LI497-10 | Thesis | Essays

Unit l o

The Essay
lntroduction to the Essay
What is the essay?
"Essay" is a piece of writing on one particular subject that is written by a student or by the writer for publication."

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a composition ~ ~ A ~ S J I U ~ ! ~ U ~ ( ~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U~ ~ d~ ~~t H da ~ r I r~ ~~i O d iM~ ~ f i~o
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Part I: lntroduction


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Part II: The Body or the Developmental Paragraphs

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causes, effects, reasons, examples, analysis, classifications, comparisons and contrasts, narration, or description

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Even if the weather cooperated. When friends want to know what picture won the Oscar in 1989 or who played the police chief in Jaws. The problems in getting to the theater. have stopped asking me if I want to go out to the movies. whether you will get seats together. For one thing. the theater itself. If you are in one of the rundown older theaters.Part Ill: The Conclusion Conclusion ~adorrriiqcriiuua~n2iuisut LfiudarruinyLuuu~o~L!uu~!d u dvsi n?iu~niinil( 7n~rrualV?'$~iiui?nn. My friends. Leaving a home equipped with a TV and a video recorder isn't an attractive idea on a humid Gold. After hooking yourself to the end of a human chain. there is still a thirty. Here is the essay that resulted. or rainy night. and whether many people will sneak into the line ahead of you. The newer twin and quad theaters offer their own . The Hazards of Moviegoing I am a movie fanatic. they ask me.r~~~ ilirfh?und-ruui~ h closing word lud?uu A Model Essay I t: t d d' d' ~~!~umw. Escaped springs lurk in the faded plush or cracked leather seats. The writer of the paragraph on movlegolng later decided to develop her subject more fully. Once you have made it to the box office and gotten your tickets. though. you are confronted with the problems of the theater itself. you must adjust to the musty smell of seldom-cleaned carpet$. And then there are the"s~ni1~~Bun~1au~'i)~i6~un"l The followlng model should help you understand clearly the form of an easy.minute drive to the theater down a congested highway. you worry about whether ' there will be enough tickets. and half the seats you sit in seem loose or tilted so tkat you sit at a strange angle. and the behavior of some patrons are all reasons why I often wait for a movie to show up on TV. followed by the hassle of looking for a parking space. just getting to the theater presents difficulties.

file out for repeated trips to the rest rooms or concession stand. . V service installed in my home. and drop popcorn tubs or cups of crushed ice and soda on the floor. Adults act as if they were at home in their own living rooms and comment loudly on the ages of the stars or why movies aren't as good anymore. Little kids race up and down the aisles. hardening bubble gum. And people of all ages crinkle candy wrappers. it will have floors that seem to be coated with rubber cement. squirm endlessly in their seats. I The next day I arranged to have cable l may now see movies a bit later than other people. And whether the theater is old or new. shoes almost have to be pried off the floor because they have become sealed to a deadly compound of spilled soda. usually in giggling packs. This is especially jarring when the other movie involves racing cars or a karate war and you are trying to enjoy a quiet love story. By the end of the movie. and crushed Ju-Jubes. Teenagers try to impress their friends by talking back to the screen. and making what they consider to be hilarious noises. I decided that I was not going to be a moviegoer anymore. I was tired of the problems involved in getting to the movies and dealing with the theater itself and other patrons. moviegoers often have to put up with the sound of the movie next door. but I'll be more relaxed watching box office hits in the comfort of my own living room. a whistling. They also cough and burp. and elbow you out of the armrest on either side of your seat. After arriving home from the movies one night. Even more of a problem than the theater itself are some of the other patrons.problems. Sitting in an area only one-quarter the size of a regular theater. stick gum on their seats.

