata. kufunga. kufungua. kusema. EXERCISE 2 : Put these verbs in the Polite Imperative : kufanya. kukaa. kupiga. kuja. kurudi. kufungua. kufika. kwenda. kuweka. kujaribu. kuuza. kununua. kufika. kuangalia.Chapter 04 kwisha. kusimama. 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM . kuweka. kungoja. kukamata. EXERCISE 4 : Put these verbs in the Negative Imperative : Kuja. kusoma. kununua. kufuata. kusoma. kusema. kununua. kusamehe. kutafuta.htm Usilete ! Usingoje ! Usinywe ! Usipige ! Usiweke ! don't bring ! don't wait ! don't drink ! don't strike ! don't put ! Msilete ! Msingoje ! Msinywe ! Msipige ! Msiweke ! don't bring ! don't wait ! don't drink ! don't strike ! don't put ! EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Put these verbs in the Direct Imperative : Kusikia. kujaribu. kufanya. kufikiri.

Chapter 04 http://mwanasimba. Msifuate ! Msibaki ! Msirudi ! Msifikiri ! Msianguke ! Msifungue ! Msiketi ! Msione ! Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 3:31 PM . Njooni ! Fanyeni ! Jaribuni ! Sameheni ! Leteni ! Fuateni ! Tafuteni ! Nendeni ! c.htm EXERCISE 5 : Translate into English : Usijibu ! Usisome ! Usiende ! Usinywe ! Usiseme ! Usiangalie ! Usiwe ! Usikae ! e. Upike ! Usafishe ! Mfungue ! Mjaribu ! Ujue ! Uweke ! Mfaulu ! Ule ! d. Njoo ! Nenda ! Fuata ! Fanya ! Piga ! Lete ! Rudi ! Jaribu !

The 7 "gender" is made of substantivated verbs and has no plural.The Nominal Classes In swahili. In order to rationalize the study of the nominal classes. th th 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:32 PM . Swahili includes 13 nominal classes.Chapter 05 http://mwanasimba. verbs... The 6 "gender" doesn't possess any specific plural but borrows its plurals from the other classes. demonstratives. in the sentence. but in nominal classes. pronouns. that is to say the first syllable of the noun. The different nominal classes are recognized and definable by their prefixes. these can be grouped into 7 "genders" (or categories) that each include 2 classes : one class for the singular and another class for the plural. plus three extra classes called the locative classes. as in any other Bantu languages. possessives. and neither does it distinguish between masculine or feminine for names of people. Swahili doesn't differentiate between definite or indefinite nouns. which will cause in turn a series of agreements through prefixes (and infixes) on the Chapter 5 .fr/E_Chap05. These 7 "genders" loosely correspond to more or less extended semantic categories. substantives are not divided into genders of the masculine / feminine / neutral types. etc.

A single noun. diminutives.htm Summarized table of the 13 nominal classes in Swahili.or JIMAKI-. etc. Singular abstract nouns (Cl. Names of trees. + 2 names of animals. 14)..Chapter 05 http://mwanasimba. CHVI-. Substantivated verbs. Locatives Cl. parts of the human etc. human activities. WØ. natural elements. Everyday objects. nouns of Arabic origin. KWPA-. persons.or NØ. No object.. nouns of foreign origin. 18 NOMINAL PREFIXES M-. 16. 11. Names of fruits. 2 of 3 4/4/09 3:32 PM . MWWA-. MWMI-.or NU-. 11). and the 3 locative classes : GENDERS / CLASSES M-/WACl 1 Singular Cl 2 Plural M-/MICl 3 Singular Cl 4 Plural JI-/MACl 5 Singular Cl 6 Plural KI-/VICl 7 Singular Cl 8 Plural NCl 9 Singular Cl 10 Plural UCl. 15 Cl. parts of the human body.or NKU-. augmentatives. animals. Nouns of objects (Cl. 17. They are present in class agreements. MØ. grouped into 7 genders. persons. VYØ. everyday life objects.. 14 Cl 10 Plural KUCl. uncountables. M- EXAMPLES (person) MTU WATU (tree) MTI MITI (fruit) TUNDA MATUNDA (chair) KITI VITI (cloth) NGUO NGUO (face) USO NYUSO (reading) KUSOMA (place) MAHALI SEMANTIC CATEGORIES Names of human beings exclusively. animals. persons. Abstract and concrete things. languages. nature. plants. WM-.

a wife. wives a Christian. guests a patient. SOME NOUNS OF THE M-/WA. children 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:33 PM . the people MWALIMU = a teacher.Chapter 06 http://mwanasimba. patients an Indian.The M-/WA.Gender The M-/WA. plus two generic nouns of animals. young girls a child.htm Chapter 6 . farmers an animal. cooks a young girl. There is no article in front of the noun. animals a cook. that distinguishes the singular from the plural.: The plural prefix MW. the first syllable of the noun. the teacher WALIMU = teachers. a foreigner.e.gender (Classes 1 / 2) contains nouns of persons Germans an uncle (maternal). the person WATU = people. which can either be definite or indefinite : Cl 1 (Singular) : Cl 2 (Plural) : In front of a vowel. prefix Mprefix WAthe singular prefix M.: MTU = a person.becomes W. Christians a farmer.GENDER : SINGULAR Mdudu Mfaransa Mgeni Mgonjwa Mhindi Mjerumani Mjomba Mke Mkristo Mkulima Mnyama Mpishi Msichana Mtoto PLURAL Wadudu Wafaransa Wageni Wagonjwa Wahindi Wajerumani Wajomba Wake Wakristo Wakulima Wanyama Wapishi Wasichana Watoto TRANSLATION an insect. i. uncles a spouse. the French a guest. It's the class prefix. Indians a German. the teachers 1. insects a French.

the English a Muslim. thieves an old man. the KI-/VI. mum grand-mother friend aunt (paternal) TRANSLATION Nyanya Rafiki Shangazi 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:33 PM .htm Mtu Mume Mvulana Mwafrika Mwalimu Mwana Mwanadamu Mwanafunzi Mwanamke Mwanaume Mwarabu Mwingereza Mwislamu Mwitalia Mwizi Mzee Mzungu Watu Waume Wavulana Waafrika Walimu Wana Wanadamu Wanafunzi Wanawake Wanaume Waarabu Waingereza Waislamu Waitalia Wezi (a+i = e) Wazee Wazungu a person. teachers a child. men an Arab. a son.gender (Cl 7 / 8) and the JI-/MA.gender (Cl 9 / Cl 10). Nouns of the N. Muslims an Italian.gender (Cl 5 / 6).online. Yet. white men 2. children a human being. it is not all inclusive. young men an African. dad grand-father sister brother mother. a pupil. husbands a young man. Africans a teacher. (child of Adam) a student. adjectives.gender exclusively contains nouns of people. Arabs an English. a certain number of nouns refering to people can be found in other genders : mainly in the N. etc. people a husband. students a woman. a daughter. OTHER NOUNS OF PEOPLE : Although the M-/ 06 http://mwanasimba. women a man. Thus.GENDER (Cl 9 / Cl 10) SINGULAR Baba Babu Dada Kaka Mama Nyanya Rafiki Shangazi Baba Babu Dada Kaka Mama PLURAL father. Italians a thief. that agree with them must take Class 1/2 prefix agreements. the verbs. old men a white man.

big / small / pretty / bad / nice / . Possessive adjectives : Class 1 : Mtoto = wangu / wako / wake / wetu / wenu / wao my / your / his ... children child 2. gentlemen 3.her / our / your / their children child Class 2 : Watoto = 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:33 PM . youths TRANSLATION a day laborer.her / our / your / their wangu / wako / wake / wetu / wenu / wao my / your / his . drivers TRANSLATION Sir. CLASS AGREEMENTS : 1.) Class 1 : Class 2 : Mtoto a Watoto mkubwa / mdogo / mzuri / mbaya / mwema / .online.. blind men a deaf person. wakubwa / wadogo / wazuri / wabaya / wema / . laborers a blind man... ladies a driver.htm Nouns of the KI-/VI..GENDER (Classes 7 / 8) : SINGULAR Kibarua Kijana Kipofu Kiziwi Vijana Vipofu Viziwi PLURAL Vibarua a Adjectives : the adjective takes prefixes of class agreements identical to those of the noun : (See : Chapter 11. deaf persons Nouns of the JI-/MA.. big / small / pretty / bad / nice / . master.GENDER (Classes 5 / 6) : SINGULAR Bwana Bibi Dereva Mabibi PLURAL Mabwana Madereva Madam..Chapter 06 http://mwanasimba.

to come in Ku-lia Ku-lima Ku-pita Ku-ruka Ku-toka Ku-vunja to cry to cultivate to pass to jump. wanafunzi. Germans. mtoto. children (sons / daughters). a woman. kibarua. mama. mvulana. a man. a white man. people. mnyama. Play ! Sweep ! Work ! Come in ! Leave ! Draw ! Cultivate ! Jump ! Leave (Plur) ! Work (Plur) ! b. a cook. a French. a Muslim. Wakulima. mwanadamu. a teacher. husbands. farmers. vijana. wazee. kipofu. animals. kaka. wezi. mfaransa. kaka. French people. wives. EXERCISE 3 : Put the nouns in the plural : 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:33 PM . a young girl. a child. walimu. a wife. b. dada. d. mabibi. waarabu. rafiki. baba. wapishi. A guest. dada. Human beings. mabwana. a thief. young men. mkristo. wanawake. an old EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. to come from to break Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. Indians. children. wageni. a husband. mwafrika. to fly to leave. watu. waitalia. wagonjwa. Don't write ! Don't play ! Don't break ! Don't cry ! Don't pass ! Don't write (Plur) ! Don't come in (Plur) ! Don't jump (Plur) ! Don't play (Plur) ! Don't leave (Plur) ! c. Africans. an English. mdudu. mjomba. wanaume. msichana.htm VOCABULARY Ku-andika Ku-cheza Ku-chora Ku-fagia Ku-fanya kazi Ku-ingia to write to play to draw to sweep to work to enter. uncles.Chapter 06 http://mwanasimba. shangazi. mwislamu. pupils. mzungu. Mtu.

In the 3rd person singular (he / she / it) and the 3rd person plural (they).gender.or M- Equivalent =I = you = he. as for the nouns of the M-/WA. whatever the class it belongs to. KU. but complementarity : the subject prefix is there.Chapter 07 http://mwanasimba.Gender (Cl 9 / 10) U.htm Chapter 7 . the subject pronouns have the particularity of being always affixed to the verb as prefixes.gender (Classes 1 / 2) comprises subject prefixes for the 1st and 2nd persons singular and the 1st and 2nd persons plural. she = it = he / she / it = he / she / it = he / she / it = it = it = it PLURAL TUMWAIYAVIZI- Equivalent = we = you = they = they = they = they = they Only the M-/WA.The Subject Pronouns In Swahili. EXAMPLES : Anafika Mama anafika He / she arrives Mom (she) arrives (Class 1) (Class 9 -> 1) 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:34 PM . there is no substitution between the subject noun and the subject prefix.Gender (Cl 3 / 4) JI-/ (Cl 5 / 6) KI-/VI.Gender (Cl 1 / 2) 3° M-/MI.Gender (Cl 7 / 8) N. AFFIRMATIVE SUBJECT PREFIXES : GENDERS / Classes 1° 2° M-/WA. even when the subject noun is already expressed in the sentence. However. In the 3rd person singular and plural.Gender (Cl 11 / 14) KU. the choice of the subject prefix depends on the nominal class to which the corresponding subject noun belongs.Gender (Cl 15) LOCATIVE CLASSES SINGULAR NIUAULIKIIUKUPA-. when the subject noun represents a person. we will use a subject prefix of Class 1 in the singular and Class 2 in the plural.

HAKUor HAM- Equivalent = I don't = you don't = he / she doesn't = it doesn't = he / she / it doesn't = he / she / it doesn't = he / she / it doesn't = it doesn't = it doesn't = it doesn't PLURAL HATUHAMHAWAHAIHAYAHAVIHAZI- Equivalent = we don't = you don't = they don't = they don't = they don't = they don't = they don't EXAMPLES : Sijui Hajui Hamadi hajui Hawafanyi kazi I don't know He / she doesn't know Hamadi (he) doesn't know They don't work (Class 1) (Class 1) (Class 1) (Class 2) 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:34 PM .online.Gender (Cl 15) LOCATIVE CLASSES SINGULAR SIHUHAHAUHALIHAKIHAIHAUHAKUHAPA-.Gender (Cl 5 / 6) KI-/VI.Gender (Cl 1 /2 ) 3° M-/MI.instead of HAU-).Chapter 07 http://mwanasimba.Gender (Cl 9 / 10) U. Thus : GENDERS / Classes 1° 2° M-/WA.Gender (Cl 7 / 8) N. except in the 1st person singular (SI-) and the 2nd person singular (HU.htm Wamelala Watoto wamelala Amekufa Mgonjwa amekufa Mbwa amekufa Inafaa Nguo inafaa Zinafaa Nguo zinafaa Linakwenda Basi linakwenda They sleep The children (they) sleep He / she died The patient (he) died The dog (it) died It fits The cloth (it) fits They fit The clothes fit It leaves The bus (it) leaves (Class 2) (Class 2) (Class 1) (Class 1) (Class 9 -> 1) (Class 9) (Class 9) (Class 10) (Class 10) (Class 5) (Class 5) 2. NEGATIVE SUBJECT PREFIXES : Those result from the combination of the negative pre-prefix HA.Gender (Cl 3 / 4) JI-/MA.and the subject prefix.Gender (Cl 11 / 14)

In all cases. her = we. it is more frequently used in the plural than in the 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:34 PM . For example : Mimi si mjinga Yeye si mkulima = I'm not an idiot = He is not a farmer 4. the personal pronoun is essential to mark the person. me = you = he. him. I don't speak Swahili On the other hand. Because of its meaning. or accompany a noun. A PARTICULAR PRONOUN : "-OTE" : -OTE which means : "all" can be used as an independant pronoun. us = you (Plur) = they. THE AUTONOMOUS PERSONAL PRONOUNS : MIMI WEWE YEYE SISI NINYI WAO = I. Thus : Yeye anakwenda Dodoma Mimi sisemi kiswahili = Him. without replacing it. since the verb is identical for all the persons : Mimi ni mwalimu Wewe ni mfarantsa Yeye ni mkenya Sisi ni wanafunzi Ninyi ni wageni Wao ni watanzania = I am a teacher = You are French = He is Kenyan = We are pupils = You are the guests = They are Tanzanians It will be the same in the negative 07 the autonomous personal pronoun reinforces the suject prefix. it agrees in class with the name to which it refers. by replacing NI with SI. she. he goes to Dodoma = Me. with the verb KUWA (= to be) in the present tense. them With ordinary verbs.htm Vibarua hawafanyi kazi Hawasomi Wanafunzi hawasomi Hakuna kazi Hamna shida The day laborers (they) don't work They don't study The students (they) don't study There is no work There is no problem (Class 8 -> 2) (Class 2) (Class 2) (Locative Class) (Locative Class) 3.

masons a liar. Zanzibarians 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:34 PM .(Cl 5 .(Cl 3 . Greeks an idiot. idiots a Kenyan.(Cl 11.htm singular.(Cl 1 .(Cl 7 .online. For example : Sisi sote Ninyi nyote Sote wawili Nyote wawili (Vitabu) vyote viwili (Miti) yote mitatu Us all / All of us You all / All of you Us two / Both of us You two / Both of you Both (books) All three (trees) VOCABULARY Mfanyakazi (wa-) Mgiriki (wa-) Mjinga (wa-) Mkenya (wa-) Mlevi (wa-) a worker.Chapter 07 http://mwanasimba.8) N(Cl 9 . travellers a EXAMPLES : Mwili wote waniuma Lete visu vyote Chakula chote kimeharibika Watu wote wamefika All the body hurts me Bring all the knives All the food is damaged Everybody has arrived We can also associate -OTE with personal pronouns or with numbers.2) M-/MI. workers a Greek. liars a Zanzibarian.10) SINGULAR PLURAL WOTE WOTE LOTE CHOTE YOTE WOTE YOTE YOTE VYOTE ZOTE ZOTE U. drunkards Msafiri (wa-) Mtanzania (wa-) Mwashi (wa-) Mwongo (wa-) Mzanzibari (wa-) a traveller. Tanzanians a mason.6) KI-/VI. GENDERS / Classes M-/WA. Kenyans a drunkard.4) JI-/MA. 14 .

they lose the infinitive prefix KU. The termination of the verb does not change. THE NEGATIVE FORM : There is not tense marker on the negative present definite. Sing.) WA-NA-FANYA -> ninafanya -> unafanya -> anafanya -> tunafanya -> mnafanya -> wanafanya I am making you are making he / she is making we are making you are making they are making NOTE : Monosyllabic verbs keep the infinitive prefix On the other hand.but take the termination -I.The Present Definite Tense The present definite tense in Swahili is primarily used to describe actions which take place at the time when one speaks. As for monosyllabic verbs. Plur. It is anchored in the present moment and has the same value as the PRESENT CONTINUOUS in English. to do NI-NA-FANYA U-NA-FANYA (Classe 1. verbs of Arabic origin keep their final vowel without taking KUJA (= to come) KWENDA (= to go) NI-NA-KU-JA A-NA-KW-ENDA -> ninakuja -> anakwenda I am coming he / she is going 2. 1.which is placed between the affirmative subject prefix and the verb radical. THE AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The tense marker of the present definite is the infix -NA.Chapter 08 http://mwanasimba. A negative subject prefix is directly followed by the verb radical.) A-NA-FANYA TU-NA-FANYA M-NA-FANYA (Classe 2. 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:35 PM .htm Chapter 8 . SUBJECT PREFIX + NA + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. In case of a Bantu verb. its termination -A changes into -I.

online. to do SI-FANY-I (HA+U) : HU-FANY-I (HA+A) : HA-FANY-I HA-TU-FANY-I HA-M-FANY-I HA-WA-FANY-I -> sifanyi -> hufanyi -> hafanyi -> hatufanyi -> hamfanyi -> hawafanyi I am not making you are not making he / she is not making we are not making you are not making they are not making MODEL 2 (Verb of Arabic origin) : KUJIBU = to answer SI-JIBU (HA+U) : HU-JIBU (HA+A) : HA-JIBU HA-TU-JIBU HA-M-JIBU HA-WA-JIBU -> sijibu -> hujibu -> hajibu -> hatujibu -> hamjibu -> hawajibu I am not answering you are not answering he / she is not answering we are not answering you are not answering they are not answering MODEL 3 (Monosyllabic verbs) : KUJA = to come SI-J-I (HA+U) : HU-J-I (HA+A) : HA-J-I HA-TU-J-I HA-M-J-I HA-WA-J-I -> siji -> huji -> haji -> hatuji -> hamji -> hawaji I am not coming you are not coming he / she is not coming we are not coming you are not coming they are not coming 3.htm NEGATIVE SUBJECT PREFIX + VERB RADICAL + I MODEL 1 (Verb of Bantu origin) : KUFANYA = to SOME SENTENCES IN THE PRESENT DEFINITE : Mama anapika Rafiki wanakuja leo Watoto wanacheza mpira Mother is cooking The friends are coming today The children are playing ball 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:35 PM .Chapter 08 http://mwanasimba.

Anafika. the teacher is working. the women are cleaning. tunasafisha. wanapiga. you are cleaning. she is not working. tunafurahi. The child is playing. we are not trying. the pupils are coming in. you don't drink. we are working. he is not she is sweeping. the drunkard is drinking. mnapika. I am not travelling. we are not going. they are leaving. you are reading (Plur). EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. you don't come. they are not cooking. it doesn't fit. the little child is crying. the masons are working. c. wanajaribu. we are playing. he doesn't stay. with but now each. I'm going out. you are waiting (Plur). I'm not I love. tunangoja. the father is working. you are breaking. my children are reading.Chapter 08 http://mwanasimba. every au Leo Tena Sana or today again very. my parents are travelling. he is jumping. the youths are coming back. unakaa. I'm writing. they are drawing. I don't know. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:35 PM . he doesn't sleep. she is crying. the friends are coming back. you don't hear. anabaki. you don't answer. ninanunua. the men are eating. the fisherman is coming back. the driver is waiting. a lot EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. inafaa. mnasafiri. ninabadili. you are cultivating (Plur). b.htm Unapenda mpira ya miguu ? Ninapenda mpira sana Hawaji leo Hatufanyi kazi Do you like football ? I like football a lot They are not coming today We are not working VOCABULARY Na Lakini Sasa Kila and. anafuata. unakuja.

Unasema kiswahili. hatuingii. Mtoto anapenda kucheza sana. hamwendi. Sijui kiswahili sana. Baba na mama wanasafiri leo. harudi. hawali. Mwanafunzi anajaribu kusoma. 7. 10. Lakini husemi kiingereza. Wewe ni mtanzania. 6. sifikiri. hasikii. hujui. sisemi. 9. Vibarua hawafanyi kazi leo. hasafiri.Chapter 08 http://mwanasimba. hawafanyi. 3. hujibu. 8.htm b. hatufaulu. hawanyi. Jaribu kusema kiswahili ! Mimi ni mwingereza. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:35 PM . EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. Wazazi wangu wanakaa Zanzibar. husomi. 2. 4.

a water tap. The only way to solve the problem is to know that noun : if it represents a person. a M-/MI.Gender The M-/MI.: MTI = a tree. games TRANSLATION a baobab tree.gender. its plural is in WA-. Cl 3 (Singular) : Cl 4 (Plural) : In front of a..becomes MW. 1. the body In the singular. e. pockets a banana tree.GENDER (Classes 3 / 4 ) : SINGULAR Mbuyu Mchele Mchezo Mchungwa Mdomo Mfano Mfereji Mfuko Mgomba PLURAL mibuyu michele michezo michungwa midomo mifano mifereji mifuko migomba husked rice a game. orange trees a lip..gender (Classes 3 / 4) is not as specific as the M-/WA. whereas if it is not a person. ditches a pocket. examples a ditch. a mouth. i NOTE : prefix Mprefix MIthe singular prefix M. nothing distinguishes a noun belonging to the M-/MI. the trees MWILI = a the tree MITI = trees. But it doesn't contain any nouns of human beings. lips an example. objects.Chapter 09 http://mwanasimba. baobab trees an orange tree.gender from a noun of the M-/WA.htm Chapter 9 . a beak. SOME NOUNS OF THE M-/MI.. etc. elements of nature. therefore the question is to guess whether its plural should either be in WA.gender. its plural is in MI-. parts of the human body.or in MI-. It includes primarily nouns of trees. banana trees 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:36 PM .

coconut trees a smoke. doors a mountain. many nouns refering to natural elements. a a tower. a pillow. mango trees a month. to parts of the human body. the ends Particular cases : Singular prefix Mu. years an umbrella. umbrellas a mango tree. exams a river. mosques a forest. breads a hand. wages a mosque. an arm. a hill. trees an exam. forests a toothbrush.Chapter 09 http://mwanasimba. mountains a minaret. fires a heart. a pipe. feet a thorns a body. a load. and to plants. rivers a luggage. months a thorn. towns a bread. are not included in this gender.: Mwaka Mwavuli Mwembe Mwezi Mwiba Mwili Mwisho miaka miavuli miembe miezi miiba miili miisho a year. toothbrushes a tree. smokes a fire. 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:36 PM .: Muhindi Muhogo Muwa mihindi mihogo miwa corn. loads The radical starts with a vowel : Singular prefix Mw. hearts a ball. minarets a coconut tree. a leg. hands a door. maize cassava sugar cane However.htm Mguu Mji Mkate Mkono Mlango Mlima Mnara Mnazi Moshi Moto Moyo Mpira Mshahara Msikiti Msitu Mswaki Mti Mtihani Mto Mzigo miguu miji mikate mikono milango milima minara minazi mioshi mioto mioyo mipira mishahara misikiti misitu miswaki miti mitihani mito mizigo a foot. bodies the end. balls a salary. a thorn-bush.

big / small / beautiful / high / dark / .UMASIKINI .POVERTY . big / small / beautiful / high / dark / .her ....... mikubwa / midogo / mizuri / mirefu / myeusi / . Adjective : The adjective takes prefixes of class agreements identical to those of the noun : (See : Chapter 11 Concordant MARADHI ..its / our / your / their trees tree Class 4 : Miti = Abiria chunga MZIGO YAKO. trees tree 2.htm 2. CLASS AGREEMENTS : 1.her .. DISEASE .Chapter 09 http://mwanasimba.IDIOCY HUNGER EXERCISES 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:36 PM .) Class 3 : Class 4 : Mti a Miti mkubwa / mdogo / mzuri / mrefu / mweusi / . Possessive adjectives : Class 3 : Mti = wangu / wako / wake / wetu / wenu / wao my / your / his .UJINGA NJAA Traveller look after YOUR LUGGAGE..its / our / your / their yangu / yako / yake / yetu / yenu / yao my / your / his .

hearts. Nenda ununue mkate na mchele. a mango tree. umbrellas. the hands. Wanafunzi wanaandika mitihani yao. a forest. sugar cane. Mnalima muhindi au muhogo ? Vibarua wanapata mishahara yao leo. 3. balls. coconut trees. 9. milima. miguu. games. muwa. mibuyu. corn. mchezo.Chapter 09 http://mwanasimba. Breads. msikiti. exams. mchele. Mikono. the smoke. Baba anafunga months. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:36 PM . miti. years. 4. the doors. bags. a banana tree. mtihani. an orange tree. b. Mkulima analima michungwa na migomba. b.htm EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. mwembe. tooth-brushes. mifereji. Cheza mpira ! Angalia mtoto mdogo ! Faulu mtihani ! Chora moyo ! Lima muhindi ! Funga mlango ! Usifungue mlango ! Angalia miiba ! Nunua mkate ! Usile mkate ! EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. a thorn-bush. a fire. 5. mnazi. 2. a coconut tree. mizigo. minara. Watoto wanapenda kucheza mpira. a mountain. 10. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. a baobab wages. Kipofu hawezi kuona mfereji. midomo. cassava. Mtoto mdogo anapenda kula muwa. 7. mito. mchungwa. a tree. Watoto wanaangalia moto. 8. towns. A river. mifuko. miavuli. 6.

SUBJECT PREFIX + A + VERB RADICAL MODEL 1 : KUSOMA = to read NI-A-SOMA U-A-SOMA A-A-SOMA TU-A-SOMA MU-A-SOMA WA-A-SOMA -> nasoma -> wasoma -> asoma -> twasoma -> mwasoma -> wasoma I read you read he / she reads we read you read they read MODEL 2 : KUJA = to come NI-A-JA U-A-JA A-A-JA TU-A-JA MU-A-JA WA-A-JA -> naja -> waja -> aja -> twaja -> mwaja -> waja I come you come he / she comes we come you come they come 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:37 PM . Monosyllabic verbs lose the infinitive prefix KU. or to state "scientific" 10 http://mwanasimba.which is inserted between the affirmative subject prefix and the verb radical. THE AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The tense marker of the Present Indefinite is the infix the Present Indefinite. This tense is equivalent to the SIMPLE PRESENT in that are not necessarily connected to the present time. 1.The Present Indefinite Tense This tense is used to describe usual or permanent actions.htm Chapter 10 . unlike in the Present Definite.

Chapter 10


The verb KUWA (= to be) does not conjugate in the Present Indefinite. It has only one present tense form : NI. (See : Chapter 7 and Chapter 17 - The Verb KUWA .)


The Present Indefinite Tense has no specific negative conjugation : we use the negative form of the Present Definite. (See : Chapter 8 - The Present Definite Tense)


Wafanya kazi gani ? Nafundisha kifarantsa Mama apika kila siku Wanadamu walala usiku Ng'ombe wala majani Wanyama waogopa moto Sisi ni watanzania Kipofu haoni kitu Mgonjwa hali, hanywi, alala tu Sijui kiswahili

What work do you do ? I teach French Mother cooks everyday Human beings sleep at night Cows eat grass Animals are afraid of the fire We are Tanzanians The blind man doesn't see anything The patient doesn't eat, doesn't drink, he sleeps only I don't know Swahili


Ku-chafua Ku-ficha Ku-fua nguo Ku-ogopa Ku-omba Ku-panda

to dirty to hide to wash the linen to be afraid to ask, to beg to go up, to climb

Ku-piga pasi Ku-shona Ku-tazama Ku-tia Ku-toa Ku-uliza

to iron to sew to stare to put to remove to ask a question

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Chapter 10

Cross Word Puzzle


EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili, using the Present Indefinite : a. I learn, you sew, she sweeps, she cooks, they wash the linen, they cultivate, he removes, you listen (Plur), they agree, he buys, they sell, they play, she sleeps, we exchange, we are afraid. b. I don't read, I don't take, he doesn't make, he doesn't stop, he doesn't leave, I don't speak, they don't play, they don't ask, you don't sweep, I don't iron, they don't listen, he doesn't agree, they are not afraid, they don't climb, you don't cultivate (Plur). c. The old man doesn't work, the fishermen do not cultivate, he doesn't cultivate cassava, the youths do not agree, the cow eats grass, the women wash the linen, you are afraid of the fire (Plur), the men cut the trees, you cultivate maize (plur), the child doesn't like to wash the linen, mother likes sewing, the blind man begs for bread.

EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Wafanya kazi gani ? Mimi ni mwalimu. Sisi ni wanafunzi watanzania. Ng'ombe wapenda kula majani. Dada afagia kila asubuhi. Vijana wacheza mpira kila jioni. Kibarua apata mshahara wake kila siku. Mtoto mdogo hapendi muhogo. Nanunua mkate kila siku. Wawe waogopa mwalimu wako.

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Concordant Adjectives

"True" adjectives are relatively few in Swahili, but it will be seen later that there are several ways of making adjectival concept words. (See : Chapter 44.) In Swahili, unlike in English, the adjective is always placed AFTER the noun it qualifies. We distinguish two main categories of adjectives : 1. Those which take a class prefix to agree with the noun they qualify. 2. Those which remain invariable : they are in their majority loanwords from Arabic. We will devote this first chapter to the study of the adjectives which agree : the concordant adjectives. The adjectives are usually introduced without any prefix in the lists of vocabulary. It is therefore advisable to be able to recognize them from their roots. The agreement prefixes of the adjectives are identical to the class prefixes of the nouns with which they agree. However, a few modifications of a phonetic nature can be observed, especially with the adjectives whose root starts with a vowel. Therefore, for more transparency, we propose to divide our study of the concordant adjectives into two sub-categories : the adjectives whose root starts with a consonant and those whose root starts with a vowel.

-baya -bichi -bivu -bovu -chache -chafu -chungu -dogo -fupi -geni -gumu -janja -kali -kavu -ke bad raw, green, unripe ripe rotten a few, some dirty bitter small, little short strange, foreign hard cunning, crafty severe, sharp, cruel dry female


-kuu -kuukuu -nene -nono -pana -pya -refu -shupavu -tamu -tupu -vivu -wivu -zee -zima -zito

chief, main used, old fat big, fat (animal) large new long, high brave, firm delicious, sweet empty, naked lazy jealous old whole, adult heavy

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Chapter 11

-korofi -kubwa

savage, brutal big


pretty, beautiful

The prefix agreements for the M-/WA- gender (Classes 1 / 2), the M-/MI- gender (Classes 3 / 4) and the KI-/VIgender (Classes 7 / 8) are strictly identical to those of the nouns. For the JI-/MA- gender (Classes 5 / 6), only the adjective -PYA takes the prefix JI- in the singular, which makes : JIPYA. The other adjectives do not take any prefix in the singular. They all take the prefix MA- in the plural. It is only with the N- gender (Classes 9 / 10), that matters get a little more tricky : 1. The adjective takes the prefix N- if the adjectival root starts with D, G ou Z :




(= small, little) (= hard) (= beautiful, nice)

2. The adjective takes the prefix M- if the adjectival root starts with B, P ou V :




(= bad) (= new) (= lazy)

3. The adjectives whose roots start with other consonants do not take any prefix, except for -REFU which makes : NDEFU (= long, high). SOME EXAMPLES : Mtoto mdogo Watoto wadogo Mti mrefu Miti mirefu Tunda jipya Matunda mapya Chakula kibaya Vyakula vibaya Nguo fupi Nguo fupi Uso mzuri Nyuso nzuri Kusoma kuzuri a little child little children a high tree high trees a new fruit new fruits a bad food bad foods a short cloth short clothes a beautiful face beautiful faces studying is good (Class 1) (Class 2) (Class 3) (Class 4) (Class 5) (Class 6) (Class 7) (Class 8) (Class 9) (Class 10) (U- Gender, Sing, Adj Cl 3) (U- Gender, Plur, Adj Cl 10) (KU- Gender)

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Gender : SINGULAR (Class 3) M(u) + E M(u) + I -> MWE -> MWI Ex : Mti mweusi Ex : Mkate mwingine A dark tree Another bread PLURAL (Class 4) MI + E MI + I -> MYE -> MI Ex : Miti myeusi Ex : Mikate mingine Dark trees Other breads 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:38 PM . a lot another bad male The presence of a vowel at the beginning of the adjectival root leads to modifications of a phonetic nature. many. clear black. ADJECTIVES STARTING WITH A VOWEL : -aminifu -angavu -ekundu -ema -embamba -epesi -erevu -eupe -eusi -ingi -ingine -ovu -ume honest. dark much. The M-/MI.Chapter 11 http://mwanasimba.htm 2. nice thin : SINGULAR (Class 1) M(u) + A M(u) + E M(u) + I -> MWA -> MWE -> MWI Ex : Mtu mwaminifu Ex : Mtoto mwema Ex : Mtoto mwingine An honest person A nice child Another child PLURAL (Class 2) WA + A WA + E WA + I -> WA -> WE -> WE Ex : Watu waminifu Ex : Watoto wema Ex : Watoto wengine Honest people Nice children Other children 2. gender after gender : 1. The M-/WA. faithful bright red good. easy malignant. Let's examine those changes. cunning white.

Gender : SINGULAR (Class 9) N+E N+I -> NYE -> NYI Ex : Nguo nyeupe Ex : Nguo Nyingine A white cloth Another cloth PLURAL (Class 10) N+E N+I -> NYE -> NYI Ex : Nguo nyeupe Ex : Nguo Nyingine White clothes Other clothes EXCEPTION : N + EMA -> NJEMA (= good) Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:38 PM .Gender : SINGULAR (Class 7) KI + E KI + I -> CHE -> KI Ex : Kiti cheusi Ex : Chakula kingi A black chair A lot of food PLURAL (Class 8) VI + E VI + I -> VY -> VI Ex : Viti vyeusi Ex : Vyakula vingine Black chairs Other foods 5.Chapter 11 http://mwanasimba. The N.Gender : SINGULAR (Class 5) JI + E JI + I -> JE -> JI Ex : Jua jekundu Ex : Jua jingi A red sun A lot of sun PLURAL (Class 6) MA + E MA + I -> ME -> ME Ex : Mabasi mekundu Ex : Mabasi mengine Red buses Other buses EXCEPTION : JI + INGINE -> LENGINE (= another) 4.htm The KI-/VI. The JI-/

nguo nyekundu. a white smoke. gari bovu. white. a few people. nyekundu. kiti kidogo. a lazy young man. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:38 PM . mlango mkuu.Chapter 11 http://mwanasimba. short. chepesi. mti mrefu. mbichi. nguo mpya. main. chakula kitamu. lazy. wamasai wakubwa. black. mkono mchafu. an honest child. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. mgonjwa mwingine. beautiful maize. wanafunzi wengi. mnyama mnono. mikono mipana. mwangavu. tupu. wazungu wageni. a jealous woman. sweet sugar cane. mji mkuu. msitu mweusi. light.htm EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. fat. mzee. a red fire. jipya. nguo fupi. mto mpana. dirty hands. moyo mzito. raw. nzuri. hard. bitter. makubwa. EXERCISE 3 : Put the following phrases in the plural : Gari jipya. heavy. watu wazima. sweet. a thin body. nzito. kavu. malignant. mkate mwingi. wanyama wakali. mshahara mdogo. mji mkubwa. mtoto mbaya. b. Big. a nice young girl. kigumu. b. mtu mweusi. long legs. waminifu. uso mwema. mvivu. mvulana mvivu. a black umbrella. bad. new. a severe teacher. adult people. Mtoto mvivu. mfuko mtupu. red. mwizi mwovu. lengine. a high mountain. mtu mzima. a whole month. A cunning man. kitu kingine. kidogo. chakula kichache. mpira mdogo. mwanamke mkali. magari machache. mkali. machafu. small. muhindi mbichi. njema. a difficult exam. good. a good heart. miguu mifupi.

