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The Contribution of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in the Development of Larkana & Kamber Shahdadkot Districts of North Sindh-Pakistan
(A Socio-Political, Cultural, Economic and Architectural Review) By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
The writer is a Research Scholar, Social Activist & Master Trainer of District Kamber Shahdadkot, Sindh. He holds Masters Degrees in th Sociology and Sindhi Literature. He was born in Village Kot Ghulam Shah, on 18 January 1977 where Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro once constructed a mud fort to protect Larkana area from invaders.
Published By Saroh Social Development Organization Shahdadkot Saroh Office, Near Scientific Public School, Railway Station Road, Shahdadkot, District Kamber-Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan- 77300 Ph: +92-74-4012896, Cell: +92-3337505896/ 03342015896 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Contribution of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in the Development of Larkana & Kamber Shahdadkot Districts of North Sindh-Pakistan
(A Socio-Political, Economic, Cultural and Architectural Review) By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
Abstract In this Research Paper, there is the description of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro (1722-1772 AD) and his contribution in the development of Larkana, Kamber, Shahdadkot & Miro Khan Regions. His role is also described in bringing peace in the district as it was badly destroyed by the Khosas. His works of restoration Ghar Wah, Koor Dato and Noor Wah and construction of tombs of Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro, Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro, Mian Shah Baharo and Kot Ghulam Shah are also briefly discussed. Such kind of Research Material on the life, works and achievements of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro specifically in the Region of Larkana and Kamber Shahdadkot is accumulated for the first time in the History of Sindh. Rise of Kalhora Power in Chandookah / Larkana district of Upper Sindh The Larkana District proved a source of wealth to the Kalhora Rulers of Sindh. The extreme length of Chandookah or Larkana District in AD 1847 was 65 miles, and its average breadth 35. It was divided into 19 minor divisions or Tappas. These Tappas were 1) Bukapoor 2) Myl Lahory 3) Anderoonee Beerah 4) Lab Dariya 5) Anderoon Ghar 6) Futtehpoor 7) Nya Derah 8) Ruttah Derah 9) Nalah Maqsoodah 10) Myl Morady11) Myl Wagun 12) Warah 13) Khyrah Guchul 14) Beroonee Beerah 15) Kumber Kundee 16) Chujrah 17) Esaw 18) Datah Kohawur and 19) Shahpoor. The total number of villages in the Larkana District was 392. The district came under the control of Talpur Amirs of Sindh in 1783 AD. Larkana District produced annually 1, 25,000 Rupees share to the Amirs of Sindh in 1835, 1836 & 1837 A.D. It is why it was called Eden of Sindh (Lieutenant Robert Leech 1837). Larkana has grown up gradually on the right bank of Ghar Wah, dug during the days of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. According t to Walter Hamilton (1820) CHANDOOKEE- A district, subject to the Ameers of Sinde, situated about the 27th degree of north latitude, and during the floods completely insulated by the Indus, the Arul, and the Larkhanu Rivers, forming an Island of triangular shape, which is reckoned the most productive in the province, and in 1813, was said to yield a revenue of 8 lacks of rupees”. (Page.570). He again writes that, “The Ameers of Sinde here levy tolls on merchants entering their dominions from the north-west, and maintain a garrison to restrain the Baloochees of Cutch Gundava”. (A Geographical, Statistical and Historical Description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, By Walter Hamilton, Vol: I, London 1820 AD. Page 571) Generally the nature of this part of country was divided into three portions; 1) that to the north of Ghar Wah 2) the country between the Ghar Wah and the Nara and 3) that lying between the latter and the Indus River. Lands around Kamber, Chilo, Noor Wah, Esaw Kalhoro and Koor Dato produced finest crops in the district. The roads from Larkana led to Kamber, Shahdadkot, Dost Ali, Ghaibi Dero, Bahram, Qubo Saeed Khan, Garhi Khero, Jhall Magsi, Gandava, Bhag, Shoran, Dhadhar & Sibi. Among them Dost Ali, Ghaibi Dero and Shahdadkot were the places where caravans assembled to cross the desert to go to the Kalat, Iran and Afghanistan in northward. These were trade as well as military routes between Sindh and the abovementioned countries. Main Adam Shah Kalhoro is said to be founder of Mianwal Movement in Sindh. The Nawab of Bakkhar and the governor of Multan arrested him from Chandookah / Larkana and killed him as a rebel in AD 1600. Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro had two sons Mian Daud Kalhoro and Mian Ibrahim Kalhoro. Agha Shah Muhammad Kotwal and his disciples selected Mian Daud Kalhoro as their new leader. He left behind two sons Main Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro and Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro. Rohel Khan Khoso was disciple of Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro (1620 A.D). He migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab) and settled in Larkana, Sindh. After the death of Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro all his disciples made Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro as their new spiritual guide. Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro took over the lands of Abro and Sangi tribes and in retaliation was killed in the uprising by Nawab Sheikh Ahmed Bakhri in 1657 AD. The shrine of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro is situated on a high mound 8 km to the north-east of Kamber. Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro dug
Ghar Wah from the River Indus and cultivated more lands in and around Larkana. After the martyrdom of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro by the Mughals. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro succeeded the governorship in 1068 A.H/ 1657 AD. He acquired more celebrity for piety and virtue than any of his predecessors. Rohel Khan Khoso also served his master with all respects and honor. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro (1657-1692 A.D) bestowed him a Jagir in the neighborhood of Larkana. During the days of Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro some of the Khosa tribesmen stole the cattle of Panhwars between Boobak and Bhan. When the Panhwars heard this news they followed the cattle lifters in which Golo Khoso lost his life. The dispute was brought in the court of Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro decided to hand over all the lands of Panhwars from Chhini (Johi) to Nari (Shahdadkot) and from Khirthar Range to Sehwan and Indus River from west to east to the Khosas. Having received this privilege Khosas multiplied in great number and controlled mountain passes, plains and forests from south to north. They laid foundations of countless villages. Golo Khoso left behind Shahdad Khoso whose tomb stands on a hill at Chhini in the taluka Johi district Dadu. Describing Khosas of Larkana, Lieu: Robert Leech, writes in his “ Report on Sindhian, Khelat and Daoodpotra Armies” (1837) that, “The Khosas under the Hyderabad government are under two Sardars Jam Chutta and Alam Khan; their Jagirs are situated to the south of Ladhkana at a place called Bosan, they amount to 1300”. He again tells, “There are also 1500 in the Hull (Jhall Magsi), under the Hyderabad Government, called Parkaree Khosas or Jarwars”. Role of Khosas during the reign of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro After reigning 17 years, Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro, the first Kalhora ruler of Sindh (1701) died at Khudabad in 1718. His eldest son Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro succeeded him in 1719. He was born on August 6, 1698 and died on June 19, 1755 AD. Mian Noor Muhammad was a wise ruler. He was given the title of Nawab Khuda Yar Khan by the Mughal Court of Delhi and Shah Nawaz Khan by the Iranian King Nadir Shah Afshar. He had canals dug all over Sindh to irrigate the barren lands. Three canals are named after him. 1) Noor Wah in Khudabad district Dadu 2) Noor Wah in Kamber district Kamber Shahdadkot and 3) Noor Wah in Taluka Thull district Jacobabad Sindh. Many tribes came from Punjab and Balochistan to serve him and in return they were bestowed with Jagirs. He built many tombs and mosques in Sindh while arts and crafts also flourished during his reign. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro stationed 10,000 Khosa soldiers in the fort of Larkana under the command of Mian Shah Baharo Jhinjhan. Rohel Khan Khoso left behind a son called Rajo Khan Khoso who served under Mian Shah Baharo at Larkana. He was a celebrated minister and general of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro in northern Sindh. Mian Shah Baharo had the management of the affairs of Chandookah/ Larkana country, and commanded a division of 10,000 men. Several canals and forts were excavated by him. The construction of Larkana fort is also associated with Mian Shah Baharo. According to Lieutenant Hugh James (December 1846 A.D), the Deputy Collector of Larkana, “The old fort of Larkana is a large square building, with four towers; a fifth tower, at the gateway, is of burnt brick, and higher than the others; the rest of the building is of mud. This was one of the arsenals of Talpoors, and now contains the fine hospital and the store room of the Camel Corpse, and the Civil Jail. It was the residence of the celebrated minister Futteh Mahomed Lugaree.” (Lieutenant Hugh James’s Report on the Purgannah of Chandookah: December 1847, in Bombay Government Selections, No.XVII, New Series, Part II, PP.709-74).
