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T V Rao
“ HRD is a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous and planned way to acquire capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles , develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover their own potentials, develop an organizational culture in which superior subordinate relationship, teamwork and collaboration among subunits are strong and contribute to professional well being”
Meaning of HRD
It is positive concept in HRM
Believe in investment in human beings
Aims at overall development Rooted in belief that human beings have the potential to do better
HRD IS HUMANISTIC CONCEPT
People can do better, they can do wonders Involve them trust them and empower them Focus on strength of people Integrate the needs and aspiration of individuals Encourage individual initiative and response by providing and fostering culture
Features of HRD
HRD is a system HRD is a planned process HRD involves development of competencies HRD is an interdisciplinary concept HRD improves quality of life
Objectives of HRD HRD basically aims at developing :The capabilities of each employee as an individual The capabilities of each individual in relation to his/her present role The capabilities of each employee in relation to his/her expected future role The dyadic relationship between each employee and his/her employer The team spirit and functioning in every organizational unit Collaboration among different units of thye organisation .
Point of distinction Orientation structure Philosophy Personnel function maintenance Independent function Reactive function Excusively personnel dept. Monitory rewards Improve efficiency HRD developement Interdependent parts Proactive function All managers High order needs Develop organization Responsibility motivators Aim .
Need for HRD To develop competencies Mitigate the evil consequences Bring system wide change Develop proper development climate in the organization .
HRD PROCESS Personal level Existential process Empathic process Coping process Building process Collaborativ e and competitive Process tells us how an individual perceives his environment and how he interact How much empathy individual has for other person and establishes relationship with him Individual is required to cope up with pressures and stresses in relation to his role in organizaion How various groups form themselves as distinct entities Positive if promote group and negative if do not promote to reach goals Interpersonal level Role level Group level Intergroup organizational growth issues relating to self renewal and change .
performance appraisal.At personal level : Existential process How individual perceives his environment and how he interacts with other How he achieves his goals in life Process helps in integration of individual with organization Career planning.counselling job enrichment improve this process .feedback.
Interpersonal level : Empathic process How much empathy one individual has for the other person How person reach out to the other person and establishes a Relationship with him Neglecting this process affect the interpersonal effectiveness of individuals In an organization Communication. communication improve this process .cooperation and competition are important areas Of study in this process Training.conflict.
Role level : coping process Individual should cope with pressures and stresses in relation to his Role in organization Individual can cope up with these pressures if he is aware of the Competencies required for performing the role Role analysis improve this process .
Group level : Building process This process tells us how various groups form themselves as distinct Entities in an organization How group contribute effectively to the goals of organization OD and team building exercise improves this process .
authenticity And openness clarifying norms and standards .Intergroup level: Collaborative and competitive Competition is positive if it poses a challenges to a group in terms of standard of performance and achievement Competition is negative if it prevents or aims at escaping hard work Process is improved by creating the climate of trust.
Self renewal and change .Organisational level: Growth process Growth process involves issues relating to organisational climate.
HRD Outcomes People become more competent as they are aware of the skills required People understand their role better because communication increases and They are aware of the expectations of other members People become more committed to their jobs because there is greater Objectivity in administration of rewards People develop greter trust and respect for each other.They become more authentic in their behaviour Greater collaboration and team work produces synergy effect People are equipped with problem solving capabilities more prone to risk Taking and proactive in their orientation Lot of useful and objective data on employees are generated which facilitate Better HRP .
HRD MECHANISM OR SUBSYSTEMS Performance appraisal Potential appraisal Career planning Training and development Organisation development Rewards Employee welfare and quality of work life Human resource information system (HRIS) .
organizational development and career development efforts to achieve individual. organizational objectives.HRD Strategies “ HRD Strategies are a plan that defines how the human resources would be utilized through the use of an integrated array of training.” .
Major HRD Strategies Communications Strategy: In today’s changing scenario. . Quality Strategy: Quality needs to be fostered in the employees through training and development. it is essential to educate and train employees about the change Accountability And Ownership Strategy: Employee’s accountability and ownership leads to higher productivity and customer acceleration.
Cost Reduction Strategy: Every employee’s contribution in savings is crucial as small contributions from each employee can be pooled by organizations to save substantial savings at the end of a given period and enhance its competitive strategy. . Intrapreneurship Strategy: Every employee needs to be an independent entrepreneur. motivated and commitment to the org. Culture Building strategy: Org’s valuing its employees have a sustainable competitive edge over competitors because employees are highly charged. who can generate ideas and bring them to reality by using the existing resources and support of the org to create innovative and creative products and services.
Learning Strategy: Continuous development and learning environments promote self development of employees. build and sustain appropriate work culture and brings in more professionalism in action. . of self and by self.Systematic Training Strategy: The planning and organization of formal on-job training and off-job training leads to improving vital employee characteristics.
Designing HRD Strategy Getting The Big Picture Developing A mission Statement Conducting Org. SWOT Analysis Conducting HR Analysis Determining Critical people issues Developing Consequences and solutions Implementation and evaluation of action plans .
The words or references should not be idealistic statements-it is the actual process of thinking through the issues in a formal manner. .Designing HRD Strategy Getting Big Picture: Understanding of business strategy to highlight the key deriving forces of the business such asTechnology Distribution Competition Markets Developing a Mission statement: The mission statement should relate to people side of the business.