Chapter 12 http://mwanasimba. easy official clean correct equal. Like the concordant adjectives. little weak alive pure. they are always placed AFTER the noun. clever strong complete. smooth special ADJECTIVE manjano maskini muhimu ovyo rahisi rasmi safi sahihi sawa shwari tajiri tayari tele wazi yellow poor TRANSLATION important bad. THE MOST COMMON INVARIABLE ADJECTIVES : ADJECTIVE bora bure ghali haba hafifu hai halali haramu hodari imara kamili kijani kweli laini maalum TRANSLATION excellent. and tajiri (ma-) = rich. a rich person. obvious 2.Invariable Adjectives Most of the invariable adjectives are borrowed from the valueless cheap. free expensive few. same calm rich ready plenty open. For example : maskini = SOME EXAMPLES : Bwana tajiri Mtoto maskini Kazi bure / ovyo Safari rasmi Wanafunzi hodari Mambo muhimu Chakula ni haba A rich man A poor child A useless / slapdash piece of work An official journey Clever pupils Important matters There is little food 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:39 PM . legitimate forbidden brave. a poor. better useless. exact green true soft. A few of them can be both noun and adjective.htm Chapter 12 . intelligent. 1.

is clean more than yours) Abdallah ni hodari kushinda Omari Abdallah is more intelligent than Omari (. KUPITA (= to overtake). All these different expressions are equivalent and interchangeable..Safi sana ! Habari za kazi ? . to dream to forget 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:39 PM to knock Ku-nuka Ku-nukia Ku-ota Ku-sahau to smell bad to smell good to grow.It's O. EXAMPLES : Ali ni mrefu kuliko Juma Ali is taller than Juma (Ali is tall more than Juma) Nguo yangu ni safi kupita yako My cloth is cleaner than yours (.Shwari ! There is plenty of food The food (is) ready The door is open Everything is equal / fine How are you ? .Very fine ! What about your work ? . or alternatively KUZIDI (= to increase).Chapter 12 http://mwanasimba. ! 3... to begin to wipe to hit.. is intelligent more than Omari) Zanzibar ni mji mzuri kuzidi Dar es Salaam Zanzibar is a more beautiful town than Dar es Salaam (. is a town beautiful more than Dar es Salaam) SAYING : Damu nzito kuliko maji VOCABULARY Ku-amka Ku-anza Ku-futa Ku-gonga to wake up to start.htm Chakula ni tele Chakula tayari Mlango ni wazi Kila kitu sawa Habari gani ? . THE COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY : To translate "more than" we use in Swahili the expression KULIKO (= where there is). or KUSHINDA (= to defeat).

5. clean clothes. 7. kijani. Hawezi kulipa. 13. an important Ku-hitaji Ku-lipa to need to pay Ku-tosha Ku-vaa to be sufficient to wear Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : A poor child. 8. Mizigo yako (ni) tayari. complete matters. Amina ni msichana mwema kuliko Fatuma. Kipofu mzee anaomba mkate. an official journey. bora. bure. wazi. 3. an expensive car. Anavaa nguo safi. sawa. haba. Mwalimu anaanza safari rasmi. Chakula ni haba. a clean river. a clever pupil. Tunahitaji mikate mengine. hafifu. tayari. Usifanye kazi bure ! Hamisi ni mwanafunzi hodari. rasmi. cheap bread. 4. 11.Chapter 12 http://mwanasimba.Shwari ! 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:39 PM . important matters. an open door. 12. haramu. manjano. a weak patient. a ready luggage. an easy job. forbidden food. 14. halali. tajiri. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. Hakitoshi. Habari za kazi ? . laini. 6. maskini. plenty of food. better food. 9. Yeye ni maskini. ovyo. rich travellers. hodari. kweli. forbidden games. 10. imara. 2. Mkate wako ni bora kuliko wangu. muhimu. 15. a useless piece of work. ghali. Chakula (ni) tayari. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : Shwari. Nairobi ni mji mkubwa kupita Dar es Salaam. Karibu chakula ! Kila siku (ni) sawa. hai. tele.

mawe TRANSLATION a matter. of fruits and natural products. Cl 5 (Singular) : prefix JIprefix Ø- JICHO = an eye. particularly of Arabic origin. mambo Jiwe. only a very small number of nouns take the prefix JIin the singular.gender (Classes 5 / 6) includes nouns of persons. nouns of built or natural places.The JI-/MA. The majority of the nouns of class 5 (singular) do not have a prefix. matters a stone. nouns of manufactured objects.Gender The JI-/MA. cookers a tooth. meko Jino. macho Jiko. while some other nouns only exist in class 6 (plural)..htm Chapter 13 . the eye TUNDA = a fruit. the fruits Cl 6 (Plural) : prefix MA- 1. meno TRANSLATION an eye. for although it is named "JI-/MA-". etc. They are often loanwords. This gender is very particular. of parts of the human body.IN THE SINGULAR : NOUN Jicho. stones 2. the fruit MACHO = eyes.Chapter 13 http://mwanasimba. teeth NOUN abstract eyes a cooker. NOUNS WHICH EXIST ONLY IN THE PLURAL : NOUN Maafa Mafuta Mahindi oil corn (on the cob) TRANSLATION a misfortune Majivu Matata Matusi NOUN ashes TRANSLATION problems insults 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . the eyes MATUNDA = fruits. NOUNS TAKING THE PREFIX JI.

leaves a lemon. newspapers a pineapples 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . boxes an axe. lemons a pineapple. mattresses a coarse bag. coconuts a mango. FRUITS. a trunk. windows TRANSLATION a car. axes 2.htm Majani Maji grass water Mavi Maziwa excrement milk 3. MANUFACTURED OBJECTS : SINGULAR Blanketi Debe Dirisha Gari Gazeti Godoro Gunia Jembe Sanduku Shoka madebe PLURAL mablanketi madirisha magari magazeti magodoro magunia majembe masanduku mashoka a blanket. NATURAL PRODUCTS : SINGULAR Chungwa Dafu Embe Jani Limau Nanasi madafu PLURAL machungwa maembe majani malimau mananasi TRANSLATION an orange. oranges a coconut with milk.Chapter 13 http://mwanasimba. hoes a cars (also in classes 9 / 10) a newspaper. blankets a 4 gallon tin can a window. a sack a hoe. mangoes a leaf. OTHER NOUNS GROUPED BY TOPICS : 1.

master. fields a market. bridges a shop. carpenters an aunt (paternal). a farm. eggs 3. shops the bush TRANSLATION a veranda. NOUNS OF PEOPLE : SINGULAR Bibi Bwana Fundi Karani Rais Seremala Shangazi Tajiri Waziri mabibi PLURAL mabwana mafundi makarani marais maseremala mashangazi matajiri mawaziri TRANSLATION young lady. grandmother. PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY : SINGULAR Bega Goti Sikio Tumbo mabega magoti masikio PLURAL a knee. NATURAL OR BUILT PLACES : SINGULAR Baraza Daraja Duka Pori Shamba Soko PLURAL mabaraza madaraja maduka mapori mashamba masoko a bridge. the bowells 6. rich people a minister. clerks a president. verandas a field. pawpaws a fruit. presidents a carpenter. gentlemen a markets 4. ABSTRACT OR CONCRETE CONCEPTS : 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . ladies Sir. ministers 5. ears TRANSLATION a shoulder.Chapter 13 http://mwanasimba. fruits an egg. craftsmen a clerk.htm Papai Tunda Yai mapapai matunda mayai a pawpaw. aunts a rich person. shoulders matumbo the stomach. knees an ear.

CLASS AGREEMENTS : 1.. advices a lesson. In the plural. buildings the heat 5. thoughts a conversation. large insects a giant..) Class 5 : Tunda a kubwa / dogo / zuri / baya / jipya / .: The prefix JI.. ORIGIN Mdudu Mtu Nyoka Nyumba Moto (insect) (person) (snake) (house) (fire) SINGULAR -> Dudu -> Jitu -> Joka -> Jumba -> Joto PLURAL madudu majitu majoka majumba majoto TRANSLATION a large some cases). names the sun. suns TRANSLATION a mistake. words an advice. the prefix MA. giants a large snake. Possessive Adjectives : Class 5 : Tunda langu / lako / lake / letu / lenu / lao 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . lessons a thought..Chapter 13 conversations mashauri masomo mawazo mazungumzo Adjective : The adjective takes prefixes of class agreements identical to those of the noun : (See : Chapter 11 . fruits fruit Class 6 : Matunda 2.. we replace the normal noun class prefix with the prefix JI.. big / small / beautiful / bad / new / . In that case. large snakes a placed in front of the augmentative prefix.(or the prefix Ø.Concordant Adjectives.. THE AUGMENTATIVE PREFIX JI. makubwa / madogo / mazuri / mabaya / mapya / .can possess an augmentative value. mistakes a word. big / small / beautiful / bad / new / .htm SINGULAR Jina Jua Kosa Neno Shauri Somo Wazo Zungumzo majina majua makosa maneno PLURAL a name.

he takes a Karani mzuri (instead of karani zuri) Makarani wazuri (instead of makarani mazuri) Yule bwana mkubwa Wale mabwana wakubwa A good clerk Good clerks That big man Those big men VOCABULARY To translate : "in. a market. milk. a coarse bag. a hoe. mind the large snake ! Cook some eggs ! Cut the pineapple ! Tell your name ! 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . oranges. water. b. an cars. I eat corn. on. mangoes. pawpaws. he sells oil. eggs. craftsmen.htm = Class 6 : Matunda = my / your / his . oil. clerks. they play on the veranda. must take class 1 / 2 agreements. ministers.Chapter 13 http://mwanasimba.her / our / your / their yangu / yako / yake / yetu / yenu / yao my / your / his . buy oranges ! Take blankets ! Don't forget the newspaper ! Drink your milk ! They work on the farm. lemons. she eats in the kitchen. a shop. Corn. a can. I drink water. newspapers. at" : the suffix "-NI" Barazani Dukani Jikoni Mfukoni Mkononi Mjini on the veranda in the shop in the kitchen in the bag in the hand downtown Mlangoni Mlimani Mtoni Porini Shambani Sokoni at the door on the mountain in the river in the bush on the farm at the market Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a.her / our / your / their fruit fruits NOTE : The adjective that qualifies a class 5 / 6 noun of person.

jikoni. Leo sokoni. jembe. mapapai madogo. blanketi manjano. mawazo yangu. porini. bibi mkali. shauri lako. 8. b.htm EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. jina. 4.Chapter 13 http://mwanasimba. "Bibi Majivu" afanya kazi chafu tele. Nenda dukani ununue maziwa ! Mama anakwenda jikoni kupika chakula. dirisha. Watoto wapenda kula maembe mabichi. fundi hodari. jicho. mahindi tele. Rais. godoro jipya. blanketi. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. machungwa mabichi. Waziri mazungumzo marefu. jina langu. 3. Ninahitaji blanketi safi na godoro jipya. maneno. joka mrefu. 10. jino. machungwa ni ghali kuliko maembe. 2. 7. makarani. sokoni. msinywe maji machafu ! Naogopa joka kali porini ! Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 3:39 PM . Mama wanauza mayai na mafuta sokoni. 9. mayai machache. mawazo. daraja refu. shambani. jua kali. 5. Maseremala wanafanya kazi masikio. tumbo. baraza kubwa. limau bovu. majani. Mkunyweni maji safi tu. shangazi. matusi ovyo. makosa. maziwa mazuri. 6. magoti.

1.htm Chapter 14 ..of the infinitive... while the monosyllabic etc. he is sleeping. I have understood. or to describe a state (for example : he is sitting. It is usually translated by a Present Perfect in English.Chapter 14 MODEL 2 : KWENDA = to go NI-ME-KWENDA U-ME-KWENDA A-ME-KWENDA TU-ME-KWENDA M-ME-KWENDA WA-ME-KWENDA -> nimekwenda -> umekwenda -> amekwenda -> tumekwenda -> mmekwenda -> wamekwenda I have gone / been you have gone / been he / she has gone / been we have gone / been you have gone / been they have gone / been 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:40 PM . THE PAST PERFECT . keep the KU. etc. I have been.The Past Perfect Tense We use the PAST PERFECT to speak of specific actions that have already taken place (for example : I have eaten.placed between the subject prefix and the verbal root : SUBJECT PREFIX + ME + VERB RADICAL MODEL 1 : KUFANYA = to do NI-ME-FANYA U-ME-FANYA A-ME-FANYA TU-ME-FANYA M-ME-FANYA WA-ME-FANYA -> nimefanya -> umefanya -> amefanya -> tumefanya -> mmefanya -> wamefanya I have done you have done he / she has done we have done you have done they have done NOTE : The verbs of Arabic origin behave exactly like the verbs of Bantu origin .AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The marker of the Past Perfect is the infix -ME. he is dead.).

EXAMPLES : Nimeshakwenda Tanzania. the monosyllabic verbs lose the KUof the infinitive in the negative form.placed between the negative subject prefix and the verbal root. They have already done their we can insert the verbal root sha (from the verb kwisha = to finish) between the tense marker of the past perfect and the verb radical.NEGATIVE FORM : The negative form of the Past Perfect describes a situation which has not yet taken I have already been to Tanzania. THE PAST PERFECT . MODEL 2 : KWENDA = to go SI-JA-ENDA HU-JA-ENDA HA-JA-ENDA HATU-JA-ENDA HAM-JA-ENDA HAWA-JA-ENDA -> sijaenda -> hujaenda -> hajaenda -> hatujaenda -> hamjaenda -> hawajaenda I haven't gone / been yet You haven't gone / been yet He / she hasn't gone / been yet We haven't gone / been yet You haven't gone / been yet they haven't gone / been yet 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:40 PM .htm REINFORCEMENT : To insist on the fact that the action already took place.Chapter 14 http://mwanasimba. NEGATIVE SUBJECT PREFIX + JA + VERB RADICAL MODEL 1 : KUFANYA = to do SI-JA-FANYA HU-JA-FANYA HA-JA-FANYA HATU-JA-FANYA HAM-JA-FANYA HAWA-JA-FANYA -> sijafanya -> hujafanya -> hajafanya -> hatujafanya -> hamjafanya -> hawajafanya I haven't done you haven't done he / she hasn't done we haven't done you haven't done they haven't done NOTE : Contrary to what occurs in the Past Perfect affirmative. Wameshafanya mtihani wao. or a state which has not been carried out yet. The marker of the Present Perfect negative is the infix -JA. 2.

fr/E_Chap14. you are accustomed. we have finished. I haven't seen yet. he hasn't gone yet. we have stayed. I am tired. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:40 PM .Ajarudi bado. or : Bado ! = Has Amina come back ? . which will be placed before or after the verb in the Past Perfect negative. he has stopped. Bado hatujapanda mlima wa Kilimanjaro = We have not yet climbed on Mount Kilimanjaro. to go away to get better to lose to reap. he has gone. he is dead. you haven't done yet. I am not accustomed yet. it's finished (Cl 9).Chapter 14 http://mwanasimba. you haven't been yet. b. he has damaged. you have said. she has arrived. they have come.She hasn't come back yet. you are mistaken. EXAMPLES : Amina amerudi ? . you have come back. he is sitting. they haven't stollen yet. to abandon to be late to be tired to steal to ripen. He hasn't arrived yet. I'm not cured yet.I haven't eaten yet. to be cooked to miss.htm REINFORCEMENT : To insist on the fact that the action hasn't taken place yet. he is lost. we are late.Sijala bado. they are not yet ripe (Cl 6). = Have you already eaten ? . to be mistaken Ku-maliza ku-ondoka Ku-pona Ku-potea Ku-vuna Ku-zoea to finish to leave. we can use the word bado. VOCABULARY Ku-acha Ku-chelewa Ku-choka Ku-iba Ku-iva Ku-kosa to leave. she has cleaned. I am you have fallen. she hasn't swept yet. Umeshakula ? . to harvest to be accustomed Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a.

Sijui kiswahili sana. 5. 9. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:40 PM .Chapter 14 http://mwanasimba. 12. Wazazi wangu wameketi barazani. Dudu ameingia jikoni. 2. Chakula tayari ? Wageni hawajala ! Mama amekwisha pika chakula asubuhi. Mwizi ameiba mahindi shambani usiku.Ndiyo ! Lakini hatujapanda mlima wa Kilimanjaro. Sijaenda Tanzania bado. 3. Sijanunua mkate leo. Watoto wameamka asubuhi. 8. ajapona bado. Bado sijapata mshahara wangu. 7.htm EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Mmekwenda Zanzibar ? . 11. 6. Mgonjwa amelala.

for the demonstrative adjectives . . FORMATION : EXAMPLES : MTU WATU MTI MITI TUNDA (Class 1) (Class 2) (Class 3) (Class 4) (Class 5) Subject prefix YU. 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:41 PM .I -> HII H. THREE CATEGORIES OF DEMONSTRATIVES : There are three kinds of demonstratives in Swahili : 1.(NOT A-) Subject prefix WASubject prefix USubject prefix ISubject prefix LIYU .LI -> HILI H. and ends in -LE.YA -> HAYA EXAMPLES : MTU WATU MTI MITI TUNDA MATUNDA 2. for the demonstrative pronouns. The demonstrative must agree with the noun to which it refers.. The intermediate vowel is identical to the final vowel. or to : that one. THE DEMONSTRATIVE OF DISTANCE : It corresponds to : that. 1. (Class 1) (Class 2) (Class 3) (Class 4) (Class 5) (Class 6) Subject prefix YU.WA -> HAWA H... FORMATION : It starts with H. . but it doesn't take the same prefixes as the noun. . and to : this one.htm Chapter 15 . for the demonstrative adjectives . those ones. these. Its prefixes (or suffixes) of agreement are of pronominal type.LE -> ULE I .U -> HUU H.and ends in the subject prefix corresponding to the class of the noun with which it agrees. .The Demonstratives There is no distinction between demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns in Swahili.LE -> LILE It starts with the subject prefix corresponding to the class of the noun with which it -> HUYU H. those.(NOT A-) Subject prefix WASubject prefix USubject prefix ISubject prefix LISubject prefix YAH.LE -> YULE WA ..LE -> WALE U .Chapter 15 http://mwanasimba. . THE DEMONSTRATIVE OF PROXIMITY : It corresponds to : this. these ones..LE -> ILE LI . for the demonstrative pronouns.

FORMATION : It borrows its first syllable from the demonstrative of proximity.LE -> YALE 3. 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:41 PM .YO -> HIYO HI .fr/E_Chap15. But it can also be placed in the immediate vicinity of the noun. that one. that .online.O -> HUO HI . PLACE OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE IN THE SENTENCE : a. Or by : this one. (See : Chapter 31.LO -> HILO HA .) (Class 1) (Class 2) (Class 3) (Class 4) (Class 5) (Class 6) "-O" of reference -YO "-O" of reference -O "-O" of reference -O "-O" of reference -YO "-O" of reference -LO "-O" of reference -YO HU . and ends in the suffix "-O" of reference corresponding to the class of the noun with which it agrees.Chapter 15 http://mwanasimba. The Demonstrative of proximity is usually placed at the end of the nominal group.YO -> HAYO EXAMPLES : MTU WATU MTI MITI TUNDA MATUNDA TABLE OF DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES / PRONOUNS : DEMONSTRATIVES PROXIMITY Class 1 Mtu Class 2 Watu Class 3 Mti Class 4 Miti Class 5 Tunda Class 6 Matunda Class 7 Kiti Class 8 Viti Class 9 Nguo Class 10 Nguo Class 11/14 Uso Class 10 Nyuso HUYU HAWA HUU HII HILI HAYA HIKI HIVI HII HIZI HUU HIZI DISTANCE YULE WALE ULE ILE LILE YALE KILE VILE ILE ZILE ULE ZILE REFERENCE HUYO HAO HUO HIYO HILO HAYO HICHO HIVYO HIYO HIZO HUO HIZO CLASSES / NOUNS 2.htm MATUNDA (Class 6) Subject prefix YA- YA . It can be translated by : this. THE DEMONSTRATIVE OF REFERENCE : It is used to designate the person or the thing which has already been spoken about.O -> HAO HU . after the noun and its adjectives.YO -> HUYO HA .

flowers a cloud.htm EXAMPLES : Wanafunzi hawa Wanafunzi hodari hawa Wanafunzi hodari wachache hawa Kula chakula hiki kizuri ! Lete mizigo hii mizito ! These pupils These intelligent pupils These few intelligent pupils Eat this good food ! Bring this heavy luggage ! b. wings charcoal a palm. the demonstrative must be placed after bricks a ridge a flower. preferably in front. EXAMPLES : Wale wanafunzi Wanafunzi wale hodari Duka lile kubwa Lile shuka langu Those pupils Those intelligent pupils That big shop My sheet over there c.Chapter 15 http://mwanasimba. guavas a sheet. When there is a possessive adjective. lakes Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:41 PM . EXAMPLES : Hilo tunda kubwa Watoto hao wadogo Watoto wao hao Shuka langu hilo This big fruit These small children Their children here My sheet here VOCABULARY Bawa (ma-) Kaa (ma-) Kuti (ma-) Pera (ma-) Shuka (ma-) Tawi (ma-) a crops a lake. The Demonstrative of reference is placed close to the noun. The Demonstrative of distance is placed before or after the noun. sheets a branch. palms a guava. the demonstrative is placed in front of the noun. clouds a crop. branches Tofali (ma-) Tuta (ma-) Ua (ma-) Wingu (ma-) Zao (ma-) Ziwa (ma-) a brick. When there is a possessive adjective.

chakula hiki. these bricks. these large baobab trees. these trees. Duka lile dogo lauza maziwa safi. that coarse sack. [Demonstrative of reference] This little boy. those chairs. that rice. this food. that mattress. wadudu hao. 8. take this little chair ! Look at this large poisonous snake ! Take these beautiful flowers ! Buy this charcoal ! Do not take our palms here ! EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : Mlango huu. that clerk. those coconut trees. this old teacher. nguo hizi. mawingu yale. these workers. this rich white man. this bag. this lake. mwanadamu huyu. 10. this mountain. Angalia lile joka kubwa ! 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:41 PM . These dirty hands of yours. this important city. that man. michungwa ile. this corn. this lazy pupil. matuta haya. that window. Usiseme yale maneno ovyo ! Bwana amenunua gari lile jipya. these youths. these chairs. this ditch. mama huyu. matofali yayo. that grandmother. that year. nguo hizo. ziwa lilo. this black bag. gari lile. 7. wanaume hawa. Kamata mwizi huyu ! Nunua ule mkate mzuri ! Uza lile gari lako bovu ! Lete mzigo mzito huu ! Kula mapera haya mazuri ! Wanafunzi hodari hawa wamefaulu this teacher. [Demonstrative of distance] Those travellers. bawa hili. that market. 9. 5. those mangoes. this beautiful car of yours. tawi lilo. those fields. that these clothes. nguo ile. that uncle. those eggs. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. this idiot. this face. that luggage. those masais. those cars. c. these pineapples. b. 2. that driver. those sugar canes. this flower. [Demonstrative of proximity] This child. mtoto huyu. that river. these intelligent children. these palms.Chapter 15 http://mwanasimba.htm EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. those banana trees. those cities. kiti hiki. these oranges. this town. mfano ule. 3. mahindi yale. these unpleasant children of theirs. mwizi huyo. this young girl. this door. 6. those friends. 4. these guavas. viti hivi. miavuli ile. uso huo.

Gender The KI-/ nouns of places that are built or It is in class 7 (in the singular only) that the names of languages are to be found. However.becomes CH.The KI-/VI. parts of the human body.. a utensil.: KITI = a / the chair VITI = chairs.gender (Classes 7 / 8) is a gender of things. it is not as exclusive. etc. 1. containers 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:42 PM .. abstract or concrete concepts. Kioo (= mirror). irons a shoe. prefix KIprefix VIthe singular prefix KI. MANUFACTURED OBJECTS : SINGULAR Chombo Chuma Kiatu Kiberiti vyombo vyuma viatu viberiti PLURAL iron. Cl 7 (Singular) : Cl 8 (Plural) : In front of a vowel. the chairs CHAKULA = a / the food VYAKULA = foods / the foods There are however some exceptions to his rule : Kiatu (= shoe).is also used as a diminutive.Chapter 16 http://mwanasimba.: the plural prefix VI. it also includes nouns of people. and the prefix KI. etc. NOUNS GROUPED BY TOPICS : 1. just like the M-/WA. matches TRANSLATION a container. for beside manufactured objects.becomes VY. natural products..htm Chapter 16 . shoes a match.gender is a gender of people.

htm Kidonge Kijiko Kikapu Kiko Kikombe Kioo Kipande Kisu Kitabu Kitambaa Kitanda Kiti Kitu vidonge vijiko vikapu viko vikombe vioo vipande visu vitabu vitambaa vitanda viti vitu a pill. beds a chair. things 2. wells an island. hills a baskets a pills a spoon. fabrics a bed.Chapter 16 http://mwanasimba. NATURAL PRODUCTS. pipes a cup. mirrors a piece. toilets a room. books a piece of cloth. onions TRANSLATION vitunguu 3. lands 4. NOUNS OF PEOPLE : SINGULAR PLURAL TRANSLATION 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:42 PM . pieces a knife. knives a book. potatoes an onion. cups a mirror. NATURAL OR BUILT PLACES : SINGULAR Choo Chumba Chuo Kibanda Kijiji Kilima Kisima Kisiwa Kiwanja vyoo vyumba vyuo vibanda vijiji vilima visima visiwa viwanja PLURAL a toilet. islands TRANSLATION a piece of land. villages a hill. a college a hut. spoons a basket. chairs a thing. rooms a school. foods a potato. huts a village. FOOD : SINGULAR Chakula Kiazi Kitunguu vyakula viazi PLURAL food.

Chapter 16 http://mwanasimba. NAMES OF LANGUAGES (Class 7 only) : SINGULAR Kiarabu Kifaransa Kihindi Kiingereza Arabic French TRANSLATION Indian. parties 8. an association. certificates a party.htm Kibarua Kijana Kipofu Kiwete Kiziwi vibarua vijana vipofu viwete viziwi a day laborer. youths a blind man. ulcerations the chest. butterflies 6. fingers TRANSLATION an ulceration. Hindi English 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:42 PM . chests 7. rhinoceroses a butterfly. heads a finger. day laborers a youth. ranks a certificate. blind men a handicapped person a deaf person. deaf persons 5. a row. hippos a rhinoceros. NOUNS OF ANIMALS : SINGULAR Kiboko Kifaru Kipepeo viboko vifaru vipepeo PLURAL TRANSLATION an PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY : SINGULAR Kichwa Kidole Kidonda Kifua vichwa vidole vidonda vifua PLURAL a head. ABSTRACT OR CONCRETE CONCEPTS : SINGULAR Cheo Cheti Chama vyeo vyeti vyama PLURAL TRANSLATION a

things thing Class 8 : Vitu To that effect the ordinary class prefix of the noun is replaced by the prefix KI-. Kijana mzuri (instead of kijana kizuri) Vijana wazuri (instead of vijana vizuri) Yule kibarua mvivu Wale vibarua wavivu A nice young man Nice young men That lazy day laborer Those lazy day laborers 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:42 PM .. ORIGINE Mtoto Sahani (child) (plate) SINGULAR Kitoto Kisahani PLURAL vitoto visahani TRANSLATION a little child.. big / small / beautiful / bad / nice / .her / our / your / their vyangu / vyako / vyake / vyetu / vyenu / vyao my / your / his .by VI-. CLASS AGREEMENTS : 1. big / small / beautiful / bad / nice / .her / our / your / their things thing Class 8 : Vitu = NOTE : The adjective that qualifies a class 7 / 8 noun of person. little children a saucer.. must take class 1 / 2 agreements.htm Kiswahili Swahili 2. we simply replace KI. Possessive adjectives : Class 7 : Kitu = changu / chako / chake / chetu / chenu / chao my / your / his .) Class 7 : Kitu a kikubwa / kidogo / kizuri / kibaya / chema / . Adjective : The adjective takes prefixes of class agreement that are identical to those of the noun : (See : Chapter 11. saucers 3... vikubwa / vidogo / vizuri / vibaya / vyema / .online..can have a diminutive value.Chapter 16 http://mwanasimba.: The prefix KI. THE DIMINUTIVE PREFIX KI.. In the plural..

kiatu. A spoon. 10. a certificate. this good food. 2. this large book. choo. kifarantsa. shoes. islands. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English and give the plural. a basket. a head. kifua.htm EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. this wild rhinoceros. chuma. young people. English. matches. 8. cheti. handicapped people. whenever possible : Kijiko. Swahili. a village. Usitupe viazi vidogo vile ! Kisu hiki ni kikali sana. this beautiful cup. Watoto hawa wanakula chakula kizuri hiki. Angalia kifaru yule mkubwa ! Kitoto hajala chakula chake bado. a saucer. 7. this sharp knife. kiswahili. 4. fabrics. a hut. butterflies. kisiwa. Arabic. books. kitanda. these many hyppopotamuses. kipande. a well. this chair. b. 3. kiingereza. a cup. rooms. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:42 PM . c. 9. kitabu. French. an hippopotamus. a hill. these intelligent young people. mirrors. 5. Mama amenunua kikapu kipya sokoni. potatoes. 6. huts. baskets. Soma kitabu kile kizuri ! Kiswahili chako ni kizuri these big potatoes. beds. kisima. a rhinoceros. day laborers. kioo. this mirror. Usikate kidole chako na kisu hiki ! Tunapenda hicho kijiji chetu. those lazy day laborers. cheo. a pill. deaf persons. kikapu. kikombe. food. kiboko. containers. a pipe. a knife. kiarabu. fingers. This ustensil. these spoons. these beautiful things. this new pipe.Chapter 16 http://mwanasimba. things.

etc. -Ø.Chapter 17 http://mwanasimba. which are often confused in English : which is no longer used in the negative form. he is at home. and SI in the negative. dad is a teacher. PRESENT : There are two conjugations of the verb "to be" in the present tense : an old and a modern one which has the merit of simplicity. she is not there. AFFIRMATIVE FORM OLD NI U YU TU M WA MODERN NI NI NI NI NI NI Translation I am you are he / she / it is we are you are they are 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:42 PM . it is advisable to distinguish clearly the two distinct uses of the verb "to be" in Swahili.The Verb KUWA = to Be The verb KUWA (= TO BE) is by far the most disconcerting verb in Swahili : it is a polymorphic verb that possesses no less than 3 different principal radicals : -WA-. "To be" descriptive : this verb allots a statute or a quality to somebody or something : I am English. First of all. etc.and -LI-. he is rich. "TO BE" DESCRIPTIVE : A. Mafia is in the south.htm Chapter 17 . but still survives in the affirmative form in some set phrases. since it possesses only two forms : NI in the affirmative. I'm not sick. 1. 2. "To be" locative : this verb signifies the presence or the absence of somebody or something in a place : I am in Tanzania. for all persons and all nominal agreements.

htm NEGATIVE FORM OLD SIWI HUWI HAWI HATUWI HAMWI HAWAWI MODERN SI SI SI SI SI SI Translation I am not you are not he / she / it is not we are not you are not they are not 2 of 3 4/4/09 3:42 PM 17 http://mwanasimba.

including the infinitive. the particle "NA" is directly coupled to the subject prefix : this is the case in the Present In the absence of a verb radical. we use the expression KUWA NA. the affirmative subject prefixes are directly followed by the particle "NA". CLASS 1 2 Cl 1 Mtu 3 1 2 Cl 2 Watu 3 Cl 3 Mti Cl 4 Miti Cl 5 Gari Cl 6 Magari Cl 7 Kiti Cl 8 Viti Cl 9 Nguo Cl 10 Nguo Cl 11 Uso Cl 10 Nyuso AFFIRMATIVE NINA UNA ANA TUNA MNA WANA UNA INA LINA YANA KINA VINA INA ZINA UNA ZINA Translation I have you have he / she has we have you have they have it has they have it has they have it has they have it has they have it has they have NEGATIVE SINA HUNA HANA HATUNA HAMNA HAWANA HAUNA HAINA HALINA HAYANA HAKINA HAVINA HAINA HAZINA HAUNA HAZINA Translation I haven't you haven't he / she hasn't we haven't you haven't they haven't it hasn't they haven't it hasn't they haven't it hasn't they haven't it hasn't they haven't it hasn't they haven't 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:43 PM . CONJUGATION OF THE VERB "KUWA NA" : A.htm Chapter 18 .Chapter 18 http://mwanasimba. in the absence of any verb radical. which litteraly means "to be with". It will remain separated from the verb in the other tenses and forms.The Verb KUWA NA = to Have For want of a genuine verb "to have" in Swahili. 1. The same applies to the negative form. (We speak of a Ø radical). PRESENT : In the affirmative form. where the negative subject prefixes are directly followed by the particle "NA".fr/E_Chap18.