Exodus of Khosas from Sindh by Kalhora Ruler
When these Khosas obtained great power and privilege under the army of Kalhora rulers of Sindh they started plundering some villages again which disturbed social and commercial life in Sindh. When the public started complaining against them Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro decided to punish the culprits. One day all Khosa chieftains were called by the court of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro at Khudabad. When all the chiefs entered the court they were attacked and killed by the Kalhora soldiers. After this genocide most of the prominent Khosa tribes were compelled to leave and expelled from Sindh. These Khosas were known as Rohelani Khosas by the natives. After the exile of these Khosas they made Shikarpur as their new homeland under Daudpota rulers. In 1720 AD. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro married with Mai Gulan Dahri who bore him a son Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. In October 1723 AD. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro encamped at Larkana. He sent his 60,000 army against Daudpotas of Shikarpur under Mir Shahdad Talpur, Mian Shah Baharo, Murad Kaleri, Raja Leekhi
and Khosas. The battle continued for four months and ended in February 1724. After fighting for four months, Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro besieged them in the fort of Shikarpur and compelled them to submit. At last a treaty was agreed upon in which that country was divided into four parts (or shares), two shares being given to the original owner of the Jagir, one to the Daudpotas and one being retained by the Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro himself, who after taking some hostages, returned to his capital. Main Noor Muhammad Kalhoro employed Khosas of Shikarpur for digging Noor Wah from Begari Canal of Indus River in modern Jacobabad territories on Sindh Kalat border. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro appointed Mula Jeand Abro as his Nazim (administrative) in Shikarpur and ordered Suleman Khan Khosa , Hakim Khan, Farid Khan, and Dilawar Khan Balochis to accompany Mula Jeand Abro at his residential quarters. In September 1725 AD another military campaign was started in which Muhammad Khan Kalhoro, Mian Shah Baharo, Mir Chaker Talpur, Tajo Leekhi, Paliyo Khan Kalhoro, Qabool Khan Chandio, Mir Bahram Talpur, Mir Shaho, Bilawal, Khera, and Kamal took actively part. In August 1726 Muhammad Mubarak Khan Daudpota died at Shikarpur. His son Muhammad Sadique Khan Daudpota went to live in Khanpur but soon he left Sindh forever and shifted to an Island of the Indus River called Dabli. The Kalhora army followed the enemy and pressed them hard in 1728 AD but through the intercession of some Syeds of Uch Sharif they abandoned the expedition. The Jamali Faqirs of Kalhora army also fought with bravery. Hostilities with Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi, the Ruler of Kalat. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro used to send 40,000 Rupees annually to Mir Samander Khan Brohi, the Ruler of Kalat because his family had once given refuge to Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro and his followers. Once he sent an elephant and 40,000 Rupees cash to Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi, the Ruler of Kalat. These gifts were sent by Kalhoras through Larkana to Bibi Nani in Bolan Pass, Kalat. Murad Kaleri was the governor of Sibi during the reign of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. In 1729 AD, he brought into subjection powerful chiefs of Kachhi like Kaiser Khan Magsi (Gandava), Meero Rind (Shoran), Meero Buledi (Kachhi), Meenhan Eri (Bhagnari), Ruhpa Machhi, Kala Khan Barozai (Dhadhar), and Bahar Khan Umrani. The Khan of Kalat, Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi was not happy to see Kalhora power. As Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi was rival to Kalhora ruler of Sindh therefore Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro marched and took the fort of Kerta in which Kakar Khan Brohi was slain and Ismaeil Khan Brohi was completely defeated. Seeing this Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi called for ceasefire and promised to give daughters of his cousin, Murad Ali Brohi to Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro and Khudad Khan Kalhoro in marriage. This took place in 1730-31 AD. In the following year Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi attacked and plundered Kachhi which was then part of Sindh. Before this he had attacked Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Makran and Kandhar. That’s why he was called “the Royal Eagle of Kohistan”. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro could not bear this act of tyranny and planned against the Brohis of Kalat. He came to Larkana and checked all defensive points on the border including Shahdadkot. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro sent Kalhora army of 40,000 under the command of Mian Shah Baharo. The names of other Sindhi generals were Mian Dato Khuhawar, Khero, Shah Ali, Mir Chaker, Mir Bahram, and Jam Nindo. Nearly 700 soldiers of Sarawan were put to death by Kalhoras. Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi himself was killed in the battle. The battle was fought in AD 1733 at Khanpur at the entrance of Mullah Pass. After this victory Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro went to Khuzdar to marry the daughter of Murad Ali Brohi. Next year Khudadad Khan Kalhoro also got married from Brohi family and returned to Sindh. In this way the connection between the Kalhoras and the Brohis became stronger and closer by these marriages. Very shortly Mian Shah Baharo died on 12th May 1736 A.D and was buried in a garden at Larkana. After his death Nawab Mittha Khan Kalhoro was appointed as new governor of Larkana. He also dug 25000 yards long Mittha /Nusrat Wah from Ghar during his administration and constructed many Bunds inside and outside the district to protect agricultural lands from Indus River and Khirthar flash floods. Nadir Shah’s arrival at Larkana-1740 AD. In India, after the death of emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the next Mughal rulers who followed him one after another were Bahadur Shah (1707-1712), Jahandar Shah (1712-1713), Farukh Siyar (1713-1719) and Muhammad Shah (1719-1748), in whose time, Nadir had invaded India. The Mughal king Muhammad Shah had reached Karnal with three hundred thousand soldiers and 2000 elephants with a large deposit of cannon but was
badly defeated by the forces of Nadir Shah. He departed from Delhi on May 16, 1739 and reached Kabul on December 2, 1739. Nadir Shah entered Delhi without opposition on March 20, 1739 and pillaged the accumulated treasure of the Mughal Empire till it depleted. He took away huge money, jewels, diamonds and gold for the worth of about 70 crore of rupees, including the famous pea-cock throne and Koh'i Noor diamond. He departed from Delhi on May 16, 1739 and reached Kabul on December 2, 1739 AD. Nadir Shah quitted Kabul on December 9, 1739 and entered India once again to plunder Sindh. He reached Dera Ismail Khan on January 5, 1740 and at Larkana on February 12, 1740 and pillaged gold, jewels and pearls amounting over one crore rupees from Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro, the Ruler of Sind. Nadir left Sind on April 10, 1740. Nadir Shah divided Sindh into three parts viz Sibi and Kachhi which were given to rulers of Kalat as a blood money for the murder of Mir Abdullah Khan Brohi. He took Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro and Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, two sons of the captured Ruler of Sindh with him to Iran. The Army of Nadir Shah returned back Iran from Larkana, Shahdadkot, Kachhi Gandava and Sibi through Bolan Pass of Balochistan. In 1747, Nadir Shah set off for Khorasan where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Some of his officers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him. Nader Shah was assassinated on 19 June 1747, at Fatehabad in Khorasan. Both of the Sindhi princes returned to Sindh after Nadir Shah’s assassination. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro also brought with him his Iranian wife and his beloved son. Death of Mian Noor Muhammad and the selection of his son Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro After the death of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro in 1753 A.D, his eldest son Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro was selected as new ruler of Sindh. The new ruler fixed a camp on a pleasant spot, near Nasarpur, where he founded the city of Muradabad. The first act of his government was to attack Jam of Kakralla in which he succeeded nicely. The following years 1754 and 1755 passed in peace. Hardly three years passed, when he evinced a disposition to oppress his subjects, and alight the senior officers. His conduct had lost him the affection of his people, and fearful lest the Afghan king should send an army against him, he formed the resolution of quitting the country, as a primary step to which he embarked his treasure and valuable for Muscat, whither he prepared to follow, as soon as he should have completed the plunder the country. The Kalhora Capital Murad Abad was destroyed by the River Indus floods in September 1757. During this disaster, the ruler himself fled through a boat along with his sons and founded a new city Ahmed Abad near Sakrand. Kalhora Civil War 1757-59 A.D On 29th August 1757, Kalhora chiefs attacked the residence of Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro and captured all his men who belonged to Odheja, Dal and other tribes. Later on he was sent through a boat to Shahdadpur, Naushehro Feroze and finally to Khudabad near Sehwan. According to Munshi Topan Mal Hyderabadi (1767 A.D) Tharo Kasai and Bhanoo Mal were his influential ministers. Both of them belonged to Larkana area. In the mean time Attur Khan Kalhoro, a brother elder to Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, who was then hostage at Kandhar (Afghanistan), hearing of the confinement of Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro, applied for and procured a firman (Order), from the king, appointing him to the government of Sindh; which province he entered with a body of Afghan allies, and was joined by some levies under his brother Ahmed Yar Kalhoro. The officers and chieftains could not be induced to oppose royal seal and Ghulam Shah Kalhoro being deserted by them retired to the desert; where the further defection of his adherents and the escape of dethroned Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro compelled him to prosecute his journey to Jodhpur on 8th November 1757. Mir Bahram Talpur also separated from fleeing prince. After living a short time in Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner Ghulam Shah Kalhoro sought refuge at Muhammad Mubarak Khan Daudpota, the ruler of Bahawalpur. He lived there for 3 months.