i t does not simply announce the topic the essay wlll develop. (This is not an argue point. Not a thesis statement: I am going to discuss the effects of radiatlon. Thesis statement: My fear of dark has made my life miserable. Thesis statement: The effects of radiation are often unpredictable. Since the thesis statement expresses an attitude. it should not be writkn as a question. the thesis statement is a statement that needs to be explained or proved. Not a thesis statement: There are many advantages and disadvantages to going to college. The thesls statement should be expressed In a complete sentence. 3. Not a thesis statement: My fear of dark. 2. or idea about a topic. A thesis statement should express an oplnlon. Not a thesis statement: Cows produce milk Thesis statement:' The milk cows produce is not always flt for human consumption.) . A thesls statement expresses an opinion. Therefore. attltude. it should express a complete thought. the thesis statement is really a statement that someone could disagree with.The Thesis Statement ni. I t should not express a fact. or idea. therefore. opinion.n~uun~iu~"ru~fi~cd~~Bu~n'~ni~~8uud0~u'id~1 (a ::s central i0~dn~iutmiiG~ point or a controlling idea) Ih::Iunna~n~n~iuflmrh@lu8o~h (paragraph) ~ ~ 1 6 u n i i d A Topic sentence r i ? u d ~ r ~ u n d u n m ~ n ~ i u t m h G q ~ u n ~ 1 1 ~ ~ The " r u Thesis ~~~~"runii statement a~d~:nouci?un~iutmiiGqdnii~nii~u Topic d sentence k~aror6'a~~nn ~ ~ i u l i c i ? a i ~ r i i u o z ~ ~ u u ~ ~ ' u ~ ~ u n ~ i lu ~~ u~ m n~ 7 in u 't a nrZ iin u i~ y~u~~~~ usiar~o4~nsj1~u1~~ri1u6a4r0i~dL~uu~~un~i~~uHii4n~i~tmsi0lrldjdi)~1-i?sia1d A few points to remember about writing the thesis statement I. Since the thesis statement is the main statement for the entire essay.

I would like to discuss my views on the Olympic Games. if a thesis statement contains two or more ideas. 8. 9. Students should be allowed to manage the bookstore. if it is not a thesis statement. 3. and I have found that llving in a suburb of a large city is the best way to live while at college. the essay runs the risk of lacking unity and coherence. 6. 4.Thesis statement: The advantages to going to college far outweigh the disadvantages. Not a thesis statement: Golng to college In the Mldwest can be fun. This advertisement attempts to appeal to the reader's sense of patriotism. and I was amazed at the shopping centers. 2. Why do I want to be a lawyer? The differences between Mandarin and Hunan dialects. I am going to describe my home. . When I first came to the United States. Thesis statement: Golng to college in the Midwest can be fun. 7. Knowing a foreign language can be beneficial to anyone. The advantages of majoring in engineering. There are many similarities and differences between New York and Hong Kong. 5. write no 1. - Practice Exercises Exercise 1 Study the following statements carefully. 10. write yes in the blank. A thesis statement should express only one idea about topic. I wasn't used to eating in fastfood places. 4. If the statement is a thesis statement.

Exercise 2 Study the following statements. I am going to explain why I decided to go to college. a three-paragraph body. 2. The hazards of storing chemical wastes 3. It is a composition of slightly over five hundred words that consists of a one-paragraph introduction. 5. they should also have more social activities General Structure of an Essay The essay just presented-"The Hazards of Moviegoing1'-is a good example of the standar'd short essay you will write in college English. The first one is done for you. Universities in the United States should require more humanities courses. New York City is the largest city in the United States. Rewrite each of the sentences to make it a thesis statement. Introductory Paragraph of an Essay oin model paragraph LTaJ "The Hazard of Moviegoing" Cnflnsioz~Auii d 1u8aa~ium~fluhu~~uz~i~iu ~~ ~u ~~ u~ u'n n" r~ nd ~~ u~ ri?hw&~ia~~~~u'I~rii~u dv~Ao~~uni~~unia~~airb3~u k~uitu~~~loioIri~i~~udo:~'o~~Quu~usi Iiloin~~iu i~udrrhn Thesis statement L 8 r b 3 0 1 d~ ~IRU I i l f i L ~L~ T ~ ~ D J C U W ~ ( ~ ~ " L I $ ~ ~ ' O ~ D J ~L ~L~~~$~ J~ ?O ~L J$ L IB $U ~T UL ~~ ~ Thesis R ~U ~ ~ ~ ~ I R I . U I ~ ~ I ~ U ~ L L ~ ~ S % ~ Y P T O L J V ~statement J i Jtatement ~ L L M J Thesis io:~io~o~d~wu~~~~d~~n~~~ua '6~uk21d~uardor~~uu1flu Introdudion i a ~ ~ a ~ r~wzn"~nid~~nduriwou"ondu~uii . and a one-paragraph conclusion. 1. The roles of these paragraphs are described and illustrated below. Chooslng to go to college was a difficult declslon. which are not thesis statements. 4. There are many similarities and differences between life in the country and life in the city.