FUTURE : AFFIRMATIVE NITAKUWA NA UTAKUWA NA ATAKUWA NA TUTAKUWA NA MTAKUWA NA WATAKUWA NA Translation I will have you will have he / she will have we will have you will have they will have NEGATIVE SITAKUWA NA HUTAKUWA NA HATAKUWA NA HATUTAKUWA NA HAMTAKUWA NA HAWATAKUWA NA Translation I won't have you won't have he / she won't have we won't have you won't have they won't have E.Chapter 18 http://mwanasimba. OTHER TENSES : 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:43 PM . PAST : AFFIRMATIVE NILIKUWA NA ULIKUWA NA ALIKUWA NA TULIKUWA NA MLIKUWA NA WALIKUWA NA Translation I had you had he / she had we had you had they had NEGATIVE SIKUWA NA HUKUWA NA HAKUWA NA HATUKUWA NA HAMKUWA NA HAWAKUWA NA Translation I didn't have you didn't have he / she didn't have we didn't have you didn't have they didn't have C.htm EXAMPLES : Nina vitabu vingi Mtoto huyu ana uso mzuri Watumishi wana mishahara midogo Mti ule una matawi mengi Kilima hiki kina miti mirefu Sina nguo nyingi Hatuna chakula kingine Hamisi hana viatu I have many books This child has a pretty face The servants have small wages That tree has many branches This hill has tall trees I haven't many clothes We haven't much food Hamisi has no shoes

fr/E_Chap18.Hamna Hakuna matata ! / Hakuna matatizo ! Hamna shida ! / Hamna tabu ! There are many books (here) There is milk ? .Hakuna bado Unasema kiswahili ? . we use in Swahili the verb "to have" (KUWA NA) to translate the concept of "THERE IS".Chapter 18 http://mwanasimba.Hapana Pana wanyama wakali porini Kuna Coca-Cola ? . The ordinary nominal subject prefixes are simply replaced by a series of three locative subject prefixes. "THERE ISN'T" : Unlike in isn't There is no problem ! There is no problem ! 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:43 PM .htm PAST PERFECT : PAST PERFECT NEGATIVE : SUBJUNCTIVE : -KI.TENSE : PRESENT CONDITIONAL : PAST CONDITIONAL : Nimekuwa na Amekuwa na Sijawa na Hajawa na Niwe na awe na Nikiwa na Akiwa na Ningekuwa na Angekuwa na Ningalikuwa na Angalikuwa na = I have had = he / she has had = I haven't had yet = he / she hasn't had yet = that I have = that he / she have = if I have = if he / she has = I would have = he / she would have = I would have had = he / she would have had 2.There isn't yet Do you speak Swahili ? . The distinction between singular and plural (there is / there are) is not marked in Swahili : PAKUM(class 16) (class 17) (class 18) for a definite place for an indefinite place for an interior place AFFIRMATIVE PANA KUNA MNA Translation There is here / there There is over here / there There is inside NEGATIVE HAPANA HAKUNA HAMNA Translation There isn't here / there There isn't over there There isn't inside EXAMPLES : Kuna vitabu vingi Kuna maziwa ? .No There are savage animals in the bush There is Coca-Cola ? . TO TRANSLATE "THERE IS".

there isn't (inside). a limit Mpango (mi-) Mpunga (mi-) Msikiti (mi-) Mstari (mi-) Msumari (mi-) Mtihani (mi-) a plan. Wanachama wana mkutano leo. we don't have children. there isn't (over there). b. there is (over there). 5. Mkate upo ? . do you have eggs ? The driver has no car. you haven't (plur). we have many animals. the woman has many children. we haven't. these children have a good teacher. 8. we have. this village has many villagers. 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:43 PM . Sina (jambo) la kusema. 7. she has. You have. I have.Chapter 18 http://mwanasimba. do you have pawpaws ? Juma has clean shoes. this animal has many insects. you have (plur).online. there is a book. there is (inside). I haven't. he has. Tuna mtihani wa kiswahili leo. 10. the car has no driver. an exam Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. you haven't. you have dirty hands. Miembe ile ina maembe mengi.Hamna. Gari lile lina matatizo mengi. a project rice (paddy) a mosque a line a nail an examination. Mtoto maskini huyu hana chahula kila siku. he hasn't. the farmer has a large field. Kitanda hiki hakina shuka. this mountain has many trees. 9. there is (here). this bed has a clan shit. this young man has a knife. 4. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Have you a book ? The child has a big head. they have. they haven't. Mna wenyeji wengi Nairobi. 2. VOCABULARY Mbuni (mi-) Mkataba (mi-) Mkia (mi-) Mkutano (mi-) Mnara (mi-) Mpaka (mi-) a coffee tree a contract a tail a meeting a minaret a border. 3. there isn't (here). I have a new cup. Mzungu ana mizigo mizito.

.. the adverb is placed after the too very regularly again only quickly again more ADVERBS FORMED ON THE PREFIXES KI. ).. 1. sometimes.Chapter 19 http://mwanasimba. COMMON ADVERBS : Badala Bure Ghafla Hakika Halisi Haraka Hasa Kabisa Kadhalika Kamwe Kweli Labda instead of in vain suddenly sure exactly quickly especially completely in the same way never. except in some particular cases. etc. etc. at all true perhaps Mno Pamoja Ovyo Pengine Pia Sana Taratibu Tena Tu Upesi Upya Zaidi too much together anyhow maybe also. or qualifies an adjective (very large..htm Chapter 19 .. etc.Adverbs REMINDER : An adverb is an invariable word that says how an action proceeds (quickly. COMPOUND ADVERBS : 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:44 PM ..and VICOMPARISON Kiaskari Kidogo Kinyama Kipumbavu Kishamba Kishenzi Kitoto Kizungu like a soldier a little like an animal like an idiot like a peasant like a savage like a child like a white Hivi Hivyo Vibaya Vigumu Vingine Vinginevyo Vivyo Vizuri MANNER in this way in that way badly difficult in another way in any other way in the same way well 2. etc. It expresses possibility or certainty (maybe. slowly. quite small. ) In Swahili... certainly. ).fr/E_Chap19. ). with which frequency (often. never.

A FEW EXAMPLES : Fanya haraka ! Wamechoka kabisa. therefore loudly secretly Hurry up ! They are really tired. The child uses his knife wrongly. Usijibu ovyo ! Jibu vizuri ! Ngoja kidogo ! Nenda pole pole ! Njoo haraka ! Nimechelewa kidogo.htm Hata kidogo Mbali mbali Moja moja Peke yake Pole pole Ovyo ovyo Sawa sawa Vile vile Vivi hivi Vivyo hivyo not at all differently one by one alone slowly badly similarly equally so so exactly the same ADVERBS MADE UP WITH KWA Kwa bahati Kwa ghafla Kwa haraka Kwa hiyo Kwa kawaida Kwa kifupi fortunately suddenly hastily. Speaking Swahili is not difficult. Speak aloud ! I want one bread only. Mtoto anatumia kisu vibaya.Chapter 19 not at all. Kusema kiswahili si vigumu. hata kidogo. in haste thus. Yeye si mpishi. Sema kwa sauti ! Ninataka mkate mmoja tu. 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:44 PM . He is not a cook. so usually in short Kwa kusudi Kwa kutwa Kwa kweli Kwa sababu hii Kwa sauti Kwa siri voluntarily daily really then. Don't answer badly ! Answer correctly ! Wait a little ! Go slowly ! Come quickly ! I am a little late.

above bure. kwa kweli. one by one. hivyo. peke yake. He speaks like an idiot. this way. then. maybe. truly. ovyo. this luggage is very heavy. not at all. vile vile. kinyama. voluntarily. only. Usiseme upesi. too much. again. fortunately. chakula tayari ? . this pupil studies regularly. quickly. kamwe. mbali mbali. in vain. very. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:44 PM . the little child is eating slowly. we work daily. bwana. hakika. I am completely tired. Je. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. hurry up ! The master is maybe coming back today. he leaves suddenly. pengine. alone. together. a lid a loin cloth a measure a comb a workshop a cork Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. hasa. vivyo. here are the news in brief. they hit like savages. the rhinoceros is coming again. a gourd death Kifuniko (vi-) Kikoi (vi-) Kipimo (vi-) Kitana (vi-) Kiwanda (vi-) Kizibo (vi-) a cover. Suddenly.htm VOCABULARY Chandarua (vy-) Chura (vy-) Kibaba (vi-) Kinu (vi-) Kibuyu (vi-) Kifo (vi-) a mosquito net a frog a measure a mortar a calabash. in short. b. I have one child only. more. sawa sawa. this one is too heavy. labda. the guests are a little late. 2. pamoja. kwa kawaida. sema pole pole tu. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : Pole pole. kidogo.Chapter 19 http://mwanasimba.Bado kidogo.

mpishi wetu anachelewa kazini. 8. Nimepotea kitana changu tena. 5. 12. Kwa kweli. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:44 PM . Kwa kawaida. Usinfunge mlango ghafula.htm 3. nimeona kifaru mmoja porini. tafadhali. Watoto wanasimama kiaskari. Mtoto ametupa jiwe lile kwa kusudi. Fagia chumba hiki. hata kidogo. 4. chandarua hiki kinafaa kabisa. 9. Hasemi kitu. Gari lile ni ghali mno.Chapter 19 http://mwanasimba. 11. Kwa bahati mzuri. na kile vile vile. 10.

PEOPLE : 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM .htm Chapter 20 . objects used in everyday life. abstract nouns. food. Many nouns borrowed from English are absorbed in the N..Gender The N. demonstrative or possessive prefixes.GENDER GROUPED BY TOPICS : 1. This gender is very particular in that it contains a large number of nouns which do not start with the prefix N. Cl 9 Singular : prefix Nprefix Ø- NGUO = a / the cloth KAZI = a / the work NGUO = clothes / the clothes KAZI = works / the works Cl 10 Plural : prefix Nprefix Ø- In the absence of any distinctive prefixes of P and V. it is indeed the class agreements inside the sentence ( front of animals.prefix).gender. natural elements. However the main characteristic of this class is that the noun is identical in the singular and the plural. Thus : Singular Plural NGUO ILE = that cloth NGUO YANGU = my cloth NGUO ZILE = those clothes NGUO ZANGU = my clothes 1. For phonetic reasons the prefix N.The N. NOUNS OF THE N.(we speak of a Ø. plants. Yet it's the only gender that comprises nouns starting with N-.gender (Classes 9 / 10) is one of the broadest genders : it comprises nouns of people.Chapter 20 http://mwanasimba.) that make it possible to distinguish between singular and plural. etc.changes into M. etc..

htm Askari Baba Babu Dada Kaka a soldier 20 http://mwanasimba. NATURE : Ardhi Bahari Baridi Barafu ground. ANIMALS : Kuku Mbu Mbuzi Mbwa Ndege a chicken a mosquito a goat a dog a bird Ng'ombe Nyoka Paka Samaki Simba a cow a snake a cat a fish a lion 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . dad grandfather sister brother Mama Ndugu Nyanya Rafiki Shemeji mother. ABSTRACT CONCEPTS : Ajali Bahati Furaha Hasara Hatari an accident luck joy a loss a danger Huzuni Nguvu Ruhusa Shida Thamani sadness strength permission difficulties value 5. MANUFACTURED OBJECTS : Barua Chupa Dawa Kalamu Karatasi a letter a bottle a drug. a medicine a pen a paper Ngoma Sabuni Sahani Sufuria Suruali a drum soap a plate a pan trousers 3. sister-in-law 2. mum brother. comrade grandmother friend earth sea cold ice Hewa Nuru Mvua Njia air. atmosphere light rain a way 4.

large / small / beautiful / bad / dark / .. kubwa / ndogo / nzuri / mbaya / nyeusi / .Concordant Adjectives. It takes M. Possessive adjectives : Class 9 : Nguo = yangu / yako / yake / yetu / yenu / yao my / your / his-her-its / our / your (plur) / their zangu / zako / zake / zetu / zenu / zao my / your / his-her-its / our / your (plur) / their clothes cloth Class 10 : Nguo = NOTE : When the noun it refers to is a person. which makes it possible to distinguish between the singular and the follows the same rules as the noun : It takes N. FRUITS. CLASS AGREEMENTS : 1. G or Z. instead of the usual M-/WA.) Class 9 : Nguo a Class 10 : Nguo kubwa / ndogo / nzuri / mbaya / nyeusi / . It takes NY. the possessive adjective takes agreements of the front of a radical that starts with D. EXAMPLES : 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . clothes cloth 2. FOOD. margarine sugar 2.. VEGETABLES : Chai Chumvi Kahawa Mboga Nazi tea salt coffee a vegetable a coconut Ndizi Nyama Pilipili Siagi Sukari a banana meat pepper 6.gender front of a radical that starts with a vowel.. It doesn't take any prefix in all other cases.. Adjective : The adjective takes the prefix N.Chapter 20 front of a radical that starts with B. P or V. large / small / beautiful / bad / dark / .. (See : Chapter 11 .

6. mama yangu. nyama. pepper. Wanafunzi wana karatasi na kalamu. this fierce dog. dada yake. sukari. my tea. ndege. ruhusa. 4. shida mvua. a fish. nuru. chupa zetu. ndugu. mboga. soap. hewa. Salt. my trousers. 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . nguvu. Rafiki zako. my grandfather. Kuna nyama leo ? . Kahawa. paka yako. mbu. a great danger. 3. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. a plate. a drug.htm Ninacheza mpira na rafiki yangu Ninacheza mpira na rafiki zangu Amekwenda sokoni na dada yake Nyanya yangu mkali I play football with my friend I play football with my friends She has gone to the market with her sister My grandmother is severe EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. a cat. ngoma. 2. 8. rafiki. askari. mbwa yangu. nguo zangu. hasara yenu. b. a danger. cold. hasara. a sahani zake. a dog.Chapter 20 http://mwanasimba. kalamu yako. these sisters-in-law. mbwa. your coffee. chai. kaka yetu. delicious bananas. thamani. Gari lako ni hatari kubwa njiani. ardhi. my friend. a coconut. ice. a banana. mbuzi. the value. Mpishi amepika chai na kahawa. my friends. this little cat. kuku zao. ruhusa yako. b. this sister-in-law. nazi zangu. 5. sahani. Unataka nyama au samaki ? Mnazi huu una nazi nyingi. My grandmother. karatasi. ndizi zao. furaha yake. rotten coconuts. bahari. bad luck. siagi. Mtoto anakula mkate na chai asubuhi. a loss. this large lion. my pen. Nimepotea paka yangu mdogo. nyanya yako. 7. a great sadness. rain. barua yangu. suruali yake. a way. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : a. my clothes. a long way. a goat. sadness.

online. 11. 10. Sina nguvu hata kidogo.Chapter 20 http://mwanasimba. Tia moto tena ! Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . Leo tunakula kuku na supu na mboga mbali Pole sana kwa hasara yako. 12. Mimi mgonjwa sana.htm 9. Chai hiyo baridi mno.

Since the subject prefix remains attached to the verb root.Umeona nani ? .fr/E_Chap21. The interrogative word is usually located before or after the verb.Nani anataka kitabu hiki ? . NANI ? = Who ? .Nichukue nini na nini ? What do you want ? What is it ? What do you say ? What should I take ? 3. we don't use any auxiliary verb.Jina lako nani ? . GANI ? = What ? / What sort ? / What kind ? / Which ? . PRINCIPAL INTERROGATIVE WORDS : 1. as is often practiced in English. or invert the position of the subject and the auxiliary.Nani huyo ? .Unasema nini ? .online.Interrogative Words When asking a question in Swahili.Mtoto huyu (ni) nani ? . and possibly the presence of an interrogative word in the sentence that signal it is a question.htm Chapter 21 .Chapter 21 http://mwanasimba.Kuna soda gani ? What do you want ? What kind of soda is there ? 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . it is indeed the intonation.Unataka kitu gani ? .Nini hii ? .Nani aliyekupiga ? Who is this child ? Who is he / she ? What's your name ? (Who your name ? ) Who wants this book ? Who have you seen ? Who hit you ? 2.Unataka nini ? . NINI ? = What ? .

WAPI ? = Where ? .online.Utarudi lini ? .Basi linaondoka saa ngapi ? .Miaka mingapi ? Cl 6 .Mananasi bei gani ? . Cl 2 . JE ? or -JE ? affixed to the verb = What ? / How ? 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM .Vitunguu kiasi gani ? .fr/E_Chap21.Umekwenda Lamu mara ngapi ? How many people ? How many years ? How many oranges ? How many spoons ? How many houses ? How many people in Zanzibar ? How much is this basket ? What time does the bus leave ? How often have you been to Lamu ? 6.Wageni wamekwenda wapi ? .Tangu lini umekuwa mgonjwa ? .Umepata ajali namna gani ? What sort of work do you do ? How much are the onions ? What price are the pineapples ? How have you got an accident ? 4.Lini watakwenda Mombasa ? When will you come back ? Since when have you been ill ? When will the rain stop ? When will they go to Mombasa ? 7.Chapter 21 http://mwanasimba. LINI ? = When ? .Watu wangapi ? Cl 4 .Bwana yuko wapi ? Where have the guests gone ? Where is the master ? 5. -NGAPI ? = How much ? / How many ? -ngapi ? works like an adjective.Nyumba ngapi ? EXAMPLES : . It is placed after the name and agrees in class with it.Vijiko vingapi ? Cl 10 .Wako watu wangapi Zanzibar ? .Unafanya kazi gani ? .Mvua itakwisha lini ? .Kikapu hiki shilingi ngapi ? .htm .Machungwa mangapi ? Cl 8 .

Vitu vipi ? Cl 9 .Mti upi ? Cl 4 . Wewe je ? I What about you ? 8. It can be used by itself or after a noun with which it agrees.Kwa nini unachelewa kila siku ? .Kwa nini hakuna sukari ? Why are you late every day ? Why do you want a job ? Why is there no sugar ? 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . are you going to Nairobi today ? Eh ! Is work finished ? How much do you sell these shoes ? What do you say ? What should we do ? I'm going to the market.Kwa nini unataka kazi ? . KWA NINI ? = Why ? .Nguo ipi ? Cl 10 .Miti ipi ? Cl 5 .Viatu hivi unauzaje ? .Nakwenda sokoni.Usiku upi ? EXAMPLES : .Je.Umeleta ipi ? .Tushike njia ipi ? .Chapter 21 http://mwanasimba.Utafanya vipi ? Which person ? Which people ? Which tree ? Which trees ? Which fruit ? Which fruits ? Which thing ? Which things ? Which cloth ? Which clothes ? Which night ? Which way should we take ? Which one have you brought ? Which ones do you want ? How will you do ? 9.Watu wapi ? Cl 3 . taking pronominal prefixes of unakwenda Nairobi leo ? . Cl 1 .Kitu kipi ? Cl 8 .Matunda yapi ? Cl 7 .Nguo zipi ? Cl 11 .Tunda lipi ? Cl 6 .Je kazi imekwisha ? .htm .Unasemaje ? . -PI ? = Which one / Which ones ? -pi ? works like a pronoun.Mtu yupi ? Cl 2 .Tufanyeje ? .Unataka zipi ? .

15. KWA SABABU GANI ? = For what reason ? . 10. 3. 7. 2. 4. 6. 9. 14. 11.Kwa sababu gani unachelewa kila siku ? For what reason are you late every day ? VOCABULARY Akili Faida Fedha Fikira Habari Hasira intelligence profit money a thought a news anger Mali Markiti Meza Nchi Nyumba Shule / Skuli fortune the market (in Z'bar) a table a country a house a school Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 10. 8. Who is that man ? Whose are these clothes ? Who threw this stone ? What do you sell ? How much do you sell these oranges ? What kind of animal is it ? What kind of fruit is it ? What wages do you want ? How many day laborers do you need ? How many luggages are there at home ? What's your name ? What sort of meat is there at the market ? How many fruit have you bought ? Where do these vegetables come from ? How many eggs should I buy ? 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . 5. 12.Chapter 21 http://mwanasimba.

8. umesoma kitabu hiki ? Jina lako nani ? . Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:45 PM . 5. Chai iko wapi ? .Iko mezani. Mkutano unaanza saa ngapi ? Watoto wangapi wamekosa kuja shuleni leo ? Kwa nini unachelewa kazini kila siku ? Unasemaje ? .Yuko nyumbani. 6. 4.Chapter 21 http://mwanasimba. 9.Sina la 7. langu Idi Kibogoyo. Watoto wako wapi ? . 10. 15. Kuna wanyama gani Serengeti ? Unafanya nini shambani ? Nitawezaje kubeba mzigo huu ? Wamefika Nairobi lini ? Kisu changu kipya kiko wapi ? Kwa nini umepika kuku na mboga tena ? Je.htm EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 13. Mwalimu yuko wapi ? . 11. 3. 14.Wako shuleni. 12.

5. 3 (-tatu). 4.Chapter 22 http://mwanasimba. and like all adjectives. whereas numbers 2 (-wili). but before the demonstrative. AGREEMENTS OF THE NUMBERS : 2. In the case of a composite number (11. 20 are invariable and do not take class prefixes. 5 (-tano) and 8 (-nane) take only plural agreements. 8 : CLASS / NOUN Cl 2 Watoto Cl 4 Mikate Cl 6 Matunda Cl 8 Viti Cl 10 Nguo 2 wawili miwili mawili viwili mbili 3 watatu mitatu matatu vitatu tatu 4 wanne minne manne vinne nne 5 watano mitano matano vitano tano 8 wanane minane manane vinane nane 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM . they are placed after the noun.Numbers 1.htm Chapter 22 . number 1 (-moja) takes only class agreements in the singular. etc.) only the concordant part of the number takes a prefix of class. 2. 3. 3. 14. NOTE : By their nature. 7. 13. 4. 9. 8 agree with the noun and take a class prefix. One characteristic of the numbers is that some of them are invariable while others are concordant. 5. 15. Thus : Numbers 6. 10. NUMBERS FROM 1 TO 20 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -MOJA -WILI / MBILI -TATU -NNE -TANO SITA SABA -NANE TISA KUMI 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 KUMI NA -MOJA KUMI NA -WILI / MBILI KUMI NA -TATU KUMI NA -NNE KUMI NA -TANO KUMI NA SITA KUMI NA SABA KUMI NA -NANE KUMI NA TISA ISHIRINI Numbers in Swahili behave like adjectives. Numbers 1. 4 (-nne).

HUNDREDS : 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM .online.Chapter 22 the unit is introduced by the word NA = and. EXAMPLES : 21 34 61 78 Watoto ishirini na mmoja Watu thelathini na wanne Viti sitini na kimoja Viti sabini na vinane Twenty-one children Thirty-four people Sixty-one chairs Seventy-eight chairs 3. TENS : 10 20 30 40 50 KUMI ISHIRINI THELATHINI AROBAINI HAMSINI 60 70 80 90 SITINI SABINI THEMANINI TISINI When a ten is followed by a unit.htm EXAMPLES : 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 8 8 11 12 13 14 18 25 Mtoto mmoja Mkate mmoja Tunda moja Nguo moja Kijiko kimoja Miaka mitatu Matunda sita Matunda manane Watu wanane Vijiko kumi na kimoja Vijiko kumi na viwili Matunda kumi na matatu Miti kumi na minne Watu kumi na wanane Watu ishirini na watano One child One bread One fruit One cloth One spoon Three years Six fruits Eight fruits Eight people Eleven spoons Twelve spoons Thirteen fruits Fourteen trees Eighteen people Twenty-five people 2.

online. EXAMPLES : 1001 1600 1735 4352 4500 7800 8903 Elfu moja na moja Elfu moja mia sita Elfu moja mia saba thelathini na tano Elfu nne mia tatu hamsini na mbili Elfu nne mia tano Elfu saba mia nane Elfu nane mia tisa na tatu 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM . but only once. we use the word NA (= and). but it is never used between the thousands and the hundreds. between the last two numbers. THOUSANDS : 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 ELFU (MOJA) ELFU MBILI ELFU TATU ELFU NNE ELFU TANO 6000 7000 8000 9000 ELFU SITA ELFU SABA ELFU NANE ELFU TISA In numbers containing thousands.Chapter 22 the word NA introduces the tens or the units. EXAMPLES : 101 110 111 308 328 Mia na moja Mia na kumi Mia kumi na moja Mia tatu na nane Mia tatu ishirini na nane 4.htm 100 200 300 400 500 MIA (MOJA) MIA MBILI MIA TATU MIA NNE MIA TANO 600 700 800 900 MIA SITA MIA SABA MIA NANE MIA TISA When a hundred is followed by tens and units.

The word "point" is : NUKTA or POINTI. and the number will read : 15.030 30. For example : Number 15. i.000 48.025 NOTE : Elfu kumi na sita na thelatini Elfu thelathini mia mbili Elfu arobaini na nane ishirini na tano There is a Swahili word to designate the hundreds of thousands : LAKI = lakh. DECIMALS : The figure "zero" is : SIFURI.000 30.Chapter 22 FRACTIONS : 1/2 1/4 1/8 Nusu Robo Thumni a half a quarter an eighth 7. which can also be interpreted as : 1015 ! Thus. EXAMPLES : 16.e. tens. Decimal numbers are read in Swahili as in English. or units. 6.200 there is no such risk of confusion. when the tens of thousands are followed by hundreds. EXAMPLES : 16. some care must be taken to avoid confusions. lac. by separating each figure after the point. to avoid any risk of confusion. This rule must be observed every time the tens of thousands are not followed by any other number. Laki sita = 600. etc.000.000 = Kumi na tano elfu. the word elfu will be placed AFTER the number that quantifies it. and the words retain their normal order. 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM .htm 5. TENS OF THOUSANDS : When handling numbers with tens of thousands. Thus : Laki mbili = 200.000 Kumi na sita elfu Thelathini elfu Arobaini na nane elfu On the other hand. Million is : MILIONI.000 should read : Elfu kumi na tano.

Leo ni siku ya tisa sijalewa. VOCABULARY 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM . mbili.25 20.Today is the ninth day since I haven't drunk. .fr/E_Chap22.Bila shaka hizo siku tisa huna pesa ! Mimi najua. . tano Ishirini nukta moja. ORDINAL NUMBERS : -A KWANZA -A PILI -A TATU -A NNE -A TANO -A SITA -A SABA -A NANE -A TISA -A KUMI Mtoto wa kwanza Gari la pili Mara ya tatu Mkate wa nne Nyumba ya tano Mnyama wa sita Siku ya saba Mti wa nane Mwezi wa tisa Mtu wa kumi The first child The second car The third time The fourth bread The fifth house The sixth animal The seventh day The eighth tree The ninth month The tenth person Chakubanga .htm EXAMPLES : 0. I'm certainly going to stop .Without a doubt you had no money during those nine days ! I'm sure of this.Chapter 22 http://mwanasimba.5 10.125 Sifuri nukta tano Kumi nukta mbili. tano 8. inaelekea nataka kuacha ulevi.

22. 762 .000 . 752. 10. 21 people . 3 children . mia tatu kumi na sita .000 . 235 . mia nne . 3 cats . 695 . laki saba . mia mbili . 12 houses . 2 dogs .005 . EXERCISE 2 : Write these numbers in figures : Kumi na tano . 4 bananas . Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 3:46 PM . 93 .fr/E_Chap22. milioni mbili. 8 oranges . elfu kumi . 14. laki moja .914 . 10. 4 spoons . 22 teachers. 14 lessons .326 .Chapter 22 http://mwanasimba. EXERCICE 3 : Translate into Swahili. 89 . arobaini na nne . 7. thelathini na moja .000 .056 . hamsini na nane . ishirini na saba . themanini na tano . 134.000 . 9 . 18 animals . 1049 . 24 years . 4 fruits .htm Eka Futi Galoni Hatua Inchi Kilo an acre a foot a gallon a step an inch a kilo Kilometa Lita Maili Mita Ratili Yadi / wari a kilometer a liter a mile a meter a pound a yard Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Write these numbers in letters in Swahili : 0 . elfu kumi na mbili mia tano sabini na nne . elfu tano . kumi na tano elfu . kumi na tisa . 30 trees . 2203 . mia saba . 115 islands .online. writing the numbers in letters : 12 cups . 300. 31 . arobaini na mbili elfu . 14. 3 young people . 225 pupils . sabini na tatu . 10 cows . 157 . 11 chairs .

to read time correctly ! 1. and seven o'clock in the evening is the first hour of the night : We may consider that there is a six hour shift between Western time and "Swahili" time. the word SAA (= hour) precedes the figure. the clocks are always set Western fashion. So one always has to add or substract mentally 6 hours. However.. while time is read and even written according to the Swahili system.. THE HOUR : In Swahili.Time Tanzania and Kenya being located close to the equator.Chapter 23 http://mwanasimba. Thus : SWAHILI TIME SAA MOJA SAA MBILI SAA TATU SAA NNE SAA TANO SAA SITA SAA SABA SAA NANE SAA TISA SAA KUMI SAA KUMI NA MOJA SAA KUMI NA MBILI one o'clock two o'clock three o'clock four o'clock five o'clock six o'clock seven o'clock eight o'clock nine o'clock ten o'clock eleven o'clock twelve o'clock WESTERN TIME 7 o'clock in the morning 8 o'clock n the morning 9 o'clock in the morning 10 o'clock in the morning 11 o'clock in the morning 12 o'clock in the morning 1 o'clock in the afternoon 2 o'clock in the afternoon 3 o'clock in the afternoon 4 o'clock in the afternoon 5 o'clock in the evening 6 o'clock in the evening EXPRESSION : Sasa ni saa saba kamili = It is now one o'clock sharp (now is seven o'clock completely) 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:46 PM Therefore 7 o'clock in the morning is the first hour of the day. there are few variations during the year in the hours of sunrise and sunset.htm Chapter 23 .online. The sun rises around six o'clock in the morning and sets around six o'clock in the evening.

.. we count the missing minutes to reach the following hour. na dakika tano na dakika kumi na robo na dakika shirini The word "quarter" is : ROBO. 2. = .. while to add a half we use the word U (from the Arabic "WA" = and) 3.. and KASOROBO = quarter to.Chapter 23 http://mwanasimba. We use the expressions : KASORO DAKIKA .fr/E_Chap23... we must use different expressions marking the moment of the day : "YA ASUBUHI" (= in the morning) "YA MCHANA" (= in the afternoon) "YA JIONI" (= in the evening) "YA USIKU" (= at night) EXAMPLES : Saa moja ya asubuhi Sa nane ya mchana Saa moja ya jioni Saa tatu ya usiku = one o'clock in the morning = eight o'clock in the afternoon = one o'clock in the evening = three o'clock at night (= 7 am) (= 2 pm) (= 7 pm) (= 9 pm). SOME MINUTES TO : Past the half. Saa tatu na robo Saa tatu u nusu Saa kumi na mbili u nusu Quarter past three Half past three Half past twelve (= 9 h 15) (= 9 h 30) (= 6 h 30) five past ten past quarter past twenty past . The word "half" is : NUSU. EXAMPLES : Saa nane kasoro dakika kumi ten to eight (= ten to two) 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:46 PM . to distinguish between the hours of the night and the hours of the Note that to add minutes and a quarter.htm Reading the time over a 24 hour period is not common in Swahili. minutes to ... One will mention the additional minutes while counting as follows : Saa moja. SOME MINUTES PAST : The word "minute" is : DAKIKA.. we use the word NA (= and). etc.

30 pm around 8 pm and after The dawn prayer The noon prayer The afternoon prayer The sunset prayer The night prayer VOCABULARY Bata Farasi Jogoo a duck a horse a cock Panya Punda Mbwa mwitu a PRAYER TIMES : In strongly islamized places such as the five Muslim prayers give its rythm to the day and constitute for the local population temporal reference points.. Lamu (an island north of kenya).Chapter 23 http://mwanasimba.45 am / 6.htm Saa tisa kasoro dakika ishirini Saa tisa kasorobo twenty to nine quarter to nine (= twenty to three) (= quarter to three) 4. almost like "hours" : ALFAJIRI ADHUHURI ALASIRI MAGHARIBI ALESHA around 5. etc.30 am around 3 pm / 5 pm around 6 pm / 6. a mouse a donkey a wolf.30 am around 12 am / 12. DIFFERENT PERIODS OF THE DAY AND OF THE NIGHT : Every 24 hour period can be divided as follows : KUCHA ASUBUHI MCHANA JIONI MACHWA USIKU USIKU KUCHA USIKU WA MANANE KUCHA KUTWA Sunrise from 6 am to 12 am approximately from 4 pm to 6 pm approximately Sunset from 6 pm to 5 am from 6 pm to 5 am around 2 am 24 hours Dawn Morning Evening The twilight Night The whole night The dead of the night The whole day and whole night from 1 pm to 4 / 5 pm approximately The day 5. a wild dog 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:46 PM .

alasiri. three o'clock in the morning. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:46 PM .fr/E_Chap23. magharibi.htm Kondoo Nguruwe Njiwa a sheep a pig a pigeon Sungura Tembo / Ndovu Twiga a hare. saa tisa. 6 h 30 in the evening. what time have you got ? Twenty-five to four. saa sita kasoro dakika tano. 2 h 10. jioni. sunset. 17 h. evening. usiku. a rabbit an elephant a giraffe Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 7 h 15. saa tatu na dakika kumi. dawn. saa saba kamili. eight o'clock at night.Chapter 23 http://mwanasimba. nine o'clock. half past three. saa tano na dakika kumi na mbili. saa kumi na mbili ya usiku. asubuhi. noon. saa saba kasorobo. saa tisa u nusu. mchana. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : five past one.

e. 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:47 PM . THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR : There are two ways for naming the months in Swahili : either by giving them an ordinal number : first month. Dates 1.. or by giving them their English Chapter 24 . with an adapted spelling. the five first days of the week have got Bantu names. Arabic and Bantu. for the Friday prayer at the mosque). i. The system would be perfect if one went on with "Jumasita" and "Jumasaba". second month.e. Swahili borrowed its two last names from the Arabic : Alhamisi (= Thursday). i. first day of the week.Chapter 24 http://mwanasimba. JUMAMOSI JUMAPILI JUMATATU JUMANNE JUMATANO ALHAMISI IJUMAA (The 1 day of the week) (The 2 nd rd th t st Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday day of the week) (The 3 day of the week) (The 4 day of the week) (The 5 day of the week) (five) (assembly) DAYS OF THE WEEK : The names of the days of the week in Swahili are a curious mixture of two languages. until Jumatano (= Wednesday). "five" in Arabic (so that we have now got two "fifth" days in the week ! ) and Ijumaa (= Friday) which means the assembly (of faithful. Months. etc. except that instead of those.e.. fifth day of the week. i. Thus. from Jumamosi (= Saturday).


keys a quarrel. tongues a fork.The U. forks a hair.Gender The U.Chapter 25 http://mwanasimba. diseases a that jointly share the nominal prefix U. that contains nouns of concrete objects that make their plural in class 10. Classe 14. sides 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM .htm Chapter 25 .in the singular. that countains abstract singular nouns. a beard a crack. and more rarely in class 6.gender is actually composed of 2 distinct classes of nouns. flowers a courtyard. clans a wall. boards a hair of quarrels a disease. walls the tongue. This gender has no specific plural. 1. NOUNS IN CLASS 11 : a) Concrete nouns with various plurals : SINGULIER Ua Ua Ubao Udevu Ufa Ufunguo Ugomvi Ugonjwa Ukoo Ukuta Ulimi Uma Unywele Upande PLURIEL maua nyua bao ndevu nyufa funguo magomvi magonjwa koo kuta ndimi nyuma nywele pande Cl 6 Classe Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 6 Cl 6 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Traduction a flower. These 2 classes are : Class 11. cracks a key. courtyards a board. the hair a side.