Then gap analysis can be undertaken by examining present status and desired status. org. people and COPS (Culture. Conducting a detailed HR Analysis: It concentrate on the organization’s culture. people. systems). organizational structure.Conducting SWOT analysis of the organization: Focus should be on internal strength and weakness of the people side such as current skills & capability and research the external business and market environment to highlight the opportunities and threats. .
Then action plans around the critical issues is to be developed with set targets and dates for the accomplishment of the key objectives. Developing consequences and solution: For each critical issue the options for managerial action generated needs to be highlighted.Determining critical people issues: The business strategy is reviewed and examined against SWOT and COPS analysis to identify the critical people issues namely those issues that must be addressed so as to have a key impact on the delivery of business strategy . elaborated and created. .
Implementation and evaluation of the action plans: The ultimate purpose of developing a human resource development strategy is to ensure that the objectives set are mutually supportive so that reward sys are integrated with employee training and career development. .
The role “ The role is the position one occupies in a social system and is defined by the functions one performs in response to the Expectations of the significant members of a social system and One's own expectations from that position or office ” .
Role systems from individual point of view System of various roles That individual carries and perform (role space) System of various roles Of which his role is a part (role set) .
technical competence .managerial Experience as well as on the design of the role that he performs in An organization .Concept of role efficacy Performance of a person working in an organization depend on His own potential effectiveness.It is the integration of the two that ensures persons effectiveness When we move from role taking to role making effectiveness increases .
Aspects of role efficacy ( 3 dimensions) Role making Self role integration Proactivity Creativity confrontation Role centering Centrality Influence Personal growth Role linking inter role linkage helping relationship superordination .
This gives him satisfaction It satisfies others in the organization 3) Creativity If a person feel that the role does not allow any time to be creative Efficacy bound to be low .Role making 1) Self role integration When a person’s role provides him with greater opportunity for Using special strength ( experience. training etc).This is known as self role integration 2) Proactivity A person who occupies a role responds to various expectations that people in the organization have from that role.
4) confrontation If people in an organization avoid problems or shift them on them to Others their role efficacy will be low. The tendency to confront problems And find relevant solutions contribute to efficacy .
If people feel that there roles are not important their potential effectiveness will be low 2) Influence : The more influence the person is able to exercise in his role the higher its efficacy is likely to be 3) Personal growth : The perception that the role provide the individual with opportunity to grow and develop increase role efficacy .Role centering 1) Centrality : If a person feels that the role he occupies is central to the organization his role efficacy is likely to be high.
Role linking 1) Inter-role linkage : Linking one’s role with other’s in the organization increases efficacy.whenever the need arises he is likely to have higher role efficacy 3) Super-ordination : A role may have linkage with systems.If there is a joint effort to understand problems find solutions efficacy of roles involved will be high 2) Helping relationship :If a person performing a particular role feels that he can get help from some source in the organization.groups entities beyond the organization when a person performing particular role feels that what he does is likely to be of value to larger group his efficacy is likely to be high .
set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” .The Team According to Katzenbach and Douglas Smith “ A team is a small Number of people with complementary skills who are committed To a common purpose.
Characteristics of effective team Rensis Likert and Douglas Mc Gregor identified following Characteristics of well functioning effective teams 1) Atmosphere needs to be relaxed. comfortable and informal 2) Teams task is well understood and accepted by members 3) The members listen well to each other and there is lot of task relevant discussion in which most members participate 4) People express both their feelings and ideas 5) Conflicts and disagreements are present but are centered around ideas and methods not around personalities and people 6) Self conscious about its own operations 7) Decisions are usually based on consensus not on majority vote .
Importance of Teams Primary benefits of team are: Improved employee motivation Positive synergy Satisfaction of social needs Commitment to team goals Improved organizational communication Benefits of expanded job training Organizational flexibility .
Types of Teams Problem solving teams Self managed teams Cross functional teams Virtual teams .
1) Problem solving teams : teams consist of 5-12 employees of same department who meet a few hours every week to discuss the ways and means of improving quality drawback – these teams can only give suggestion but could not implement solutions 2) Self managed teams : self directed work teams take responsibilities of their former supervisors. They collectively control over pace of work and determine work assignment drawback : high absenteeism and turnover rate .
3) Cross functional teams : These teams are made of employees from different work areas who come together to accomplish task example committees 4) Virtual teams : cross functional team that operate across space time and organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through electronic technology .
The Organisation Organisation refers to a group or an association or an institution of individuals working in prestructured manner for achieving predetermined Common goals Louis A Allen defined it as a mechanism or structure that enables living Things to work effectively together Chester Bernard defined Organisation as system of consciously co coordinated activities or forces of 2 or more persons .
It operates Through these individuals who are known as members or employees Of the Organisation Once the Organisation is formed it acquires its own entity Structure.Primary characteristics of Organisation Organisation is a social grouping which consist of individuals. process to be used and functions to be performed For achieving goals Every Organisation is based on principle of cooperation All members of the Organisation and all sub system of it work Together in cooperation in given situation for realizing objective .
Organisation is goal oriented and is purposeful system to achieve Common goals that an Organisation is designed and its activities are Directed and coordinated Organisation are marked by deliberate planning done by group of Individuals known as top managers Division of labor is important feature of Organisation Every organization operates within external environment which provides broad parameters and constraints to it .
HRD Matrix Matrix shows the interrelationship between HRD instruments Processes. Outcomes and organisational effectiveness .
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