Battles of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro for power Attur Khan Kalhoro now assumed the government, and contrary to the expectations of the people, confined his brother Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro in Khudabad. In return for its support, the Afghan Court had been largely promised by Attur Khan Kalhoro, and a system of plunder and extortion now ensued to satisfy their demands. A few months however had scarcely elapsed, before the province was suddenly invaded by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, who advancing from India left his son Sarfaraz Khan Kalhoro and the heavy baggage in Debalpur, and attacked his brother’s forces in the environs of Rohri in the east of Sukkur. During his abode in India, he had solicited and obtained aid from the Rajput rulers; and although his numbers were inconsiderable, his attack was so successful, that the two brothers fled to Kandhar Afghanistan, leaving him in full possession of Sindh without another struggle. During this battlefield Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro was also assisted by Muhammad Mubarak Khan Daudpota, Muhammad Fateh Khan Daudpota, Mehro Khan Daudpota, Ahmed Khan Ferozani and Muhammad Jam Khan Aliyani who fought with bravery. Sadullah Khan Babi and Sher Muhammad Khan Pathan of Multan were also in the service of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro now. This fierce battle took place on June 7, 1758 AD, on the banks of a canal near Rohri. Thousands of people were killed from the side of Attur Khan Kalhoro and Ahmed Yar Kalhoro while Hamza Leekhi lost his life from Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro side. Maqsood Shah, the son of legend Mian Shah Baharo of Larkana and some other Kalhora chiefs sided Attur Khan Kalhoro and Ahmed Yar Kalhoro. Mir Bahram Talpur, asked for an apology to Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro who forgave him and restored his previous position. The Mir was assisted by Marri Balochis at the difficult hours of the battlefield. After this victorious event Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro offered eid prayers in Rohri and passed through Chandookah/ Larkana and Sehwan. Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro was seriously ill during this time. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro went to see him at Khudabad but he did not recover and passed away in miserable conditions. The defeated brothers fled to Kalat for seeking support from Mir Naseer Khan Noori, who was already friend of Mian Ghulam Shah Klahoro. He imprisoned both of the brothers in his capital and later sent them to Kandhar Court.
Early in the year 1758; Attur Khan Kalhoro and Ahmed Yar Kalhoro having laid their complaint before the king succeeded in procuring a new firman for the province, and Ahmed Shah Abdali, in order to ensure proper respect to his authority, furnished the elder brother with a contingent of troops, with which he invaded Sindh, leaving Ahmed Yar Kalhoro in Kandhar. Seeing this Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, dubious of the result of the contest, retired to the fort of Kachh in south Sindh. This happened on December 2, 1758. The dispute was about to be decided by the sword, when a negotiation was entered on, which placed Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in possession of one-third of the country; the rest being secured to the other brother. In this way Shah Garh and Thatta to the borders of Nasarpur fell to his share, whilst Attur Khan Kalhoro & Ahmed Yar Kalhoro occupied the rest of Sindh. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro formed Shah Garh Seaport at Googi and the populations of Oranga Bander were transported to it. The first English Factory was also opened at Thatta in the same year on 22nd September 1758 by the orders of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. In May 1759 Ahmed Yar Kalhoro, who had been left at Kandhar, perceiving the turn which affairs were taking, obtained by bribes and promises a firman in his own name for the government of Sindh; and leaving his son at court marched against Attur Khan Kalhoro. The wary and politic Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro no sooner learnt the supersession of his brother Attur Khan Kalhoro, than he proceeded to dislodge him. Thus threatened on both sides, Attur Khan Kalhoro escaped and sought help from Bahadur Khan Aliyani and Akhtiar Khan Mandhani, two rivals of Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in Bahawalpur. Whist the force of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, by a decisive and bold advance to the capital, deterred Ahmed Yar Kalhoro from further progress. A fierce battle took place in which Ghulam Shah Kalhoro defeated 10,000 Army of his brothers. Nearly 3000 soldiers were killed and Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro himself was slightly wounded. The country once more under the control of a chief, who was a favorite of the natives, found time to recover from the effects of the late intestine disturbances, and civil war in its most hideous form, which had ravaged Sindh for two years. Mr. Bewin described whole the picture in his letter sent to English officials on 10th December 1759. Plundering of Khosa tribes in Larkana & Khudabad Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro came to Khudabad in 1172 A.H. /1759 A.D and killed leaders of Khosa tribe, who had plundered the city, during chaos created by the dispute of succession between the brothers after their father’s death. It is said that taking advantage of political uncertainty, Khosas looted Hindus as well as Muslims and burnt the entire Khudabad city down by tying fire crackers with birds feet and let fly them throughout the city after setting fire the fire crackers. According to the Captain James Macmurdo’s, “The History of the Kalhoras of Sindh” (1844 A.D),“The Kosha tribes, who inhabited the division of Sewistan (Sehwan Area) , had been very troublesome during the late contest; and from the position they occupied, in the pass from Kandhar, had been of essential service to Attur Khan (Kalhoro). Ghulam Shah (Kalhoro), as the first act of his government, inflicted on them an exemplary punishment. Their villages were reduced to ashes, their strongholds carried by assault, and their garrisons, with the families of the tribe, put to the sword”. (The Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol: I. July 1841 to July 1844 A.D, Bombay: American Mission Press 1844 A.D). Nazir Ahmed Bhand, a local historian of district Dadu tells that a band of dacoits under Jaffer Khan Khosa had attacked Khudabad and set it on fire after looting its residents. They plundered both Muslims as well as Hindus of the city. After this tragic incident many of the Hindu families left Khudabad and migrated towards Talti, Sehwan, Larkana and Sukkur. This incident was one of the major reasons of the fall of Khudabad. Very shortly, after this incident Khudabad was inundated by River Indus floods which damaged much part of this grand and prosperous capital of Kalhora rulers of Sindh. (Khudabad 2004, Page 14). These Khosa’s had betrayed their masters and had made immediate show off and destroyed Khudabad & Larkana areas during civil war. The Campaign of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro against Khosas in Larkana The legend says that when Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro decided to punish Khosas they went to their neighbors i.e. the Joyas, the Khuhawars and the Silras for seeking refuge and support. All of these tribesmen refused Khosas for such support and cleared Khosas that they will not fight against Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro punished Khosas and destroyed their villages. The graves of the relatives and companions of Jaffer Khan Khoso are located in the historical grave yard (Survey Number 59) of village Chhutto Joyo in Deh
Dhori Mubarak of Taluka Miro Khan district Kamber Shahdadkot, Sindh. This historical grave yard is spread on 10 acres. The reddish burnt brick graves present a picturesque view with old trees and sandy dunes. Abdul Halim Joyo, the headman of above mentioned village also narrates the same story of Khosas massacred by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in Larkana. Foundation of Kot Ghulam Shah in 1760 AD near Kamber According to Mir Ali Sher Qani of Thatta (1727-1788 AD) Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro gave orders to build a small fort in the vicinity of Larkana to control any future uprising in the area. (Tuhfat-ul-Karam: Mir Ali Sher Qani Thatvi, Published by Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro/ Hyderabad Sindh, 1989, Pages 278 & 279). He further mentions that Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro attacked and killed a large number of fleeing Khosas in the forts of “Joya” and “Tulli” (Thull). A Thull or tower constructed of burnt bricks can be seen in village Dhing 13 kilometers in the north east of Shahdadkot. This village belongs to Sardar Muqeem Khan Khoso, the chief of Khosa tribe in Sindh. The Khosa tribe held Jagir in Deh Thull in Larkana during Talpur and British Rule. The aim of constructing this fort was to keep open a communication through this wild country, and to safeguard the borders of Sindh in the north. In the words of Sir Richard Burton, the forts formed at once the place of defense, the treasury, and the residence of the native rulers. On the royal orders of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro planning for building a mud fort was executed by the experts of Kalhora army. The renowned ministers and generals of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro were Mir Bahram Talpur, Allah Bux Jhinjhan, Raja Leekhi, Jam Feroze Faqir, Muhammad Hassan Khuhawar, Farid Samtio, Sadhari Othewal, Roohal Joyo, Mian Hassan Lakho, Mohbat Khoso, Mian Hassan Lakho and Roohal Khoso. Mirza Ahmed Khurasani was a celebrated commander who constructed Hyderabad Fort later. Diwan Gidu Mal, Diwan Chela Ram Sewistani, Diwan Ghansha Ram were associated with finance while Mirza Foulad was head of stables and Munawar and Dil Afzone were his famous courtiers. According to the