NOUNS IN CLASS 14 : Most of them are formed from an adjectival. dust a thread. the ground 2. times a razor blade. a) Adjectival root : ADJECTIVE -baya bad Translation Ubaya NOUN Translation maliciousness 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM .htm Upanga Upepo Usiku Uso Utambi Uvumbi Uzi Wakati Wembe Wimbo panga pepo siku nyuso tambi vumbi nyuzi nyakati nyembe nyimbo Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 Cl 10 a machete. machetes wind. without plural : NOUN Udongo Ugali Uji Ukimwi Ulimwengu Umeme Umri Unga Usingizi Uwongo Wino maize paste porridge AIDS the world electricity age flour sleep a lie ink Translation the soil. bad spirits the night. threads time. songs b) uncountable nouns. razor blades a 25 http://mwanasimba. wicks a grain of dust. nominal or verbal root. the day a face. faces a wick.

htm -chafu huru -jinga -moja -refu safi -sawa -tajiri -vivu -zuri dirty free stupid one long clean equal 25 http://mwanasimba. wealthy lazy beautiful Uchafu Uhuru Ujinga Umoja Urefu Usafi Usawa Utajiri Uvivu Uzuri dirtiness freedom stupidity unity length cleanliness equality wealth laziness beauty b) Nominal root : NOUN Jamaa Kijana Maskini Mchawi Mfalme Mtoto Mzee Translation a group of people a young person a poor a witch a king a child an old man Ujana NOUN Ujamaa Umaskini Uchawi Ufalme Utoto Uzee Translation a community youth poverty witchcraft a kingdom childhood old age c) Verbal root : VERB Kuiba Kukosa Kula Kupenda Kuweza Kusahau Translation to steal to miss to eat to love. to like to be able to forget Uwizi NOUN theft lack Ukosefu Wali Upendo Uwezo Usahaulifu Translation cooked rice love capacity forgetfulness d) Names of countries : 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM .fr/E_Chap25.

or Ø-. TANZANIAN SLOGAN : Uhuru ni Kazi 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM . possessives and demonstratives. the adjective usually agrees with the noun by taking the class 10 prefix N.htm NAME OF COUNTRY Ufaransa Uganda Uhabeshi Uhindi Uingereza Ujerumani Ulaya Unguja Ureno Urusi Usukuma France Uganda Translation Ethiopia India England Germany Europe Isle of Zanzibar Portugal Russia Sukumaland 3.gender : Tanzania.behave like the names of countries of the N. Misri (= Egypt). In the plural. or more rarely the class 6 prefix MA-. Singular Ukuta mrefu Uzi mweupe Upande mmoja Ufunguo mwingine Ugomvi mkali a high wall a white thread one side another key a severe quarrel Kuta ndefu Nyuzi mweupe Pande mbili Funguo nyingine Magomvi makali Plural high walls white threads two sides other keys severe quarrels NOTE : The names of countries that start with the prefix U. CLASS AGREEMENTS OF THE ADJECTIVE : In the singular. the adjective agrees with the noun by taking the class 3 singular prefix M-. Kenya. adjectives. and take class 9 agreements with the verbs.Chapter 25

the length. capacity. dust. the ground. nywele nyeusi. fagio Ukuni. b. comfort Upana Ushi. France. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : Ufagio mdogo. kuni Ukurasa. poverty. the Isle of Zanzibar. forgetfulness. wino mwekundu. uso mzuri. unga 25 http://mwanasimba. nyuta Wema Wivu width an eyebrow a cooperative an arc kindness jealousy Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. the hair. ink. wealth. wicks. dust. sleep. usiku 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM . lack. kurasa Unono a quarrel scarcity a broom. a tongue. a brush firewood a page wellbeing. old age. magonjwa makubwa. electricity. kuni nyingi. beauty. pande mbili. stupidity. wimbo mzuri. udongo mzuri. time. mbao nzito. firewood. a song. cleanliness. Portugal. upendo mkubwa. uzi mweusi. ufunguo mpya. diseases. a side. nyembe kali. A key. the face. a board. Germany. love. ukuta mrefu. Freedom. dirtiness. ndevu ndefu. England. childhood.htm MOTTO OF TANZANIA : UHURU NA UMOJA VOCABULARY Ubishi Uchache Ufagio. unity. nyushi Ushirika nyuma safi. machetes. a beard. ulimi mchafu. porridge.

Chapter 25 http://mwanasimba. Mzee yule amelala usingizi uani. Lete nyingine ! Mwalimu anatumia ubao mweusi shuleni. 2. Taa hizi mbili zataka tambi mpya. 11. Ana ugomvi mkali na jamaa zake.htm mweusi. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 3:48 PM . Nimepotea funguo zangu : siwezi kufungua mlango ! Wakati huu kuna upepo mkali 13. Kuni zote zimekwisha. Vibarua wanahitaji panga tatu na fagio nne. Tanganyika imepata uhuru wake mwaka wa elfu moja mia tisa sitini na moja. 7. 8. Msichana huyu ana nywele ndefu nyeusi. 6. 15. 10. Duka la ushirika linauza unga wa ngano. 12. 5. visu na vijiko mezani. 14. Mbao hizi ndefu mno. Lete nyuma. 3. 4. Nipike nini leo : Wali au ugali ? Uji huu mzuri sana. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1.

"in". thus : Nakwenda Dodoma Wamefika Zanzibar Wazazi wangu wanakaa Iringa Yuko Posta I go to Dodoma They arrived in Zanzibar My parents live in Iringa He is at the post-office (I go Dodoma) (They have arrived Zanzibar) (My parents live Iringa) (He is post-office) 2.Place 1.Chapter 26 Where ? : 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:48 PM .htm Chapter 26 . Bara = a continent. "on" or "at" : in order to do this. THE LOCATIVE SUFFIX : There exists in Swahili a very convenient way to translate "inside".online. as well as some common place nouns (Posta = the post-office. proper names of cities and countries. EXAMPLES : Bahari Bandari Meza Njia Nyumba Shamba Shule = the sea = the harbour = the table = the way = the house = the farm = the school -> Bahari-ni -> Bandari-ni -> Meza-ni -> Njia-ni -> Nyumba-ni -> Shamba-ni -> Shule-ni = on the sea / at sea = in the harbour = on the table = on the way = in the house / at home = at the farm / in the country = at school This system has also given proper names of districts or villages : Bwawa Daraja Forodha Mgomba Mkunazi Msasa Mto = marsh = bridge = customs = banana tree = jujub tree = rough plant = river -> Bwawa-ni -> Daraja-ni -> Forodha-ni -> Mgomba-ni -> Mkunazi-ni -> Msasa-ni -> Mto-ni = on the marshes = by the bridge = at the customs = where there is a banana tree = where there is a jujub tree = where there are rough plants = by the river However. Markiti = a market) do not take that suffix. we simply add the suffix -NI at the end of a noun.

htm To ask : "where ?". far from in front of among in. close to between. below on top. along near. "MWA" and "KWA".) Baina (ya) Chini (ya) Juu (ya) Kando (ya) Karibu (na) Kati (ya) Katika Katikati (ya) Mbali (na) Mbele (ya) Miongoni mwa Ndani (ya) Ng'ambo (ya) Nje (ya) Nyuma (ya) Toka / Kutoka between under. on among far. inside on the other side of outside behind from EXAMPLES : Chagua kimoja baina ya vitu hivi Paka amelala chini ya kitanda Weka kikapu juu ya kiti Wanafuata mfereji kando ya barabara Simama karibu na moto Hamisi yupo kati ya Ali na Juma Panya ameingia katika shimo Anapanda katika mti mkubwa ule Mgonjwa ameondoka katika kitanda Choose one of these things The cat is sleeping under the bed Put the basket on the chair They follow the ditch along the road Stand close to the fire Hamisi is between Ali and Juma The mouse has entered (inside) the hole He is climbing on that big tree The patient has left the bed 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:48 PM .fr/E_Chap26.Chapter 26 http://mwanasimba. in the middle of in.The Connectives "PA". ADVERBS / PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: (See also : Chapter 45 .Interrogative Words. above beside. we use the interrogative adverb : WAPI ? (See : Chapter 21 .) Unakwenda wapi ? Mbeya iko wapi ? Where do you go ? Where is Mbeya ? 3.

Weka mzigo pale ! Mtoto yuko wapi ? . Put the luggage over there ! Where is the child ? . DEMONSTRATIVES / ADVERBS OF PLACE PROXIMITY PRECISE PLACE VAGUE PLACE INTERIOR PLACE HAPA = here HUKU = around here HUMU = here inside DISTANCE PALE = over there KULE = by over there MLE = there inside REFERENCE HAPO = there HUKO = there around HUMO = inside EXAMPLES : Usiweke mzigo hapa.Chapter 26 http://mwanasimba. which are used according to the degree of proximity and the nature of the These are derived from the locative prefixes PA. There are 9 adverbs of place. VOCABULARY Chatu a python Nyani a baboon 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:48 PM .Amekwenda kule ! Lile joka limeingia mle shimoni.He has gone somewhere over there ! This large snake has entered (inside) the hole. Don't put the luggage here.htm Mwembe mmoja unasimama katikati ya ua Usiende mbali na nyumba Walimu wameketi mbele ya wanafunzi Miongoni mwa mmoja anasimama Ninasafiri mpaka Mwanza Kuna vitu mbalimbali ndani ya sanduku Siwezi kufika ng'ambo ya mto ule Alipata mkate toka / kutoka mjini A mango tree stands in the middle of the courtyard Don't go far from the house The teachers are sitting in front of the pupils Among the children. DEMONSTRATIVES / ADVERBS OF PLACE : They are usually placed after the noun. Nobody lives in this house. KU. Humu nyumbani hamkai mtu. MU. one is standing I'm travelling up to Mbeya There are various things inside the trunk I can't reach the opposite bank of that river He got bread from the city 4.

in the bush.Chapter 26 http://mwanasimba. where do you all go ? We are going to England. kando ya bahari. Bwana yupo ? . Weka viazi na vitunguu katika kikapu. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:48 PM . where do you go ? I go to town. my house is near the post-office. anafanya safari kwenda Serengeti. 14. 9. on the way. the gentleman is at the post-office. 3. Nyumba yao iko karibu na msikiti mkuu. 13. huko Iringa. Nyani mmoja anasimama kule. I have arrived in Zanzibar. Basi hili linakwenda mpaka Nairobi. at the market. 4. on the chair. they climb Mount Kilimanjaro.htm Chui Duma Fisi Mamba Ngamia a leopard a cheetah a hyena a crocodile a camel Nyati / Mbogo Paa Swala Tai Tumbili a buffalo an impala a gazelle a vulture a monkey Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. Wageni wanakaa Hoteli ya Kati. at the at school. by the river. 6. at sea. karibu na mto. on the plantation. Wazanzibari wapenda kutembea Forodhani jioni. they live on the other bank of the river. by the bridge. Kuna panya kubwa chini ya kitanda. I go to Nairobi. At home. put the basket over there. on the table. in the trunk. b. 15. they live in Iringa. 10. on the marshes. at the door. at the banana plantation. Angalia vizuri ! Mamba wengi wanalala huku. in the basket. 12. 5. the child is behind the tree.Hayupo. 2. Mnakwenda wapi ? . Watoto wako wapi ? . Kitoto ameondoka katika he comes from Mbeya. 8. katikati ya miti. they are in Dar es Salaam. on the veranda. at work. in bed. Mwalimu anasimama mbele ya wanafunzi. 11.Wako shuleni. 7.Tunakwenda Posta. Wazazi wako wanakaa wapi ? Wanakaa mjini Zanzibar.

(Classes 9 / 10) SIMPLE EMPHATICS : EMPHATICS GENDERS / Classes M-/WA.(Classes 3 / 4) JI-/ whose termination changes according to the noun to which it agrees. alipofika) in 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:49 PM .Chapter 27 http://mwanasimba. One can roughly translate the Swahili emphatic by the words "indeed" or "the very" in English. 14 / 10) PA (Locative Class 16) KU (Locative Class 17) MU (Locative Class 18) Singular ndiye ndio ndilo ndicho ndiyo ndio ndipo ndiko ndimo Plural ndio ndiyo ndiyo ndivyo ndizo ndizo EXAMPLES : Mpishi yule ndiye hodari Hawa ndio watu walioniiba mizigo yangu Huu ndio mkoba wangu Hicho ndicho kitu nilichokitafuta Dawa hii ndiyo nzuri sana Saa moja ndipo alipofika That cook is indeed gifted They are the very people who stole us our luggage It's indeed my bag This is the very thing I was looking for This medicine is indeed very good.Emphatics DEFINITION : An emphatic is a word used to stress or reinforce an element in the speech. nilichokitafuta.(Classes 11. He arrived actually at 7 o'clock NOTE : One often comes across verbs with the relative (walioniiba.htm Chapter 27 .(Classes 5 / 6) KI-/VI. 1.(Classes 1 / 2) M-/MI.(Classes 7 / 8) N. The Swahili emphatic is a word whose root is NDI.

(Classes 7 / 8) N. THE NEGATIVE FORM : The emphatics possess a negative form.: it's actually the negative form of the verb KUWA (= to be) in the present 1 / 2) M-/ replaced by the negative root 5 / 6) KI-/VI.(Classes 3 / 4) JI-/MA.) . 14 / 10) PA (Locative Class 16) KU (Locative Class 17) MU (Locative Class 18) Singular siye sio silo sicho siyo sio sipo siko simo Plural sio siyo siyo sivyo sizo sizo EXAMPLES : 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:49 PM . Several lessons will be devoted to the relative tenses further on. (See : Chapter 52 et Chapter 53. lakini maji ya kuoga ili tusherehekee tukiwa wasafi hayatoshi ! Hii ndio Bongo ! = We are commemorating "The week of water" but bathing water so that we can be clean to celebrate is not enough ! That's how it is in Bongo ! (= Dar es Salaam) 2. EMPHATICS GENDERS / Classes M-/WA.(Classes 9 / 10) U.Tuko kwenye sherehe za wiki ya maji.htm this type of speech.Chapter 27 http://mwanasimba.(Classes 11. the affirmative root NDI. In order to achieve this.

That's me Who has broken this mirror ? . the answer Ndiyo Bwana means "what you say is true". i.Sio mimi This is not the person who stole me my watch This is not what I said Who took my money ? .Chapter 27 http://mwanasimba. he / she implicitly agrees with what has been said. Mama Who will go to town ? . I didn't get it". : "Indeed. . Sir.Ndiyo Bwana.Ukupata fedha zako ? . the three persons plural more rarely so. "NDIYO" & "SIYO" : The emphatics NDIYO and SIYO have given the words "yes" and "no".fr/ Nani amevunja kioo hicho ? . Mum Emphatic pronouns in the third person singular and plural possess a contracted negative form : Full form Si yeye Si wao Contracted form Siye Sio Translation It's not him / her It's not them 4. The three persons singular are often contracted.It's him. Full form Ndiye mimi Ndiye wewe Ndiye yeye Ndio sisi Ndio ninyi Ndio wao Contracted form Ndimi Ndiwe Ndiye (Ndisi) (Ndinyi) (Ndio) Translation It's me It's you It's him / her It's us It's you (Plur) It's them EXAMPLES : Nani atakwenda mjini ? .Yes.htm Huyu siye mtu aliyeniiba saa yangu Sivyo nilivyosema Nani alichukua fedha zangu ? .Ndiye.Not me 3. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS : The autonomous subject pronouns possess emphatic forms. It should be noted that if someone answers Ndiyo to a negative question. 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:49 PM . In the present case. You haven't got your money (have you ?) ? .e.

Shouldn't I buy bread ? . buy some ! .Siyo. 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:49 PM . usinunue ! . nunua ! .Ninunue mkate ? .fr/E_Chap27. But this one is very clever.Chapter 27 http://mwanasimba.Yes. 5. 2.Should I buy bread ? .Ndiyo. These people are indeed robbers. don't ! .Ninunue mkate ? . 9. It's the very thing I was looking for. It IS the bus to Mombasa.Nisinunue mkate ? .Siyo.htm That would normally correspond to "No. usinunue ! . to sacrifice to refuse to agree to wash one's hands to rest to help Ku-tafuna Ku-ua Ku-uma Ku-winda Ku-zima Ku-zungumza to chew to kill to hurt to hunt to extinguish to speak Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. nunua ! .Shouldn't I buy bread ? ? . don't ! . This pupil is very lazy. 7.Yes (No). This is not the This piece of luggage is indeed mine. This wine is indeed very good.Ndiyo. We do come at nine o'clock. 6.No (Yes) buy some ! VOCABULARY Ku-chinja Ku-kataa Ku-kubali Ku-nawa Ku-pumzika Ku-saidia to kill. 8.Should I buy bread ? . 3. I didn't" in English ! OTHER EXEMPLES : . 4.Nisinunue mkate ? .

Siyo nyama ya nguruwe. Hukupata mshahara wako ? . 2. 7. Huyu siye. Gari hili ndilo gari langu. Nani anachinja mbuzi ? .Chapter 27 http://mwanasimba.htm Ninunue nyama ? . Mchuzi huu ndio mtamu sana.ndiyo bwana. Hii ndiyo nyama ya mbuzi. Huyu ndiye mtu aliyenisaidia.'s me. 6.Ndiyo.That's him. 8. 9. nunua kilo moja.Sio mimi. Who goes to the post-office today ? . Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:49 PM . EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Mimi ndiye mwanao. Kitabu hiki sicho nitakacho. Tell me who broke that window ? . 11. Nani aliiba mkoba wangu ? . 4. Wanafunzi hawa sio wajinga. 3. 12. 5. baba.Ndiye Musa. 12. 11. It's not what I said.

nor Yes or no ?.) A conjunction is a word that binds 2 groups of words. 3. since He worked until seven in the evening. 4.htm Chapter 28 . 5. or 2 clauses. buy vegetables. PREPOSITIONS He will stay at the hotel from today till the day after tomorrow. 2. In this chapter we are going to review the prepositions of time. HATA = till. KISHA = then . (See : Chapter 26 Place. until Atakaa hapa hata kesho. and then Close the door before leaving. Ndivyo ama sivyo ? 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:50 PM . The prepositions of place have already been studied in a previous chapter.Prepositions and Conjunctions REMINDER : A preposition is a word that enables to locate something in space or time. kisha rudi hapa. then come back here. BAADA YA = after He returned home after finishing work. 6. CONJUNCTIONS 1. I think that you are nice. Kabla hujaondoka. Alifanya kazi mpaka saa moja ya usiku. until Go to the market. KABLA (YA) = before He will remain here till tomorrow. For example : John and Jane . AMA = or. nunua mboga. Alirudi nyumbani baada ya kumaliza kazi. Atakaa hoteli toka leo mpaka kesho kutwa. funga 1. TANGU / TOKA = from. 2.Chapter 28 http://mwanasimba. Nenda markiti. I drink because I am thirsty . MPAKA = till.

Mtoto alifika bila vitabu vyake. I'll wait. 10. BADALA YA = instead of Bring brown bread or white bread. ama ni ndugu yako. nitangoja. even though her child is sick.Yes. 8. that's all Speaking Swahili is not difficult.Around three months. I won't agree. ILI / ILI KWAMBA = These pupils are hard working.Ndiyo. I go to the harbour so as to buy fish. 9. Ninahitaji sanduku kama ila ni huyu. He went to Tanzania without seeing Zanzibar. Everybody arrived. BALI = but rather. IJAPO = even if Ijapo nitakufa. so. BASI = 7. like Food is scarce... ILA = except Even if I die. KAMA = if. bali ni rahisi kabisa. Amefika kazini ingawa mtoto wake mgonjwa. INGAWA = although. juu ya hayo ni ghali mno. 3. Kama atakuja. or it's your brother. 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:50 PM . BILA = Is that all ? . Alikwenda Arusha badala ya kwenda Dar es Salaam. in order to Nakwenda bandari ili ninunue samaki. 11. Ama ni wewe. AU = or Lete mkate mweusi au mweupe. Watu wote wamefika ila mwalimu tu. sitakubali. If he must come. Utakaa kwa muda gani hapa ? . easy. AMA = either . without The child arrived without his books. Alikwenda Tanzania bila kuona Zanzibar. 4. so I came here. well. How long will you stay ? . around. I need a trunk like this one. 13. 12. so that. moreover it is too expensive.Kama miezi mitatu. on the contrary it's very Nilitaka sana kuona wanyama. JUU YA HAYO = moreover Chakula ni haba. Wanafunzi hawa ni hodari. 5. except the teacher. I really wanted to see animals. Salaam. except this one. AMA .htm 2. Basi ? . so as. on the contrary He went to Arusha instead of going to Dar es Kusema kiswahili si vigumu. 6. or Either it's you. even though She has come for work.. basi nilifika hapa.Chapter 28 http://mwanasimba.

Chapter 28 http://mwanasimba. Ninaona kwamba mnyama huyu ni mkali. 22. 14. Kata nanasi kwa kisu ! Cut the pineapple with a knife. = because We came to Tanzania because Tulikuja Tanzania kwa sababu tulitaka kupanda mlima wa Kilimanjaro. with He works for Mr Manji. Angalia vizuri kabla ya kupita mto kwani kuna viboko wengi. Hatukuja kwa maana ya mvua. I see that this animal is savage. we didn't come. kwa hiyo sikuja. 16. I will eat rice with sauce. KWA SABABU (YA) / KWANI We didn't come because of the hatukuja. KAMA KWAMBA / KANA KWAMBA Alicheza pamoja na simba kana kwamba ni wanambuzi. however The cook says his / her father has died. 24. LAKINI / WALAKINI = but. in consequence Kwa ajili ya kunyesha mvua. KWAMBA / KUWA = that Watch carefully before crossing the river Mpishi anasema kwamba baba yake amekufa. to. because there are many hippos. He has built a big house to make a hotel. because of that. moreover he cannot write. Hatukuja kwa kuwa ilinyesha mvua. 17. Nitakula wali kwa mchuzi. 18. He said it was like that. Anafanya kazi kwa Bwana Manji. so I didn't come. KWA KUWA = because I didn't get the news. His / her letter says that he / she is sick. = so. by. 21. 15. This pupil does not work at school. KWA = for. Tulikuja hapa kwa miguu. 19. we wanted to climb Mount Kilimanjaro. KWA AJILI YA = because of Because of the rain. KWA HIYO / KWA HIVYO / KWA VILE Sikupata habari. kisha hajui kuandika. = as if He played with the lions as if they were kids.htm Alisema kama ndivyo hivyo. Barua yake yasema kuwa ni mgonjwa. in order to Amejenga nyumba kubwa kusudi kufanya hoteli. KWA MAANA YA = because of We didn't come because it rained. 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:50 PM . 23. KUSUDI = to. KISHA = moreover Mwanafunzi huyu hasomi shuleni. We came here by foot.

nor There is no rice and no flour either. besides 27. but I don't understand anything. My friend has arrived with his / her children. WALA = either. = moreover. TENA (NA) = again. WALA . wala yeye wala ndugu zake. zaidi ya hayo hana fedha. moreover I have never seen him. yaani kiingereza.. together with Bring chicken and rice and different vegetables.. Sikuwaona. besides he / she has no Sijui mtoto huyu. a rifle a hat a with I learn Swahili. moreover He / she hasn't got his / her ticket. that is. Lete kuku na wali na mboga mbali mbali. NA = and. PAMOJA NA HAYO / JUU YA HAYO / ZAIDI YA HAYO Hana tiketi yake..Chapter 28 http://mwanasimba. 26. YAANI = i. tena sijamwona. English. WALA = neither . PAMOJA (NA) = with.htm Ninasoma kiswahili.e. 29. neither I don't know this child. lakini sielewi kitu. neither him nor his brothers. money. Hili ndilo neno la kigeni. This is indeed a foreign word. 30. VOCABULARY Adui. maPepo Raia Taa Yaya an angel a machete a spirit a citizen a lamp a nanny Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:50 PM . Hakuna mchele wala (hakuna) unga. maBakuli Binamu Bunduki Kofia Ndoo an enemy a vessel a cousin a gun. 31.. a bucket Malaika Panga.. Rafiki yangu amekuja pamoja na watoto wake. that is to say I didn't see them. 25. 6. Lete kahawa au chai. 9. 5. so I can't buy anything. 10. bali ni uongo kabisa. 3. 10. the child did not eat it. Ninakuja markiti mapema ili nipate nyama. Tunakwenda Iringa kwa basi. The child is crying because he is lost. He hurries in order to arrive first. He says he is coming back tomorrow. 8. Neno hili si kweli. Ninakula chakula kabla ya kwenda kazini. Even though the food is good. Anapumzika baada ya kurudi nyumbani.htm EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. We arrived at the school by foot. Don't you know that your grandfather is in hospital ? You work like an ass. Mwalimu anasema kwamba atachelewa kidogo. Watoto wamekula wali kwa mchuzi. 8. 7. 3. but he has already left. Analia kwa sababu mama yake mgonjwa. These people have neither cows nor goats. He came yesterday. 6. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 3:50 PM . EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. I have no money. 4. Ninahitaji viatu vipya lakini sina fedha. 2. 2. 5.Chapter 28 http://mwanasimba. 4.

The only difference is that the adjective must follow the noun it qualifies. Viatu vichafu vya mtoto. 2. Wana wa baba. The small child of Mother. Mtoto mdogo wa mama. Kiti cha is translated in Swahili by a particle whose root is -A. Nguo ya baba. Father's chair. Father's face. Gari jipya la baba. The connective particle -A agrees in class with the noun of the thing (or person) possessed. Magari ya baba. Translation Father's child. which is often equivalent to "of" when it marks possession. Father's Father's trees. Father's garment. Father's tree. Gari la baba. Class Cl 1 Cl 2 Cl 3 Cl 4 Cl 5 Cl 6 Cl 7 Cl 8 Cl 9 Cl 10 Cl 11/14 Connective WA WA WA YA LA YA CHA VYA YA ZA WA Example Mwana wa baba. Father's car. WORD ORDER AND EXAMPLES : The word order in the Swahili sentence is the same as in English. THE CONNECTIVE PARTICLE "-A" : The English possessive case "'s". when possession is conveyed by "of".Chapter 29 http://mwanasimba. Mikono mikubwa ya mtoto mdogo.Possession 1. Uso wa baba. The new car of Father. Father's chairs. The large hands of the small child. Viti vya baba. Father's clothes. Nguo za baba. The dirty shoes of the child.htm Chapter 29 . POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS : 1 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM . Miti ya baba. Father's cars. Mti wa baba.

WITH NOUNS OF THE M-/WA. WITH NOUNS OF THE M-/MI. are affixed to the following possessive markers : -ANGU -AKO -AKE -ETU -ENU -AO my your his. we use the marker The class prefixes. both in singular and plural : Nyumba na mlango wake Gari na milango yake Mti na matunda yake Miti na matunda yake The house and its door The car and its doors The tree and its fruit The trees and their fruit 1.GENDER (Classes 3 / 4) : Mti wangu Mti wako Mti wake Mti wetu Mti wenu Mti wao my tree your tree his / her tree our tree your tree (plur) their tree Miti yangu Miti yako Miti yake Miti yetu Miti yenu Miti yao my trees your trees his / her trees our trees your trees (plur) their trees 2 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM .GENDER (Classes 1 / 2) : Mwana wangu Mwana wako Mwana wake Mwana wetu Mwana wenu Mwana wao my child your child his / her child our child your child their child Wana wangu Wana wako Wana wake Wana wetu Wana wenu Wana wao my children your children his / her children our children your children their children 2.htm Possessive adjectives and pronouns agree in class with the noun of the possessed object / person.Chapter 29 http://mwanasimba. her our your their mine yours his. hers ours yours theirs NOTE : When the possessor is not a human being but a identical to those of the connective particle.

Chapter 29 (Classes 5 / 6) : Gari langu Gari lako Gari lake Gari letu Gari lenu Gari lao my car your car his / her car our car your car (plur) their car Magari yangu Magari yako Magari yake Magari yetu Magari yenu Magari yao my cars you cars his / her cars our cars your cars (plur) their cars 4.GENDER (Classes 9 / 10) : Nguo yangu Nguo yako Nguo yake Nguo yetu Nguo yenu Nguo yao my garment your garment his / her garment our garment your garment (plur) their garment Nguo zangu Nguo zako Nguo zake Nguo zetu Nguo zenu Nguo zao my clothes your clothes his / her clothes our clothes your clothes (plur) their clothes 6. WITH NOUNS OF THE U. WITH NOUNS OF THE N. WITH NOUNS OF THE JI-/MA.GENDER (Classes 11.htm 14 / 10) : Uso wangu Uso wako Uso wake Uso wetu Uso wenu Uso wao my face your face his / her face our face your face their face Nyuso zangu Nyuso zako Nyuso zake Nyuso zetu Nyuso zenu Nyuso zao my faces your faces his / her faces our faces your faces their faces 3 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM .GENDER (Classes 7 / 8) : Kiti changu Kiti chako Kiti chake Kiti chetu Kiti chenu Kiti chao my chair your chair his / her chair our chair your chair (plur) their chair Viti vyangu Viti vyako Viti vyake Viti vyetu Viti vyenu Viti vyao my chairs your chairs his / her chairs our chairs your chairs (plur) their chairs 5. WITH NOUNS OF THE KI-/VI.

TWO PARTICULAR POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES / PRONOUNS : 1. CONTRACTED FORMS : PERSON + POSSESSIVE ADJ.linked to possessive markers conveys the meaning "away" and produces the following series of possessive pronouns : 4 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM The connective particle ZA.Chapter 29 http://mwanasimba. : Baba yangu Baba yako Baba yake Mama yangu Mama yako Mama yake Mke wako Mke wake Mume wako Mume wake Mwana wangu Mwana wako Mwana wake Mwenzi wangu Mwenzi wako Mwenzi wake Mwenzi wetu Mwenzi wenu Mwenzi wao Likewise in plural : -> Babangu -> Babako -> Babake -> Mamangu -> Mamako -> Mamake -> Mkeo -> Mkewe -> Mumeo -> Mumewe -> Mwanangu -> Mwanao -> Mwanawe -> Mwenzangu -> Mwenzako / -zio -> Mwenzake / -zie -> Mwenzetu -> Mwenzenu -> Mwenzao -> Wenzangu -> Wenzako / -zio -> Wenzake / -zie -> Wenzetu -> Wenzenu -> Wenzao -> Nduguyo -> Nduguye -> Nduguzo -> Nduguze = my father = your father = his / her father = my mother = your mother = his / her mother = your wife = his wife = your husband = her husband = my child = your child = his / her child = my comrade = your comrade = his / her comrade = our comrade = your comrade (plur) = their comrade = my comrades = your comrades = his / her comrades = our comrades = your comrades (plur) = their comrades = your friend = his / her friend = your friends = their friends Ndugu yako Ndugu yake Ndugu zako Ndugu zake 4.htm 3. to possessive markers convey the meaning "at home" and produce the following series of possessive adjectives / pronouns : PANGU PAKO PAKE PETU PENU PAO KWANGU KWAKO KWAKE KWETU KWENU KWAO MWANGU MWAKO MWAKE MWETU MWENU MWAO at my home at your home at his / her home at our home at your home (plur) at their home NOTE 1 : These are the possessives we use after nouns suffixed in -NI (= at. etc.htm Ninakwenda ZANGU Unakwenda ZAKO Anakwenda ZAKE Tunakwenda ZETU Mnakwenda ZENU Wanakwenda ZAO I go away You go away He / she goes away We go away You go away (plur) They go away The locative particles PA-.Chapter 29 http://mwanasimba. have left their native noun class to join the locative classes : Nyumbani kwangu at my home Nyumbani kwako Nyumbani kwake at your home at his / her home Nyumbani kwetu Nyumbani kwenu Nyumbani kwao at our home at your home (plur) at their home EXAMPLES : Bwana hayumo chumbani mwake Anarudi kisiwani kwake katika ziwa Wamo nyumbani mwao Kwenu ku wapi ? Wamekwenda zao Kwetu hakuna mahindi mengi Mkoba huu ni wa nani ? . by) which. even when the possessor is singular : 5 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM .It's (of) mine NOTE 2 : The plural KWAO (= their) is most often used for a collective place (like a house. in a way.Ni wa kwangu The master is not in his room He goes back to his island on the lac They are in their house Where is your place ? They have gone away At our place there is not much corn Whose bag is it ? . MU. in. an office. on.

Ndiyo.htm EXAMPLES : Mtoto hayuko skuli. their comrades. yours (ball). my comrades' faces. a village of fishermen. a kilo of meat. Kwetu kuna mahindi mengi. the pupils' food. their clothes. his father's car. Mtu huyo mkorofi amechukua mkoba wangu. your bag. Mine (bag). the children's plates. your pupils (plur). Father's child. our city. my sister's ustensils. my brother's garment. yours (village). Kwenu ku wapi ? Mtoto hayuko skuli. My child. my comrade's face. theirs (crops).Ni wa kwangu. ours (clothes). his (field). my house. his money. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Mkoba huo wa nani ? . a charcoal bag. his (blanket). 4. ours (car). Mama hayumo jikoni mwake. Mother's children. Ninakwenda zangu. the child's ball. amerudi kwao. he has gone back home (to their place) The poor man has no home (at their's) Wait that I ask at his office (at their office) EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. my mother's drugs. my parents' house. your father.Chapter 29 http://mwanasimba. c. your dog. your uncle. our school. yours (chickens). Swahili lessons. 3. 9. 2. theirs (hospital). your country (plur). my mother's bag. her comrades. 8. mine (pupils). Twende zetu haraka ! Huyo maskini hana kwao. amekwenda kwao Maskini hana kwao Ngoja niulize ofisini kwao The child is not at school. Uko peke yako ? . our house. your village. b. 5. my his wife. your friends. hers (cups). hers (sheets). my car. the way to the house. your car (plur). a 4 gallon can of onions. his shop. your songs (plur). their faces. wenzangu wamekwenda zao. our comrades. your children (plur). yours (plur) (cows). 6 of 7 4/4/09 3:50 PM . 7. the well of the village. 10. their house. her husband. mine (mother). our ministers. my children.

(Cl 3 / 4) JI-/MA.gender. NA-KU-AMBIA 3.(Cl 11. Another possibility is to use 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:51 PM .Chapter 30 http://mwanasimba./ -MW-U-LI-KI-I-U- Equivalent me you him. Thus : Nawaambia can mean : "I tell you" or "I tell them".. The same way as the pronoun subject is integrated into the verbal construction as a subject prefix. 14 / 10) SINGULAR -NI-KU-M. we usually add the plural termination -NI at the end of the verb when dealing with the object infix of the 2 nd person plural. Pronoun object Pronoun attribute Pronoun object Pronoun object infixes exist for all nominal classes. with a special series of infixes for the M-/WA. U-NA-NI-ONA 2.. to help understand better this phenomenon : 1. here are a few examples. = I tell you. A-NA-M-PIGA -> Unaniona -> Nakuambia -> Anampiga = you see me.(Cl 7 / 8) N.(Cl 1 / 2) 3 M-/MI. her it it it it it PLURAL -TU-WA.(Cl 5 / 6) KI-/ First. 1. the pronoun object or pronoun attribute is inserted into the verb as an object infix. (-NI) -WA-I-YA-VI-ZI-ZI- Equivalent us you them them them them them them You may notice the risk of confusion between the object infix of the 2 which are both Infixes There is no autonomous pronoun object or pronoun attribute in Swahili. = he / she hits him / her.htm Chapter 30 . nd person plural and that of the 3 person plural rd To avoid this risk of confusion. The termination -A of Bantu verbs changes into -E. They serve indifferently as pronoun object or pronoun attribute.(Cl 9 / 10) U. It is located right before the verbal root. ANIMATE AND INANIMATE PRONOUN OBJECT INFIXES : GENDER / Classes 1 2 M-/WA..

htm the object infix of the 2 EXAMPLES : Nawaambia Nawaambieni Nakuambieni Nawaomba Nawaombeni Nakuombeni nd person singular. have you read that book ? . hence a slight risk of confusion : Bariki ! = bless ! -> Tubariki ! -> Wabariki ! = bless us ! = bless them ! (Not : let's bless !) (Not : Let them bless !) 2.I didn't see him / her I say. the presence of an object infix involves a modification of the final vowel -A into -E. even when the noun object or attribute is present in the sentence. umesoma kitabu hiki ? .Chapter 30 http://mwanasimba. EXAMPLES : Mwite ! Mwite daktari ! Nipe kilo mbili za vitunguu ! Mwanangu yuko wapi ? . Nimeiweka chumbani mwako Call him / her ! Call (him / her) the doctor ! Give me two kilos of onions ! Where is my child ? . either a noun object or a noun Just as the subject prefix is present in the sentence together with the noun subject. USE OF THE OBJECT INFIX : The object infix replaces or reinforces. I put it in your bedroom 3. Thus : Nunua ! Saidia ! Angalia ! = buy ! = help ! = look ! -> Ninunue ! -> Wasaidie ! -> Zingalie ! = buy (for) me ! = help them ! = look at them ! However. Thus : 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:51 PM .Ndiyo. the object infix keeps inserted in the verbal Je.Sikumwona Je. NOTES : 1. It then reinforces that one. In the IMPERATIVE. verbs of Arabic origin do not change their final vowel.I have read it I say. = I tell you Nawaambia = I tell them = I ask you Nawaomba = I ask them 2. Swahili accepts ONLY ONE object infix in the verbal construction. have you brought my luggage ? . umeleta mizigo yangu ? .Yes. together with the plural termination -NI.