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YES b. The "Turnabout" L O U ~ I V ~ U ~ ~ L U ~ ~ L O I ~ ~ : L R U ~ ~ W I J ~ ~ ~ ~ ' I ~ ~ npld dud When we were very young. Julio. they seemed to us to be perfect human beings who knew all the answers to our problems and who could solve any problems that we had. Indeed.2. we believed that parents could do no wrong. Prewriting: Planning \dadoin introduction paragraph ~fluri7ua~n~$diu60dd7~nau tts:6ad&'nluloii r:diwdo~~w~a~i~un"i)~~siau~~~nd~riun'u linhwiui~nu~n~i~ilu~au~~iuusinuin L w s ~ ~ ~ D ~ L ~ [ I ~ ~ $ ~ ~ LM~ ( D~ ~ OJ ~ L L~ R R L J LL ~ ?~W R ~A R ~ ~ ~ o:cincl$iunou~iuKu$tBuulw"I 1 w ~ i e w 7 n ~ d a ln mi n u~ l ~ I ~ ~ A ~ F inth -rull d u.J nd d aanuu Introduction paragraph m ~ i s o ~ ~ u u ~ d iw r ia Ci( f~i u a l 6 siu k ! 4 i t 1. w'jiu6~dauin % I diuda%. However. The thesis in "The Hazards of Moviegoing" is presented in the a. my cousin. Write down the words in the thesis that announce the three major supporting points in the essay: b. third sentence b. The "Dramatlc Entrance" i~uamuuun~auun:uuriuhuni~~iidor nq~ (written by Pamela Moran) dvd a wssnrui ~ i f o l $ ~ a a e i i ~ A ~ 6 u a ~ a 4 K u d ~ ~ ~ r e ~ " i j u ~ ~ ~ a o e i i ~ i Last year. went to a bank to apply for a job. Does the thesis contain a plan of development? a. The problem with Julio was that he wasn't prepared for the questions. Some of the questions that an interviewer may ask you include: educational background. we find that parents can make mistakes. NO 4. as we grow older. you must be ready to answer a lot of ambiguous questions. fourth sentence 3. a d d 2. when you apply for a job. too. The interviewer asked . C. As you know. and salaries you earned. previous jobs.

you would probably think that my people have some very strange customs. '4 . but in the future when the city becomes more inhabited by different people of different nationalities and when the streets get crowded with cars. but have these people thought about their lives and health? Have they thought about the danger that might happen to their children? It might not be during the first six months of living. Also there are more chances for jobs. for instance. Although the village is lacking some of the services mentioned above.awnii~~ nd r i~ ~e ~~ d~ ar u na ds ~~~l o uu ~ a n c ~ u d m o u u w uo~~~otnii~d~maria qi ~ l r~~ n i iu] ~ ~ d ~ r ~ i ] o i l ~ n ~ i u ~ ~ ~ 3 ni3 mIuiau~ai~~m ~iiiauIu~nnanrrtilr~i]~kuoin~'i]naiudinaiu~uiuni? q~d~~~~~Fiaondia~~aiu)rluiu d' ~ ~ n qu~a % ~ iu'onaiad~oir~win ov uu naiu~mii~d6a~ni~ilr~iuuldd31nfi dclsn thesis statement adoirdud3r~on~mn'iu'Iu introductory paragraph k<aadir Traveling to a foreign country is always interesting especially if it is a country that is completely different from your own. (written by Mauricio Rodriguez) i 3. there are communication. education and medical services.Julio a lot of things that he couldn't answer. 4. they simply reply that life in the city is more developed than that in the village. I positively agree with these people. You can delight in tasting new foods. If you do not want to be in that situation. he didn't get the job. When they are asked to give reasons for their movement. some of which may seem very curious. The "Relevant Quotation" d ~ ~ u n su<u$uiu~i i 3 l ~ sni3un~iw"d LWu ~ r n i k v i 5 o ll~rlonhgyq 1~iu~n~nnuaeu~mnic~1uoq~~~~i]~~~~a Rj&ndid ~'i]~~u611~dilr~iu "We are moving to the city!" These are the words of many villagers today. you may want to follow these steps. it still the best of environment for me to live in. transportation. and learning about different customs. The "Funnel" ~ ~ w a a L u ~ u l n t r o d u c t i o n n ~ 3 3 u m aarnuroasn&ndiai? i~inn~ ad A d d ddl rr ~wnr~iluni~~ioudhin~i. as these three examples will illustrate. In the city. If you were to visit my country. Because Julio wasn't prepared for the interview. seeing new sights.