oral traditions, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro deputed Nawab Mitha Khan Kalhoro, the governor of Larkana, for this task who landed from a boat at Koor Dato and started the construction work on the selected site. He set up a camp for his crew and labor. The fort as well as the camp commune to be known as Kot Ghulam Shah. Mangan and Metla tribes were also settled in the Kamber area during his reign. General John Jacob (18121858) mentions Nawab Mitha Khan Kalhoro in his book “The Sindh Irregular Horse” published in 1849. Mitha Wah and Mitho Dero are named after this famous governor of Larkana. Kot Ghulam Shah was founded on Larkana, Kamber and Shikarpur route which was famous for trade and commerce. The famous ferry of Esaw Kalhoro was situated in the south of this fort on the banks of Noor Wah, which was dug by Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. Kot Ghulam Shah from engineering point of view In first, the Sheikh community was deployed to cut Jungle and reeds grown on the edges of high mounds of sand. These community men took active part in the work of Koor Dato clearance as they were expert in cutting reeds and grass grown on the irrigational channels. They had been scattered inhabitants in Larkana, Kamber, Shahdadkot and Miro Khan. They were associated with hunting and cutting jungles grown on Indus River and its natural canals. As Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had supported the Sheikh Community hence they loved this ruler with great respect and esteem and still loving him. The length of fort is71.628 meters (235 feet) from north to south while its width is 60.96 meters (200 feet) from east to west. In this way the total area of this historic fort becomes 132.588 meters or 4366.3 square meters or 47000 square feet (SFT). In other words we can say this fort is spread on 1 acre 10 wesa and 16 feet. There are 43560 feet in 1 acre of land. The fort is surrounded by a man made pond which was fed by Koor Dato Canal on eastern side. This pond was used as reservoir or water storage. The fort building was constructed with mud and clay which was taken out from a ditch situated in the north of this site. This ditch later took the shape of a small lake which is said to be 7 feet deep. It is said that once a horseman drowned with his horse and nothing was recovered from this lake. The fort has 4 towers at its four corners. Each of the towers has 60 feet diameter. The fort was protected with a main gate on the eastern side. The walls are 14 feet wide in the base while their height was some 25 feet from ground level at the time of construction. Now only 15 feet high walls are standing at the present site. The mud fort had 15 feet wide gate which was protected by a Mosque from the front side. The
remains of this old mosque were destroyed by the 1990 rainfalls. Its size was 15X15X10. While its walls were 3 feet wide and were constructed from mud and clay. Now a jungle bush is standing around the mosque location and a newly constructed cemented road leads into the middle of the fort. The historic grave of Mir Wali Dad Magsi is situated in the middle of the fort. Whole of the fort building stood on 30 feet high sand dune which has disappeared now. It seems that this fort was also used for artillery. People tell that the walls of this fort were so wide that a bullock cart could easily run on them. From engineering point of view it is imagined that 30 skilled and 70 non skilled persons including males and females of 20 families took active part in the construction of this historical fort. It took 1095 days (including 303 Friday holidays), 36 months or 3 years to complete. The per day work was 1200 feet. If we count present day labour wages of an skilled mason with per day 750/- Rupees then we may say that 30 skilled masons earned 1, 66, 32000/- rupees within 792 days in 3 years. Similarly if we have a look on current market value with 350/Rupees then we may say that 70 unskilled labour earned 1,94,0,4000 Rupees within 792 days in 3 years. Now if we multiply both labour charges then the cost of the construction of this fort will be 3, 60, 36,000 Rupees. This is the cost of labour charges while expenses of construction are more than this amount. The renowned mason of that time was Ustad Shafi Muhammad Multani who late built the Hyderabad Fort under the guidance of Mirza Ahmed Khurasani in 1768 AD. The daily wages of skilled mason was 10 Paisas per day while non skilled labour could get 6 Paisas as daily charges of labour. Diwan Gidu Mal spent 2 boats full with coins on the construction of Hyderabad Fort. It seems that the construction work of this fort lasted for 3 years i.e. from 1760 to 1762 AD. In the same year the Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro again marched as far as Khanpur/Shikarpur in order to punish the Daudpotas, but at the intercession of the Syeds of Uch he pardoned them and returned without going further. One oral tradition tells that Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro came to visit this fort with army and elephants. According to the Erskine one of the elephants of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro became mad on 2nd April 1764. It destroyed the English Camp situated in Shahpur , the Capital of Sindh . Round about 500 persons of King saved it from drowning in the Indus River. (Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit: H.T.Sorley, 1992, page 101). Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had arrived at Shahpur on the 2nd of Rajjib 1177 A.H. (1764 A.D.) after his long and arduous campaign in the arid and dry region of Kathiawar. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had led his Sindhi forces and marched beyond the Thar Desert towards the Rann of Kuch in order to punish the Hindu Rajput raiders of the Kathiawar region. He took the fort of Sindhri and built the fort of Imamgarh on his way to the Kuch region, and on the heights of the mountain of Jarah, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro and his Sindhi forces armed with gunpowder killed about 6000 zealous Hindu warriors. Continuing his victorious march he entered the massive Hindu fort of Bhuj, plundering the villages and towns in the vicinity of that Hindu stronghold. He took the sea-ports of Busta and Lakhpat.
Restoration of Gahr Wah, Koor Dato, and Noor Wah Canals A major change in the Course of Indus River occurred in 1758-59, when the river adopted its present course west of Hyderabad in Sindh. Whole of Larkana area was covered with dense jungle due to this change and all natural canals and watercourses were choked of due to large quantity of Silt which caused a great destruction in above areas. Nothing left in the villages and people became destitute and started living a miserable life. As per saying of Mahraj Gopi Krishan (1910-1992) in his writings, after crushing the uprising of Khosas, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had also sent an order for clearance of Ghar Wah and Koor Dato and engaged Silra and other tribesmen for their digging. In return these tribes were bestowed lands on Ghar Wah and Koor Dato canals. The restoration work was also carried out in the same year in Chandookah Area. Promoting Trade on Esaw Kalhoro Ferry According to Yousif Merak’s Tareekh-e-Mazhar Shah Jahani (1634 AD) Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro had founded a village Kotla in Chandookah District in Upper Sindh. The remains of this historic village are situated near the present day Esaw Kalhoro village located 3 Km in the north of Kamber. Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro dug Ghar Wah from this location. He had also built a fort and increased his disciples. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro (1657-1692) also lived here. He nominated Esaw Khan Kalhoro as in charge of this area. He was killed during a battle in 1705 AD. Later on Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro dug a new canal after his name which was called Noor Wah. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro came here many times and monitored the digging work of the canal. He also encouraged trade by setting up a ferry on the banks of Noor Wah at Wadha site which is in ruins now. People tell that Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro had also built a Kafila Sirai in village. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro also came here and took initiatives to promote trade and commerce at Esaw Kalhoro Ferry. He guarded the ferry by recruiting Kalhora soldiers there. In 1820 AD, the villages of Eesan had Hoojree, the small district of Janee Duny, an island formed by the Naree, a branch of the main stream. (The London Encyclopedia: Vol XX, London 1829, Sinde, Page 400). After the battle with Shah Shoojah in 1833 AD, the Chandookah District was divided. Mir Sobdar Khan son of Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur was given Kamber, Chilo, Esaw and Koor Dato areas. In 1847, Esaw Kalhoro was a considerable village and ferry which started declining from 1856, when Railway was introduced in the country. The village has not recovered after 1938. Relations of Mian Ghualm Shah Kalhoro with Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, the Ruler of Kalat After Nadir Shah’s death in 1747, Mir Mohbat Khan Brohi made an incursion towards Kandhar, but the active successor to the Persian throne, Ahmed Shah Abdali soon revenged this insulting by invading Baloch province of Sarawan and taking away with him the 2 brothers of the Kalat ruler, Mir Altaz Khan Brohi and Mir Nasir Khan Brohi as sureties for his future good behavior. Mir Nasir Khan Brohi later suppressed his brother, Mir Mohbat Khan Brohi and ruled the country for 40 years. His rule started from 1749. Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro died in 1754. Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro ruled Sindh from 1753 to 1757. In 1758, Mir Nasir Khan Brohi declared himself independent of his suzerain, Ahmed Shah Abdali, who highly provoked at his conduct, engaged his troops near Mastung and defeated Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, who fled to Kalat. After negotiations a treaty was signed . In this way in 1761-62, the Khan was called upon with his troops to accompany Ahmed Shah Abdali on his second expedition into India. Ahmed Shah Abdali had 30,000 Kandhar troops and 10,000 Baloch forces during this campaign. Ahmed Shah Abdali could get 2,00,000,50, 000 horses, 500 elephants and 22000 war captives through this campaign. Like Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, Sindh Ruler Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro was also serving Afghan King nicely only for the safety of their land and people. In 1181 A.H. (1767 A.D.) Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro was entrusted by the king Ahmed Shah Abdali with the charge of the Derahs whence some disturbance was reported. Accordingly, very soon he started for that division. In the course of three months he settled all matters and restored peace and order there. Taking some hostages from the chiefs of the place, he returned to Shahpur. On his return from the Derahs in 1183 A. H. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro went straight to Nerunkot, where in Zíkaad of the previous year, 1182 A.H. (1768 A.D.), he had commenced a strong fort with the view of turning that city into his future capital. This fort, which was built on hilly high ground was named Hyderabad. And there the he remained for the rest of his life. Again in 1769, when a combination of Persian chiefs took place with the object of attacking the Afghan territory on the west. Twice in