In this example.Chapter 30 http://mwanasimba.(= you) holds the slot of the object to forbid to meet Ku-pa Ku-pokea Ku-salimu Ku-shiba Ku-sukuma Ku-zuia to give to receive to greet to be statisfied / satiated to push to prevent Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:51 PM . NOW. umoja na amani Hizi ni ngao zetu Afrika na watu wake VOCABULARY Ku-agiza Ku-ambia Ku-elewa Ku-ita Ku-kataza Ku-kuta to order to tell to understand to call to refuse. Nitakurudisha kesho. the pronoun object corresponding to "it" (= the book) is implicit. the pronoun attribute -KU.htm Unacho kitabu changu ? .yes. The attribute has always precedence over the object for insertion inside the verbal construction. Have you got my book ? . I will give (it) back to you LEARN THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OF TANZANIA : Mungu ibariki Afrika wabariki viongozi wake Hekima.

3. I told you.Mwite Ali ! Bwana yupo wapi ? . Mizigo yangu yako wapi ? . Have you read it (the book) ? Did she take it (the book) ? Did she take them (the books) ? EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1.Nilimkutana kazini.Yako nyumbani. I read it (the book). I gave it to you. 5. 6.htm Call him ! Help me ! Look at them (the children) ! Look at them (things) ! Give me ! Tell me ! Tell us ! I saw you. Nipe wa leo ! Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:51 PM . Nimwite nani ? . He saw her. I called them (the children). Nisaidie na mizigo yangu ! Sema polepole kwa sababu Sikuelewi ! Mtoto mdogo anamwogopa kaka yake. 9. Usinipe mkate wa jana. Kisu changu kiko wapi ? .Chapter 30 http://mwanasimba.Nimekiweka mezani. I saw you (plur). 4. he told me. Nakuambia. 7. Sikuelewi. they told us. 8. he called 10.

) The suffix "-O" of reference agrees in class with the noun it refers to. It can be affixed to the adjective -INGINE (= other). GENDER / Classes M-/WA. 14 /10) KU.) It helps to form the emphatics of NDIYO and SIYO type.(Cl 15) U+O LI+O KI+O I+O U+O KU+O SINGULAR -YE -(W)O -LO -CHO -YO -(W)O -KO -PO -KO -MO WA+O I+O YA+O VI+O ZI+O ZI+O PLURAL -(W)O -YO -YO -VYO -ZO -ZO Locative Classes PA+O KU+O M(U)+O The "-O" of reference affixed to "NA" : The "-O" of reference clings to the particle NA.Chapter 31 http://mwanasimba.(Cl 11. (See : Chapter 45.(Cl 3/4) JI-/MA. the common denominator point between all these uses being that it always refers to a noun implicitly present in the speech. with). EXAMPLES : 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:52 PM .The Suffix "-O" of Reference The "-O" of reference is used in many different ways. It helps to form locative prepositions and clauses.) It can be affixed to the associative particle NA (= and.) "-O" affixed to a verb corresponds to a relative pronoun.(Cl 7/8) N.(Cl 5/6) KI-/VI. It plays the role of pronoun object with the verb KUWA NA. (See : Chapter using the series of pronominal prefixes.(Cl 1/2) M-/MI. It constitutes the first element in the expression -O -OTE. (See : Chapter 52. One exception : the suffix of reference for class 1 = -YE. It helps to form the demonstrative of reference. respecting noun class agreements. (See : Chapter 27.(Cl 9/10) U.htm Chapter 31 .

Any quantity. EXEMPLES : Watu wengineo. Has Ali got a donkey ? .. Other tools like those.Chapter 31 http://mwanasimba. Vyombo vinginevyo. Vitabu vyangu anavyo Hamisi. Ko kote uendako. Carry on with have it / I don't have it. Other people like them. Other similar places. 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:52 PM . Watoto wanacheza nao. In any case.He has got one / He hasn't any. Other similar matters. does not accomodate the usual pronoun object infix.Anaye / Hana. Hamisi has got my books.htm Wazazi wangu wanakaa mjini. Here is a new ball. 4. Kwa vyo vyote. 2. it can only be used in the affirmative. In this particular instance. Have you got your book ? . "like". Uko mpira mpya. Hamisi anavyo vitabu vyangu. The children are playing with it. Mambo mengineyo. My parents live downtown. EXAMPLES : Kiasi cho chote. The "-O" of reference in the clause "-O -OTE" : This clause means "Whoever / whatever / wherever / any / anybody / anything / . 3. The "-O" of reference affixed to "-INGINE" : The adjective -INGINE (= other) followed by the suffix "-O" takes the particular meaning of "as". The "-O" of reference as pronoun object : The verb KUWA NA (= to have). Yet. it's the suffix "-O" of reference that plays the role of pronoun object. Uendelee nayo.. This is good work. Ninakaa karibu". I live close to them. Mahali penginepo.Ninacho / Sina. Hiyo kazi nzuri. EXAMPLES : Una kitabu ? . Punda anaye Ali ? . Wherever you go.

I go with them.htm Uliza mtu ye yote. 14. the day laborers are leaving with it (the car). VOCABULARY aina akiba alama amri anwani asili a species a reserve. 15. an economy a sign. I can't give you anything. Give him anything. 11. a mark an order. The travellers arrive with it (the luggage). 8.He doesn't.I don't. 10. I live close to them.They have one. Take any glass. 4. 9. Siwezi kukupa (kitu) cho chote. a command an address the origin bahasha bendera bilauri birika bustani chapa an envelope a flag a glass a tea pot a garden a brand (commercial) Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. They live with other people like them. 5. Have you got a tea pot ? . Ask anybody. Has the hunter got a gun ? . 3. 13. Have you got a glass ? . EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:52 PM . Let's examine similar matters. The children are playing with her (the cat). Have your parents got a garden ? . 12.I have one. Ask your way to anybody. I go with him.Chapter 31 http://mwanasimba. 6.

15. 2. 9. Usimpe kitanda mgonjwa ye yote. Ninaweza kufanya kazi ya seremala na kazi nyinginezo. 11. Kitabu hiki ndicho nikitakacho. Mtoto ye yote anaweza kwenda shuleni. 6. 3. 8. 14. Sokoni kuna watu ? . Nunua chapa ye yote ya mafuta. Walikuja askari na watu wengineo. nayo pia ni mbovu. Una sukari ? . Wanafunzi wana kalamu ? .Ninayo. Unazo habari za mwenzetu kijijini ? Humo nyumbani.Chapter 31 http://mwanasimba. Mgonjwa ana dawa ? . 10. Katika bustani yetu mna michungwa na miti mengineyo. lakini hapana matofali yo yote.Wanazo. kitu cho chote ni chake mwenyewe.Hakuna.Ni hii. 7. 12. Nyumba yako ni ipi ? . 4. Nataka kujenga nyingine. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:52 PM 1. 5.

Chapter 32

Chapter 32 - Simple Past Tense

The Simple Past in Swahili marks a clear rupture between the present moment and the past. Like in English, it is often accompanied by precise marks of time such as : date, day, month, year, dated event, etc.. This tense is naturally translated by the Simple Past in English.


The tense marker of the Simple Past affirmative is the infix -LI- which is placed between the affirmative subject prefix and the verbal root.



KUFANYA = to make, to do


-> nilifanya -> ulifanya -> alifanya -> tulifanya -> mlifanya -> walifanya

I made you made he / she made we made you made they made

CASE OF THE MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Monosyllabic verbs retain the KU of the infinitive in the Simple Past affirmative. MODEL : KULA = to eat


-> nilikula -> ulikula -> alikula -> tulikula -> mlikula -> walikula

I ate you ate he / she ate we ate you ate they ate

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Chapter 32


The tense marker of the Simple Past negative is the infix -KU- which is placed between the negative subject prefix and the verbal root.



KUFANYA = to make, to do


-> sikufanya -> hukufanya -> hakufanya -> hatukufanya -> hamkufanya -> hawakufanya

I didn't make you didn't make he / she didn't make we didn't make you didn't make they didn't make

CASE OF THE MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Monosyllabic verbs drop the KU of the infinitive in the Simple Past negative. MODEL : KULA = to eat


-> sikula -> hukula -> hakula -> hatukula -> hamkula -> hawakula

I didn't eat you didn't eat he / she didn't eat we didn't eat you didn't eat they didn't eat

Ulikuwa wapi ? Nilikuwa likizo. Walikwenda Mombasa mwaka jana. Mkulima alilima shamba lake mwezi uliopita. Where were you ? I was on holiday. They went to Mombasa last year. The farmer cultivated his field last month.

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Mpishi hakupata mshahara wake. Sikufaulu mtihani wangu. Mtoto mgonjwa hakuweza kula.

The cook didn't get his wages. I didn't pass my examination. The sick child couldn't eat.


Ku-chuma Ku-fyeka Ku-inua Ku-jaza Ku-kauka Ku-ng'oa

to pick to cut grass to raise, to lift to fill to dry to uproot

Ku-ongeza Ku-panga Ku-poa Ku-sitawi Ku-tembea Ku-tunza

to increase to plan to cool to thrive, to develop to walk, to go for a walk to care

Cross Word Puzzle


EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili :

a. I made, I wrote, I started, I hunted, I got accustomed, you planned, you wiped, you rested, he killed, he left, she arrived, she took, he refused, we raised, we helped them, we spoke, we sacrificed, you looked at, you filled, you cut the grass, you went for a walk, they cultivated, they hunted, they finished, they ate. b. He didn't make, you didn't make, he didn't eat, she did not leave, we didn't understand, we didn't ask, I didn't read, I didn't agree, I didn't rest, you couldn't, you didn't listen (plur), they didn't play, they didn't start, you didn't help (plur), they didn't come, you didn't wash your face, they didn't agree, they didn't speak, it was not sufficient, it did not hurt. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English :

a. Niliacha, nilitafuta, niliua, aliniuliza, alikataa, aliniona, uliniita, ulishika, alizoea, tulipokea, tulichinja, tulizungumza, walitembea, walijificha, alijiuma. b. Sikuweza, sikununua, sikusikia, hukunipa, hukusema, hukupata, hakufika, hakunawa, hatukukubali, hatukupumzika, hatukulala, hamkuzoea, haikutosha, hawakujaza, hawakufyeka.

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EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Tulikwenda Mikumi wiki iliyopita. Tuliona wanyama wengi pale. Lakini hatukuona kifaru wala kiboko. Je, ulipata kuona kikundi cha simba ? Ndiyo, niliona simba dume mmoja na simba jike wanne. Je, mtoto alikula chakula chake asubuhi ? La, hakula kitu, ila ni mkate mdogo tu. Umeshakwenda kisiwani mwa Zanzibar ? Ndiyo, nilisafiri kule mwaka jana. Nilitembea sehemu nyingi mjini, kama markiti na forodhani.

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to study NI-SOME U-SOME A-SOME TU-SOME M-SOME WA-SOME -> nisome -> usome -> asome -> tusome -> msome -> wasome that I read that you read that he / she read that we read that you read that they read MODEL 2 (Verbs of Arabic origin) : KUJARIBU = to try NI-JARIBU U-JARIBU A-JARIBU TU-JARIBU M-JARIBU WA-JARIBU -> nijaribu -> ujaribu -> ajaribu -> tujaribu -> mjaribu -> wajaribu that I try that you try that he / she try that we try that you try that they try MODEL 3 (Monosyllabic verbs) : KUJA = to come 1 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM . where English commonly uses an infinitive. -U do not change.of the infinitive. after words of SUBJECT PREFIX + VERB RADICAL . Monosyllabic verbs drop the KU. etc. The ending -A of verbs of Bantu origin changes into -E.htm Chapter 33 . 1. -E. while verbs of Arabic origin ending in AFFIRMATIVE FORM : There is no tense marker in the Subjunctive. suggestion. advice.The Subjunctive Unlike in English.E MODEL 1 (Verbs of Bantu origin) : KUSOMA = to read. prohibition. The subject prefix is directly followed by the verbal root. or after a first verb expressing will or not.Chapter 33 http://mwanasimba. the Subjunctive is very widely used in Swahili.

verbs of Arabic origin preserve their final vowel : Ku-fikiri Ku-jibu Ku-samehe -> NI-SI-FIKIRI -> WA-SI-JIBU -> U-SI-SAMEHE that I don't think that they don't answer that you don't forgive Monosyllabic verbs drop the KU.of the infinitive : Kw-enda Ku-ja Ku-wa -> A-SI-ENDE -> WA-SI-JE -> U-SI-WE that he / she don't go that they don't come that you don't be 3. NEGATIVE FORM : The negative infix SI is inserted between the subject prefix and the verbal root. SUBJECT PREFIX + SI + VERB RADICAL .online. DIFFERENT USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE : 2 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM .htm NI-JE U-JE A-JE TU-JE M-JE WA-JE -> nije -> uje -> aje -> tuje -> mje -> waje that I come that you come that he / she come that we come that you come that they come 2.E MODEL : KUSOMA = to read.Chapter 33 This negative infix replaces the negative pre-prefix commonly used in the negative forms of other tenses. to study NI-SI-SOME U-SI-SOME A-SI-SOME TU-SI-SOME M-SI-SOME WA-SI-SOME -> nisisome -> usisome -> asisome -> tusisome -> msisome -> wasisome that I don't read that you don't read that he / she don't read that we don't read that you don't read that they don't read As in the affirmative form.

Mambo haya yaishe ! nd person singular and a request : It is used for all persons except the 2 EXAMPLES : Tujifunze kwa bidii. Expressing a suggestion.Chapter 33 help me ! Try (plur. Let these matters cease ! 4. Asking for advice or approval : EXAMPLES : Nikusaidie ? Aende wapi ? Nimwambie nini ? May I help you ? Where should he go ? What shall I tell him ? 3 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM . a wish.) EXAMPLES : Tafadhali unisaidie ! Mjaribu kusema kiswahili ! Please.htm 1. Let's learn with energy. The Polite Imperative : (See : Chapter 4 : The Polite Imperative.) EXAMPLES : Twende kazini ! Tujenge taifa letu ! Tusifanye fujo ! Let's go to work ! Let's build our nation ! Don't let's make disorder ! 3.) to speak Swahili ! 2. The Imperative of the 1st person plural : (See : Chapter 4 : The Imperative of the 1st person plural.

or in indirect speech : EXAMPLES : Njoo ule ! Pokea barua yako uisome ! Mwambie aje kesho ! Come and eat ! Receive your letter and read it ! Tell him to come tomorrow ! 6. Sharti tukamate mwizi (you) had better (you) had rather it's preferable to (you) must Sharti Yafaa Ya---bidi Ya---pasa (you) must it's appropriate to (you) must (you) have to 7. He came nearer to see better.Chapter 33 http://mwanasimba. Twafuga kuku ili tupate mayai. It's appropriate that you start first. Yafaa uanze kwanza. They have to attend the meeting. 8. 2 nd verb in an imperative sentence. Yawapasa wahudhurie Expressing purpose or intention : Ili EXAMPLES : so that Kusudi in order to Alinisaidia ili nimalize kazi mapema. He helped me so that I finish work early. We breed hens in order to get eggs.htm 5. Please help us ! We had rather wake up early ! They should go back home ! You must go to hospital. We must tell him this news. Alikaribia kusudi aweze kuona vizuri. Yatubidi tumjulishe habari hizi. We have to catch this thief. After expressions of obligation or necessity : EXPRESSIONS OF OBLIGATION : Afadhali Bora Heri Lazima EXAMPLES : Afadhali utusaidie ! Bora tuamke mapema ! Heri waende nyumbani ! Lazima uende hospitali. Subordinate clause : 4 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM .

We haven't got tea since we arrived. She must use this drug until she is cured. I ask him to come. Prevent the children from quarrelling. Negative Subjunctive after verbs of restriction or prohibition : After the following verbs : Ku-kanya Ku-kataza Ku-linda EXAMPLES : Wakanyeni watoto wasigombane. almost 10. Umwache aende zake. After some prepositions : After the following prepositions : Hadi Hata Mpaka EXAMPLES : Atumie dawa hii hadi apone. We are about to leave. to order to leave. Namwomba aje. I don't want him to have such Utanisumbua hata nikasirike ? Ngoja mpaka arudi.Chapter 33 http://mwanasimba. They made me loose forbid 5 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM . He ordered them to return him his property. Will you annoy me until I get cross ? Wait till he / she comes back. Where do you want us to go ? I advise you to go back home. to wish to advise to want 9. They accepted that we close early. until Tangu Karibu from. Let him go away.htm After the following verbs : Ku-amuru Ku-acha Ku-fanya Ku-kubali EXAMPLES : Aliwaamuru wamrudishie mali yake. to prevent to refuse to protect Ku-onya Ku-zuia to inform to prevent. Walikubali tufunge mapema. Tangu tufike hatujapata chai. since nearly. Walinifanya nikate tamaa. till. to allow to make to agree Ku-omba Ku-penda Ku-shauri Ku-taka to ask. to forbid. Karibu tuondoke. Sitaki awe na mawazo haya. until to beg to like. until till. Wapenda twende wapi ? Nakushauri urudi nyumbani.

Better food protects us from catching diseases. Chakula bora chatulinda tusipatwe na magonjwa. LEARN THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OF KENYA : Ee Mungu nguvu yetu Ilete baraka kwetu Haki iwe ngao na mlinzi Na tukae na udugu 6 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM .We have to 'practice' hard.Labda wasituchague ! . Tulisafiri kwa haraka tulivyoweza tusifike Arusha mapema. I tried to open this door but I failed. They sought him but didn't find him. Nakuonya usirudie kosa lile. Chakubanga . then we shouldn't miss the regional. A soldier forbid me to pass. . Fruitless effort : EXAMPLES : Walimtafuta wasimwone. We travelled as quickly as possible but we failed to arrive early in Arusha. 11. and if we miss the world cup.htm Wazazi wamemkataza asiolewe mwaka .fr/E_Chap33.Ni lazima tufanye 'plakatisi' kali.Chapter 33 http://mwanasimba. basi hata la ahera tusilikose.Maybe they won't choose us ! NOW. Nilijaribu kufungua mlango huu nisiweze. Askari alinizuia nisipite. na tukikosa kombe la ulimwengu. I warn you not to repeat this mistake. Her parents refused her to marry this year.

you breed. you don't meet. we don't make. [That] I don't ask. they meet. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into Swahili : 1. Should he come in? When shall we leave ? Should the cook buy meat ? Must I close the door ? Come and see ! Tell Hamisi to go to the market. 5. they don't answer. he be satiated. 7 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM . he increase. I understand. she don't catch. 4. a jail a company motor oil Petroli Picha Polisi Sigara Sinema Shati petrol. they call. 2. they don't see. we don't I give up. I don't know. you don't read (plur). you prevent. 3. gasoline a photo. you don't say. you fill. b. you don't come (plur). they don't leave. we refuse.htm Amani na uhuru Raha tupate na ustawi VOCABULARY Baiskeli Benki Hoteli Jela Kampuni Oili a bicycle a bank a hotel. we take a walk. a restaurant a prison. you thrive. [That] I he don't push. he receive. 6. they don't think. a picture the police a cigarette a cinema a shirt Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. he don't leave.Chapter 33 http://mwanasimba. you wipe.

4. EXERCISE 3 : Translate into English : 1. 6. sharti uje na chupa. wacheze. Ukitaka 33 http://mwanasimba. 2. She went to the market to buy vegetables.Ndiyo. Twende pwani sasa ili tupumzike. 7. 10. 9. Tulikuja Tanzania ili tuone wanyama. Askari polisi walizuia watu wasiingie katika benki. 3. Mwambie Hamisi anipe cheti chake.htm 7. I study this book to learn Swahili. Wanafunzi waende zao ? . He must go. Tell the cook to do the cooking. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 8 of 8 4/4/09 3:53 PM . Lazima wanafunzi wachukue kuni kwa kupika chakula. 10. Mama amemkataza mtoto asiende sinema. 5. 9.Wasiende Watoto wacheze mpira leo ? . 8. 8. Mwombe mkurugenzi atupe jibu.

1. and the verbal root : SUBJECT PREFIX + TA + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make.htm Chapter 34 .Chapter 34 http://mwanasimba.Future Tense The tense marker of the FUTURE is the infix -TA-. FUTURE .is inserted between the subject prefix.AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The tense marker -TA. to do NI-TA-FANYA U-TA-FANYA A-TA-FANYA TU-TA-FANYA M-TA-FANYA WA-TA-FANYA -> nitafanya -> utafanya -> atafanya -> tutafanya -> mtafanya -> watafanya I will make you will make he / she will make we will make you will make they will make CASE OF THE MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Monosyllabic verbs retain the KU.of the infinitive in the Future MODEL : KULA = to eat NI-TA-KULA U-TA-KULA A-TA-KULA TU-TA-KULA M-TA-KULA WA-TA-KULA -> nitakula -> utakula -> atakula -> tutakula -> mtakula -> watakula I will eat you will eat he / she will eat we will eat you will eat they will eat 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:54 PM . identical to that of the

fr/E_Chap34. FUTURE .online.NEGATIVE FORM : The tense marker -TA.of the infinitive in the Future negative.htm 2. MODEL : KULA = to eat SI-TA-KULA HU-TA-KULA HA-TA-KULA HATU-TA-KULA HAM-TA-KULA HAWA-TA-KULA -> sitakula -> hutakula -> hatakula -> hatutakula -> hamtakula -> hawatakula I won't eat you won't eat he / she won't eat we won't eat you won't eat they won't eat VOCABULARY Buibui Inzi Kupe a spider a fly a tick Nyuki Nyungunyungu Nzige a bee a worm a locust 2 of 3 4/4/09 3:54 PM .Chapter 34 inserted between the negative subject prefix. identical to that of the present. and the verbal root : NEGATIVE SUBJECT PREFIX + TA + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. to do SI-TA-FANYA HU-TA-FANYA HA-TA-FANYA HATU-TA-FANYA HAM-TA-FANYA HAWA-TA-FANYA -> sitafanya -> hutafanya -> hatafanya -> hatutafanya -> hamtafanya -> hawatafanya I won't make you won't make he / she won't make we won't make you won't make they won't make CASE OF THE MONOSYLLABIC VERBS : Monosyllabic verbs retain the KU.

you will understand (plur). he'll read. I won't see. they won't give you. b. I will not breed. he'll we will overcome. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. I'll continue. I'll make. I'll see. Watoto wataamka kesho asubuhi. he'll come. you will not see (plur). 3. 10. Ali atatuleta chakula.Chapter 34 http://mwanasimba. you will make (plur). they won't prohibit. we will 7. they will say.htm Mbung'o Mchwa Nge a tsetse fly a termit a scorpion Siafu Sisimizi Tandu a soldier ant a small ant a centipede Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. Nitanunua nyama kesho. they will plan. Wageni watatembea Zanzibar kesho kutwa. Kijana huyo atakuwa daktari. Hatutaweza kwenda kesho. Tutakula chakula katika hoteli mjini. he'll explain. 2. you will receive (plur). 5. you will not receive. he won't come. 8. we will go. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 3 of 3 4/4/09 3:54 PM . he will not take. we won't listen. 6. she won't go. 9. you'll rest. 4. they will swipe. Wafaransa watapanda mlima wa kilimanjaro. they will call. they will not overcome. you'll write. they will give us. I won't come. they will not understand. Mwanafunzi ataanza mtihani kesho. you will sleep (plur). you will push (plur). we won't travel. you'll make. I'll wash. you'll take. you will not take a walk (plur). Watamaliza kazi hiyo haraka.

online.inserted between the tense marker and the verbal root. etc. i. directed towards the subject of the verb.) In Swahili.e. For example : He sees himself = he looks at his own person (in a mirror.htm Chapter 35 . both in the affirmative and negative forms : Infinitive : Negative Infinitive : Present Indefinite : Present Definite : Present Definite Negative : Past Perfect : Past Perfect Negative : Simple Past : Simple past Negative : Future : Future Negative : Conditional : Conditional Negative : Past Conditional : Past Conditional Negative : Kujiona Kutojiona Najiona Ninajiona Sijioni Nimejiona Sijajiona Nilijiona Sikujiona Nitajiona Sitajiona Ningejiona Nisingejiona Ningalijiona Nisingalijiona to feel oneself not to feel oneself I feel myself I'm feeling myself I'm not feeling myself I have felt myself I haven't felt myself yet I felt myself I didn't feel myself I will feel myself I won't feel myself I would feel myself I wouldn't feel myself I would have felt myself I wouldn't have felt myself 1 of 3 4/4/09 3:56 PM .Chapter 35 http://mwanasimba. this infix remains the same for all persons. Unlike in English. including the infinitive. we use the reflexive pronoun "oneself" after the verb to mark that an action is reflexive. we use a particular OBJECT INFIX : or in imagination. EXAMPLE : KUONA = to see -> KUJIONA = to feel oneself. to be proud of oneself Ninajiona Unajiona Anajiona Tunajiona Mnajiona Wanajiona I feel myself you feel yourself he / she feels himself / herself we feel ourselves you feel yourselves they feel themselves The reflexive can be used in all tenses.The Reflexive Infix "-JI-" In English.

Chapter 35 Swahili do not systematically correspond to a reflexive in English : SOME COMMON REFLEXIVE VERBS : Ku-jiburudisha Ku-jidai Ku-jifanya Ku-jificha Ku-jifunza Ku-jigonga Ku-jiona Ku-jipamba to refresh oneself to proclaim oneself to claim to hide to learn to knock oneself to feel oneself to adorn oneself Ku-jisaidia Ku-jisifu Ku-jitazama Ku-jitegemea Ku-jitolea Ku-jiua Ku-jiuliza Ku-jiuzulu to relieve oneself to praise oneself to look at oneself to be self-reliant to volonteer to commit suicide to wonder to abdicate VOCABULARY Kaskazi Kaskazini Kiangazi Kimbunga Kipupue Kusi short rain season North the hot season a cyclone. all reflexive verbs with a hurricane the cold season the dry season Kusini Magharibi Mashariki Masika Ngurumo Umeme South West East the rain season thunder a flash of lightning Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 2 of 3 4/4/09 3:56 PM .online.htm Imperative : Negative Imperative : Jione ! Usijione ! Feel yourself ! Don't feel yourself ! NOTE : As will be seen in the list below.

anajidai. he feels himself.htm a. I didn't he knocked himself. amejiua. unajisifu. wanajiona. amejiuzulu. they don't volunteer. I hid. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : Ninajifunza. we wonder. you don't feel yourself. wanajiburudisha. they learned. we hid. they don't proclaim themselves. he hid. anajificha.Chapter 35 http://mwanasimba. she praises herself. I don't praise myself. she adorned herself. I wonder. be self-reliant ! Volunteer ! He abdicated. we don't feel ourselves. he didn't commit suicide. I feel myself. Do not praise yourself ! Do not proclaim yourself ! Don't look at yourself ! Don't hide ! She doesn't wonder. ninajiuliza. prepare yourself ! Look at yourself ! Hide ! b. I praise myself. she wonders. I'm self-reliant. you feel yourselves. he proclaims himself. anajipamba. you volunteered. wanajifanya. I knocked myself. jiulize ! Jitazame ! Tujitegemee ! Msijifiche ! Msijisifu ! Usijipambe ! Usijione ! Tujifanye ! Mjisaidie ! Tujiburudishe ! Nijiburudishe ! Jiburudishe ! Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 3 of 3 4/4/09 3:56 PM . they don't wonder. wanajitazama. you didn't look at yourself. I don't feel myself.

to of a reflexive pronoun. -ELEA Example KUACHA = to leave : -> KUACHIA = to leave for / to / with 3. -SHA.Verbal Derivation 1. of a preposition. change of verb.. PRINCIPAL VERBAL DERIVATIONS : 1. etc. -IWA. -ZA. however common. verbal derivation has for consequence to modify both the meaning and the grammatical employment of the verb in the sentence. The CAUSATIVE FORM : suffix : -SA. to undertake. to be). to take away.. In Swahili. -ILIA.Chapter 36 http://mwanasimba. to make. usually modifies the lexical aspect of the verb. -ISHA. -EWA Example KUTUMA = to employ : -> KUTUMWA = to be employed 2. -EZA. -ESHA. We give the name of "FORM" to the various verbal derivations. without modifying its function. 2. -IZA. This process.htm Chapter 36 . to take back. For example : to take. USE OF VERBAL DERIVATION : It is common in Swahili to modify a verb by adding various suffixes at the end of its radical. -EA. we can in English modify the meaning of a verb by adding some prefixes or associating some prepositions to it. -YA Example KULA = to eat : -> KULISHA = to feed 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:56 PM . The PASSIVE FORM : suffix : -WA. By way of comparison. This will translate in English through different processes : addition of another verb (to let. This phenomenon is called VERBAL DERIVATION. The PREPOSITIONAL FORM : suffix : -IA.

the simultaneous addition of 2 or 3 derivational suffixes at the end of the verb radical. These double or triple derivations are always carried out in a determined order : (1) Prepositional + Passive Prepositional + Prepositional Prepositional + Stative Prepositional + Reciprocal suffix : -IWA.e. able to split 6. DOUBLE AND TRIPLE DERIVATION : some verbs admit a to open 3. The REVERSIVE FORM : suffix : -UA. -LIWA. SOME EXAMPLES : 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:56 PM . -LEWA suffix : -ILIA. to fasten : -> KUFUNGUA = to -IKA. -EKA Example KUPASUA = to split. -EWA. -UKA. -YESHA (2) (3) (4) Causative + Prepositional Reciprocal + Causative Stative + Prepositional Stative + Prepositional + Passive Stative + Causative 4.htm 4. i. and sometimes a triple derivation.Chapter 36 http://mwanasimba. The RECIPROCAL FORM : suffix : -ANA Example KUSAIDIA = to help : -> KUSAIDIANA = to help each other 5. -OKA Example KUFUNGA = to close. -OA. to cut : -> KUPASUKA = to split up. The STATIVE FORM : suffix : -KA. -ELEA suffix : -KEA suffix : -IANA suffix : -LEZA suffix : -ANISHA suffix : -IKIA suffix : -IKIWA suffix : -IKISHA.

htm (1) Ku-zaa to give birth Ku-zalwa Ku-zalia Ku-zaliwa Ku-zalisha Ku-zaliana Pass Prep Prep+Pass Caus Rec Caus Pass Caus+Prep Prep+Stat Stat Stat+Prep Stat+Prep+Pass Caus Prep Pass Stat Caus Rev Rec Caus Rec Stat Caus Stat+Caus Pass Rec Stat Pass Prep Prep+Pass Prep+Prep Caus Rec Prep Pass to be born to bear him a child to be born to deliver a woman to reproduce to explain to grasp. to understand to explain thoroughly to move towards to be made to be made for to thrive to make one do to cloe for. to fasten Ku-fungia Ku-fungwa Ku-fungika Ku-fungisha Ku-fungua Ku-fungana (4) Ku-jua to know Ku-julisha Ku-juana Ku-julikana (5) Ku-ona to see Ku-onya Ku-onyesha Ku-onwa Ku-onana Ku-onekana (6) Ku-penda to to do Ku-fanyika Ku-fanyikia Ku-fanyikiwa Ku-fanyiza (3) Ku-funga to close. with to be closed to close itself. to love Ku-pendwa ku-pendea ku-pendewa Ku-pendelea Ku-pendeleza Ku-pendana (3) Ku-piga to hit.Chapter 36 http://mwanasimba. to untie to bind together to inform. to strike Ku-pigia Ku-pigwa 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:56 PM . to be visible to be liked to like for to be liked for to favor to make support to love each other to strike for to be struck (2) Ku-elea to be clear for Ku-eleza Ku-elewa Ku-eleleza Ku-elekea (3) Ku-fanya to to let know to know one another to be known to warn to show to be seen to see each other to show up. to be closed to make close to open.

fr/E_Chap36. VOCABULARY Bati (ma-) Dau (ma-) Fundo (ma-) Fungu (ma-) Ganda (ma-) Gereji (ma-) corrugated sheet a dhow (boat) a knot a heap a hull.htm Ku-pigika Ku-pigisha Ku-pigana Stat Caus Rec can be struck to make beat to fight This is but a short outline on verbal skin (of fruit) a garage Gogo (ma-) Gurudumu (ma-) Jengo (ma-) Koleo (ma-) Kopo (ma-) Pipa (ma-) a log a wheel a building a plier a can a barrel. The 6 next chapters will be devoted to a detailed study of these verbal forms. a drum Cross Word Puzzle Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:56 PM .Chapter 36 http://mwanasimba.

When the verb radical ends in the double vowel -AA : -A is replaced by -LIWA : Kukataa Kuzaa to refuse to give birth -> Kukataliwa -> Kuzaliwa to be refused to be born 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:57 PM .The Passive Form It is quite common to put a verb in the passive voice in English. -LEWA. -IWA. to suffer to be put to be hunted 2.htm Chapter 37 . When the verb radical ends in a consonant + A : -A is replaced by the suffix -WA : Kuandika Kuanza Kucheza Kufanya Kuficha Kufunga Kuiba Kukamata Kuleta Kulima Kulipa Kupata Kupenda Kupika Kusoma Kuuma Kuweka Kuwinda to write to start to play to make to hide to close to steal to catch to bring to cultivate to pay to get to love to cook to read to hurt to put to hunt -> kuandikwa -> Kuanzwa -> Kuchezwa -> Kufanywa -> Kufichwa -> Kufungwa -> Kuibwa -> Kukamatwa -> Kuletwa -> Kulimwa -> kulipwa -> Kupatwa -> Kupendwa -> Kupikwa -> Kusomwa -> Kuumwa -> Kuwekwa -> Kuwindwa to be written to be started to be played to be made to be hidden to be closed to be stolen (thing) to be caught to be brought to be cultivated to be paid to be got to be loved to be cooked to be read to be 1. -LIWA). This is done by using the auxiliary verb "to be" followed by the lexical verb in the past participle. Thus : He gives We beat -> He is given -> We are beaten She takes It closes -> She is taken -> It is closed The same result is obtained in Swahili by replacing the termination -A of the verb with the suffix -WA (or -EWA.Chapter 37 http://mwanasimba.

