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Practical 2: Transverse section of senna leaf, liquorice root, squill bulb and ginseng and characteristic of liquorice powder.

Aim: a) To observe the transverse section of senna leaf regarding to its upper epidermis, mesophyll and midrib region. b) To observe the transverse section of liquorice root regarding to its periderm, secondary phloem and xylem, and pith. Other characteristics of liquorice powder like fibers, xylem vessels, calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains and cork are also being observed. c) To observe the transverse section of squill bulb regarding to its upper epidermis and mesophyll. d) To observe the transverse sections of ginseng regarding to its cork, clefts, resin canal, phloem, cambium, xylem and clusters of calcium oxalate.

Apparatus and materials: Watch glass, knife, microscope, microscope glass, brush, senna leaf, potatoes, liquorice root, liquorice powder, squill bulb, ginseng, distilled water, phloroglucinol solution, conc. HCl, ruthenium red solution, Sudan red-III solution, iodine solution, dilute sulphuric acid and glycerine.

Procedures: *Glycerine was added to each microscopic glass to provide a clearer observation under a microscope. Experiment 2a 1. A piece of senna leaf was placed in the middle of the potato block as a support to ease the cutting procedure. 2. The thin section of senna leaf was cut and transferred to the microscopic glass with a brush. 3. One drop of phloroglucinol, one drop of concentrated HCl and a drop of glycerine were added to the thin layer. 4. It was placed under a microscope and observed. All the results were recorded.

5. Step 2 & 3 were repeated twice by using ruthenium red solution as first and Sudan red-III solution for the later.

Experiment 2b 1. Liquorice root was cut into small thin sections. 2. A thin section of liquorice root was transferred to the microscopic glass with a brush. 3. One drop of phloroglucinol, one drop of concentrated HCl and a drop of glycerine were added to the thin layer. 4. It was placed under a microscope and observed. All the results were recorded. 5. Step 2 & 3 were repeated twice using iodine solution as first and sulphuric acid as the next. 6. Liquorice powder was taken and mixed with one drop of phloroglucinol and one drop of concentrated HCl. 7. It was placed on the microscopic glass with glycerine on it and observed under the microscope. 8. The observation and result were recorded.

Experiment 2(c) 1. Squill bulb was cut into small thin sections. 2. A thin section of squill bulb was transferred to the microscopic glass with a brush 3. One drop of phloroglucinol, one drop of concentrated HCl and a drop of glycerine were added to the thin layer. 4. It was placed under a microscope and observed. All the results were recorded.

Experiment 2(d) 1. Ginseng was cut into small thin sections. 2. A thin section of ginseng was transferred to the microscopic glass with a brush 3. One drop of phloroglucinol, one drop of concentrated HCl and a drop of glycerine were added to the thin layer. 4. It was placed under a microscope and observed. All the results were recorded.

Observations: (2a) Transverse section of senna leaf No 1. Reagents To the thin section add one drop of Phloroglucinol and one drop of conc.Hcl Observation under microscope characteristics Lignified tissues: xylem (vascular bundle). Sclerenchyma (pericycle). Pink colour

2.

To the thin section add one drop of ruthenium red solution

Mucilagenous cells of epidermis

3.

To the thin section add Sudan red-III solution.

Cutin/cuticle.

(2b) Transverse section of liquorice root

No

Reagents

Observation under microscope

Characteristics

1 drop of phloroglucinol & 1 drop of conc. HCl

Lignified xylem parenchyma, fibers, vessels, phloem fibers. Pink colour

1 drop of iodine solution

Starch grains. Blue colour

Dilute sulphuric acid solution

Calcium oxalate crystals. Soluble, neeedles of calcium sulphate on standing

Liquorice powder 4 1 drop of phloroglucinol & 1 drop of conc. HCl Fibers, xylem vessels, calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, cork.

(2c) Transverse section of squill bulb No 1 Reagents 1 drop of phloroglucinol & 1 drop of conc. HCl Observation under microscope Characteristics Upper epidermis and mesophyll.

(2d) Transverse section of ginseng No 1 Reagents 1 drop of phloroglucinol & 1 drop of conc. HCl Observation under microscope Characteristics Cork, clefts, resin canal, phloem, cambium, xylem, clusters of calcium oxalate.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, for senna leaf, the microscopic characteristics were observed under the microscope as followed:Test 1: Lignified tissues such as xylem and sclerenchyma were observed as pink colour. Test 2: Mucilagenous cells of epidermis Test 3: cutin or cuticle layer in pink colour For liquorice root and powder, the following microscopic characteristics were observed:Test 1: lignified xylem, parenchyma, fibers, vessels and phloem fibers in pink colour Test 2: Starch grain which is blue in colour. Test 3: Calcium oxalate crystals and needles of calcium sulphate on standing Test 4: Xylem, fibers, vessels, oxalate crystals, starch grains and cork For squill bulb, the following characteristics were observed under the microscope:Test 1: upper epidermis and mesophyll layers For ginseng, the following characteristics were observed under the microscope:Test 1: cork, clefts, resin canal, phloem, xylem, cambium and cluster of calcium oxalate