this latter campaign the judgment and bravery of Mir Nasir Khan Brohi were conspicuous, and as a reward for his services Ahmed Shah Abdali granted him the Harrand and Dajal districts, as well as Shawl (Quetta) and Mastung , to hold in perpetual and entire sovereignty. According to Pottinger his revenues are said to have exceeded 3 lakhs of rupees per annum. In the year 1769 Mina Ghulam Shah Kalhoro ordered through Diwan Bbanbho Mal to Wilder, an official of East India Company for purchasing of 10,000 cannon balls of different sizes. Kalat was also strengthening its dominions which spread from Sindh borders to Punjab. In 1184 A.H. (1770 A.D.) for several reasons the charge of the Derahs was taken from Mian Ghulam Shah by the king and given back to Sardar Jahan Khan. In this year the Rao of Kachh gave the hand of a daughter of his cousin Wesújí in marriage to the Mián and the marriage was celebrated with great pomp and splendour on both the sides. In consideration of this relationship, the towns of Bustá Bandar and Lakhpt Bandar and others that had been conquered by the Sindh Ruler, were returned to the Rao. It was in the year 1185 A.H. (1771 A.D.) that a wonderful physical phenomenon was seen in Sindh. In about a bigah of land, near Lakhat district, pieces of flesh fell in rain. Each piece was more in weight than a seer of Surat. A few pieces were brought to the Mián. The flesh resembled the flesh of a pig, both in smell and colour. It was thrown to dogs, but they would not eat it. In 1186 A.H. (1772 A. D.) foundation was laid for a mud fort on a hillock to the south-west of the fort of Hyderabad and for the protection of the same. The hillock was sacred to Sheikh Mehmood Ansari alias Hají Muhammad Makai and was called after his name. This fort is situated on a hillock near Railway Station. It has 9 round towers. Whole of the building is built of mud. According to historical records Shah Makai was born in 510 AH. / 1116 AD and died in 658 AH./ 1259 AD. He came from Arabia and after traveling through Ludhiana and Punjab settled in Sindh. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhroro and Mir Nasir Khan Brohi were ruling their countries wisely and bravely. Sindh- Kalat Affairs & Arrival of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro at Larkana in My 1772 According to Captain Charles Mason the province of Kachhi Gandava was inhabited by three very distinctly marked races; 1) the Jats 2) the Rinds and Magsis and 3) Brohis. The Jats were undoubtedly the primitive inhabitants, the Rinds are more recent settlers and the Brohis acquired a permanent interest in the province only since the time of Nadir Shah (1740 AD). Kachhi Gandava formerly belonged to Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had recovered some parts of this province from Kalat but soon enmity arose between Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro and Mir Nasir Khan Brohi. Pointing this issue Lieutenant Robert Leach writes that , “ By this road the grandfather of Mehrab Khan ( Mir Nasir Khan Brohi) brought an army to attack Ghulam Shah Kaloree, They fought at Ram Pitryanee near Curachee”. (Page 86). The names of these geographical areas create a confusion . It seems that this battle was fought at Ran or desert near Hathyari in Kachhi on Sindh Kalat Border near Qubo Saeed Khan and Shahdadkot Areas. In the year 1837 AD the main towns on Kalat to Larkana route by the Moola Pass were Kalat, Kotro and Jhall within Kalat Territories. While Dost Ali (150 HHs), Chhajra (200 HHs), Kamber (250 HHs) and Larkana (350 HHs & shops). Describing Moola Route Lieutenant Robert Leech (1837 AD) tells that 1000 men might dispute the pass against 20,000 cavalry by rolling down large stones from the heights. Treaty between Kalat & Sindh A treaty entered into between Mian Ghualm Shah Kalhoro, on behalf of Government of Sindh, and Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, Chief of Kalat, on his own part. This was done at Sindh Kalat border, on 4th Safar Al Muzaffar 1186 A.H/ Corresponding to 7th May 1772 AD. This treaty was signed on a copy of Holy Quran which is preserved in National Museum Karachi, Sindh. After this agreement the Brohi tribes remained in peace and quite. Unfortunately, soon after the treaty was signed, Mian Ghulam Shah died all of a sudden on the 2nd of Jamadi AlAwwal 1186 AH/ corresponding to 1st August 1772 AD, having been attacked by paralysis. Ahmed Shah Abdali also died very soon 20th Rajab Al Murajib 1186 AH/ 17th October 1772 AD. Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, Chief of Kalat, signed a new treaty with Mian Sarfaraz Kalhoro, the eldest son of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro and newly selected Ruler of Sindh on 6th Muharam Al Haram 1187 AH/ Corresponding to 30th March 1773 AD.
Construction of Monuments by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in Larkana & Sukkur When Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro came to Larkana for signing treaty with Mir Nasir Khan Brohi, he visited the fertile and historical district Chandookah Purgannah in Upper Sindh. He went to offer prayers on the graves of his ancestors and generals of Kalhora army. He ordered constructing tombs on the graves of Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro, Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro, Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro, and Mian Shah Baharo Jhinjhan. The details are given as under; Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro/ Sukkur Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro/ Dokri Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro/ Kamber Mian Shah Baharo/ Larkana Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro also gave orders for the construction of tombs over Chhutal Faqir Khoso. The graveyard of Chhutal Faqir is located some 15 kilometers northwest of Shahdadkot and contains graves and tombs of Mianwal saints and soldiers. Cchutal Faqir Khoso, after whom this graveyard is named, was the descendent of Suleman Faqir Khoso. Suleiman Faqir Khosa was the disciple of Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro. The descendants of Suleiman Faqir are known as the Suleimani Khosas. The great grandson of Suleiman Faqir Khosa, Jamo Faqir Khosa, was the disciple of Mian Nasir Mohammad Kalhoro. He was very close to Mian Nasir Mohammad because of his righteousness. Mian Nasir Mohammad held him in very high esteem too. Despite his old age, Jamo Faqir actively participated in the construction work of the Jamia Mosque of Garhi. He died in his mentor's lifetime and was buried in the necropolis of Mian Nasir Mohammad. Some of the tombs were constructed by Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro has also built the shrines of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (Bhit Shah) and Sheikh Qarhio Bhandari (Shahgarh). More than this he also renovated some parts of the Shrine of Qalander Lal Shahbaz at Sehwan. Jamo Faqir left behind four sons, namely Cchutal Faqir, Sohrab Faqir Bahadar Faqir, and Hazur Faqir. All of them got early education in the Madressah of Garhi where Mian Nasir Mohammad used to teach his disciples. Cchutal Faqir became prominent in his time and preached the ideology of his mentor wherever he went. He accompanied Mian Nasir Mohammad when the latter went to meet Ganj Bakhshah Naushah in Gujarat, Punjab. It is told that Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro once came here and visited these Khosa Faqirs. The repair work of Shaheed Haji Khan Marri tomb, situated on a hillock in the west of Kachi Pul and Qubo Saeed Khan is also attributed to Mian Ghulam shah Kalhoro. Capture of the fort by the Amirs of Sindh in 1783 AD. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur, captured Kot Ghulam Shah in 1783 and used this fort for the protection of Chandookah District in Upper Sindh. He deployed soldiers of Talpur Army there. In south there was a moderate sized village Dost Ali. It was a place where Kaffillahs or Caravans assembled to cross the desert going to the northward. It was held by Naitch Tribe whose chief was Qadir Bux Naitch during 1770-1815 AD. The Chandio Tribe was commanded by Wali Muhammad Chandio who could lead an army of 10,000. Gadahee numbering 700 inhabited the country around Ghaibidero. 3000 Abra Soldiers under Ghualm Hyder Abro and Ali Mardan Abro were in the service of Talpur Rulers of Sindh. The Khokhars of Bahram occupied Bahram a moderate sized village with a good mud fort in the south west of Shahdadkot. Its inhabitants are reported as lawless and predatory . In 1839 AD they were engaged in plundering the Bengal Army when it was crossing from Larkana Dost Ali Bahram and Jhall Magsi towards Afghanistan. Magsis were stationed at Kot Ghulam Shah near Kamber under the Talpur Amirs of Sindh.