Verbs of Arabic origin finishing in -I and -U take the suffix -IWA : Kubadili Kujibu Kukubali to change to answer to agree -> Kubadiliwa -> Kujibiwa -> Kukubaliwa to be changed to be answered to be permitted 6. When the verb radical ends in the vowel sequence -OA : -A is replaced by -LEWA : Kung'oa Kuoa Kuondoa Kutoa to uproot to marry to withdraw to remove -> Kung'olewa -> Kuolewa -> Kuondolewa -> Kutolewa to be uprooted to be married (woman) to be withdrawn to be removed 4. to untie to know -> Kuchaguliwa -> Kufunguliwa -> Kujuliwa to be chosen to be opened to be known 5.htm 3. When the verb radical ends in the vowel sequence -UA : -A is replaced by -LIWA : Kuchagua Kufungua Kujua to choose to open. Verbs of Arabic origin ending in -AU take the suffix -LIWA : Kusahau to forget -> Kusahauliwa to be forgotten 7. Verbs of Arabic origin ending in -E take the suffix -EWA : Kusamehe to forgive -> Kusamehewa to be forgiven 37 http://mwanasimba. NOTES : Some verbs already possess a passive meaning in their basic form : Kulewa to be drunk / tipsy Case of the monosyllabic verbs : suffix -IWA or -EWA : Kula Kunywa Kupa to eat to drink to give -> Kuliwa -> Kunywewa -> Kupewa to be eaten to be drunk to be given Particular cases : 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:57 PM .

The food was eaten by the cat. 5. Hamisi alipigwa na mwalimu mkuu. 6. The child was given a gift by his father. VOCABULARY Daftari Dini Haja Haki Halmashauri Hekima a right an authority wisdom Hotuba Idara Huduma Jamhuri Kanuni Kodi a sermon. a help the Republic a rule. a principle taxes Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. My sister has married. The luggage has been stolen.htm Kutaka Kuua to want to kill -> Kutakiwa -> Kuuawa to be wanted to be killed EXAMPLES : Mtoto alipewa zawadi na The door has been closed. a speech a department a service. The fields are cultivated. 8. The child was born. Chakula kililiwa na paka. Niliambiwa kwamba Fatuma ameolewa. 7. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:57 PM . Mbuzi alichinjwa kwa kisu.Chapter 37 http://mwanasimba. The food has been brought. Hamisi was beaten by the headmaster. 2. 4. a copybook religion a need justice. The goat was killed with a knife. The wages have been paid. The robber has been caught. 3. I was told that Fatuma is married.

7. 6. Mbwa alipigwa na mwenyewe. Nguo hizo zimepewa kwa watu maskini. 5. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Chakula kinapikwa na wanafunzi wa shule. Kuku amekamatwa na Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 3:57 PM . Kijana huyu amelewa. The goat was sacrificed. 2. 4. Mzungu amehibiwa na mwizi.htm 37 http://mwanasimba. Chakula kimeliwa na watoto. Mzigo wake umehibwa jana. 3. Mnyama mmoja amekamatwa katika mtego. 8. 10. The bad pupil has been beaten. 9. Mtoto huyu anapendwa na watu wote. 10.

The Prepositional Form The prepositional derivation has an attributive. i. 1. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -IA : Kuandika Kuacha Kufanya Kupata Kupita Kutupa to write to leave to make. to replace the termination -A. When the verb radical ends in a sequence of two vowels : (a) If the vowel of the radical is A. Others prefer the term "ATTRIBUTIVE". I or U. The prepositional derivation is characterized by the addition of the suffix -IA or -EA. to receive a 2 complement or ATTRIBUTE. or locative value. -LEA). at the end of the verb radical. This attribute will be present as an object infix inside the verb construction. and be possibly doubled by the noun attribute which will be placed between the verb and the noun object in the sentence. the noun attribute is introduced by a preposition (though not always). (or even -LIA. I or a verb which has already got a complement object.htm Chapter 38 . hence the term "PREPOSITIONAL" or "PREPOSIONAL FORM" retained to describe this type of derivation. It also allows a transitive verb. SOME VERBS IN THE PREPOSITIONAL FORM : 1. Here is an example to illustrate this phenomenon : Mama anapika chakula Mama anawapikia watoto chakula Mother is cooking food Mother is cooking food for the children nd In English. to obtain to pass to throw -> Kuandikia -> Kuachia -> Kufanyia -> Kupatia -> Kupitia -> Kutupia to write to / for to leave to / for to make for to obtain for to go past to throw to (b) If the vowel of the radical is E or O. instrumental. to do to get.Chapter 38 http://mwanasimba. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -EA : Kuleta Kusoma to bring to read -> Kuletea -> Kusomea to bring to / for to read for the final -A is replaced by the suffix -LIA : 1 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM . When the verb radical ends in a consonant + A : (a) If the vowel of the radical is A.

fr/E_Chap38. take the suffix -LIA : Kudharau Kusahau to scorn to forget -> Kudharaulia -> Kusahaulia to have contempt for to forget to -I and -U take the suffix -IA : Kujibu Kurudi Kusalimu Kusamehe to answer to return to greet to forgive -> Kujibia -> Kurudia -> Kusalimia -> Kusamehea to answer to / for to return to to give regards to to forgive to 5. Verbs of Arabic origin ending in -AU. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -LEA : Kulea Kupokea Kuondoa to bring up to receive to withdraw -> Kulelea -> Kupokelea -> Kuondolea to bring up for to receive for to withdraw for / to 4. Therefore they become disyllabic verbs and lose the KU of the infinitive when conjugated : Kula Kunywa to eat to drink -> Kulia -> Kunywea (smth) to eat (smth) to drink Some verbs acquire a new meaning in their prepositional form : Kuamka Kufika to wake up to arrive -> Kuamkia -> Kufikia to greet to reach 2 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM .htm Kuzaa Kufagia Kukimbia Kuchagua Kuchukua to give birth to sweep to run to choose to take -> Kuzalia -> Kufagilia -> Kukimbilia -> Kuchagulia -> Kuchukulia to bear someone a child to sweep for to run towards / after to choose for to take for 3. (b) If the vowel of the radical is E or O. NOTES : Some verbs already possess a prepositional meaning in their basic form : Kuambia Kuingia Kupa Kuuliza to tell (to) to enter to give (to) to ask (to) Monosyllabic verbs take the suffix -IA or -EA.Chapter 38 http://mwanasimba. Verbs of Arabic origin ending in -E.

fr/E_Chap38. The prepositional form used in conjunction with MBALI (= far) carries the idea of utter separation : EXAMPLES : Tupia mbali makopo haya mabaya ! Yaachilie mbali mawazo haya ! Tulikatie mbali tawi hili ! Ziondolee mbali nguo hizi ! Throw away these bad preserves ! Give up these ideas ! Let's cut off this branch ! Get rid of these clothes ! 2. 3 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM .Chapter 38 http://mwanasimba. to employ -> Kuhamia -> Kunukia -> Kutendea -> Kutumia to move introcuced by the connective -A.htm Kuhama Kunuka Kutenda Kutuma to emigrate to smell bad to treat badly to send. DOUBLE DERIVATION : Prepositional derivation + Passive derivation : 1. indicates the purpose or destination of something (instrumental value) : EXAMPLES : Kisu cha kukatia nyama Fedha za kununulia nguo Chumba cha kulia Maji ya kuogea A knife for cutting meat Money to buy clothes The dining room Water for the bath 3. celebration -> Kufaidia -> Kuhurumia -> Kuhuzunia -> Kusherekea to benefit to have pity of to feel sorrow for to celebrate 2. PARTICULAR USES OF THE PREPOSITIONAL FORM : 1. to immigrate to smell good to treat well to use A number of nouns of Arabic origin can be made into verbs with the addition of a prepositional suffix : Faida Huruma Huzuni Sherehe profit pity sorrow feast. An infinitive verb in the prepositional form.

Mama alitupikia chakula. Basic form : Prepositional form : Passive form : Prep + Pass : Nimenunua sukari Nimewanunulia sukari Sukari imenunuliwa Wamenunuliwa sukari I have bought sugar I have bought them sugar The sugar has been bought They have been bought sugar 3.Chapter 38 Tell me ! Tell him / her ! Tell (it) to your father ! The children sang us songs. Anamsomea mwenzie kitabu. Niambie ! Mwambie ! Mwambie babako ! Watoto walituimbia nyimbo. Mother cooked us some food. Basic form : Prepositional form : Passive form : Prep + Pass form : Mwizi ameiba mkoba Mwizi ameibia mzungu mkoba wake Mkoba umeibwa Mzungu ameibiwa mkoba wake The thief has stolen the bag The thief has stolen the white man his bag The bag has been stolen The white man has been stolen his bag 4. Buy me flour to bake bread ! 4 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM .htm Basic form : Prepositional form : Passive form : Prep + Pass form : Alisoma kitabu Alinisomea kitabu Kitabu kilisomwa naye Mimi nilisomewa kitabu He read the book He read me the book The book was read by him I was read the book 2. Ninunulie unga wa kupikia mkate ! Write a letter ! Write him / her a letter ! Write your mother a letter ! Open the door ! Open the door for them ! Open the door for the guests ! He reads a book He reads a book to his friend. SOME EXAMPLES : Andika barua ! Mwandikie barua ! Mwandikie mamako barua ! Fungua mlango ! Wafungulie mlango ! Wafungulie wageni mlango ! Anasoma kitabu.

kupiga picha. kukata. kutengeneza.htm Chakubanga . kuimbia. they said in the radio ! VOCABULARY Ku-cheka Ku-dharau Ku-jenga Ku-kasirika Ku-oga Ku-piga makofi to laugh to scorn to build to get angry to bath / bathe to applaud Ku-piga picha Ku-tengeneza Ku-tia sahihi Ku-tumaini Ku-vuta Ku-zunguka to photograph to repair to sign to hope to draw to go round in circle Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Put the verbs in the prepositional form : Kununua. kupata. kulia. 5 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM . ukwaju na mapapai kwa mtindo wa kisasa.Chakubanga my husband ! today I've cooked for you new cuisine : tamarind and papaya of the day. kudharau. kuona. kukimbia. kuzuia. kuita. kushona. . kufungua. kutia. kuruka.Add some lemons and limes. kuoga. kujenga.Chapter 38 http://mwanasimba. .Kaongeze ndimu na malimau redio imesema ! . kucheka.Mume yangu Chakubanga ! Leo nimekupikia chakula bora. kusalimu. kutaka. kuhama. kula.

7. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 3:58 PM . Ndege alirukia upesi juu ya mti. hazitafaa. 8. Bidii yako itakufaidia siku Fatuma amemrudia mme wake. Kamba hizi kama ni za kujengea. 12. Lete kamba ya kufungia mbwa. Nikupikie chakula ? Unakitakia nini kisu hiki ? Natafuta kisu cha kuchinjia mbuzi.htm EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 4. Atatuharibia furaha yetu na huzuni yake. Nisalimie Baba na Mama na ndugu zangu. 13. 14. Mtoto mdogo alimkimbilia mama wake.Chapter 38 http://mwanasimba. Mama anawasomea watoto hadisi nzuri. Vibarua wamemlimia shamba lake. Uninunulie mkate na maziwa. 15. Hamisi alimwendea daktari. 11. 5. 6. 2. 3. 9.

The Causative Form This form corresponds to the English : "make someone do something". For example : make someone work. make someone eat (feed). I or U. to ferment to please to allow 2. replacing the termination -A. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -ISHA or -IZA : Kufanya Kufika Kuhama Kula Kusimama Kupita Kuuma to make. -LISHA or -LIZA: Kuelea Kuingia Kujaa Kupotea to be clear to enter to be filled to get lost -> Kueleza -> Kuingiza -> Kujaza -> Kupoteza to explain to introduce. to stand to pass to hurt (oneself) -> Kufanyiza -> Kufikisha -> Kuhamisha -> Kulisha -> Kusimamisha -> Kupitisha -> Kuumiza to make do to make reach to make move out to feed to make stop to make pass to hurt (someone) (b) If the vowel of the radical is E or O. make someone understand (explain). to do to arrive to move out to eat to stop. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -ZA. the final -A is replaced by the suffix -ESHA or -EZA : Kucheka Kuenda Kukopa Kuoza Kupenda Kuweza to laugh to go to borrow to rot to love. -LIZA. When the verb radical ends in a sequence of two vowels. to like to be able -> Kuchekesha -> Kuendesha -> Kukopesha -> Kuozesha -> Kupendeza -> Kuwezesha to make laugh to drive to lend to make -EZA. The causative derivation is characterized by the addition of the suffix : -ISHA. etc. to let in to fill to lose 1 of 5 4/4/09 3:58 PM . make someone build. SOME VERBS IN THE CAUSATIVE FORM : 1. -LISHA. -ZA or -SHA at the end of the verb. -ESHA. -IZA. When the radical ends in a consonant + A : (a) If the vowel of the radical is A.htm Chapter 39 .Chapter 39 http://mwanasimba. make someone learn (teach).

to drop to make boil to tire someone to make obtain to light fire 5.htm Kupungua Kusikia Kutembea Kuvaa to be decreased to hear to walk to wear -> Kupunguza -> Kusikiliza -> Kutembeza -> Kuvalisha to decrease. Some verbs ending in -KA or -TA change their termination into -SHA : Kuamka Kuanguka Kuchemka Kuchoka Kupata Kuwaka to wake up to fall to boil to be tired to get.Chapter 39 http://mwanasimba. to let know to welcome someone 4. to lower to listen to take for a walk to dress 3. NOTES : One case of double causative derivation : Kuona to see -> Kuonya to warn -> Kuonyesha to show Some verbs possess a causative meaning in their basic form : Kufundisha Kupasha moto to teach to heat Some nouns and adjectives of Arabic origin can be made into verbs with the addition of a causative suffix : Bahati Hakika Laini Safi luck a certainty soft. Some verbs ending in -NA change their termination into -NYA : Kuona Kupona to see to get cured -> Kuonya -> Kuponya to warn to cure someone 6. to obtain to burn -> Kuamsha -> Kuangusha -> Kuchemsha -> Kuchokesha -> Kupasha -> Kuwasha to wake someone up to make smooth clean -> Kubahatisha -> Kuhakikisha -> Kulainisha -> Kusafisha to try one's luck to make sure to soften to clean 2 of 5 4/4/09 3:58 PM .online. Verbs of Arabic origin take the suffix -ISHA : Kurudi Kufurahi Kufahamu Kukaribu to come back to be delighted to know to be welcome -> Kurudisha -> Kufurahisha -> Kufahamisha -> Kukaribisha to give back to delight to inform.

online.You didn't hear on the radio that the bus's fare has increased ? Stop wasting my time.htm Sawa Tayari equal ready -> Kusawazisha -> Kutayarisha to put in order to prepare 2.Hukusikia kwenye radio kamba nauli ya UDA imeongezeka ? Wacha kupoteza muda ongeza hela !! . increase the money !! . brother conductor.Bwana-Ndugu kondakita hiyo radio haikusema ni lini huu mshahara wetu utaongezwa ? . SOME EXAMPLES : Pasha moto chakula hiki ! Mama amelisha mtoto wake Jifundishe (jifunze) kiswahili ! Usiniumize ! Punguza bei tafadhali ! Habari zako zinanifurahisha sana Tuwakaribishe wageni wetu ! Nifahamishe kama u tayari ! Dawa hili litakuponya haraka Nionyeshe njia ! Heat this food ! The mother has fed her child Learn Swahili ! Don't hurt me ! Lower the price. this radio didn't say when our salary will be increased ? VOCABULARY Adabu good manners Dhambi sin 3 of 5 4/4/09 3:58 PM .Chapter 39 please ! Your news rejoice me a lot Let's welcome our guests ! Let me know when you're ready ! This medicine will cure you quickly Show me the way ! Chakubanga .

I lent him Nakuomba unikopeshe fedha kidogo. 4. Nitakurudisha hizo mwisho wa mwezi. my father fed the animals. Lower the price ! Stop the car here ! Fill this basket ! Let the cat in ! Take the children for a walk ! Drive me to town ! Light the fire ! Wake up the children ! Give back the books ! Warn your father ! Prepare your luggage ! Clean the bedroom ! Don't make me laugh ! Don't hurt me ! Pass the plate ! b. the pupil lost his books. the mother woke the children up. Nenda kulisha wanyama 6. 9. the doctor cured the patient. my sister cleaned the dining room. Rudisha vitabu vyako kesho. 2. 7. she boiled the water. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 5. Bei ya mwisho ngapi ? Fungua masikio yako na sikiliza kwa makini ! Hakikisha kwamba mtu asijue siri yako. she lit the fire. 3. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 5 4/4/09 3:58 PM . Nimepoteza mwavuli wangu. Nieleze msomo huu. I teach French. she prepared the food.htm Baraka Bidii Chuki Desturi Dharau a blessing effort bad mood a custom contempt Hofu Huruma Imani Sifa Siri fear pity faith fame a secret Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a.Chapter 39 http://mwanasimba. Daktari aliponya mtoto mgonjwa. 8. Punguza bei kidogo. 10.

We obtain the same in Swahili by replacing the final vowel -A of the verb with the suffix : -ANA. In English reciprocity is marked by expressions such as "each other" or "one another" after the 40 http://mwanasimba. Let's help each other ! They follow each other. For example : to fight each other to help each other to follow each other We fight each other.htm Chapter 40 .fr/E_Chap40.The Reciprocal Form This form represents a reciprocal or mutual action. SOME VERBS IN THE RECIPROCAL FORM : Ku-acha Ku-ambia Ku-amkia Ku-andama Ku-andika Ku-faa Ku-fuata Ku-gomba Ku-jua Ku-kosa Ku-kuta Ku-ngoja Ku-oa Ku-pata Ku-penda Ku-piga Ku-saidia Ku-shinda Ku-sukuma Ku-ua to leave to tell to greet to accompany to write to fit to follow to quarrel to know to miss to meet to wait to marry someone to get to love to fight. to hit to help to overcome to push to kill -> Ku-achana -> Ku-ambiana -> Ku-amkiana -> Ku-andamana -> Ku-andikiana -> Ku-fanana -> Ku-fuatana -> Ku-gombana -> Ku-juana -> Ku-kosana -> Ku-kutana -> Ku-ngojana -> Ku-oana -> Ku-patana -> Ku-pendana -> Ku-pigana -> Ku-saidiana -> Ku-shindana -> Ku-sukumana -> Ku-uana to leave each other to tell each other to greet each other to follow in order to write each other to look the same to follow each other to quarrel with one another to know each other to quarrel to meet one another to wait for one another to get married (together) to agree to love each other to fight each other to help each other to compete to push each other to kill one another Verbs of Arabic origin must first take the prepositional form to accommodate the suffix -ANA : 1 of 4 4/4/09 3:59 PM . 1. and sometimes a collective action.

I didn't know that human beings used to GREET EACH OTHER ! VOCABULARY 2 of 4 4/4/09 3:59 PM .. Nilijuana naye zamani sana. I met with two people on my We Punda kwanini usalimii WAKUBWA ! . I don't get along with that person. A FEW EXAMPLES : After a reciprocal verb. Sikujua kama binadamu wana utamaduni wa KUSALIMIANA ! . Accompany your brother. why don't you greet your ELDERS ! . Donkey. I knew him / her a long time ago..htm Ku-jibu Ku-rudi Ku-salimu Ku-samehe Ku-shiriki to answer to come back to greet to forgive to share -> Ku-jibiana -> Ku-rudiana -> Ku-salimiana -> Ku-sameheana -> Ku-shirikiana to answer each other to return to each other to greet each other to forgive each other to cooperate 2.Chapter 40 http://mwanasimba.. Shamasha . "with" is translated by NA : Fuatana na ndugu yako. Sipatani na mtu huyo... Eh you. Njiani nilikutana na watu wawili.

3. We must prevent these people from killing each other. 4. We saw each other in town. Sijuani nao vyema. 11. 6. 8. 2. 6. 10. 9. I met him on the way. 9. 7. Simba watatu walifuatana porini. 10. We left each other at one o'clock. Watoto wanapigana uani.Chapter 40 http://mwanasimba. See you tomorrow. We shall wait for each other at five in the evening. Hatukuweza kukubaliana hata kidogo. These animals are following each other into the forest. 11. 3 of 4 4/4/09 3:59 PM . 12. Wamepatana nasi. 8. 7. Tell them to wait for each other. 2. They want to get along. Hapana kugombana wala kusukumana. We shall compete with you in this game. Tumeambiana habari zote. Mwizi alipigana na mwenyewe wa duka. These people don't like each other. Sisi na wenzetu tunashirikiana. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Siku zafuatana. 5. Prevent these children from fighting. 5. 4. Nilionana naye 12. 3. Wanachama wanakutana chamani.htm Bara (ma-) Deni (ma-) Dobi (ma-) Eneo (ma-) Figo (ma-) Ini (ma-) a continent a debt a launderer an area a kidney the liver Jaribio (ma-) Jeraha (ma-) Jipu (ma-) Kabila (ma-) Pigo (ma-) Sharti (ma-) an experiment a wound an abscess a tribe a blow an obligation Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili :

another effect of the stative derivation is to make a transitive verb become intransitive. while other verbs are derived using the suffix -KA to produce the stative form. The clothes have been ruined by the Stative Form At least to a Western mind.htm Chapter 41 . a verb in the stative form is rather similar in meaning to a verb in the passive form. 1. given to that derivation. achieved to be cut to agree together to be poured 1 of 6 4/4/09 4:00 PM . Passive Nguo zimeharibwa na mvua. It invariably implies a latent or resulting state. the final vowel of the verb is replaced by the suffix -IKA Ku-badili Ku-funga Ku-haribu Ku-jibu Ku-kamili Ku-kata Ku-kubali Ku-mwaga to change to close to destroy to answer to finish to cut to agree to pour -> Ku-badilika -> Ku-fungika -> Ku-haribika -> Ku-jibika -> Ku-kamilika -> Ku-katika -> Ku-kubalika -> Ku-mwagika to be changed to be closed to be destroyed to be answered to be completed. I or U. SOME VERBS IN THE STATIVE FORM : 1. EXAMPLES : Passive Dirisha limevunjwa na mtoto huyu. Stative Dirisha limevunjika.Chapter 41 http://mwanasimba. Some verbs already possess a stative meaning in their basic form. The window is broken. When the radical ends in a consonant : (a) If the vowel of the radical is A. or STATIVE FORM. Stative Nguo zimeharibika. The clothes are ruined. except that it doesn't tell by who or what the action was made. The window has been broken by this wherefrom the name of STATIVE. From a grammatical point of view.

Chapter 41

Ku-shutumu Ku-vunja

to insult to break

-> Ku-shutumika -> Ku-vunjika

to be insulted to be broken

(b) If the vowel of the radical is E or O, the final vowel of the verb is replaced by the suffix -EKA

Ku-choma Ku-samehe Ku-tosha

to burn to forgive to be enough

-> Ku-chomeka -> Ku-sameheka -> Ku-tosheka

to be burned to be forgiven to be sufficient

2. When the verb radical ends in a vowel : (a) If the vowel of the radical is -A, -I or -U, the final -A is replaced by -KA or -LIKA

Ku-fungua Ku-geua Ku-pasua Ku-pindua Ku-sikia

to open to change to split, to saw to turn over to hear

-> Ku-funguka -> Ku-geuka -> Ku-pasuka -> Ku-pinduka -> Ku-sikika -> Ku-sikilika

to open, to be opened to be changed to be split, to be sawn to be overturned to be heard

(b) If the vowel of the radical is -E or -O, the final -A is replaced by -KA or -LEKA :


to uproot

-> Ku-ng'oka -> Kung'oleka

to be uprooted

(c) When the verb ends in -AU, the suffix -LIKA is added at the end of the verb :


to forget

-> Ku-sahaulika

to be forgotten

3. Verbs in the causative form ending in -SHA or -ZA take the suffix -IKA or -EKA :

Ku-pendeza Ku-pumuza

to like to make breath

-> Ku-pendezeka -> Ku-pumzika

to be pleasant to rest

4. A number of verbs can be derived from nouns, adverbs or adjectives :

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Chapter 41

Hasira Imara Shughuli NOTES :

anger firm business

-> Ku-kasirika -> Ku-imarika -> Ku-shughulika

to be in anger to be firm to be busy

1. Some verbs with a stative meaning are not derived from any basic root. They do not necessarily end in the suffix -KA :

Ku-chelewa Ku-choka Ku-jaa Ku-lewa Ku-potea Ku-shiba Kwisha

to be late to be tired to be filled to be drunk to lose oneself to be satiated to be finished

2. Some verbs take a particular meaning in the stative form :


to smell out

-> Ku-nuka -> Ku-nukia

to smell bad to smell good

3. Some other verbs ending in -KA have an active meaning. Thus :

Ku-amka Ku-andika Ku-anika Ku-bandika Ku-funika Ku-pika Ku-sikitika

to wake up to write to spread in the sun to stick to put a lid to cook to have pity


1. Many verbs already referred to above can express a potentiality. Thus :

Ku-badilika Ku-chomeka

to be changeable able to burn

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Chapter 41

Ku-fungika Ku-funguka Ku-jibika Ku-kubalika Ku-lika Ku-nyweka

able to be closed able to be opened to be answerable able to agree to be edible to be drinkable

2. Other verbs expressing a potentiality take the additional suffix -NA :

Ku-julikana Ku-onekana Ku-patikana Ku-wezekana

to be known to be visible to be obtained to be possible


Verbs in the stative form are often used in the Past Perfect (tense marker -ME-) : Gari langu limeharibika. Kikombe kimevunjika. Nimechoka kabisa. My car has a breakdown. The cup is broken. I am very tired.

Verbs expressing a potentiality are often used in the Present Definite (tense marker -NA-) : Mlima wa Kilimanjaro unaonekana leo. Unga unapatikana madukani. Mambo hayo yanawezekana. Mount Kilimanjaro is visible today. Flour is available in the shops. These things are possible.


Buni Chaki Chemchemi Chokaa

coffee beans chalk a source lime

Karanga Karata Kokwa Kutu

peanuts playing cards a nut rust

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Chapter 41

Dengu Katani

lentils sisal

Mbaazi Pikipiki

peas a motorbike

Cross Word Puzzle


EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

The bread is burnt. The door is ruined. The ditch is filled. The master got angry. This pipe is broken. These hunters are very well known. If the exam is finished, rest a little. The children are sleeping because they are tired. Yesterday, Juma was completely drunk. Don't sit on this chair, it is broken. The mountain is quite visible now. He didn't succeed in closing the door because it closes badly.

EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Kazi hii yafanyika. Kazi hii haifanyiki. Machungwa haya hayaliki, bado kuiva. Koti langu limepasuka. Kama umeshughulika, nitarudi kesho. Taa imezimika. Sikuvunja kikombe hiki, kimevunjika tu. Sukari hainunuliki leo. Dirisha hili halifunguki. Uzi wangu umekatika. Leo ndizi hazipatikani sokoni. Jambo hili haliwezekani.

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1. EXAMPLES : to tie to do to close -> to untie -> to undo -> to disclose In Swahili. to break the fast to uncover to raise to unfold to unload to disentangle to deliver from a trap to undress to unplug. to uncork VOCABULARY Madaraka responsibilities Marufuku a prohibition 1 of 2 4/4/09 4:01 PM .The Reversive Form The relative derivation concerns only a small number of verbs. when the vowel of the radical is O). for which there is a "reverse" action. to untie to open to untie.htm Chapter 42 .fr/E_Chap42. to cork Ku-banduka Ku-chwa Ku-chomoa Ku-fumua Ku-fumbua Ku-fungua Ku-funua Ku-inua Ku-kunjua Ku-pakua Ku-tatua Ku-tegua Ku-vua Ku-zibua to unstick to set (sun) to extract to fray. to bore to SOME VERBS IN THE REVERSIVE FORM : Ku-bandika Ku-cha Ku-choma Ku-fuma Ku-fumba Ku-funga Ku-funika Ku-inama Ku-kunja Ku-paka Ku-tata Ku-tega Ku-vaa Ku-ziba to stick to rise (sun) to prick. the reversive derivation consists in replacing the termination -A of the verb by the suffix -UA (or -OA. to fast to cover to bend to fold to load to muddle to trap to wear to plug. to tie to lock up to bind. the "reversive" verb is usually formed by placing a prefix such as "un-" or "dis-" in front of the verb radical. In English.Chapter 42 http://mwanasimba.

Ndege anafunua mabawa yake. 11. 2. Jua limekuchwa.htm Maelezo Magendo Magugu Makuti Manyonya an explanation smuggling weeds palms feathers Mashindano Matandiko Matata Matokeo Mavuno a competition bed linen problems results a harvest Cross Word Puzzle EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : Stick the stamp ! Put on the clothes ! Uncork the bottle ! Remove the thorn ! Uncover the pan ! unload the luggage ! Shut (your) eyes ! Open (your) hand ! Remove the hat ! Trap ! EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 8. 3. Kidole changu kinachoma. Mtoto anakunja uso. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 2 of 2 4/4/09 4:01 PM . 10. 12. Mwambie mpishi apakue chakula ! Ziba chupa hii ! Kumekucha. Bandika stempu katika barua yako kabla ya kuipeleka. 7. Mkia wa nyani haumbanduki nyani. Jua limefunika na mawingu. Nimechomoa rafiki yangu shilingi mia. 4. 9.Chapter 42 http://mwanasimba. Waislamu wafunga mwezi wa Ramadhani.

and the significance of some of the prefixes and suffixes used in that process.Chapter 43 Noun ending in -I : 1. We can also place a classes 7/8 prefix (KI-/VI. For memory. 1. To obtain a noun of trade or occupation.gender) in front of the verbal root and change the final vowel -a into -i : ku-gomba ku-lea ku-lewa ku-linda ku-nunua ku-pika ku-shona ku-tumika ku-vua ku-zaa to contradict to raise to be drunk to guard to buy to cook to sew to be employed to fish to father -> mgomvi (wa-) -> mlezi (wa-) -> mlevi (wa-) -> mlinzi (wa-) -> mnunuzi (wa-) -> mpishi (wa-) -> mshoni (wa-) -> mtumishi (wa-) -> mvuvi (wa-) -> mzazi (wa-) a quarellous person a children's nurse a drunkard a guard a buyer.htm Chapter 43 . let's give here some words we have already met with : ku-sikia ku-imba ku-safiri to hear to sing to travel -> sikio -> wimbo -> safari an ear a song a journey We will review in this chapter the various devices most commonly used in Swahili to coin new nouns. NOUNS DERIVED FROM A VERB : 1.gender) in front of the verbal root and change the final vowel -a into -i : ku-nyoa ku-ongoza to shave to lead -> kinyozi (vi-) -> kiongozi (vi-) a barber a leader 3. We can also place a classes 1/2 prefix (M-/WA.The Formation of Nouns You have probably now noticed that many nouns and verbs come from the same roots. we place a classes 1/2 prefix (M-/WA.gender) in front of the verbal root and add the suffix -ji at the 1 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM .online. a customer a cook a tailor a servant a fisherman a parent 2.

We place a class prefix in front of the verbal root and change the final vowel -a into -e : ku-kata ku-shinda ku-tuma to cut to conquer to employ -> mkate (mi-) -> ushinde -> mtume (wa-) a loaf of bread a defeat a messenger. an envoy 2 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM .gender) in front of the verbal root. peacefulness 2. Noun ending in -E : The termination -e often indicates a person or a thing that has undergone an unspecified action. We also obtain nouns of people by placing a classes 1/2 prefix (M-/WA.htm end of the radical : ku-cheza ku-chinja ku-chunga ku-imba ku-lima ku-sema ku-tazama ku-uza to play to slaughter to keep to sing to cultivate to speak to watch to sell -> mchezaji (wa-) -> mchinjaji (wa-) -> mchungaji (wa-) -> mwimbaji (wa-) -> mlimaji (wa-) -> msemaji (wa-) -> mtazamaji (wa-) -> mwuzaji (wa-) a player a butcher a shepherd a singer a farmer a speaker a spectator a seller 2. Noun ending in -U : The final vowel -a changes into -u : ku-haribu ku-kosa ku-okoa ku-punguka ku-sahau ku-tulia to destroy to miss to save to be reduced to forget to be calm -> uharibifu -> ukosefu -> wokovu -> upungufu -> usahaulifu -> utulivu destruction The final vowel -a changes into -u : ku-amini ku-anga ku-tukuka ku-tulia to believe to light to be estimated to be calm -> mwaminifu (wa-) -> mwangavu (wa-) -> mtukufu (wa-) -> mtulivu (wa-) a believer.Chapter 43 http://mwanasimba.gender) in front of the verbal root. shortage salvation rarefaction forgetfulness calm. We obtain abstract nouns by placing a class 14 prefix (U. a faithful person an intelligent person an estimable person a quiet person 3.

Noun ending in -O : The termination -o is quite common. Nouns starting with the prefix N. although some. a cork 5. like msafiri (wa-) (= a traveller) follow the Bantu pattern : ku-abudu ku-amini ku-bariki ku-furahi to adore to believe to bless to rejoice -> ibadi -> imani -> baraka -> furaha worship faith a blessing joy 3 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM . to cork -> azimio (ma-) -> ufunguo (funguo) -> kifuniko (vi-) -> mwito (mi-) -> mpatano (mi-) -> sikio (ma-) -> msemo (mi-) -> msomo (mi-) -> mtego (mi-) -> kizibo (vi-) a declaration a key a lid a call an agreement an ear a saying a lesson a trap a It often indicates an object or an unspecified We place a class prefix in front of the verbal root and change the final vowel -a into -o : ku-azimu ku-fungua ku-funika ku-ita ku-patana ku-sikia ku-sema ku-soma ku-tega ku-ziba to propose to open to cover to call to agree to hear to say to read.: ku-imba ku-ja ku-oa ku-ota to sing to come to marry to dream -> nyimbo -> njia -> ndoa -> ndoto a song a way a marriage a dream 6.: Some classes 9/10 nouns (N.Chapter 43 http://mwanasimba. to learn to catch to stop.gender) are simply derived from a verb with the addition of the prefix N.htm ku-umba to create -> kiumbe (vi-) a creature 4. Derivation from a verb of Arabic origin : Nouns formed from a verb of Arabic origin usually keep the same consonants but change their internal vowels.

) jiwe (ma-) mji (mi-) mlima (mi-) mto (mi-) mtoto (wa-) mtu (wa-) mwana (wa-) mwiko (mi-) sahani a stone a town a mountain a river a child a person a child a ladle a plate -> kijiwe (vi-) -> kijiji (vi-) -> kilima (vi-) -> kijito (vi-) -> kitoto (vi-) -> kijitu (vi-) -> kijana (vi-) -> kijiko (vi-) -> kisahani (vi-) a pebble a village a hill a brook a toddler a dwarf a young person a spoon a saucer 2. The diminutive prefixes KI.and KIJI.Chapter 43 http://mwanasimba. The augmentative prefix JI.: (See : Chapter 16. NOUNS DERIVED FROM OTHER NOUNS : 1.) mtu (wa-) mti (mi-) nyoka nyumba nyunyi a person a tree a snake a house a bird -> jitu (ma-) -> jiti (ma-) -> joka (ma-) -> jumba (ma-) -> juni (ma-) a giant a large arbre a large snake a building a large bird The collective prefix -MA : 4 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM .: (Voir : Chapter 13.htm ku-safiri ku-sali ku-sifu ku-subiri ku-tiba ku-tubu to travel to pray to praise to wait to cure to repent -> safari -> sala -> sifa -> subira -> tabibu -> toba a journey a pray a praise patience a doctor repentance

gender) have 2 plurals : an ordinary plural and a class 6 plural (prefix MA-) that represents a collectivity. affection a lover love a loved one. pesa rafiki samaki simba money a friend a fish a lion -> mapesa -> marafiki -> masamaki -> masimba small change a circle of friends a school of fish a pride of lions 3.Chapter 43 favouritism reciprocal love ku-pendwa ku-pendelea ku-pendana to be loved to have affection for to love each other KUTUMA = to use VERBS ku-tuma to use translation NOUNS mtume (wa-) (mi-) translation un envoy a messenger un prophet a slave ku-tumwa to be employed mtumwa (wa-) 5 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM .htm Some classes 9/10 nouns (N. VERBAL DERIVATION AND NOMINAL DERIVATION : EXAMPLES : KWENDA = to go VERBS ku-enda ku-endesha ku-endelea to go to lead translation NOUNS mwendo mwenzi mwendeshaji maendeleo translation a movement a companion a driver development to progress KUPENDA = to love VERBS ku-penda to love translation NOUNS kipendo (vi-) mapenzi mpenzi (wa-) upendo mpendwa (wa-) upendeleo upendano translation mark of affection a dear inclination.

a believer. a pride of lions. 11. a creature. a building. repentance. a farmer. Siku hizi hatuna ukosefu wa bidhaa madukani. a dream. sasa mtaangalia mchezo wa mpira baina ya wachezaji wa Tanzania na Kenya. salvation. affection. A messenger. a pebble. players. Masimba wamelala msituni. faith.htm ku-tumisha ku-tumiza to assign a task to someone to assign a task to someone mtumishi (wa-) utumizi (ma-) a servant usefulness employment service EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. 5. a way. a drunkard. a key. small change. a tailor. 14. development. a toddler. favouritism. Mlimaji analima shamba lake. an agreement. a village. 9. 6 of 7 4/4/09 4:01 PM . Tajiri huyu ana watumishi wachache na wapishi wawili. parents. a large bird. Waimbaji waliimba nyimbo nzuri. Usikose kusikiliza hotuba ya kiongozi wetu katika redio. a shepherd. c. a servant. 6. Siwezi kufungua nyumba yangu kwa sababu nimepotea ufunguo wangu. 12. 4. 8. a large snake.Chapter 43 http://mwanasimba. a shortage. a journey. a prayer. a leader. kando ya barabara. 7. a cover. Wavuvi wamekwenda baharini kuvua usiku. patience. a lover. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. forgetfulness. a saucer. Kijiji chetu hiki kinaendela vizuri. a driver. nimeota ndoto njema : nilioa mpenzi wangu. 3. 2. 13. a blessing. A song. A declaration. Huyu mlevi ni mgomvi sana. Kuna walinzi wawili mbele ya jumba la rais. Kizibo cha chupa hii kiko wapi ? Leo usiku. b. 15. Rais alituambia tujitolee kwa maendeleo ya nchi yetu. destruction. spectators. Watamazaji watukufu. 10. a spoon.

régular (on the) left true 1 of 6 4/4/09 4:02 PM . Thus : Chakula cha kizungu Nyumba ya kisasa = European cooking. Adjectives formed with a noun : -a baridi -a bure -a haki -a hatari -a kawaida -a kushoto -a kweli cold free right dangerous natural. = a modern house.htm Chapter 44 . The connective -A must agree in class with the noun to which it agrees. which confers to that one an adjectival value. verbs or other words. COMMON ADJECTIVAL WORDS : 1.Compound Adjectives Genuine adjectives are quite few in Swahili. NOUNS OR VERBS PRECEDED BY THE CONNECTIVE "-A" : One of the most common ways of creating an adjective is to have the connective -A precede a noun. Thus : Maji ya moto Maji ya baridi Fedha ya kutosha Mahali pa utulivu = hot water.Chapter 44 = cold water. (= water of hot) (= water of cold) (= money of to be enough) (= place of calm) The noun or the word placed after the connective -A can take the prefix of manner KI-. 1. = a quiet place. = enough money. (= food of white) (= house of now) 2. However there are various means of creating new adjectives from

Chapter 44

-a lazima -a moto -a mwisho -a porini -a siri -a taifa -a zamani

necessary hot last wild secret national old, ancient

2. Adjectives formed with a verb in the infinitive : -a kufaa -a kupendeza -a kulia -a kutosha convenient pleasant, nice (on the) right enough, sufficient

3. Prepositional verbs can also be used to express the finality of something : -a kukatia -a kulimia -a kupimia -a kusafishia -a kutilia for cutting for cultivating for measuring for cleaning for putting

4. Adjectives formed with a word prefixed with KI- : -a kienyeji -a kihindi -a kike -a kimataifa -a kisasa -a kitoto -a kiume -a kizungu native, local Indian female, feminine international modern childish male, masculine European

5. Adjectives formed with an adverb : Chakula cha jana Desturi za kale Desturi za kwetu Mashamba ya mbali yesterday's food old habits / customs local habits / customs remote plantations

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Chapter 44

Watu wa hapa

local people

6. The ordinal numbers are formed on this model (see : Chapter 22) : -a kwanza -a pili -a tatu -a nne first second third fourth

7. In common noun associations, the particule -A has all but disappeared : Askari koti Askari kanzu Bata maji Kijana mwanamke Mbwa mwitu Mtu tajiri Mwaka jana Mwana kondoo Viazi ulaya a police officer in uniform a plain clothes policeman a water fowl a young girl a wolf a rich person last year a lamb potatoes


The possessive particle -ENYE (= "who / which / that has", "having") placed in front of a noun confers to that one an adjectival value. That particle agrees with the possessor by taking a particular prefix of agreement that is quite similar to the object infix of the corresponding class. Thus :

Mtu mwenye afya Watu wenye mali Mti wenye miiba Miti yenye nguvu Chumba chenye giza Samaki mwenye mafuta

a man in good health rich people a thorny tree vigorous trees a dark room. a fat fish

Agreements of the adjectival particle -ENYE CLASS NOUNS -ENYE CLASS NOUNS -ENYE

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Chapter 44

Cl 1 Cl 3 Cl 5 Cl 7 Cl 9

Mtu Mti Gari Kiti Nguo


Cl 2 Cl 4 Cl 6 Cl 8 Cl 10

Watu Miti Magari Viti Nguo



The adjectival particule -ENYE is more generally used to mark possession : Mtu mwenye ng'ombe Yule mwenye kofia Kiti chenye miguu mitatu Chai yenye sukari = somebody with cows. = that one with a hat. = a chair with three legs. = tea with sugar


We can also, like what is done in English with a past participle, use a verb in a relative construction or a general relative. (See : Chapter 52 and Chapter 53.) EXAMPLES : Meza iliyovunjika Mwaka uliopita Mwezi ujao Nchi isiyo na maji Samaki asiye na mafuta a broken table last year next month an arid country a lean fish (which has no fat)


Penye nia pana njia


Dhahabu Giza

gold darkness

Homa Jasho

fever sweat

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Chapter 44

Harufu Hela Herufi Hesabu

an odor money a letter (alphabet) a calculation, an account

Jinsi Kamusi Kimya Orodha

the manner, the way a dictionary silence a list

Mots Croisés


EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili :

Hot water, an old house, the last day, a usual work, the first time, European food, English money, the left arm, the righ foot, a broken table, a dark room, a rich person, a man in good health, lean meat, old habits, a modern car, a dangerous game, a secret love, a right person, a pleasant work, a male child, the second child, a water fowl, potatoes, a lamb.

EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Mwanangu hapati chakula cha kutosha. Napenda kula chakula cha kienyeji. Lazima wakulima wafuate kilimo cha kisasa. Mtoto amevunja mkono wake wa kulia. Nadhani leo itakuwa siku ya mwisho ya Ramadhani. Tunataka kupiga picha za wanyama wa porini. Ninapenda viazi ulaya kuliko viazi vitamu. Mbwa mwitu amekula mwana mbuzi mmoja. Mke wake amemzalia mtoto wa kike. Ninahitaji karatasi ya kuandikia barua. Nipe chai yenye sukari. Samaki mwenye mafuta si mzuri kwa afya yako. Mwaka uliopita tulipita nchi isiyo na maji. Wanyama wapenda kulala katika mahali pa giza. Mwite mtu mwenye kofia, nataka kuzungumza naye.

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Class 17 is characterized by the class prefix KU-. can easily be the subject of a sentence in Swahili : Compare the word order : Bondeni kulipandwa minazi. A point worth noting is that the It contains only one noun : MAHALI (or MAHALA or PAHALI). Mahali pema. Mahali pengine. PA.or PO-. 2. Mahali pazuri. a small place. Class 16 is characterized by the class prefix P-.Chapter 45 http://mwanasimba. 1 of 6 4/4/09 4:03 PM .and MU. but it is attested by the demonstratives HUKU.) There are three locative subject prefixes : PA-. Mahali padogo. which is usually in the position of complement in the English sentence. It indicates a position inside a place. another place. Coconut trees were planted in the valley. It is also attested by the demonstratives HAPA. It indicates a movement from one place to another or an indefinite position. a bad place. HUMO and the connective MWA. HAPO and the connective PA. a word which means : a place. 17 and 18. This class is especially present in the class agreements which it involves. It is attested by the demonstratives HUMU. KU.or MW-. a nice place. according to the nomenclature of Bantu It indicates a definite position. 17 et 18.htm Chapter 45 . 1.The Locative Classes There are three distinct locative classes in Swahili : Classes 16. MLE. Mahali pabaya. This place is full of people. This class does not comprise any noun. EXAMPLES : Mahali hapa pamejaa watu. KULE. PALE. ADJECTIVES : The adjective agrees by taking the locative prefix PA-. Class 18 is characterized by the class prefix M. HUKO and the connective KWA.corresponding respectively to classes 16. a good place. often even in the absence of the noun "MAHALI". VERBS : (See : Chapter 17 and Chapter 18. Those exist only in the 3rd person singular.

MWA is used after nouns suffixed in -NI : EXAMPLES : Watoto wanasoma nyumbani mwa mwalimu. There was no table cloth on the table. Mahali pa hatari. There is no water in the well. for. New equipment was put in our house.) : EXAMPLES : Mahali pa utulivu. Hapa palikufa simba. Hakuna kitu nyuma ya Mwituni mmelala wanyama. A quiet place. There is something in the box. Among the children. 3. He left the hoe at the old man's to. Hakuna mahindi mengi shambani. etc. and. one of them is standing. They are frequently used with the verb KUWA NA (= to have) to translate "there is" or "there isn't": EXAMPLES : Pana mtoto mlangoni. Aliacha jembe mlangoni pa mzee. PA is used after the noun MAHALI and also after nouns suffixed in -NI.Chapter 45 http://mwanasimba. "MWA" and "KWA" : (See : Chapter 26 and Chapter 29.) 1. Mna kitu sandukuni. mmoja anasimama. Hamna maji kisimani. : EXAMPLES : 2 of 6 4/4/09 4:03 PM . Kuna wageni shambani. The connective KWA is certainly one of the most frequently employed and it possesses many different meanings : at. Hapana miti hapa. There are no trees here. Miongoni mwa watoto. There is nothing behind the cupboard. There is not much corn in the field. There is a child at the door. A dangerous place. A lion died here. 3. with. There are foreigners in the field. by. It is also used to form compound adjectives (See : Chapter 44. The children learn at the teacher's house. THE CONNECTIVES "PA".htm Mezani hapakuwa na kitambaa Nyumbani mwetu mmewekwa vyombo vipya. Animals are sleeping in the forest. 2.

4. This meal is not appropriate for the guests. Nyumbani kwako. Moyoni mwangu. I will go to the chief' I will eat rice with / and sauce.) PLACE Precise place Vague place Interior place Proximity HAPA here HUKU over there HUMU there Distance PALE around here KULE by over there MLE there around Reference HAPO here inside HUKO there inside HUMO inside CLASS Class 16 Class 17 Class 17 3 of 6 4/4/09 4:03 PM . Chakula hiki hakifai kwa wageni.) 7.) : EXAMPLES : Majirani pake. Nitakwenda kwa jumbe.htm Anakaa kwa Ali. In my heart. At your house. In his Alifika kwa gari la moshi. Nitakula wali kwa mchuzi. He stays at Ali's. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES : Possessive adjectives take the prefixes PA-.) 6. He arrived by agree with nouns suffixed in -NI (See : Chapter 29. KW. DEMONSTRATIVES : (See : Chapter 26. THE INTERROGATIVE WORD "WAPI ?" : (See : Chapter 21. LOCATIVE ADVERBS : (See : Chapter 26. 5.Chapter 45 http://mwanasimba.or MW.

4 of 6 4/4/09 4:03 PM . Among these people over there. Put these plates inside this cupboard. Put it here on the table. Kipofu awezi kuona anakokwenda wala aoni anakotoka. EXEMPLES : Tuliumwa na kunguni tulipolala. 8. Shimoni alimoingia panya. Miongoni mwa watu wale kule. "KO-" and "MO-" : We insert the relative infix "PO-" (or "KO-" or "MO-") between the tense marker and the verbal root to signify "when". The hole which the mouse entered.Chapter 45 http://mwanasimba. on).htm These demonstratives can be used by themselves. Anakaa huku. EXAMPLES : Mahali pale. Itie hapa mezani. "where". or with a noun of place suffixed in -NI (= at. He lives here. Mzee Meko Mzee Meko alipofika nyumbani aligonga lakini mkewe alikataa kumfungulia akalala nje hadi asubuhi. Tia sahani hizi kabatini humo ! This place over there. We were bitten by insects while we were sleeping. THE RELATIVE INFIXES "PO-".fr/E_Chap45. "in which". A blind man can't see where he goes nor where he comes from.

at that place over there. yako maji kwako ? . in your house. in the cupboard. at Ali's. in the Arab's shop. 2.Hakuna. Simama ! Ninatelemka hapa. at my father's. Je. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 8. 5. a quiet place. behind the door. another place. 5 of 6 4/4/09 4:03 PM . 3. in the teacher's 4. Usimwache kuingia ndani ! Ninakaa kwa rafiki yangu Abdallah. outside. 7. VOCABULARY Chungu (vy-) Kibao (vi-) Kifo (vi-) Kinanda (vi-) Kipini (vi-) Kiraka (vi-) a pot a panel death a piano a handle a mending Kiroboto (vi-) Kitana (vi-) Kitendawili (vi-) Kiu (vi-) Kiungo (vi-) Kizunguzungu (vi-) a flea a comb a riddle thirst an articulation a dizzy spell Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : A nice place.Chapter 45 http://mwanasimba.htm When Mzee Meko arrived at home. he knocked at the door but his wife refused to open. Hakuna chungu wala vyombo vingine vyote kabatini. Kuna watu wengi huko Dar es Salaam. 6. on the table. Pashia mizigo katika gari ! Watu wa makabila mengi wanakaa Mombasa. and he slept till the morning. on top of the mountain. a dark place. in the box. in the middle of the city. Mbwa analala nje. at the old man's door. in front of the shop. inside the

: MODEL : KWENDA = to go NI-KI-ENDA -> nikienda U-KI-ENDA -> ukienda A-KI-ENDA -> akienda TU-KI-ENDA -> tukienda M-KI-ENDA -> mkienda WA-KI-ENDA -> wakienda if I go if you go if he / she goes if we go if you go if they go 1 of 4 4/4/09 4:04 PM .Chapter 46 http://mwanasimba. SUBJECT PREFIX + KI + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to do. The verb in -KI. in the sentence.AFFIRMATIVE : The tense marker -KI. Its meaning changes slightly according to its position in the sentence : if it is the first verb in a sentence.htm Chapter 46 . it corresponds to a present conditional in English .The -KI. to make NI-KI-FANYA -> nikifanya U-KI-FANYA -> ukifanya A-KI-FANYA -> akifanya TU-KI-FANYA -> tukifanya M-KI-FANYA -> mkifanya WA-KI-FANYA -> wakifanya if I make if you make if he / she makes if we make if you make if they make NOTE : Monosyllabic verbs drop their infinitive prefix followed by a verb in the future or in the placed between the affirmative subject prefix and the verbal root. The meaning of that infix is "if".tense is a tense that marks the simultaneity of an action in relation to another. THE "KI" TENSE . 1. past or future. if it follows a first verb which is in the present.Tense The -KI. then it corresponds to a present participle (verb ending in -ing) or to an infinitive in English.

utaninunulia zawadi. If the cook is late again today. 2. Ukienda Ulaya. lazima uchukue nguo za kutosha. If you climb up Mount a negative mark of time. Mpishi akichelewa tena placed between the subject prefix and the verbal root.Chapter 46 http://mwanasimba. SUBJECT PREFIX + SIPO + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to do. affirmative subject prefixes must be used in conjunction with it.htm EXAMPLES : Ukipanda mlima wa Kilimanjaro. you must take enough clothes. THE -KI. to make NI-SIPO-FANYA -> nisipofanya U-SIPO-FANYA -> usipofanya A-SIPO-FANYA -> asipofanya TU-SIPO-FANYA -> tusipofanya M-SIPO-FANYA -> msipofanya WA-SIPO-FANYA -> wasipofanya if I don't make if you don't make if he / she doesn't make if we don't make if you don't make if they don't make NOTE : Monosyllabic verbs keep their infinitive prefix KU. mfukuze. THE "KI" TENSE .fr/E_Chap46.NEGATIVE : The negative tense marker -SIPO. If you go to Europe. That infix means "if not" or "unless". you will buy me a gift.: MODEL : KWENDA = to go NI-SIPO-KWENDA -> nisipokwenda U-SIPO-KWENDA -> usipokwenda A-SIPO-KWENDA -> asipokwenda TU-SIPO-KWENDA -> tusipokwenda M-SIPO-KWENDA -> msipokwenda WA-SIPO-KWENDA -> wasipokwenda if I don't go if you don't go if he / she doesn't go if we don't go if you don't go if they don't go 3.TENSE AS A PRESENT PARTICIPLE : 2 of 4 4/4/09 4:04 PM . fire Since -SIPO.

ni mamoja kwangu ! VOCABULARY Bastola Cherehani Filimbi Fimbo Gundi Hema a gun a sewing machine a whistle a walking stick glue a tent Kamba Karabai Kufuli Lami Lipu Seng'e seng'e a rope a pressure lamp a lock tar plaster barbed wire Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 3 of 4 4/4/09 4:04 PM . We saw them play. Verb ending in "-ing" : Infinitive : Walikuwa wakicheza. Atakuwa akicheza. According to the context. Tuliwaona When a verb in -KI. or by an infinitive.Compound Tenses. it will be translated differently in English : either by a verb ending in "-ing" (present participle). They were playing. it marks the simultaneity of the second action in relation to the first. The child passed singing. Nilimwona akilia. He / she was playing. He / she will be playing. The first verb can be conjugated in different tenses : Past Perfect : Simple past : Future : Amekuwa akicheza.follows a first verb in the sentence. He / she has been playing.Chapter 46 http://mwanasimba.) EXPRESSION : Ukipenda usipende. (See : Chapter 54 . I saw her Alikuwa akicheza. Mtoto alipita akiimba.

if the food is brought. Alikuwa akiendesha gari lake haraka mno. I have seen the tree fall. He was reading. 4. Nisipopumzika sasa. if he tells us. The teacher was teaching how to read and write. 7. hakitafaa. if I drink. the food was cooking. 5. if he dies. Mkienda kule. they saw the tourists arrive. if the letters are brought. 12. they will be playing tomorrow. they are tired because they were playing. I saw you cry. I saw him laugh. 11. nitachoka sana. 10. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Ukijaribu sana. 6. if they eat. Tusipopata mvua. 2. if you see animals you'll be lucky. if he gets eggs. if you Nilimwona mwalimu akijenga nyumba yake. he was cooking. b. mtamwona mlimaji akilima shambani kwake. 8.htm a. 3. I heard her sing. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 4:04 PM . utaweza kusema kiswahili safi. the Masais will dance tomorrow Mzee alikuwa akilala mkutanoni. if they come. ninulie vitu kadhaa. if the tree falls.Chapter 46 http://mwanasimba. Tuliwaona wanafunzi wetu wakicheza mjini. if you get permission. If you like. Ukienda Nairobi. Akija asije. if she answers. mtawaona watoto wetu wakicheza mpira. Mkienda Mombasa leo. if you come tomorrow I'll give you money. if you tell me your name. ni mamoja kwangu. Chakula kisipoiva. c. if I give you. we worked in the bush. 9. mihindi haitaota.

fr/E_Chap47.Hypothesis.htm Chapter 47 . to love NI-NGE-PENDA U-NGE-PENDA A-NGE-PENDA TU-NGE-PENDA M-NGE-PENDA WA-NGE-PENDA -> ningependa -> ungependa -> angependa -> tungependa -> mngependa -> wangependa I would like you would like he / she would like we would like you would like they would like Monosyllabic verbs keep their infinitive prefix KU.Conditional Tenses Apart from the -KI. SUBJECT PREFIX + NGE + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUPENDA = to like. These two tenses are used to form assumptions or hypothesis.Tense and Chapter 48 .: NI-NGE-KU-LA A-NGE-KWENDA U-NGE-KUWA WA-NGE-KUWA NA -> ningekula -> angekwenda -> ungekuwa -> wangekuwa na I would eat he / she would go you would be they would have B. (See : Chapter 46 . NEGATIVE : 1 of 5 4/4/09 4:04 PM .The -KI. there are two more conditional tenses in Swahili: The Present Conditional and the Past Conditional.tense that may already correspond to the use of the English Present Conditional. AFFIRMATIVE : The tense marker of the present conditional is the infix -NGE-.Chapter 47 1. placed between the subject prefix and the verbal root. THE PRESENT CONDITIONAL : A.

the negative infix -SI. Since it is a negative mark. SUBJECT PREFIX + NGALI + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUPENDA = to like. THE PAST CONDITIONAL : A.htm In the negative form. affirmative subject prefixes must be used in conjunction with it.(formed of NGE + LI) added in front of the tense marker of the present conditional -NGE-. to love NI-NGALI-PENDA U-NGALI-PENDA A-NGALI-PENDA TU-NGALI-PENDA M-NGALI-PENDA -> ningalipenda -> ungalipenda -> angalipenda -> tungalipenda -> mngalipenda I would have liked you would have liked he / she would have liked we would have liked you would have liked 2 of 5 4/4/09 4:04 PM .: NI-SI-NGE-KU-LA A-SI-NGE-KWENDA U-SI-NGE-KUWA WA-SI-NGE-KUWA NA -> nisingekula -> asingekwenda -> usingekuwa -> wasingekuwa na I wouldn't eat he / she wouldn't go you wouldn't be they wouldn't have 2. AFFIRMATIVE : The tense marker of the past conditional is the infix -NGALI.Chapter 47 SUBJECT PREFIX + SI + NGE + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUPENDA = to like. to love NI-SI-NGE-PENDA U-SI-NGE-PENDA A-SI-NGE-PENDA TU-SI-NGE-PENDA M-SI-NGE-PENDA WA-SI-NGE-PENDA -> nisingependa -> usingependa -> asingependa -> tusingependa -> msingependa -> wasingependa I wouldn't like you wouldn't like he / she wouldn't like we wouldn't like you wouldn't like they wouldn't like Monosyllabic verbs keep their infinitive prefix KU. placed between the subject prefix and the verbal root.

NEGATIVE : In the negative form. affirmative subject prefixes must be used in conjunction with it. the negative infix NI-NGALI-KU-LA A-NGALI-KWENDA U-NGALI-KUWA WA-NGALI-KUWA NA -> ningalikula -> angalikwenda -> ungalikuwa -> wangalikuwa na I would have eaten he / she would have gone you would have been they would have had B.htm WA-NGALI-PENDA -> wangalipenda they would have liked Monosyllabic verbs retain their infinitive prefix KU. to love NI-SI-NGALI-PENDA U-SI-NGALI-PENDA A-SI-NGALI-PENDA TU-SI-NGALI-PENDA M-SI-NGALI-PENDA WA-SI-NGALI-PENDA -> nisingalipenda -> usingalipenda -> asingalipenda -> tusingalipenda -> msingalipenda -> wasingalipenda I wouldn't have liked you wouldn't have liked he / she wouldn't have liked we wouldn't have liked you wouldn't have liked they wouldn't have liked Monosyllabic verbs retain their infinitive prefix KU.: NI-SI-NGALI-KU-LA A-SI-NGALI-KWENDA U-SI-NGALI-KUWA WA-SI-NGALI-KUWA NA -> nisingalikula -> asingalikwenda -> usingalikuwa -> wasingalikuwa na I wouldn't have eaten he / she wouldn't have gone you wouldn't have been they wouldn't have had VOCABULARY 3 of 5 4/4/09 4:04 PM . SUBJECT PREFIX + SI + NGALI + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUPENDA = to like. Since it is a negative added in front of the tense marker of the past conditional 47 http://mwanasimba.

he would he would have got. I would like. you would receive (plur). they wouldn't have liked. I wouldn't have. they wouldn't get angry. you would come. they would laugh. Usingalikunywa pombe ile.htm Ku-aga Ku-ajiri Ku-beba Ku-chafya Ku-chambua ku-chimba to say goodbye to employ. you wouldn't bring (plur). I would have done. he wouldn't have agreed. he would borrow. we wouldn't have been. to calculate to concern to gather. Mzee asingalikufa. 2. they would we would not be tired. I wouldn't have answered. Angeweza kuja leo. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. I would make. Mizigo ingaliletwa hapa. he would have waited. he would fill. you wouldn't want. I would have left. 5. Tungalipwa mshahara. they would have dug. you wouldn't have chosen (plur). to fire to go on strike to count. we would have come. Asingaliingia chumba kile. 10. you would have met. to heap Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. 7. 11. you would buy (plur). b. 8. 3. I would take. 4. Mbegu zingepandwa. Usingevuta sigara. you would have been (plur). Ungeniuliza. Nisingekuwa mgonjwa. to hire to carry on the back to sneeze to sort to dig Ku-dhani Ku-fukuza Ku-goma Ku-hesabu Ku-husu Ku-kusanya to think to chase. you wouldn't emigrate (plur). Ungalituma barua. 12. Tungejua kiswahili. they would have employed.Chapter 47 http://mwanasimba. he wouldn't count. they would hope. you would have written. you wouldn't have known. we would have met each other. we would go by. 9. yoou would have swept (plur). they would have looked alike. 6. 4 of 5 4/4/09 4:04 PM . we would wear. you could. you would read (plur). we would come back. he would fire. we wouldn't know. you would stop. I wouldn't have seen. they wouldn't despise. I wouldn't go. you wouldn't eat.

The Present Conditional.Hypothesis Just like in English.Tense. mwambie aje hapa.". The second verb must be conjugated in the same tense. or Present Real Hypothesis.) MODEL : Ningekwenda sasa. itachelewa. watalewa. If you see Hamisi.. If I went now. 1 of 4 4/4/09 4:05 PM .The -KI. PAST REAL HYPOTHESIS : We speak here of a fact that has not taken place. (Voir : Chapter 47 .) EXAMPLES : Ningejaribu sana. ningeweza kusema kiswahili. I could speak Swahili. they will get drunk. Ukimwona Hamisi. 1. 2. Kama ukienda Zanzibar. I would see him. utaona jumba la Sultani. We use the -KI. (If I would go now. Barua isipopelekwa leo.) EXAMPLES : Wakinywa pombe ile.tense to express the condition " or Past Irreal Hypothesis. If you go to Zanzibar. you'll see the Sultan's palace. it is possible to express 3 different hypothetic levels in Swahili : What is POTENTIAL. If they drink that local beer. or Past Real Hypothesis. tell him to come here. If the letter is not sent today. What is SPECULATIVE. ningemwona. We use the Present Conditional to formulate this type of assumption. PRESENT REAL HYPOTHESIS : We speak here of a fact that has not yet taken place. What is ASSUMPTIVE. but whose probable degree of realization is very low.Chapter 48 http://mwanasimba. and imagine what will happen if something else is to happen. The second verb which expresses the consequence is in the Future or the If I really tried.htm Chapter 48 .. (See : Chapter 46 . I would see him. it will arrive late.

they wouldn't be tired. Mvua ingenyesha leo.) MODEL : Ningalijaribu sana. 4. ningekupikia keki. Mvua isingalinyesha jana. they wouldn't be tired. (If I would have tried hard. Mtoto angalianguka mtini. If you had read this newspaper. ningaliweza kukuambia jambo If I was an old man now. We use the Past Conditional to formulate this type of hypothesis. PAST IRREAL HYPOTHESIS : We make here an intellectual speculation. I would have succeeded.) EXAMPLES : Ungalikuja jana. a comeback on an action that has already taken place. If you read that newspaper. I would have succeeded. and conversely. you'd know all the news. wasingalichoka. EXAMPLES : Ningekuwa mzee sasa. MIXING TENSES : It is quite possible to combine two tenses to formulate hypothesis. nisingaliweza kupanda mbegu zangu.The Past Conditional. I couldn't have planted my 3. angalikufa. Wangalipumzika. If it had not rained yesterday. Ungalisoma gazeti hili. The second verb is in the same tense. ningalikupikia keki. The degree of realization of that speculation is nil. ningepanda mbegu zangu. ningalifaulu. If they rsted.htm Ungekuja leo. I could climb Mount Kilimanjaro. you would know all the news now. 2 of 4 4/4/09 4:05 PM . ungejua habari zote sasa. If it rained today. so that an assumption formulated in the Present Conditional can be followed by its realization in the Past Conditional. If I wasn't an old man now. I would plant my seeds. ningeweza kupanda mlima wa Kilimanjaro. If they had rested. I would have cooked you a cake. If I had known you. If you came today. lile. Nisingekuwa mzee sasa. wasingechoka. If I had tried hard. Ungesoma gazeti ile. ningaliweza kukuuliza. he would have died. I could have told you about it. If the child had fallen from the tree. ungejua habari zote. If you had come yesterday. (See : Chapter 47 . I could have asked you. and for which we imagine another unfolding. I would cook yopu a cake.Chapter 48 http://mwanasimba. Wangepumzika.

nakupenda Malaika. Malaika. utajenga ukuta NOW. LEARN THE SONG : MALAIKA : ungaliweza kwenda Uingereza. asingekwenda safari. you could have gone to England. he would not have gone on his journey. nakupenda Malaika. VOCABULARY Ubaguzi Ubavu (mbavu) Ubovu Udongo ulaya Ufuko Uhai segregation a side rot cement the sea shore life Ukoo Ukucha (kucha) Umande Upinde Usaha Wavu (nyavu) a clan a claw dew an arc pus a net Mots Croisés EXERCISES 3 of 4 4/4/09 4:05 PM .htm Ungalimwambia habari. Nami nifanyeje. Nashindwa na mali sina. If you had told him the news.Chapter 48 http://mwanasimba. Isingekuwa mwezi wa Desemba. kijana If we weren't in December. we. PROVERB : Usipoziba ufa. Ningekuhoa Malaika.

the old man wouldn't have died. we wouldn't have found a hotel. b. angeweza kupata mavuno mazuri. 4. Tukipata samaki. he wouldn't have had an accident. if you spoke Swahili. Ungevaa koti la mvua. Ningekuwa wewe. if I didn't go to Moshi. 7. if I had a motorbike. if the doctor had not come. if we had eaten. if I had the key. Ungalimwambia shida zako. Angepanda mihindi. bwana angaliweza kukusaidia. 8. tungalipata mavuno.htm EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : a. if they had tried. Kama ungejua kusoma. usingesikia baridi. if you had come. if we hadn't come late. Ungalipata kazi. if the mail was brought. if the luggage had come. 5. if you weren't a teacher. 3. Kama nchi hii ingepata mvua. if it rained. 9. 2. hatutanunua nyama. if it was not dangerous. 6.Chapter 48 http://mwanasimba. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 4 of 4 4/4/09 4:05 PM . Tungalilima mwaka huu. if she wasn't sick. ningekununulia kitabu. watu wengi wangejenga hapa. if I had come yesterday. ungalipata mshahara. If I read. if you climbed. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : ungepata chakula. Ungepata mshahara. If the tree had not fallen. if the house was not here. nisingevaa nguo ile.

) HU + VERB RADICAL MODEL 1 : KUPENDA = to like.: MODEL 2 : KULA = to eat MIMI WEWE YEYE SISI NINYI WAO HULA HULA HULA HULA HULA HULA I eat you eat he / she eats we eat you eat they eat 1 of 4 4/4/09 4:06 PM . 1. Because the Habitual Present doesn't take any subject prefixes.The Present Definite and Chapter 10 .The Autonomous Personal Pronouns.Chapter 49 http://mwanasimba.The Present Indefinite. The termination of the verb does not change. This tense is used to speak about usual practices or truths of a general order. this verbal form is identical for all persons and for all nominal classes. (See : Chapter 8 . the habitual Present. without making reference to any specific time.) The Habitual Present can in many cases be used instead of the Present Indefinite. (See : Chapter 7 .Habitual Present Tense In addition to the Present Definite and the Present Indefinite.which is placed in front of the verbal root. we use the autonomous personal Chapter 49 . When it becomes necessary to identify the person. Swahili possesses a third tense in the present. THE AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The tense marker of the Habitual Present is the prefix HU. to love MIMI WEWE YEYE SISI NINYI WAO HUPENDA HUPENDA HUPENDA HUPENDA HUPENDA HUPENDA I like you like he / she likes we like you like they like Monosyllabic verbs drop their infinitive prefix KU.

Mpanda ovyo. Little bird. USE : The Habitual Present is frequently used in METHALI = Swahili sayings and proverbs (See : Methali #01.Tega ! Hulala tulalapo. The doctor usually comes here on Tuesday. (the sun) Huwafanya watu wote walie.The Present Definite. (See : Chapter 8 . for which there is usually no specific time reference : EXAMPLES : Haba na haba hujaza kibaba. Basi la Iringa hufika huko njiapanda saa nane. panya hutawala. Ubishi mwingi huleta mateso. Little by little fills up the measure.htm EXAMPLES : Daktari huja hapa Jumanne. And his listeners answer : "Set it !". Instead. hukuwaza kidege. Ng'ombe hula When the cat is away. (moshi) 2 of 4 4/4/09 4:06 PM . 2. the negative form of the Present Definite tense is used. huamka tuamkapo. Too much joking brings quarrel. Cows eat grass. wakes up when we get up. Duka lile huuza mkate. as well as in VITENDAWILI = Swahili riddles.Chapter 49 http://mwanasimba. Paka akiondoka. That shop sells bread. (jua) Goes to sleep when we sleep. The Iringa bus usually comes here at the crossroads at 2 p. THE NEGATIVE FORM : The Habitual Present has no specific form in the negative.m. Kidege. He who sows disorderly fashion will eat likewise.). hula ovyo. Na wasikilizaji wake hujibu : "Tega !". Negative Form. Mwenye kutega kitendawili husema : "Kitendawili !".) The one who poses a riddle says :"Riddle !". Kitendawili ? . I dream of you little bird. the mice will play.

6. (Mvua). (smoke) VOCABULARY Kanzu Kaptula Maiti Mashua Nafaka Nguzo a man's muslim robe shorts a corpse. the floor copper a syringe a station refuse. Pikipiki huhitaji petroli na oili. he goes. he arrives. you come back. 5. he thinks. you answer. (Nyuki). 3. they die. she speaks. Basi huondoka stesheni saa mbili na nusu. Nguo hufuliwa kila siku mbili. Kitendawili : Mzee Kombe akilia. 4. you eat. we wait.htm Makes everybody cry. watu hufurahi. she he leaves. 2. we rest. Watu hupumzika she closes. Kitendawili : Hula lakini hashibi. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1.Chapter 49 http://mwanasimba. a plan the ground. 8. he drinks. (Sindano). we rejoice. 9. 10. Mlango wa shule hufunguliwa saa moja. Kitendawili : Mwanamke mfupi hutengeneza pombe nzuri. 3 of 4 4/4/09 4:06 PM . he starts. waste Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : I go. they catch. I need. Mayai hupatikana hapa kila jumatatu. 7. you like. Mkulima huyo hupata mavuno mazuri. a body a boat grains a pillar Ramani Sakafu Shaba Sindano Stesheni Takataka a map.

: 1. The TELEGRAPHIC STYLE 1.indicates the consecutivity of an action in relation to another. to do NI-KA-FANYA -> nikafanya U-KA-FANYA -> ukafanya A-KA-FANYA -> akafanya TU-KA-FANYA -> tukafanya M-KA-FANYA -> mkafanya WA-KA-FANYA -> wakafanya and I made and you made and he / she made and we made and you made and they made NOTE : Monosyllabic verbs drop their infinitive prefix placed between the afirmative subject prefix and the verb radical.: MODEL : KWENDA = to go NI-KA-ENDA -> nikaenda U-KA-ENDA -> ukaenda A-KA-ENDA -> akaenda TU-KA-ENDA -> tukaenda and I went and you went and he / she went and we went 1 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM . We distinguish 3 uses of the infix marker -KA. The PAST NARRATIVE 2.Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba.Tenses The tense marker -KA. but cannot be used in relative constructions. A) PAST NARRATIVE . THE PAST NARRATIVE : The Past Narrative exists only in the affirmative. The infix -KA.AFFIRMATIVE FORM : SUBJECT PREFIX + KA + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to The CONSECUTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Chapter 50 .The -KA. This tense accomodates object infixes.

2. and he Alifika Mombasa. akajaribu kupata chumba hotelini. I looked for tomatoes and I didn't find any.Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba.E 2 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM . I asked him to come with me to town. and didn't get any. he saw a very high mountain. he tried to find a hotel room. nikamwuliza : "Je. then he asked a villager : "What's this mountain ?" the villager answered him : "This is indeed Mount Kilimanjaro". akakubali. I asked him : "Tell me.The Subjunctive. I went to the inserted in the verbal construction of the subjunctive affirmative. The white man arrived in Moshi. I went to Zanzibar yesterday and I came back today. akaona mlima mkubwa sana. Mzungu alifika Moshi. (See : Chapter 33 . This example shows that the word NA (= and) is never expressed : this concept is already contained within the tense marker -KA. mlima gani ule ?" mwenyeji akamjibu : "Huu ndio mlima wa kilimanjaro". but it is often preceded in speech by a first verb in the Simple Past. umepata mavuno mazuri ?" akasema : "Bwana. we use the Subjunctive negative instead. Nilimwona mlimaji shambani. THE CONSECUTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE : A) CONSECUTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE .AFFIRMATIVE FORM : The tense marker -KA. asipate. I haven't got anything at all". nikatafuta tungule (nyanya). I saw a farmer on his plantation. sikupata kitu". akamwuliza mwenyeji : "Je.htm M-KA-ENDA -> mkaenda WA-KA-ENDA -> wakaenda and you went and they went B) USE OF THE PAST NARRATIVE : The Past Narrative (the -KA.) EXAMPLE : Nilikwenda markiti. He arrived in Mombasa. I went to the village. I saw my friend. SUBJECT PREFIX + KA + VERB RADICAL . Have you got good harvests ?" and he answered : "No. nikamwona rafiki yangu. nisipate.tense) is used for narration. OTHER EXAMPLES : Nilikwenda Zanzibar jana nikarudi leo. nikamwomba aje nami mjini. To express negation. be it affirmative or negative : EXAMPLE : Nilikwenda kijijini.

can also be used in the imperative of the second person In that case it corresponds to a "sharp" order : Kalete ! Kamwambie ! Kajitahidi ! Will you bring ! Will you tell him / her ! Will you make an effort ! 3 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM .Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba.: NI-KA-JE U-KA-LE A-KA-ENDE -> nikaje -> ukale -> akaende and that I come and that you eat and that he / she goes NOTE : By its very nature the consecutive subjunctive can only be used with classes 1 / 2 (M-/ or -U : NI-KA-JARIBU U-KA-JITAHIDI A-KA-SAMEHE -> nikajaribu -> ukajitahidi -> akasamehe and that I try and that you make an effort and that he / she forgive Monosyllabic verbs drop their infinitive prefix KU.gender) subject prefixes. -I.htm MODEL (Verbs of Bantu origin) : KULETA = to bring NI-KA-LETE U-KA-LETE A-KA-LETE TU-KA-LETE M-KA-LETE WA-KA-LETE -> nikalete -> ukalete -> akalete -> tukalete -> mkalete -> wakalete and that I bring and that you bring and that he / she brings and that we bring and that you bring and that they bring Verbs of Arabic origin keep their final vowel -E. B) USE OF THE CONSECUTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE : This tense is used in conjunction with the verb KWENDA : Twende tukale ! Aende akamwite ! or : Tukale ! or : Akamwite ! Let's go and eat ! Let him / her go and call him / her ! The tense marker -KA.

Kamwite basi ! Let us bring our luggage here. Ukanunue sigara dukani. but not exclusively. Will you tell him to bring tea. Nenda kamwambie alete chai.Yupo. (NOUN SUBJECT) KA + VERB RADICAL EXAMPLES : WAZIRI KAFA DEATH OF MINISTER NDEGE KAANGUKA BAHARINI PLANE FALLS INTO SEA MWIZI KAKAMATWA ROBBER CAUGHT 4 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM . This process is commonly used to make newspaper headlines in the daily press. .htm Nenda can also be used in front of the imperative in -KA.tense is probably the only tense (apart from the imperative) that can be used used without a subject prefix.: Nenda kalete ! Will you go and bring ! EXAMPLES : Twende tukailete mizigo yetu hapa. Mzee Meko. Bwana yupo ? . Is the boss here ? . THE TELEGRAPHIC STYLE : The -KA. as will be seen in a cartoon extracted from Philip Ndunguru's comic book.Call him then ! 3. provided that the noun subject has been mentioned once in the is here. .online. Will you buy cigarettes at the shop.Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba.

education an argument someone a story Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 5 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM .online.Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba. then he did a lot of noise. Basi nikamkomesha.htm Mzee Meko Yule baba yako kazidi jeuri maana jana karudi kalewa sana halafu anapiga kelele hovyo VOCABULARY Ada Adhabu Afya Aibu Ajabu Akina expenses a punishment health shame a wonder relations Amani Arusi Elimu Fitina Fulani Hadithi peace a marriage teaching. sikumfungulia akalala nje mpaka asubuhi na hakusema lolote. Your father has twisted the knife in the wound. for yesterday he came back home completely drunk. so I refused to open him and he slept outside until morning and he didn't say anything.

wakauvunja ukuta wa shamba. 9. 2. 4. . 4. 3. 11. bali uende ukamwite mama yake. We didn't go outside. 12. 6. 10. akalileta nyumbani. 8. akalionyesha kwa kila mtu. Nenda kaone kama wazungu watakwenda Moshi kesho. 7. 10.htm 1. wakaliharibu shamba lote. 5. 7. Let us rest ! Let's drink coffee now ! If you don't know. 8. Will you go and buy me a bottle of Coke in the shop. Bwana alipoingia. he fell into the river.Kamwite basi ! Usiongee na mtoto Niliwapa watoto maembe yangu. wale watu wakasimama wakamwamkia. Tembo walikuja usiku. Nenda katazame ! Ukanilete Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 4:07 PM . Will you call the teacher ! Let's eat now ! Let them fetch the pupils ! Will you clean my car ! Would you go and read these books at the library. 3. 6. 12. go and ask ! He went to fish.Yuko uani. 5. Tulikwenda Hoteli ya Kati. Mtoto yuko wapi ? . Wakala. tafadhali ! Wakaende kutuletea kuni nyingi Akanunua gari jipya. and couldn't get out. we stayed at home and watched television. killed an animal and ate it. 9. 2. tukafaulu kupata chumba kimoja. Alipolikataa shauri letu tukanyamaza. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English: 1. 11. They went hunting.Chapter 50 http://mwanasimba.

14 / 10) KU.-VYO AMBA.-KO -MO PLURAL AMBA.(Cl 9/10) U.-YO AMBA. according to the situation.-O AMBA. Table of agreements of the Relative Pronoun AMBAGENDER / Classes M-/WA. "that". are most often present in Swahili as infixes or suffixes attached to the verb.-YO AMBA.(Cl 3/4) JI-/MA.Chapter 51 http://mwanasimba.(Cl 15) SINGULAR AMBA. or "whose".-KO -PO AMBA.-O AMBA.-LO AMBA. This relative pronoun is AMBA. However.(Cl 1/2) M-/MI.htm Chapter 51 .(Cl 5/6) KI-/ AMBA.-ZO Locative Classes EXAMPLES : Mtu ambaye amekuja Watu ambao wamekuja Mti ambao ulianguka Magari ambayo yanafika Kiti ambacho kimevunjika Nguo ambayo imepasuka The person who has come The people that have come The tree that fell The cars which arrive The chair which is broken The garment which is torn 1 of 3 4/4/09 4:09 PM . The relative AMBA.ends with the suffix -O of reference corresponding to the class of the noun with which it agrees.-CHO AMBA.-ZO AMBA. The relative infixes or suffixes must agree in class with the noun subject or object to which they refer.-YE AMBA.The Independent Relative Pronoun 1.-YO "which". there also exists an independant relative pronoun that can be used with all verbs in all tenses. AMBA.(Cl 11.which can be translated in English by "who".(Cl 7/8) N. "which".is placed between that noun and the verb that requires a relative. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN "AMBA-" : The relative pronouns "who". "that".

Hiki ni kitabu ambacho ndani yake niliona picha yako. no doubt influenced by the use of the English relative pronouns. VOCABULARY Nakala Nasibu Ngao Ngazi Njaa Nta a copy chance. Neno alilosema ambalo hatutalisahau. USE OF THE INDEPENDANT RELATIVE PRONOUN : The independant relative pronoun AMBA. Huyu ni yule mgonjwa ambaye mwanangu alikupa habari zake jana. EXAMPLES : Huyu ni mtoto ambaye kesho hatakuja shule. Since one of its roles is to improve comprehension.Chapter 51 Here is the patient about whom my son spoke to you yesterday. Naliliomba jembe dogo ambalo mwalimu halitumii anapolima shamba lake. Here is the child who will not come to school tomorrow. hunger wax Nyundo Pete Posho Ripoti Risasi Silaha a hammer a ring a ration a report a bullet a weapon Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 2 of 3 4/4/09 4:09 PM . in sentences where the relative infix attached to the verb would make it difficult to understand the message. I asked for the small hoe that the teacher doesn't use when he cultivates his it is increasingly used in modern Swahili. a lottery a shield a ladder famine.htm Mahali ambako hakuna watu A place where there is nobody 2. This is the book inside which I saw your photo. The word which he said which we will not often used to clarify a phrase.

10.htm 1. 7. Gari ambalo nimelinunua ni safi kabisa. The eggs which I bought. The one who was late. The person who is my cook. Wageni ambao walifika jana. 2. The book which I read. 4. 4. Wale ambao watakwenda Moshi wataona mlima wa 7. 5. 10. 6. Those who don't know. Mzee ambaye alikufa. 8. The food that we ate. Mti ambao ulianguka. Yule ambaye anaitwa Hamisi. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 3 of 3 4/4/09 4:09 PM . Mizigo ambayo ilifika jana ni yangu.Chapter 51 http://mwanasimba. 6. 9. 3. The child who broke the window. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. Watoto ambao wanafundishwa na mwalimu yule. The mountain which I Dawa ambayo uliila. 5. 3. 2. 9. 8. Viazi ulaya ambavyo ulivinunua sokoni ni mbovu. The river that we saw. Those that came.

fr/E_Chap52. A single negative tense. (See : Chapter 31 .htm Chapter 52 . to do NI-NA-YE-FANYA -> ninayefanya U-NA-YE-FANYA -> unayefanya A-NA-YE-FANYA -> anayefanya TU-NA-O-FANYA -> tunaofanya M-NA-O-FANYA -> mnaofanya WA-NA-O-FANYA -> wanaofanya that I do / who do that you do / who do that he/she does / who does that we do / who do that you do / who do that they do / who do EXAMPLES : Mtu anayebaki Watu wanaobaki Mti unaobaki Miti inayobaki Gari linalobaki The person who remains The people who remain The tree which remains The trees which remain The car which remains 1 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM . past and future. The relative infix is made up with the -O of reference.Chapter 52 http://mwanasimba.Relative Verbal Constructions Besides the independant relative pronoun AMBA-.) 1.and the verbal root. THE PRESENT DEFINITE RELATIVE : The relative particle -O is placed between the tense marker -NA. SUBJECT PREFIX + NA + O + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. that agrees in class with the noun it refers to. there is in Swahili a relative particle that enters the verbal construction and that makes it possible to express the relative in the following tenses : Present Definite affirmative (tense marker -NA-).The "-O" of Reference. Simple Past affirmative (tense marker -LI-).online. Future affirmative (tense marker -TAKA-). valid for the present.

htm Magari yanayobaki Kiti kinachobaki Viti vinavyobaki Nguo inayobaki Nguo zinazobaki The cars which remain The chair which remains The chair which remain The clothing which remains The clothes which remain the relative infix. THE FUTURE RELATIVE : In future. an extra syllable -KA. The origin of this syllable is the verb ku-taka (= to want). THE SIMPLE PAST RELATIVE : The relative particle -O is placed between the tense marker -LI. SUBJECT PREFIX + TAKA + O + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. to do NI-TAKA-YE-FANYA -> nitakayefanya U-TAKA-YE-FANYA -> utakayefanya A-TAKA-YE-FANYA -> atakayefanya TU-TAKA-O-FANYA -> tutakaofanya M-TAKA-O-FANYA -> mtakaofanya that I will make / who will make that you will make / who will make that he/she will make / who will make that we will make / who will make that you will make / who will make 2 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM .and the verbal root. SUBJECT PREFIX + LI + O + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. to do NI-LI-YE-FANYA -> niliyefanya U-LI-YE-FANYA -> uliyefanya A-LI-YE-FANYA -> aliyefanya TU-LI-O-FANYA -> tuliofanya M-LI-O-FANYA -> mliofanya WA-LI-O-FANYA -> waliofanya that I made / who made that you made / who made that he/she made / who made that we made / who made that you made / who made that they made / who made 3.Chapter 52 http://mwanasimba.must be inserted between the tense marker -TA.

Mwanamke nitakayemwoa lazima apendeze.Haya ni bei gani mananasi yako ? .So how much are your pineapples ? . Miti itakaoangushwa itatumiwa hapa.Chapter 52 http://mwanasimba. The woman that I will marry will have to be attractive. The car that I will buy will be very expensive. THE NEGATIVE RELATIVE : The negative form of the relative doesn't include any tense marker and can be used as well for the present. SUBJECT PREFIX + SI + O + VERB RADICAL MODEL : KUFANYA = to make. The trees that will be felled will be used here.htm WA-TAKA-O-FANYA -> watakaofanya that they will make / who will make EXAMPLES : Wageni watakaofika kesho watakwenda Zanzibar. It is formed by inserting the negative infix -SI.The pineapples I don't sell. to do NI-SI-YE-FANYA -> nisiyefanya U-SI-YE-FANYA -> usiyefanya I who do not make you who do not make 3 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM .fr/E_Chap52.between the subject prefix and the relative The guests who will arrive tomorrow will go to Zanzibar. past and future. Gari nitakalolinunua litakuwa ghali sana.Mananasi siuzi ila ni zawadi kwa yule atakayenunua mpini ya jembe ! . which is in turn followed by the verbal root. Chakubanga . but they are a gift for the one who will buy a hoe handle ! 4.

fr/E_Chap52. To translate the 2nd sentence in Swahili. refers to the book. while in the 2nd two conditions must be observed : the relative infix must agree with "book". the relative pronoun. refers to the child.htm A-SI-YE-FANYA -> asiyefanya TU-SI-O-FANYA -> tusiofanya M-SI-O-FANYA -> msiofanya WA-SI-O-FANYA -> wasiofanya he/she who does not make we who do not make you who do not make they who do not make EXAMPLES : Mtu asiyebaki Watu wasiobaki Mti usiofaa Miti isiyofaa Gari lisilokuja Magari yasiyokuja Chakula kisichotosha Viti visivyovunjika Nguo isiyofuliwa Nguo zisizopasiwa The person who does/did/will not remain The people who do/did/will not remain A tree which is/was/will not (be) appropriate Trees which are/were/will not (be) appropriate The car that does/did/will not come The cars that do/did/will not come The food which is/was/will not (be) enough Chairs that are/were/will not (be) broken A garment which is/was/will not (be) washed clothes which are/were/will not (be) ironed 5. EXAMPLES : Mtoto aliyesoma kitabu Kitabu alichokisoma mtoto Mzee aliyelima shamba Shamba alilolilima mzee Mimi nisiyesoma vitabu Vitabu nisivyovisoma The child who read a book The book that the child read The old man who cultivated the field The field that the old man cultivated I who do/did not read books The books that I do/did not read 4 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM .Chapter 52 http://mwanasimba. but in the 1st sentence. and an object infix must be inserted in the verbal construction. the relative pronoun. which is the complement object. which is the subject of the verb. THE RELATIVE AS A PRONOUN OBJECT : Compare : The child who reads a book The book that the child reads In both cases. "the child" is the subject of "read" .

The cook who was fired from his job. The knife that I gave you. 2. Mpe mzee kiti kisichovunjika. 12. 2. Wanafunzi watakaofaulu mtihani watapewa cheti. 3. Mpe maskini chakula a toxin figure. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. 11. appearance a report. 7. The books which I bought. 10. The shop which sells various equipment. 5. The pupils who will speak Swahili. The old man who sells tobacco at the market. People who lived here.htm VOCABULARY Pamba Pembe Pua Pumzi Raha Siki cotton a tusk the nose breath joy vinegar Sumu Sura Taarifa Tofauti Tumbako Vifaa a poison. The tree that fell. lazima niseme kiswahili. 4. The fruit which were collected The young people who seek work. 6. The guests who arrived yesterday. 6. 5 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM . Mwanafunzi aliyesoma vitavu vingi alipewa zawadi. 9. 5. Wale wanaosoma kiswahili watakwenda Kenya mwaka ujao.Chapter 52 http://mwanasimba. 7. The house which will fall. Usivae nguo yasiyopigwa pasi. 4. Mimi nisiyejua kiingereza. 8. a bulletin a difference tobacco equipment Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. 10. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 6 of 6 4/4/09 4:09 PM .Chapter 52 8. Mti mmoja ulioanguka umeharibu nyumba yangu. Huyu ni mtu anayetafuta kazi. Wageni waliofika jana watakwenda kesho Zanzibar. Msichana nitakayemwoa lazima awe mzuri sana. Miti yote iliyoanguka uani itatumika kwa kujenga nyumba mpya. 9. 12.

online. (See : Chapter 31 . AFFIRMATIVE FORM : This specialized relative tense does not have a tense marker. This relative suffix agrees in class to the noun it refers to.(Class 4) JI.(Class 6) EXAMPLES mtu afaaye watu wafaao mti ufaao miti ifaayo gari lifaalo magari yafaayo TRANSLATION the person who is suitable people who are suitable a tree which is suitable trees which are suitable a car which is suitable cars which are suitable 1 of 5 4/4/09 4:10 PM . It is used in sentences of the type : "Farmers who cultivate plants.The General Relative The General Relative is a Present Indefinite "-O" of Reference.htm Chapter 53 . the subject prefix is directly followed by the verb radical.(Class 1) WA.) SUBJECT PREFIX + VERB RADICAL + O MODEL : KUFANYA = to make.(Class 5) MA.Chapter 53 http://mwanasimba." "Cows which eat grass.(Class 3) MI." 1. while a relative suffix (-O of reference) is attached at the end of the end of the verb. to do NI-FANYA-YE -> nifanyaye U-FANYA-YE -> ufanyaye A-FANYA-YE -> afanyaye TU-FANYA-O -> tufanyao M-FANYA-O -> mfanyao WA-FANYA-O -> wafanyao I who make you who make he / she who makes we who make you who make they who make OTHER MODELS : KUFAA = TO BE CONVENIENT GENDER / Classes M.(Class 2) M.

) 3.(Class 10) U. PARTICULAR CASES : KUWA & KUWA NA : The verbs KUWA (= to be) and KUWA NA (= to have) possess a particular relative construction that uses the verbal roots LI in the affirmative and SI in the negative.Chapter 53 It is the General Negative which is naturally used since it does not include any tense markers I will go next year The meeting will start next Tuesday 2.(Class 7) VI.(Class 8) N.(Class 9) N. NEGATIVE FORM : The General Relative has no negative form of its own.The Relative Verbal Construction. (See : Chapter 52 . nitaondoka mwaka ujao Mkutano utaanza Jumanne ijayo Next month Next year Next week Next Thursday The child who learns A plantation that suits us The teacher who teaches these children The coming days will be very rainy I arrived last year.: Nijaye = I who come Tulao = we who eat Siku zijazo = coming days EXAMPLES : Mwezi ujao Mwaka ujao Wiki ijayo Alhamisi ijayo Mtoto asomaye Shamba litufaalo Mwalimu afundishaye watoto wao Siku zijazo zitakuwa na mvua nyingi Nilifika mwaka jana.htm KI.(Class 11) plural (Cl 10) kiti kifaacho viti vifaavyo nguo ifaayo nguo zifaazo uma ufaao nyuma zifaazo a chair which is suitable chairs which are suitable a garment which is suitable clothes which are suitable a fork which is suitable forks which are suitable NOTES : Verbs of Arabic origin behave like ordinary verbs : Nifikiriye = I who think Ajibuye = he / she who answers Monosyllabic verbs drop their infinitive prefix KU. 2 of 5 4/4/09 4:10 PM .

AFFIRMATIVE FORM KUWA descriptive NILIYE ULIYE ALIYE TULIO MLIO WALIO KUWA locative NILIYEPO ULIYEPO ALIYEPO TULIOPO MLIOPO WALIOPO Translation I who am you who are he / she who is we who are you who are they who are PRESENT .htm PRESENT . Here is the conjugation for the 3rd person singular and plural : SIMPLE PAST .AFFIRMATIVE FORM KUWA descriptive ALIYEKUWA WALIOKUWA KUWA locative ALIYEKUWAPO WALIOKUWAPO Translation he / she who was they who were 3 of 5 4/4/09 4:10 PM .online.Chapter 53 FORM KUWA descriptive NISIYE USIYE ASIYE TUSIO MSIO WASIO KUWA locative NISIYEPO USIYEPO ASIYEPO TUSIOPO MSIOPO WASIOPO Translation I who is not you who are not he / she who is not we who are not you who are not they who are not The verbs KUWA et KUWA NA may also be conjugated in the Simple Past and the Future affirmative.

Because of the doubt that he had. Huoni mzigo nilio nao hapa ? Hakuna masika yasiyo na PROVERB : Akufaaye kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki VOCABULARY Ku-changanyika Ku-danganya Ku-gawa Ku-kagua Ku-kodi Ku-kwama to mix to mislead to divide to inspect to rent to break down Ku-pasa Ku-piga kura Ku-pindua Ku-shtaki Ku-tawala Ku-tegemea to be appropriate to vote to overturn to accuse to govern to depend 4 of 5 4/4/09 4:10 PM . The books that they have. The pupils who have books. EXAMPLES : Wanafunzi walio na vitabu. Vitabu walivyo navyo.htm FUTURE . Haya ni maneno yasiyo na maana.Chapter 53 http://mwanasimba. You do not see the luggage that I have here ? There is no rain season without mosquitoes. hakusema neno. Vitabu watakavyokuwa navyo. The books that they will have. we simply take up the conjugation of the verb KUWA descriptive and add the word NA after the verb. The books that they had. Kwa wasiwasi aliokuwa nao. Vitavu walivyokuwa These are words without meaning.AFFIRMATIVE FORM KUWA descriptive ATAKAYEKUWA WATAKAOKUWA KUWA locative ATAKAYEKUWAPO WATAKAOKUWAPO translation he / she who will be they who will be To conjugate the verb KUWA NA (= avoir). he didn't say a word.

The teachers who teach these children are Europeans. 9. Shida zetu ni zile zile uzijuazo.htm Mots Croisés EXERCISES EXERCISE 1 : Translate into Swahili : 1. Nisaidie na masanduku niliyo nayo. 10. 4. 5. A child who studies is a child who will succeed in life. 3. Is there anybody here who speaks French ? People who vote are not numerous. I will go to England next year. 8. I seek to rent a house which is convenient for us. 6. Kama ujuavyo. EXERCISE 2 : Translate into English : 1. We will see each other next week. Hawa ni wanafunzi wapendao kusoma. Nitakulipa mshahara upasao. Mtoto aliye hodari zaidi atapewa zawadi. Usiniambie maneno yasiyo na maana. 9. 7. 8. Ninatafuta vibarua walimao vizuri. 3. 5. Si rahisi kupata vyatu vifaavyo. I seek somebody who sells elephant tusks. 2. 6. 7.Chapter 53 http://mwanasimba. I think that the coming month will be very rainy. 4. Previous Chapter Next Chapter Table of Contents 5 of 5 4/4/09 4:10 PM . 10. The examination will begin next Thursday. ndovu wameharibu mavuno Nipe vifaa zilizopo kabatini.

I have already got a room.Auxiliary Verbs Apart from the verb KUWA (= to be) which is employed in the formation of compound tenses. I who have already got a a certain number of Swahili verbs can be used as auxiliaries in front of a second verb which is generally.tense and then means "when" or "if" : EXAMPLE : Nikiisha pata chumba.htm Chapter 54 . KWISHA : The auxiliary KWISHA (= to end. the tense marker -MESHA. In the affirmative. I have already got a room. conjugated in the infinitive. These verbs employed as auxiliaries add a precision on the way the action takes the verbal construction with KWISHA has undergone a significant evolution. since beginning from two distinct verbal elements. we have arrived today at a unique contracted verbal form where the particle -SHA. Alternatively.: The 2 verbs fuse together : Nimekwisha kupata chumba. although not exclusively. I'll start my journey to 1 of 4 4/4/09 4:11 PM . nitaanza safari yangu When I have got a room. That is why this auxiliary is usually conjugated in the Past Perfect tense.of the Past Perfect. to finish) shows that an action has already taken place. 1. KWISHA can also be used in the -KI.can be kept thanks to the use of the independant relative pronoun. we simply use the Past Perfect negative : EXAMPLE : Sijapata chumba or : Sijapata chumba bado I haven't got a room yet. In a relative clause. Nimekwisha pata chumba. we can use KWISHA + Verb radical in the Simple Past relative : EXAMPLE : Relative pronoun : Simple Past relative : Mimi ambaye nimeshapata chumba. I who have already got a room.Chapter 54 http://mwanasimba. In the negative form. Nimeshapata chumba. EXAMPLE : 2 distinct verbs : The 2nd verb drops its KU.simply reinforces the tense marker -ME. I have already got a room. Mimi niliyekwisha pata chumba.

nitakwenda kununua nguo mpya. Tukijifunza kwa EXAMPLES : Nitakapopata mshahara. The auxiliary KWENDA is conjugated in the Past Perfect : EXAMPLES : Mgonjwa amekwenda kupasuliwa. Maybe he is sick. If we study hard. Food is being brought. tutakuja kusema kiswahili safi. KWENDA : the auxiliary KWENDA (= to go) indicates that an action is on the point of being carried out. HUENDA carries the notion of "maybe" : EXAMPLES : Huenda dereva akapata shida njiani. When I get a salary. we will succeed in speaking a good Swahili. The pupil has just been called. The patient is to be operated. It is usually followed by a passive verb in the infinitive. Maybe the driver has got a problem on the road. KUJA : The auxiliary KUJA (= to come) shows that an action will be carried out in the future.Chapter 54 http://mwanasimba. KUPATA : The auxiliary KUPATA expresses the opportunity or the possibility of carrying out something. 2. KUPATA conjugated in the future or in the imperative is followed by a second verb in the Huenda yeye ni mgonjwa. 2 of 4 4/4/09 4:11 PM . In the Habitual Present. 4. I will go to buy new clothes. Zanzibar. 3. Mwanafunzi amekwenda kuitwa. It is therefore conjugated in the Future and is followed by a 2nd verb in the infinitive. Chakula kimekwenda kuletwa.htm Zanzibar.

The teacher still has doubts. KUPATA conjugated in the present indefinite is used to express "about. 3. while the second verb is in the Present Definite or in the -KI. Let's hurry so that we can finish still". 2. Nitakapopata likizo. There is still water in the well. -NGALI is usually conjugated in the Present Indefinite. approximately". Angalipo nyumbani. Open the window to let fresh air in. EXAMPLES : Tungali tunangoja. We are still waiting. Mwalimu angali ana wasiwasi. 2. Maji yangaliko kisimani. there is a much more simple way of expressing the same. there is still water in the well. When I get holidays. Tufanye haraka tupate kumaliza mapema.tense. 5. 3. He / she is still at home.htm EXAMPLES : Fungua dirisha ili hewa safi ipate kuingia. It can be translated by : "always. About a hundred people. Maji bado yako kisimani. About twenty tables. with the adverb bado : Bado ni mtoto.Chapter 54 http://mwanasimba. -NGALI : -NGALI which is already known as the tense marker of the Past Conditional (See : Chapter 47 . He / she is still at home. Yumo nyumbani bado. nitapata kwenda safari. Three different verbal constructions can be used : Cl 9 subject prefix YA1. About 8 books. However.The Past Conditional) can also be used as an autonomous auxiliary verb. 3 of 4 4/4/09 4:11 PM . I'll be able to go on a He / she is still a child. Yapata watu mia Yapata vitabu vinane Yapata meza ishirini Prefix agreeing with the subject Wapata watu mia Vyapata vitabu vinane Zapata meza ishirini General Relative Watu wapatao mia Vitabu vipatavyo vinane Meza zipatazo ishirini 1.

We shall see only the most common here. Anapokuwa anatengeneza gari lake. Prefix + Tense + KUWA // to indicate when the action takes place : Mtoto anapokuwa akicheza. Subj.Chapter 55 http://mwanasimba. PRESENT COMPOUND TENSES : AUXILIARY VERB NI-NA-PO-KUWA LEXICAL VERB NI-NA-FANYA NI-KI-FANYA NI-ME-FANYA Translation when I make when I am making when I have made The tense marker -NA. Anapokuwa amemaliza kazi. When he repairs his car. it is usually the auxiliary verb only which is in the negative. it is often difficult to grasp all the minute shades of meaning implied in the use of the compound tenses.htm Chapter 55 .Compound Tenses Although the mastership of compound tenses is not essential to speak correct Swahili at a basic level. 1 of 3 4/4/09 4:11 PM . Prefix + Tense + VERB Both verbs must carry the subject prefix corresponding to the noun they refer to. yet it is preferable to know the existence of these tenses and to be able to recognize their forms as well as the meaning attached to them. VERBAL CONSTRUCTION : Compound tenses in Swahili are always made up of two verbs : The first verb is the auxiliary verb KUWA = to be. all the more since they are translated roughly the same way in English. 2. When the child is playing. while the lexical verb remains in the affirmative. In a negative sentence. For a foreigner.of the Present Definite can only be used with KUWA carrying the locative relative This will be the topic of this last chapter. 1. Followed by a second verb which is the lexical verb. Tense combinations are quite numerous. When he has finished work.

We had eaten. PAST COMPOUND TENSES : AUXILIARY VERB NI-LI-KUWA NI-KA-WA LEXICAL VERB NI-NA-FANYA NI-KI-FANYA NI-ME-FANYA Translation I made I was making I had done EXAMPLES : Tulipokuwa Ulaya tulikuwa tunatumia fedha za kigeni. He / she ran until he / she was CONDITIONAL COMPOUND TENSES : AUXILIARY VERB NI-NGE-KUWA LEXICAL VERB NI-KI-FANYA NI-ME-FANYA NI-KI-FANYA NI-ME-FANYA Translation I would be making NI-NGALI-KUWA I would have been making 2 of 3 4/4/09 4:11 PM .tense : Masimba walikuwa barabarani.htm 3.of the auxiliary verb can be replaced by the -KA. The child will play. Watoto walikuwa wakicheza. FUTURE COMPOUND TENSES : AUXILIARY VERB NI-TA-KUWA LEXICAL VERB NI-NA-FANYA NI-KI-FANYA NI-ME-FANYA Translation I will make I will be making I will have done EXAMPLES : Mtoto atakuwa anacheza. 4. Mwaka ujao tutakuwa tukikaa katika nyumba yetu mpya. Next year we will be staying in our new house. Tulikuwa kwa hivyo tuliacha kuendesha. We will be satiated before finishing the meal. Tutakuwa tumeshiba kabla ya kumaliza chakula. The Simple Past in -LI. Alikimbia hata akawa amechoka. tukawa tunawaangalia tu. therefore we ceased driving and we watched them. The children were playing.Chapter 55 http://mwanasimba. When we were in Europe we used foreign currency. 5. There were lions on the road.

Previous Chapter Table of Contents 3 of 3 4/4/09 4:11 PM . When he had finished his work.Chapter 55 http://mwanasimba. Angalikuwa akisoma kwa mwaka the object infix is inserted in the lexical verb : Nilikuwa nimekisoma. ungeweza kuniambia habari za leo. the relative infix is inserted in the auxiliary verb : Mtoto aliyekuwa amelala. akarudi kwao. I would ask him for a lift. I had read it. If he had studied all the year. B. If you had received my letter. These are the thieves who were robbing downtown. If you had listend to the radio. I gave them the food I had cooked this morning. Ungekuwa umesikia redio. The child who was sleeping. Niliwapa chakula nilichokuwa nimekipika asubuhi. you could give me today's news. ungalijua kwamba nilitazamia kufika leo. Hao ni wezi waliokuwa wanaiba huku mjini. he would have passed his exam. If he was going to town. angalifaulu mtihani wake. 6. you would have known I was coming today. GENERAL NOTES : A. Ungalikuwa umepokea barua USE OF AN OBJECT INFIX : When a complement object is used with a compound tense. Alipokuwa amemaliza kazi yake. he came back home. USE OF A RELATIVE : When a relative is employed with a compound tense.htm EXAMPLES : Angekuwa akienda mjini ningemwomba lifti.

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