~ T . l u a d n z d o ~ l i i o z r i o i l ~ d n ~ i u l asilJ~~~n?'lu?i~~~~iiuu h6~~f 2. 6 " 3 % ~ 1 d i d d n ' ~ i u ~ uM i uP ~~ ) r~( ~ Ao Iu ~ dnnglnmilJ~uilJluddu? thesis statement The Developmental Paragraphs (the body) L d t : d L L N ~ J ~ ~ I U G~inG?oljiilJ ~ ~ ~ L M Q Q ~ ~ U v u t ui~~udi~~zn'nun?iu)r(uiuu~ilJ traveling . m n ~ u i d ~ i n ~ ~ n nthesis ~ ~ ~statement u~~ud ~~ in ~~ ' Ir u i~ ni u i s n ~ ~ u r i i ~Gul6 n ? ~ ~ . L d Jrz~n~uailJ~~8uuroilJ & ~ ~ o 0 i m i uh%"n la "strange" ~ h ~ d ~ ~ u c u $ ? $ o l 6 o d i i l ~ az\Kndi?daldluhuuoilJ The body d o z ~ o a d 3 d o v ~ %LLRRJ h dn~~inz~d~ninh b ~ r u r ~ i ~ u n i s ~ ~ o u d ~ u ~ ~L 3~ nU uo J n?mui i~l O ~n~i uiul~~?dirh&~ndo u { nnunh w ~ o u n i l ~ u o n c J d i u h ~ z a ~ a ~ ~ % ~ ~ u ~ ~ u n ? i u ~ a k i ~ q ~ ~ u n i ~ n m ~ u d ~ d o m ~ .ainihodiilJu un~nuiozwuii$~8uu~u$u~~uzo0i$diu~~u?~uho~ "ni.rn U t 2 " d ~ U Y ~ ~ ~ U L B ~ U L L ~ ~ L ~ ~ J U .LLR~AI count~6dincuui luhuuo4 developmental paragraphs d a t : M j a the body M u L ~ ~ ( i ? ~ ~ i l l M ~ i l d ~rciumiu~nhniyl~(iiu~"~~on 6~~o!uiu o u i n ~ ~ l<6hadiil~ a ~iodi~~n~iulnA~~6 n?iu~iawCndncii?\ilw thesis statement 1 4 0 I ~ ~ d i u ~ rr5ndn~iurAumjosmiu fiIo ~~4uuIKu1ndty ~iu?uuoil~d~~~i~u~~uibrozd~vii~~u" aud ~n dn du nh ~ ~~ d~ ~ u a u m i u ~ ~ ~~u~u 7n 1~ i7 $ioL t G U ~L JL 2-3 ~ L~OHGIUQJ supporting points L ~ ~ z n i 3 ~ 8 u u i ~ ~ ~ l n a t w dd uoilJ~~~i~edon~in?~dn'nu~~z~~do~dibr 1." n ? l u ~ ~ d l ~ ~ ~ u ~ ~ ~ : d ~ o~ngqwmilJrvu 3.rzlunu. ~GuniilJludiilJr~au~ ~ilud. d3znl3y~"iu udclzdo~Giazkatd unity 8 ~ h e r e n c e uclzhGuuoilJqn7do d t 2 n~i6ozn'oilJdn~iusi0~da~n~nr~uilJ~in1an?iundni7~uin1d1r(i ~oucrliolurna w u w ddd d n t h k u~zudnzdo~iincn0~l.a'~~n~nnrfi~u~n"~~uni~~8oud~~u'i~~ ncii3uiL L ~ ~ U O ~ D U $ U . n?iu'lahniynddnnalud3zIun Topic sentence o z ~ o i l J ~ o ~ ~ i l J % n ? i f i Menlu thesis statement L d UI U thesis statement ncji?il 'Cigarette smoking is a destructive habit.I L ~ U ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ .

Look at the model paragraph again.Exercise 4. The second topic sentence is then supported by details about (fill in the missing words): a. and answer the following questions. The third topic sentence is then supported by details about (fill in the missing words) a. Learning English isn't easy. You can see some unusual people on the bus. 2. Problems of new theaters ( c. My country has some of the most beautiful sights you will ever see. 1.and 1 b. . 3. Problem of old and new theaters ( I ) and sound of adjoininn movie1 1 5. On a separate sheet of paper. The first topic sentence is then supported by details about (fill in the missing words): b. Problems of the old theaters (mustiness and b. Then write out at least three possible topic sentences for the two thesis statements. Patrons ( kids. . brainstorm on two of them. 1. What is the topic sentence for the first body paragraph? 2. What is the topic sentence for the third body paragraph> 6. Being unemployed can cause people to lose their self-respect. Distractions caused bv people of all aqes Exercise 5 Study the following thesis statements. 3. 4. What is the topic sentence for the second supporting paragraph? 4.

A conclusion can restate the main points (subtopics) discussed. bring up a new topic. 2. Which sentence contains the concluding thought of the essay? a. This restatement should be brief. Third b. Generally. A conclusion can restate the thesis. First c. Which two sentences in the concluding paragraph restate the thesis and supporting points of the essay? a. 1. answer the questions. Exercise 6 From a model essay. after you have already discussed them at length. it is a good idea to restate the thesis in different words. First and second b. A conclusion should not. Second and third c. The restatement of the thesis is really a reassertion of its importance or validity. The Conclusion The conclusion f l o d 0 ~ l j i ~ v i i ~ l 6 d i ~ S i ~ ~ d ~ & ~ i f fqi d ~~ ~ n6 Sn i di?1~n do~~i~~dorsiot~n?iu~ahii~'I~~ndo~u'~uin~i?~~d~nn~~'Ia~~ u J U d n?lun~a'u ?R?UL L ~ ~ ~ J L ~ U ~ O H U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L ~ U ~ ~ I T ~ ~ L R W D R ? ~ ~ ~ ~ dad d n-ua o d i ~ ~ ~ ~ a i u u ? a ~ a u ~ d ~ ~ u '@ i~ ~J ~Md c f n ? ~ d ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n d ~ ~ Some points about concluslons should follow logically:- 1.5. to avoid sounding repetitious. People go to shopping centers for many reasons. 3. Second d. however. Third and fourth 2. Students whose native language is not English may face many problems that English speakers do not encounter 6. . Fourth .

b. a. Thesis Statement: Watchlng television i s not a waste of time. c. 1. It provides something our family can have in common t discuss. Indeed. Mispronouncing words can lead to real embarrassment. and they will help you with your grammar and pronunciation. watching television is a good way to spend one's time. and conclusions. because of its educational value. Misusing vocabulary words can really . Thesls Statement: Communicating in a foreign language can create some embarrassing misunderstandings. If the conclusion is appropriate. P Critics of television will continue to put down the "boob tube. c. a. It provides entertainment to cheer us up. The people there are very nice. its entertainment value.make you blush. write not good in the blank and also write the reason it is not good. and its supply of things we can discuss together.Exercise 7 The following are thesis statements. It is a valuable educational tool. b. Misunderstanding what someone says to you can create amusing problems." But. our family is going to continue watching television for a long time. Eveiyone who speaks a foreign language is bound to have misunderstandings from time to time. If the conclusion is not appropriate. their supporting topic sentences. and so should others. /- . Study each conclusion to determine if it is logical. simply write loglcal in the blank. What you need to do is go to the laboratory as often as / you can to improve your language skills. 2.

c. and being on time can all help to make a good impression on the interviewer. .3. Then you should carefully plan and prepare what you are going to wear. you will find yourself sitting behind the desk at that coveted job in no time at all. it is necessary to be well prepared for the job interview. a. Thesis Statement: In order to make a good impression at a job interview. you should prepare well for the interview. As you can see. b. being properly dressed. Having the answers ready. . Finally you should make sure that you arrive on time. If you follow these steps. The first thing you should do is plan your answers to the posslble questions the interviewers might ask.

e lntroductlon Opening remarks Thesis Statement Plan of development Topic sentence (supporting point 1) Body Service evidence (supporting paragraphs) Topic sentence (supporting point 2) Body Service evidence (supporting paragraphs) Topic sentence (supporting point 3) Body Service evidence (supporting paragraphs) Conclusion General Closing remarks.Diagram of an Essay Th following diagram shows you at a glance the different parts of a standard college essay. .

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