Arrival of Afghan King Shah Shuja around Kamber & Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro tomb in 1821 Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur ruled from 1783 to 1802. Afterwards Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur became ruler of Sindh and died in 1813. During the days of Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpur Ranjit Singh attacked Sindh. Munshi Atta Muhammad Shikarpuri ( 1785-1855) writes in his book entitled “ Tareekh-e-Taza Nawai Maarik” (Persian) that , “ In 1821 Afghan King Shah Shuja came to Larkana for settling political issues with the Talpur Rulers of Sindh. Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpur, Mir Murad Ali Khan Talpur, Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, Mir Rustam Khan Talpur and others rushed towards Larkana and thence proceeded to the Tomb of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro in Taluka Kamber. Nawab Wali Muhammad Khan Leghari, the Mukhtiarkar of Larkana District, Syed Kazim Shah and Diwan Khushi Ram were assigned to receive the exiled king of Afghanistan. Both of the parties stayed there for many days for negotiations”. (Tareekh-e-Taza Nawai Maarik: Compiled by Munshi Atta Muhammad Shikarpuri, Published by Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro 2005, Pages 54, 55, & 58). The historic tomb of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro is only 8 Kilometers away from Kot Ghulam Shah. According to Munshi Atta Muhammad Shikarpuri the Amirs of Sindh had founded new Military posts on all roads to kill those who left Sardar Muhammad Azeem and wanted to join Shah Shuja forces. In this way many of the Afghan chiefs were killed by the Sindhian Army in North Sindh. After staying some days Shah Shuja was forced by the Amirs of Sindh to leave Larkana and cross Indus River to seek English Support from Ludhiana India. The Mirs left for Hyderabad and Khairpur. After a few days Sardar Muhammad Azeem Khan captured Shikarpur and collected tax from Sindh Amirs. Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpur died in 1829. Mir Murad Ali Talpur became new ruler of Sindh. He ruled from 1828 from 1833. After Mir Murad Ali Khan Talpur his eldest son Mir Noor Muhammad Talpur was selected as new ruler of Sindh. It was the same time when Nawab Wali Muhammad Khan Leghari passed away. Nawab Bahadur Khan Khokhar was appointed on his designation in the companionship of Samander Khan Barakzai. A fierce battle took place between Shah Shuja and Amirs of Sindh at Sukkur in 1833. After this defeat the Amirs of Hyderabad once again reached Larkana and proceeded to Madeji for talks with Afghan king. On the requests of Pir Nizamuddin Sarhindi and Pir Ghulam Muhiudin Sarhindi the Afghan King accepted ceasefire proposal and demanded for 5 Lakh Rupees along with 500 camels from Amirs of Sindh. He took Nawab Bahadur Khokhar and his 100 Sindhi Soldiers with him. Mir Mehrab Khan Brohi gave him a warm welcome up till Shaal or Quetta. Shah Shuja went to conquer Kandhar with 80,000 army but could not get any success. Finally he was badly defeated and took retuned back to Kalat for refuge. After a short stay he moved towards Gandava and thence came to Larkana. A terror shook the Amirs of Sindh who sent orders to Syed Ismail Shah for motivating Afghan king to visit Hyderabad, the capital of Amis of Sindh. During this journey Shah Shuja visited the shrine of Qalander Lal Shahbaz at Sehwan. At last he reached Hyderabad where Amirs of Sindh served him the best and gave him cash, elephant and royal tents and suggested him to travel through Jaisalmir and Ludhiana. A treaty was signed in 1834 between English, Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh at Lahore. In 1835-36, Lieutenant Robert Leech and Alexander Burnes were sent on secret missions to Sindh and Afghanistan. Mir Wali Dad Magsi : Jagirdar of Kot Ghulam Shah-1837 AD. “MANGASEES 50: The Mangasees, with their chief Ahmed Khan, are under the Brahm, there are not more than 50 with Noor Mahomed under a leader Wala Dad, he has a Jahgire called Kotla near Ghybeer Dera.” Report on the Sindhian, Khelat, and Daoodputra Armies with a collection of Routes By Lieutenant Robert Leech Bombay Engineers Reports and Papers Political, Geographical & Commercial Submitted to Government By Sir Alexander Burnes, Lieutenant Robert Leech, Doctor Lord & lieutenant Wood, Employed on missions in the years 1835, 1836 and 1837 in Scinde, Afghanistan and Adjacent Countries, Calcutta 1839, Page 74).
From the above Abstract of Lieutenant Robert Leech (1837) it comes into light that Mir Noor Muhammad Talpur (1833-1841) had deployed 50 soldiers in Kot Ghulam Shah under Mir Wali Dad Magsi who was a close relative of Ahmed Khan Magsi , the chief of Jhall Magsi. For this service he was bestowed a Jagir in Kot Ghulam Shah. His duty was to protect northern borders and trade routes of Chandookah/ Larkana District from Afghan invaders and to control inner issues of the district. It seems that all 50 soldiers deployed at the fort of Kot Ghulam Shah under Mir Wali Dad Magsi were Balochis. Nothing is known about these soldiers and their weapons. The lands of Mir Wali Dad Magsi were watered by Magsi Wah, which was excavated from Koor Dato. In the year 1838, Lieutenant Robert Leech was detached to Kalat to make arrangement regarding supplies, for the Army about to proceed to Afghanistan. Afghan King Shah Shuja ascended the throne at Kandhar on 25th April 1839. In the same year, General Wilshire captured Kalat and killed Mir Mehrab Khan Brohi on 13th November 1839. A fierce battle between Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur and Mir Rustam Khan Talpur was fought at village Noonari near Khairpur in 1840. Around 700 soldiers were killed from Mir Rustam Khan Talpur while only 12 soldiers lost their lives from Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur. In 1840, Sir John Keane drew supplies for his army from Shahdadkot which was engaged in first Anglo Afghan War. In the same year in 1840 the District of Nalah Datah was sold in contract for one season to Futteh Chand for Rs. 10,000, and he expended Rs. 7000 on cleaning the canal. Nalah Datah is also known as Koor Dato, dug by Mian Dato Khuhawar, a minister of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. Mir Noor Muhammad Khan Talpur died in 1841 at Hyderabad. Afghan King Shah Shuja was killed by Shujaudaula in 1842 at Kabul. He was buried with his father. In 1842, just before the conquest of Sindh Mir Shahdad Khan Talpur sent an order for 10,000 Rs. To be expended on the clearance of Shah Ji Koor or the Shah Canal in Kamber, Shahdadkot & Miro Khan Areas, but this was not carried out.
The Grave of Mir Wali Dad Magsi
The Magsi Family after the Conquest of Sindh-1843 AD. After defeating the Amirs of Sindh in the battle of Miani in 1843, the British occupied the fort. The Magsi tribe was also one of the most prominent tribes of Larkana District. They were closely associated with the Chandios of Ghaibidero. After the conquest the then chief, Wali Muhammad Chandio , rendered Sir Charles Napier considerable help in his campaign against the Bugtis. Very shortly after the annexation of Sindh by the British Mir Wali Dad Magsi died around 1843-44. He was buried in the middle of the fort of Kot Ghulam Shah. A huge grave was constructed over his body. The shape of his grave resembles with Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro’s grave located at Hyderabad. The size of bricks used in this massive grave is 10’X7’X 1 ½ ‘. The length of grave is 9 ½’ and its width is 6 ½’ while its height is 8 ½ ‘. It has 3 panels from eastern and western sides. He was head of the Hasrani division one of the Magsi tribe. In 1844 Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur crossed from Shahdadkot and went to Jhall Magsi and Kachhi , Phoolji, Utch and Shahpur to seek support to kick out the British from Sindh but unfortunately he couldn’t succeed in his aims. Balochis plundered Kamber town and set it on fire. In 1845 Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur, the last ruler of Sindh died in exile. On 13th January 1845 General John Jacob fought with the party of robbers and asked Wali Muhammad Chandio of Ghiabidero and Ahmed Khan Magsi of Jhall to attack on Phoolji in Kachhi Area. Wali Muhammad Chandio died in 1849 at Ghaibidero. The Book “Tables of Heights in Sind, the Punjab, NW Provinces, and Central India”, Determined by the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1863 also mentions Kot Ghulam Shah. Mir Wali Dad Magsi left behind 4 sons 1) Mir Ganhwar Ali Khan 2) Muhammad Ali Khan 3) Chakar Ali Khan and 4) Ghulam Hyder Khan. Mir Muhammad Ali Khan Magsi married from his relatives. He left a son Mir Aashiq Ali Khan Magsi. This Mir was married in young age and was bestowed with three sons; 1) Mir Ghulam Ali Khan 2) Dost Ali Khan and 3) Lutuf Ali Khan. Mir Dost Ali Khan Magsi became very powerful and influential landlord in the district. He might have been born in 1870 and died before 1940s. He took interest in political activities of Sindh. He had a son called Mir Ameer Ali Khan.
Mir Bakhshal Khan Magsi was his illustrious son who was born in village Kot Ghulam Shah in 1920 and died recently in 2010. He took active part in Khaksar Movement. He also met with Field Marshal Muhammad Ayoob Khan , the President of Pakistan when he was on his visit to Larkana and Kamber in 1960s. He married three wives from Magsi, Khaskheli and Sangah tribes. He left behind 6 sons 1) Mir Haji Munawar Ali Khan Magsi 2) Mir Imdad Hussain Khan Magsi 3) Mir Abdul Aziz Khan Magsi 4) Mir Fida Hussain Khan Magsi 5) Mir Abdul Rasheed Khan Magsi and 6) Mir Ayaz Khan . This Magsi family has old Swords, Armors and Spears of Talpur Period which are said to still preserved by the family elders. The British Government Records & Kot Ghulam Shah… The earliest reference of Kot Ghulam Shah is found in the Sindh Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh compiled by A.W.Hughes (London: George Bell & Sons, 1874). Under the description of Larkana District A.W. Hughes gives details of Fisheries in this district, from which in 1873-74 the government derived a revenue exceeding 7000 Rupees. He mentions the names of fishery of Kot Ghulam Shah and Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar in Kambar Taluka from which the government received 16 Rupees annually. Other important fisheries in nearby area are shown as Chila, Koor Dato, Koor Shahji, Dhori Drib Chandia, Dhori Pir Bakhsh, Raunti, Chhajra, Ali Khan, Buthi, Mahmu , Miro Khan and Kamber. (Page 474-475). Another important reference source of this is Shikarpur Census: General Statement of Area and Population of Shikarpur Collectorate Abstract in The Sind Official Gazette published by the Authority Karachi Saturday 27th May 1876. Shikarpur Collectorate was consisted on these Talukas; 1) Shikarpur 2) Sukkur 3) Naushehro 4) Rohri 5) Syedpur 6) Ghotki 7) Mirpur 8) Ubauro 9) Larkana 10) Kamber 11) Ratodero 12) Sijawal 13) Labdaria 14) Mehar 15) Tigar 16) Kakar 17) Nasirabad. The area of Collectorate was 8,809 Sq Miles. The number of villages, Mouzahs or Townships was 5236. There were 1, 44,085 Households in it while its total population was 7, 76, 227. This information is collected by W.Foxton, the Acting Commissioner of Shikarpur. On the other hand the Kamber Taluka had following Tappas; 1) Kamber 2) Muha 3) Keso 4) Karira 5) Dost Ali 6) Seer Karira 7) Puhwaro and 8) Booti. The Deh Kamber of Tappa Kamber had a total population of 3, 518 while whole of the Taluka Kamber had 73,329 populations. A that time Under Tappa Booti (Buthi ) of Kamber Taluka following Dehs are mentioned with their population figures; NAME OF DEH 1) Shambho Dinno 2) Dari Rowti 3) Dhori Taj Mahomed 4) Bhuti 5) Hoolia 6) Kurio Jam 7) Kote Ghulam Shah 8) Buhram 9) Rawti 10) Hasoola 11) Mubarick 12) Miano POPULATION 86 17 22 1,289 469 226 169 103 773 738 574 926
Kot Ghualm Shah after the creation of Pakistan 1947 Village Kot Ghulam Shah is situated at 7 Kilometers in the north of Kamber City in Deh Hulia Union Council Raunti Taluka Kamber District Kamber Shahdadkot Sindh Pakistan. It is one of the main and historical villages on Kamber Miro Khan Road. It has round about 250 HHs with 5000 population. The neighboring villages are Chandia, Dadu Hulio, Ali Bux Panhwar, Golo Sangah, Hasula, Raunti, Mena, Esaw Kalhoro and Wadha. The major tribes and castes of this village are Magsi, Sheikh, Khaskheli, Kalhora, Lashari, Manganhar, Khokhar, Bhatti, Channa, Burira, Sangah, Roongha, Tunia, Mangi, Soomra and Ode. The resident’s linkages are with Jhall
Magsi, Dhadhar, Hyderabad and Larkana. The Jiskani tribe has migrated from the village long ago. These were also known as Mula Family. The village has been endangered by the Indus River and Khirthar Range Flash floods since past. Mir Bakhshal Khan Magsi constructed a Bund to protect village Kot Ghulam Shah near Hasula village in the west during 1942. Its ruins are still visible in agricultural lands about a kilometer from the village. This bund is named after this powerful chief of Magsi tribe. The Government Boys Primary School Kot Ghulam Shah was founded in 1935. Its Semis Code is 128231. GBLSS (Semis Code 128247) was established in 1990. While GGPS (Semis Code 128340) was also founded in the same year. There were many Hindu houses and shops here. Such shops and their residences were visible up till 1955. During 1965 Indo Pakistan War it was well guarded by the villagers. In 1971 the village was provided Electricity facility. The residents of Kot Ghulam Shah left their houses due to the fear of Bolan Flood in 1976 but soon returned back as the danger was over. According to Dr. Barkat Ali Makol, Medical Officer the BHU Kot Ghulam Shah started working since 1987. Presently its total male and female staff is 13. Sartaj Ahmed Khaskheli, Dispenser and Ashfaque Ahmed Magsi are serving the suffering people with their counseling and treatments. In 1988, the Government Boys Middle school was founded to educate secondary education to village children. Structure of Kot Ghulam Shah Kot Ghulam Shah is the only surviving mud fort in District Kamber Shahdadkot, Sindh. Since 1990s it has been given importance as a historical monument and researches have been conducted to highlight this fort. Research Syed Hakim Ali Shah Bukhari (1993), Imam Rashidi (2005) and Din Muhammad Kalhoro (2006) has visited this historical fort of Kalhora Period and collected information from the local people. Imam Rashidi wrote an article on Kot Ghulam Shah which was published in Quarterly Mehran Hyderabad in 2005. It is told by the villagers that DC Larkana came to visit this fort with some foreigners and his staff in 1998-99. Location & Area It is located on a high sandy mound, about 7 Kilometers in the North West of Kamber, in Kamber Shahdadkot District, Sindh Province, Pakistan. It is approximately 30 km west by north of Larkana, in vicinity of 27.39’18 65N, 68.01 46.91’E. Its elevation is 158 ft from Arabian sea level. Its total area is 132.588 meters or 47000 square feet. Its length is 235 feet from north to south and it is 200 feet wide from east to west. Its structure resembles with fort of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro’s tomb located at Hyderabad. The length of this fort is 252 feet with 233 feet width. Its height is 25 feet. Kot Ghulam Shah is the only visible fort in Kamber Shahdadkot area. It was constructed to withstand firearms. Construction As one enters the fort, one can find old trees, graves, wells, building structures, bastions, watchtowers, shrines ammunition depots, all inside Kot Ghualm Shah, adding more to its beauty and mystery. According to a tale told by the local inhabitants, when the Kot Ghualm Shah was built its western wall came over a grave which was not visible through human eyes. One night the chief mason saw a dream in which the diseased occupant of the grave told him to keep his grave inside or outside the fort. After this it was decided to put the grave inside the structure. This grave belongs to Syed Gulab Shah who is said to be a saint. Dimensions The walls of Kot Ghualm Shah are average 15 feet high and are made of mud, straw, cow dung, dry grass and bricks. Wooden plunks and ropes were also used to construct such high walls. Other construction material used in the construction work was spades, bowls, wheel barrows, and baskets. Donkeys, Horses and Bullocks. While originally constructed for bow and arrow warfare it was later expanded to withstand firearms. Its walls are reinforced with 4 bastions, all are round in shape. All modified through the ages to accommodate the use of gunpowder, this perhaps makes it the most important fort in the district.
Walls The walls of Kot Ghulam Shah have been crumbled away from the affects of Rainfall, earthquakes and air. Presently the highest parts of the walls bear a height of 15 feet in eastern side. Whole of the building is construed on the sand dune. They are 5 feet in width at some places. The walls were built by using the earth excavated while digging the ditch, with three-quarters of it used for building a rampart and one-quarter for leveling out the surface inside the fortress. This ditch is locally known as Kumb which is said to be 7 feet deep and spread on 2 Acres of land. One a horseman drowned in it with his horse. Nothing was recovered. This Kumb is famous for its fish. Different kinds of Birds have made nests in the walls of the fort. Once the fort existed in the wild forest with sandy mounds its why Wolf, Jackal, Fox and other wild animals were very common. Towers The mud fort building of Kot Ghulam Shah has 4 towers. These towers are semicircular and pointed at the top. Nearly half of the tower structures are razed due to human and rainfall seasons. A road leads to village Hasula at the northern side of the towers. The farmers start agricultural activities beside these towers as they are near to main road. Thick Babool and Kandi trees are grown at the towers. The south western tower is in good condition in case of others. It is believed that Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro had mounted Cannons on the towers of this royal fort but no such remains can be found now. Gate There is only one gate in Kot Ghulam Shah which is located in the eastern side. Once a Mosque used to be there. A cemented road leads into the middle of the fort building. Since the death of Mir Wali Dad Magsi in 1843-44 this fort has been used to bury the dead and it has taken the shape of a graveyard. The graves of Mir Bakhshal Khan Magsi, Mir Ayaz Khan Magsi and Begum Sahiba are located beside the gate under old shady trees. One a gate constructed with burnt bricks stood here. Barracks The remains of 3 Barracks or Landhis can be seen inside the fort on northern side. The Barracks were inhabited by Mir’s soldiers as a residential quarter. They also used to keep their weapons including swords and guns here. The Talpur Amirs of Sindh paid special attention to Kot Ghulam Shah during First Anglo Afghan War-1839-40. It was excellent station for troops after the fort of Larkana. A band of dacoits made this fort as their abode during 1970s under Allah Dino Kalhoro and his friends Mir Chandio, Wazir Chandio, and Duro Chandio. It made angry to Mir Bakhshal Khan Magsi who forced this band to leave the fort after some time. Stables There was a Stable in which soldiers tied their horses. These horses were always ready to face any emergency in the area. It seems that these soldiers also collected taxes from Trade caravans crossing from Kamber to Garhi Khero and thence to Afghanistan. Well Remains of a Well are also found inside of the fort near the shrine of Syed Gulab Shah. Now a Hand pump has been installed at this spot. Mosque Beside the gate, there are remains of an old Mosque which was constructed with mud. It guarded the whole structure. The mosque is disappeared from the face of the earth. Its size is said to be 15X15. Local people tell that the width of Mosque Walls was 3 feet. Presently some wild bushes have grown on the site. This mosque was seen last time in 1990s. It was a mud building and was constructed in front of the fort to guard it. Another three domed beautiful mosque is located in the west in village Sultan Hasula. According to PhD. Scholar and Anthropologist Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro this village was founded by Sultan Khan Hasula in 1775 AD during the days of Mian Sarfaraz Khan Kalhoro.
Historical Graves The Grave of Mir Wali Dad Magsi is the most important and unique grave in Kot Ghulam Shah. It stands in the middle of the fort building. A huge grave was constructed over his body. The shape of his grave resembles with Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro Grave located at Hyderabad. The size of bricks used in this massive grave is 10’X7’X 1 ½ ‘. The length of grave is 9 ½’ and its width is 6 ½’ while its height is 8 ½ ‘. It has 3 panels from eastern and western sides. While 2 panels can be seen from northern and southern side. In the south of this structure lie graves of Magsi family of this village. Some other historical graves belong to Waris Magsi and Kechi Magsi (1352 A.H/1933 AD). Both of the graves have epitaphs in green tiles. Shrine of Syed Gulab Shah The most important shrine belongs to Syed Gulab Shah. No one knows about this saint but a village called Syed Gulab Shah is located in the north of Shahdadkot on Shahdadkot Garhi Khero Road. Captain Powell (1839) Edward Thornton (1844) and Richard Francis Burton (1851) give description of Syed Gulab Shah Village near Shahdadkot. Mir Ali Sher Qani has mentioned the Takiya of Gulab Shah in the description of Zia, a great Persian Poet of Sindh in his book Maqalt-ul-Shuera Published by Sindhi Adabi Board, Karachi, 1957, on page No. 370. Qani has also mentioned Mir Gulab Shah, descendent of Ameen-ul-Mulk Nawab Mir Muhammad Masoom Bakhari in his Persian Book Tuhfat-ul Kiram, Published by Sindhi Adabi Board Hyderabad 1989 on page No 329. Mir Gulab Shah belonged to Sukkur and he had a brother called Mir Karam Shah. Both of them lived during the rule of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. The shrine of Syed Gulab Shah is located in the north western corner of the fort and is encircled by hundreds of pigeons. Shrine of Syed Jeandal Shah A shrine stands outside the mud fort of Kot Ghulam Shah on northern edge along the road. A mud tomb is constructed on its grave. It is surrounded by a large number of other graves and old trees. The history of Syed Jeandal Shah is also faded. Nothing is told about him but there is description of a person called Syed Jeandal Shah in the History of Sindh. He was a minister of Talpur Amirs of Sindh and was sent to receive Alexander Burnes from Hyderabad to the mouth of Indus River near Thatta in 1830-31. Shrine of Watayo Faqir Another important grave belongs to Watayo Faqir, a saint. This grave lies outside the mud fort building bear western Wall. Villagers come here to pay homage to this saint in great number. No tomb is erected on this saint. The grave is decorated with colorful fabrics and is surrounded by old trees and bushes. The Sheikh Community of this village gives special homage to this saint. The graves of Wadeo Foto Khan Sheikh, is also situated near this saint. He was headman of Sheikh Community. Watayo Faqir is a legendary character of Sindh. The ancestors of Watayo were Hindu Khati who were later converted into Islam.On his birth,he was named "Watan Mal" and "Shaikh Tahir" when converted.But he retained his original name and is known by it.Many sources give the birthplace of Watayo as Tajpur Village near Nasarpur. He did not rest at one place and wandered where his heart would lead.His Last resting place is said to be in Tando Allahyar . Watayo Faqir was born in 1768 and died at the age of 62 in 1830. His disciple Qazi Mula Muhammad Jahangiri was tutor of Noor Jehan Begum. Later on he was killed by Muhabat Khan and was buried at Thatta. Watayo Faqir had offered funeral prayers of Makhdoom Hamza Waiz at Thatta, Sindh. State of Kot Ghulam Shah today
Currently, the Magsi Tribe occupies the mud fort of Kot Ghulam Shah. It is used as a graveyard by the villagers these days. Today, the condition of this Royal Kalhora Fort of 1760 AD is decaying for carelessness. Its walls and towers are disappearing day by day. Sindh government should pay attention and release funds to preserve the fort and enlist it into a national tourist site. The Archeology and Culture Departments can also play their effective role in the restoration of this historic monument of District Kamber Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan. At the same time English, Dutch, French, Iranian, Indian and Pakistani Researchers are humbly requested to conduct scientific studies on the mud fort of Kot Ghualm Shah constructed by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in 1760 AD. Similarly local historians are invited to explore, collect data and examine the site for future studies. At the same time, Archeologists, Forensic Scientists, Anthropologists, Historian, Tour Guides and Volunteers should play their role in this regards.
References 1. A Geographical, Statistical and Historical Description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, By Walter Hamilton, Vol: I, London 1820 AD. Page 571. 2. The London Encyclopedia: Vol XX, London 1829, Sinde, Page 400) 3. Reports and Papers Political, Geographical & Commercial Submitted to Government By Sir Alexander Burnes, Lieutenant Robert Leech, Doctor Lord & lieutenant Wood, Employed on missions in the years 1835, 1836 and 1837 in Scinde, Afghanistan and Adjacent Countries, Calcutta 1839, Page 74). 4. The Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol: I. July 1841 to July 1844 A.D, Bombay: American Mission Press 1844 A.D. 5. Lieutenant Hugh James’s Report on the Purgannah of Chandookah: December 1847, in Bombay Government Selections, No.XVII, New Series, Part II, PP.709-74). 6. Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: compiled by A.W. Hughes (London: George Bell & Sons, 1874). 7. The Sind Official Gazette published by the Authority Karachi Saturday 27th May 1876. 8. Tuhfat-ul-Karam: Mir Ali Sher Qani Thattvi, Published by Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro/ Hyderabad Sindh, 1989, Pages 278 & 279. 9. Tareekh-e-Taza Nawai Maarik: Compiled by Munshi Atta Muhammad Shikarpuri, Published by Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro, Sindh 2005, Pages 54, 55, & 58.
Mir Bakhshal Khan Magsi shaking hands with President of Pakistan Field Marshal Muhammad Ayoob Khan
GLIMPSES OF KOT GHULAM SHAH
Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro (1722-1772 AD), the Ruler of Sindh.
Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi