\ .DS 47') .1 £3/43 \The ri:^}ii of Translation is reserved.





these were.PREFACE. be fully carried out.11 and manuscripts likely to serve my purpose. from memory. my overland journey to India in 1837. should I from the service. by the rebels. . With 5 this view I kept notes of all interesting events all original they occurred. I idian civilian's cherished the desire. as leisure admitted. with the at cception of f some rough notes which were home. in con- ^quence. in 1857. ROM my ^er retire ly first entrance on the active duties of an life. I have been induced to raw up since then. to compile a narrative of own time. totally destroyed with the . of however.st my property. Although my original intention could not. and carefully preserved itters .

The account of my ventures during the Rebellion. in the form of a pamphlet for privkte circulation . The chapter containing facts and reflections on the Indian Rebellion wa's printed in 1859.viii Preface. and as fresh edition of the work was called for. and now submit for publication. is embodied in the present work. . me in Craigton Cottage^ August 13. which was previously published. with the a. view of making the narration continuous. in the . as my subsequent experience of seven years in India has tended to confirm the views and opinions therein expressed. 1866. a narrative of it my past Indian career. hope that the relation may ad- prove of some interest tive though necessarily of a defec- and cursory character. and I now embody it in this work.

—VOYAGE TO I left ALEXANDRIA —ARRIVAL On the 3rd May. vessel sailed. who me to attempt the journey overland. where I joined Captain. before that the Reliance Indiaman. however. I Some happened be dining with the then Chair- man urged to of the Court of Directors. a matter which was then attracting the (j?6 I . I. MacQueen. through Egypt Bombay. Cape and my to passage had been secured in days. and test its practicability as a route for mails and passengers. of the I 3rd Regiment Madras Cavalry.REMINISCENCES Of A BENGAL CIVILIAN CHAPTER DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND AT SUEZ. My original had arranged intention on leaving Haileybury had been to proceed round the in the usual way. Sir James Camac. 1837. now General. London for Falmouth. with to travel whom overland to India.

from England. This was Reliance an easy matter. in complete accordance with morning I mentioned the subject to The Chairman's proposal was my own wishes. all of whom stipulating that I should some one who would take and my cabin furniture off . On the morning of the 14th we left for Malta. and at Falmouth by the forenoon of the 4th May. to land mails. we were able to visit. We had a pleasant run across the bay to Cadiz. having letters of introduction to the then Gibraltar. Sir Alexander Woodford. brought by the Fire Fly. which place on the 22nd. during our stay. for our mail of the recommended taking charge Campbell India.2 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. for letters. Colonel Campbell. We had only time to make a hasty visit on shore when we embarked on board his Majesty's warsteamer Fire Fly for Alexandria. the whole of the fortifications. whom we had facilitate and requested his good offices to Colonel our journey through Egypt to Suez. which we reached on Monday the until the evening. Governor. and next approved of find my undertaking— only my family. We remained and its and thus had ample time to visit the city magnificent cathedral. we were allowed to proceed at once Being and on shore. my passage in the my hands. we reached On landing we waited on the Consul-General. loth. At noon on the 5 th we embarked on board the steamer of war Volcano^ in which we had secured a passage as far as Malta. after a calm and pleasant voyage. and then steamed off for which we reached by daybreak of the nth. reaching that island on the 17 th. attention of the Government. started on and I found myself actually and soon arranged my journey. which had been forwarded .

laden with iron for the Canal Works. then arranged that we should start the following evening by boat on the canal Cairo. andria was at this time a very miserable-looking place. acceded to the Colonel's proposal. enough to secure to Bombay. an inhabitant of there. and very different from what it now is. To our surprise no mail was on board. we proceeded on board our canal. and were much encouraged by his assurance that we should find waiting at Suez It was a Company's ship of war to convey us to Bombay. In the evening. in the hopes that it We gladly would be transmitted rapidly to Bombay. it was useless urging any objections. We were shown one excavation pillars site in particular. and there was but one hotel —a Few Europeans visited very indifferent one. which is now the chief beauty of Alexandria. which were then being excavated. and it we were informed that had been sent on by dromedary I — 2 . it. kept by a Scotchwoman. who wished to return and could speak proved invaluable after English. and started for the head of the We found the boat disappointment heavily extremely filthy. However. He us in our subsequent journey. 3 by this route chiefly as an experiment. where many enormous was supposed to be the were strewn about. fortunate Through her means we were a servant.Voyage up the Canal to Atfk. and the ruins of old Alexandria. and the stones removed for the formation of the new square. for Atffe. Pompey's Pillar. boat. which Alex- of the famous library. Arabic. and Hindustani. and thence on by the Nile to We spent the 23rd in visiting Cleopatra's Needle. dining with the consul. and to our great and we were told to consider ourselves fortunate in being able to leave Alexandria with so little delay.

miserable time in this boat there was mosquitoes and all kinds of vermin with which the boat was infested. informed us that sinking them was a necessary process in all cases before boats could be used.4 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. We pasised a no wind. The boat was soon pronounced wind at eight o'clock. and very soon placed a boat at our disposal. &c. . village. and anchored for the night about nine p. We were worn out by want of sleep Nevertheless. infested. rats. where we should overtake : it. and our was of means by towing. showed us great kindness. here a fine broad stream. time. which having been sunk for the two previous. and we after started with a fair and shortly reached a where the Pasha Mahomed Ali carried on a manufactory of the small red cloth skull-caps with blue silk tassels. post to Cairo. and to him we immediately proceeded. and us a passage on to Cairo. with the deepest on the Nile. The heat was progress only and we were devoured by great both night and day. We did not reach Atfe. and excessive heat. to beg his assistance in procuring He was a Frenchman. fortu- nately for us. and gazed for the interest. was now ready to be floated and made use of. until dawn on the 25 th. the head of the canal. having been two nights and a day in making the passage. Atfe. the stream.m. with which they were ready. was. in order to get rid of the vermin. He days. the residence of a vice-consul. a miserable collection of mud huts. which are universally worn by all ranks in We thence had a fine run of about sixty miles up Egypt. I well remember that I lost all sense of fatigue as I clambered up the bank from first the boat. scorpions.

M.Voyage tip the Nile to Cairo. Towards evening. I felt quite saw before me the Pyramids in the distance. Allah . shut us out from all view of the country on either side. would be angry if we shot any. at four A. some be forty or more feet high. silent gran- awestruck as I gazed upon them. and enjoyed a good night's rest. 5 We found the benefit of the boat having been sunk. There they were. which we were about to do. wind being very partial and veering The men never thought of aiding our progress by or The steepness and height of the banks. about. and.. rowing tracking. but made very slow way. The wind failed us for some hours. of their real story and object as I did then. the 25th May. for we were not annoyed by any vermin. small progress. and then became favourable we made. as they are supposed. but . getting up tired of this I monocould tony. and anchored about midnight. and the voyage was beginning to tedious. I do quite as fast as the boat sailed Just as I clambered to the top and looked up. as they deem these birds sacred. when gazed who knew as little . We started the next morning. as good Mahomedans. deur. in their solitary. I went ashore to walk along the bank. as it is pronounced by an Arab. which the stream. indeed. " Allah. by no means unlike this word. nouncing the their note is name when they call. started at We again dawn of Saturday the the 26th of May. however. Our servant Abbas told us that the boatmen. the wind being still literally favourable. and made good progress. to be pro" of God. We passed a small island in the stream blue with wild pigeons. just as mysterious and as perfect as upon by Herodotus so many ages before.

and camels the we were approaching some important place. might. a couple of donkeys.6 The that Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and the showing l^anks with foot-passengers. the larger who was employed pyramid . we were joined by Colonel Vyse. and at nine o'clock we city. settled as a merchant here. where we were made most comfortable consul then left for the night. to the house of the a Smyrniote. we were through narrow. with some difficulty. who received us very politely. us. donkeys. After dinner. at his own the Pasha Mahomed Ali having granted him permission. as to push on to Suez. but we could not afford the time. and as we feared the Government vessel reported at Suez. and endeavour to overtake the mail. of the anti- Life Guards. winding. which had been already forwarded to that place. Soon buildings of Cairo came in sight. a gentleman of large fortune and ardent quarian tastes. start without us. The promising to make arrangements for our further progress the next day to Suez. images. cost. in excavating. reached that ancient By led this time it was dark. river soon became crowded with boats. colonel had just returned from the Pyramids. chamber which contained eager that his He was we should accompany him back to the scene of interesting labours. on their arrival. and was in high spirits. nearly pitch dark. as he had that very morning discovered a several hieroglyphics. or valuable relics he The might discover in the course of his excavations. on condition of his handing over to his highness any coins. and took us to Hill's Hotel. . these. we wished So pressed were . streets. Mounting mysterious consul. a journey which was to be performed on camels. and we procured.

caused to lie down. 7 we for time that we could not halt of course could see very hurried visit to little of Cairo even for the Sunday. across the Nile. A on the desolate. our baggage was loaded and ourselves and servants mounted. in all stages of The " shadows of evening were being lengthened decay.m. which did not occur for more than two hours. and depression crept over me as I gazed hopeless scene.Departure for Suez. The scene was wild and impressive in the extreme. and merely paying a — the magnificent mosque of Abul Hussein. we started for the desert. and the scene of the destruction by Mahomed Jannissaries. and seven camels for After an enormous uproar and our baggage and servants. was being buried feeling of dread in on the edge of which we were standing. gloom and approaching darkness. uttered. of the 27th of May. extend- ing over the greater part of Cairo. . and we all dismounted to await their the return. We were halted in the middle of a number of tombs." and the desert. perhaps. AH of the The view from the spot is very grand. We had scarcely got beyond the Suez gate of the city when the head camel-driver suddenly discovered that his supply of grain was insufficient for the camels' provender until they reached Suez. out. far the Pyramids. and the words of the prophet Jeremiah occurred to my memory. unlimited application of the stick to the drivers by the Jannissary. After an hour's quarrelling it was deter- mined for that he should return to the city with the Jannissary The camels were accordingly necessary supply. and at four p. beyond On returning to the hotel we found a Jannissary waiting with two dromedaries for ourselves.

and the leader file. when we remounted. After half-an-hour's rest we thought remounted and pressed on until two a.m. A small ante- lope sprung up before us away into only signs same moment. coffee. we halted for some refreshment. which. for I joint in " my body. neither bemoan him. A tree was soon after pointed out in the distance as the half-way between Cairo and Suez. . was the most refreshing beverage I I had ever swallowed. At dawn we were met by a Pasha single man on a dromedary. when we again it made a similar halt. The fatigue was had only the wooden packsaddle of the with dromedary. nor see his native country.. my overcoat doubled under me. for no more. seemed me be directing way by the which were shining down with intense brilliancy upon us. to whom we his followed in single stars. There was no track or path that my to inexperienced eye could discover . We made a fire and prepared some although the water tasted of the skins in which was conveyed. and started in good earnest. of the party. great." was roused by the return of the Jannissary and the driver. and bounded and these were the the depths of the desert of life to be seen in the weary waste of sand at the — spreading on all sides of us. carrying the post from " Ibrahim Pasha's army in Nubia to the Mahomed Ali.8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. I and after travelling continually for four hours. to ride and the motion of the animal seemed to strain every on. with something of a similar prospect around him " : Weep sore ye not for for the dead. Nothing can be more imposing than the deep solitude and utter silence of the desert. unbroken by even the hum of an insect. but weep he shall return him that goeth away.

but riding separately. and on waking found myself wet through with dew. till after passing over some six or eight miles. routes. unharmed and thoroughly refreshed.m. the eye had and from its apparent size I it to with. compare nothing reckoned it could not be more than half a mile distant. As they in and " passed they gave us the usual salutation of Salaam alei" koom peace be with you and went on their way — — without further notice or questioning. Just as it dawned we were roused up to proceed on our journey. I slept for some hours. appeared of being solitary. I slept about three hours. a start. and still it seemed to recede. At midnight we halted at a spot where some caravans were collected for the night. some hours. weary and aching in every limb. indifferent to the apparently utterly then novel sight of European travellers passing rapidly along. But on and on we went. stiff and cold. of the 28th May we evening passed a company of Arabs with their camels crossing towards Arabia. 9 It for for.Journey Across under which we were to halt extraordinary dimensions . nevertheless. we fell in with a patrol of cavalry. We found it to be no more than a miserable thorn-tree. At the tvvo p. . we at last reached it. and awoke with the sun of noon blazing on my face and head. and most picturesque they appeared as they came along. tJie Desert. but what it did give was a real blessing this " weary land " . and we lay down under it on the sand and immediately fell sound asleep. but got up. in no regular order. again started. The other parties were also getting ready for and we were soon on our separate and respective After travelling for about two hours. affording but a in very scanty shade.

I strained my eyes in the vain hope masts and spars of the ship of war we at to find anchor. who had lived all . as to when and by what means we could proceed on our voyage down the sea. as the The aspect of the country level of the among them. ness to lose no time. We learnt that their duty was to prevent the pilgrim caravans returning from cholera was reported to be raging Mecca proceed- ing to Cairo until they had performed quarantine. expressing our eager- my first inquiry was. Just as me we gained the summit of a little rise. At noon of 29th May we reached tall Suez. On waking now that there was no Government vessel available. by name Kozzee Manouli. an Armenian. the water of which was so brackish it. alighted at the residence of the agent of the East India Company. extending as far as the eye could reach. I saw below Suez and the Red Sea stretching out into the distance. and and rugged instead of hills the dead desert. facing the breeze. one end of the room. civilly.lo Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. lofty were seen to our right. monotony of the as I the blue colour of the water being inexpressibly refreshing to the eye after the dreary desert. and was up. who received us most sea. and riding through a gateway. thirsty was. or in twos and threes. now changed. Kozzee Manouli. guarded by some of the Pasha's troops. that. I could swallow As we came of seeing the along. at our disposal. We not halted to let the camels drink at a well. and placed a long room. one of the most desolate places on the face of the earth . and swept by the refreshing sea I threw myself on the divan at instantly asleep. but nothing was to be seen but expected a few Arab vessels.

Colonel Campbell. and soon returned with the two days the vessel would be settled.A rrival his days at Suez. and rephed. which was about Hodeida. Manouli showed us the spot which tradition points out as that where the waters of the sea were divided. I immediately delivered to him a letter to his address from the Consul-General. and a to pass over. As we sat on the divan at a window looking out over the sea. at Suez. As our departure appeared was able thoroughly locality. to 1 1 seemed unable comprehend our eager- ness to quit the place. that probably by the end of July there would be a good opportunity for proceeding. On perusing it. and to that stupendous exhibition of Almighty power of which we were on the very scene. and said he would and arrange with the governor of the town for a passage for us on board a Buggala. Of course. the mind could not but revert to the far-distant past. I pleasing intelligence that in ready to start. we could be made comfortable where we we were dismayed at such a proposal. with stores in for the Pasha's left to be despatched to troops then serving the Hajaz. He us. the agent at once bestirred himself. way made for the ransomed . In such a of course. to enjoy the prospect before me. Until then were.

The walls grotesque pictures of the three wise others. the first point along the Arabian coast Suez where any provisions could be procured. ebony chair. At P. and he took us their worship. It was a small vessel of about forty tons burden. would sail during the night of the 30th May. high-backed. low.M. were hung with strange men of the east and side. CHAPTER II. richly-carved.12 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. projecting bow. — — — The agent Manouli was a member sort of the Greek Church. reverenced as saints. to visit the building in It was a of vault. there At one ancient. with a long. and reached the Buggala as the sun was setting. from the monastery where he as We received intimation that the Buggala. and that we should require to be on board by sunset. these vessels are termed. . we went off in a small skiff. visits Suez. was a very which is the seat of honour reserved for the patriarch of the church whenever he resides. VOYAGE ALONG COAST OF ARABIA TO MOCHA EMBARK ON BOARD "PALINURUS" ARRIVAL AT BOMBAY. which they held and only- lighted by candles. We had laid in a stock of rice and fowls to serve us until reaching after six Yembo. small.

for the troops serving The noise and confusion were indescribable till when we got on and fell board. and with only wild Arabs for our crewthe very scene. and crowded with the Pasha's soldiers. As I sat and gazed. and lying down . situation Our own I confess that my heart sunk a little within me at the prospect . stars and the pilot. which was occupied by the captain of the vessel. The night was quite and the cloudless sky. my eyes became heavy with sleep. and continued about nine p. as he still. Rais. and my mind reverted to the awful events of which we were probably on and prospects seemed rather precarious.m. We lost no time in trying to make space. as it was to be standing upright.Embark and a very high this on board Biiggala. &c. 13 stern. and heavily laden with supplies of grain. but then came the sustaining thought. I could not rest in the cabin. was equally able and willing to watch over us if we trusted in Him \ and that this of all places on the earth was not one where any doubt of the protecting mercy and guardian care of the Almighty should be entertained. The vessel was un- miserable little decked. rice. in the Hajaz. apparently exhausted. under which was a small confined cabin. which did not admit of our as comfortable as possible.. so got down up and sat on the high stem. reserved for us. embarked on so rude and apparently overloaded a vessel. I felt shone with intense brilliancy in the The scene was a most impressive one. that the same Almighty power which had been so marvellously exerted to defend and preserve his people in this very spot. our home for a fortnight at least. when. and I almost spell-bound as looked around. the crew and soldiers lay asleep. is called.

crew abandoned themselves to despair. and the ill-stowed cargo to shift and about with each plunge of the ship. roll but the soldiers in charge refused to permit us. for them to run the risk of foundering with the ship than throw any overboard. even if it saved ours and preserved the ship. saying that they would have to answer with their lives for any stores that niight be lost. which was exceedingly brilliant. The overloaded vessel began to roll and pitch heavily. It which. until the evening of the ist June. Our was instantly lowered. 31st May. close in by the Arabian coast.m. except when. therefore. when we anchored a small town called Tor. one after another. just as the crew were commencing with the most deafening noise to get slept soundly until up the anchor and set sail. the wild scene was lighted up for an instant by the lightning. entrance of the Gulf of Akaba and the We were lost sight of land. every now and then.14 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and dawn of Thursday. we progress sailed. and two small foresails set. quite dark. the only seemed to retain his nerve and to be able to do The Arab man who his duty was the old pilot. soon joined the slumberers around me. At dawn of the 2nd. were blown to pieces. a violent storm arose. as we were ran before the wind. We proposed to lighten the vessel by throwing overboard some of the cargo . and by his cool- . as that course would certainly cost them their lives. It was just dawn as we told. with a light breeze of the monsoon. I on the deck. and made considerable before crossing the steady monsoon breeze. large sail when about was ten p. who stuck to the helm. and it was better. left — blowing the commencement We off Suez.

He was correct .m. as the day broke. We never expected to see the morning light. The wind fell and by " eight a. and that . swamped by ever. all within that barrier being still and pilot informed us that frequent storms occur crossing the Gulf of Akaba. by well-known headlands In the present case. But a merciful broke over was Providence interfered for our preservation. and anchored in a small cove formed by a coral reef. under Providence. Thankful indeed did we the feel for this great deliverance to God who had heard our cry in our trouble. nent for about eight hours. however. and had us out of our course. the sailors directing their course or marks. and are never afterwards heard of. we found compass As there was no sort of on board and no land would be at in sight. for after compass a short consultation. ness and skill 15 prevented. and brought us out of our distresses. on which the sea broke fiercely. the absence of a did not seem to be of much consequence. rushes furiously.m. and by sunset of the 3rd June we made the shore. and we were deluged with water. the pilot took a direction which he said for would bring us soon again about three p. as these a loss as to our position and in what direction " " Buggalas are only intended for coasting. the heavy rolling seas. glassy as a lake. and took leave of each other. our being Many waves.Storm crossing Gulf of Akaba. we began to discern the tops of the mountains. it was quite calm. to land. immian awful was most our and truly danger night. I expected that the pilot to steer. how- It us. down which the wind The many Buggalas which attempt the founder in these passage gales." The storm had driven ourselves in the open sea.

After leaving Ezion Geber they sailed. and thence on to Ophir. wind blows steadily from only one vessel anchored no sea can reach a is under the lee of a reef. To all appearances . down the Arabian coast. threading our way. or Nao Khuda. in Ceylon. Each reef is well known and scarcely appear above to the crew and pilot. probably situated in Malacca. Tenant. of our Buggala. in all probability. It is at the head of this gulf that Ezion Geber was situ- ated. How strange it is that now. as this locality was the well-known haunt of a tribe of Bedouins. who bear a very bad character as robbers and murderers. Galle. this is in reality. where Solomon built his vessels to trade with Tarshish and Ophir. in this latter age of the world. but none of the people We left the bay at dawn of the and went on during that day and the next. for as the a very dangerous proceeding. The Rais. 4th. shore. fires at different As soon as it was dark. and there no probability of being cast on the rocks . Each night we anchored under the lee of one of these reefs. would not permit us to land. and they steer through them without the slightest hesitation. as shown by Sir E. the great highway of commerce with the East will. in all likelihood. but. we saw points on came near our anchorage. and that a most intricate one. just as we were Felix.1 6 Reminisce7ices of a Bengal Civiliaft. in the Persian and across the open sea to Tarshish. past Sheba in Arabia Gulf. Thence they coasted on to Dedan. through the maze of coral reefs which line the shore the water. safe quarter. The ships built there were. I suppose all the unchanging nature of different in build things in —(such — a the East) ^not is bit and rig from the Buggala in which we were embarked. revert to this its most ancient and direct channel. which is. doing.

clear sand. pursuing and being pursued. built at the head of the bay. by a squall arising from ly any opposite quarter. would cast them- and swim selected for the purpose of an anchorage. where we halted for a couple of days to land some stores. squalid-looking people As soon as the Buggala A few miserable mud huts. floated motionless. The water in this little cove was perfectly " and very deep. Each evening off to the reef as soon as the sun set. deep. moving in the water with as much ease and safety as on dry land. than that presented far down below by the coral reefs some of the most displaying extraordinary and fantastic shapes. numbers of men. as it were groves of trees twined and interlaced with each other. several of the crew selves into the sea with a cable." for a more lovely sight there could not be. Innumerable fish of all sizes and shapes darted in and out of the groves. saw the Arabs repeatedly dive after these fish. as well as ourselves. and so clear that the eye could see down into the lowest depths. women. while all the others.Voyage down Arabian Coast. —were inhabited by some Arabs —a wretched. to rest as securely as if on shore. On the 6th. It was certainly not still the unadorned bosom of the the surface. and never . when was warped close up to the reef and made snug for the night. and the eye rested far down on smooth. attracted I my attention. over which shoals of fish One very peculiar sort of fish. of a brilliant green colour. completely land-locked. we put into a small bay. nearly a foot long. at noon. named El Wedgh. and children came swim- ming round the vessel. anchored. One man kept went watch. On landing they made the rope fast to the vessel some projecting piece of coral. and apparently in high enjoyment. In some places there was no coral.

and the whole crew went to sleep as usual. we remained quite secure. shoals. I do not think that they could have seen many Europeans before. Before an expected shoal sighted. We anchored on the night of the 7th. I was roused once or twice by hearing the sudden rush of a shoal of get fish through the water as they endeavoured. after a successful . The night of the off a reef. It was a strange and rather appalling sight. to away from some pursuing monster of the deep. no land in sight. seeing in the general darkness the bright phos- phorescent light given out by the waves as they broke on the reefs far and near.1 8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the pilot and the crew are seen anxiously looking out and consulting. the Rais having. When all was still at night. to bring one fail thumb and efficient up with the head secured between the a most rapid and forefinger of the right hand — mode of fishing. although my companion and myself went ashore and walked among them. all armed in various ways. were collected round us by nightfall. completed his business at the time fixed. Some hundreds of Arabs. all relapse into complete apathy. The is we advanced. with down to sleep. We left Wedgh he early on the yth June. I fancy. anchored white with breakers and foam. and never molested us in any way. From their evident amazement at our dress and appearance. but although it was blowing hard. Once it is viewed. and either talk together or lay themselves 7 th found us. we could have escaped shipwreck. the sea for miles around us being Had we drifted. but all remained quiet and orderly. as with wonderful alacrity for an Arab. scarcely surrounded by others. were yet closer and more intricate than we had seen them.

and reached Hodeida on the 12 th. A number of Arabs who had for sale. In reply. Here we were fortunate enough to negotiate for a passage on board a pilgrim ship about to start for Jidda. and crowded with pilgrims. we sailed from Yembo. the crew deserted. crowded Buggala. where we established ourselves and our baggage. and loth. where we heard there was an East India Company's ship of war. in a small 19 bay called El Muhar. as fixed. a considerable town. We were assigned a small space on the deck. This was most annoying intelligence for us. congratulating ourselves. on our 2 — 2 . There were some forty buggalas in the harbour. transferred ourselves. change of quarters from the wretched. seen us from the heights brought wood and water We sailed before daybreak. the agent at Suez had procured from the governor of that place a letter in our favour to the Governor of Yembo. which we lost no time in sending to him. and con- sidered one of the most sacred places of the sacred Hajaz. swarming and with good reason. so.Arrival at Yembo and Hodeida. we were civilly informed that we should this. undecked. She was a some 300 tons. Fortunately. and we were on the in despair but by night a new crew was sent by the governor on board. another town of some importance and very sacred character. as it was our object to reach Mocha with all possible speed. expressed his intention of remaining at Yembo for ten days. The place wore an air of life and bustle which was most refreshing Our Rais after the desert sea we had passed over. On learning . and on the afternoon of the 8th reached Yembo. run. vessel of and baggage immediately on board. servant. all start the follow- ing morning. with a governor on the part of the Pasha Mahomed Ali.

and dangerous through shoals and us at a critical point. about to We — Mecca. and there On Tuesday. The noise and screaming " Nao Khuda " the lord of the ship captain. They evidently regarded us both as dogs and unbelievers. We and threw lumps of hard walked quietly on. lest the ship be stranded. The entrance to the harbour is very intricate.20 Avith Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. haughty set of people ever fell in with. some abused us as baked mud at us. We seemed not above 100 yards off the and so of the as he edge when her boats managed to tow her off. and the reefs. we found another ship. telling his and I noticed the beads with great diligence at this critical period Nao Khuda once or twice come up and . called the sail for Mulk El Bahur. implore him to be more earnest and energetic in his prayers. The pilgrims on board were the I most disagreeable. us. and apparently a skilled crew. Jidda is a wretched place. ligious duties of the ship. the — — is called. and soon reached our boat and proceeded to our ship. whose duties were to carry on all the reThis man was on his knees. she escaped a great danger. Mocha. to a decked vessel. As we were walking infidels. We sailed from Jidda on the 15 th June with a very light breeze. . lying out in the harbour. and was the only spot where we were Arabs met molested. and of the crew were terrific. reached Jidda. with a compass. pilgrims Ocean. about. vermin. King of the were fortunate enough a great to secure standing and sleeping room on her deck with was also crowded fresh from as she favour. There was a Moollah on board. a large or Arab vessel. 13th June. The light wind failed Mulk El Bahur was on the point of running on a reef.

and riding at anchor in its harbour two British ships of war. to our great gratification. now been relieved by the Coote brig The . and that we might have a passage. and took every opportunity of showing their hatred and disThey had just returned from Mecca. 8th July. for She had been three years employed in surveying the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Falmurus. was to sail for Bombay in the course of two days. in by seeing Mocha. proceeded to Poona to visit my relative. the then Governor. that one of these vessels. our eyes were gladdened which had met at anchor. and reached Bombay harbour in two months and a few days on the leaving England. Our national flag floating in the breeze was the most cheering and refreshing since leaving sight Upon the 20th June. my eyes Europe. the Honourable East India Company's brig of war. and we often conversed . their and had consequently acquired a high degree of sanctity own and their co-religionists' esteem. Sir Robert was at that time anxiously turning his atten- tion to facilitate the direct communication with England by the route I had just passed over. We were soon and on going on shore. and had of war. Sir Robert Grant. and a tremendous sea was on board running after we passed beyond the Straits of Babul to especially off Secotia. We had nothing Mandeb. The monsoon was at its height. mails. consisting of two small boxes.Arrival at Mocha. we found. 21 like to us as Christians. were put and on the 23rd June we sailed from Mocha. who was residing at the Government House at Dapooree. and there I remained until the I end of August. do but to run safety after before it.

. that Aden taken possession of and occupied by a British was finally garrison. refused to fulfil chief. and a coal depot. Subsequently. that island. or harbour of refuge. who the accepted Excellency's offer and agreed however. It together on the subject. which the Governor had thought of as a depot. British who had thus arranged for the cession to the Crown of this most important position. provided at some place at the entrance of the Red Sea. running off first Secotia. appeared to me that nothing was more easy than to provide a monthly communication between Suez and Bombay. which could be accessible in the year. could never in my opinion answer the purpose.22 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. shortly after acts of hostility engagements. and it was not until his 1839. to all arrangements proposed. Sir Robert entered into an arrangement for the purchase of his Aden from This the Sultan of Lahidge. and safe at all seasons of From what we had seen of the sea. and committed various against the British flag. all weathers. provided that steamers of sufficient power to contend with the monsoon were put upon the Hne. and after the lamented death of this wise and farseeing statesman.

to We and had a very pleasant and prosperous voyage after a stay of several days there proceeded late in the Calcutta. Madras. It was evening when we sailed. . be so great that I should certainly be and perhaps overboard. as I was standing by the captain. close to the wheel. —APPOINTED ASSISTANT SECRETARY TO IN GOVERNMENT OF AGRA— AFFAIRS I AFFGHANISTAN. and Bombay. and a thrown collision seemed inevitable. 1837. in a LEFT Bombay for Calcutta in the end of August. sailed when the gale com- menced blowing furiously but it was fortunately in our favour. We were on the crest of a sea and she in the trough beneath. We had scarcely . we suddenly saw immediately before us a vessel beating across our bows. so I jumped forward and seized hold of the binnacle to steady myself . The night was very dark.( 23 ) CHAPTER VOYAGE TO CALCUTTA III. and about nine o'clock. that small vessel called the Ambassador^ which was employed in the merchant service between port. and the appearance of the weather was most threatening the storm signal for vessels to put to sea was flying at the flagstaff. so that I could see right on to her deck. My first idea was that the shock would down. to Madras.

I heard the captain give the order " sound the to pumps. she showed a light in time. when what was our a second and larger vessel. and that we had received no The darkness was so great that we could see nothing we had come into collision with. the crashing of the rigging. In the twinkling of an eye we strange struck to say. for the next forty-eight . in answer to the captain's of What ship is that ? " The gale continued. The noise of the wind. scudding on steadily consternation to see before the gale.24 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and it was I learnt that not until weeks after that the Katherine. crashed into her . and we were just able to avoid her. stem. As soon as we were clear. I but was unconscious of any shock. and could hear distinctly the reply name was the Drongan." of the vessel well. and dragged her after us for a short way. employed she was a brig called trade. beating across our cisely as in the former case ! bows pre- Happily for us. had scarcely recovered our calmness after and the captain and I had resumed our the vessel places near the wheel." and I think I scarcely ever in my life felt more relieved and thankful than when I heard the answer that "all was damage. this We accident. unabated. rushing past so close under her stem that I could have thrown a biscuit that her " hail on her deck. carried We her near the away her boat and bulwarks and a mass of rigging. in the coasting that it and had sustained difficulty such serious damage she had been able to was with much make the port of Masuli- patam. before we could get clear. and the shouts of the crew of both vessels were rather appalling.

however. ship's position could not be accurately it ceased. in which I remained until July 1838. Thomason. was at this time secretary to the Government. T. a new^ revenue system was being introduced into the provinces subordinate to the Agra Government. On I learnt that the Reliance. When ascertained. the coast The day following I of Arabia. when I was at my own request transferred to the North Western Provinces. time. in the City of Palaces. never joined this appointment. I found orders awaiting me. and appointed an assistant to the Commissioner of the Meerut Division. appointing me assistantsecretary to the Government of Agra. the sided late subsequent well-known Lieutenant-Governor of Agra.Arrival at Calcutta. Here was appointed I remained one year. and an observation could be taken. and Bombay. 25 and the hours. in which my passage had been taken had left had only just arrived. and I found myself off on the landing 13 th September. Its chief supporters were notoriously opposed to the great . during which time the sun was invisible. Campbell Robertson. while I had in the England originally. Egypt. although she a month before me. for on reaching Benares. and soon after passed the floating Saugor Island. Madras. meantime visited the Mediterranean. when I assistant to the Commissioner of Cuttack. and his personal I commenced At this my secretariat career as assistant. at that time preover by a most able and farseeing statesman. Mr. the Mr. was enrolled a student of the college of Fort William. at the Sand-heads at the mouth of light the Hooghly. 1840. we found ourselves close to the pilot vessel. I. Here a small steamer returning to Calcutta. took me on board.

almost was forced Metcalfe. but too accurately fulto arise likely filled in the great rebelHon of 1857 . was it strongly opposed to the Affghan war then waging and was chiefly with the view of getting rid of his strenuous opposition in council to the occupation of that country. the Talookdars and Zemindars. Robertson. a nation of foreigners. and through whom the authorities shut up in the fort of Agra were chiefly able to communicate with Meerut and Cawnpore. that one of the few Talookdars. had been Mr. Agra. and the mass of the lived to see his prognostications of danger from their extinction. and the lavish expenditure it caused. Robertson dissented entirely from character of the these views. and doubted the practical He regarded. and their efforts were directed to their displacement and ultimate extinction. Rajah Teekum Singh. whose he was able to maintain intact.26 Reininiscences of a Bengal Civilian. previous to joining the Government of member of the Supreme Council of the of India. Mr. He remarkable position and fact. of Morrsaun. was almost the only man of influence in the neighbourhood of Agra who was uniformly loyal to the British Government in the rebellion. interests though only after the bitterest opposition. Government and in that position held the appointment of provisional Governor-General. the maintenance of this important body of landed gentry as essential to the stabiHty of our Government. under . stipulations. and most justly. to come between people. however. that the government of the of on the resignation post by the late Lord Agra. and it is a very us. upon his acceptance as a of the of One matter duty. revenue system generally. landed proprietary body. He .

and with the political agent on the North-western frontier. was that all the secret and pohtical correspondence between the authorities in Affghanistan and the Supreme Government. Lord Auckland. had been deceived as respected the Shah's popu- . held Clerk. They therefore determined to dethrone the Ameer Dost Mahomed. the former king. who was supposed to be friendly to the designs of these powers and a mere tool in their hands. Robertson consented to assume the government his seat in council. 27 and vacate which Mr. as assistant secretary had the advantage of becoming acGovernment. ruler of Cabul. a post then.Affairs beyond the hidiis. now Sir George government of Agra under "flying seal." to the By this I arrangement.. Under these views Shah Soojah had been installed in Cabul through it our arms in August. interested in resisting any schemes of conquest and aggran- disement which Persia and Russia might set on foot. The Government of India. but by the middle of 1840 became too apparent that the Governor-General. and had that reinstate expelled. the with all communications passing between the quainted Supreme Government and its agents in Affghanistan and the North-west frontier at that eventful period. should pass through the by Mr. in entering upon operations were actuated by a fear of Persian and Russian designs against our empire. whom the Dost Our Government was under the impression Shah Soojah's restoration would be a most popular measure with the Affghans. who would welcome him with open arms and they hoped by the Shah's accession to his \ legitimate throne to secure a powerful ally in Central Asia. fortunately for British interests. the then in Affghanistan in 1839. Shah Soojah. 1839.

taxed to a ruinous extent to maintain nicious system. but became more hostile than ever to our occupation. a British from being able to maintain himself as army must remain in the country for that very purpose. who bore of and to prevent them carrying on that predatory warfare amongst each other in which for generations to the Shah's rule. termed Political Agents. continually taken Forts were successful being by our troops. A number of our officers were spread over the length and breadth of the land. Nothing but money grants could secure the good behaviour of these robber tribes and the unmolested passage of travellers and goods through the The result was that the resources of India were country. that our position risk beyond the Indus was one of great and of ultimate financial ruin for . The duty of these agents was to reconcile the leading chiefs and clans of the country the title Naghten. 1840. not committed to the policy. evinced by our officers. and actions fought in different and the most conspicuous and remote parts of the country. between the Supreme Government Minister consisted of tions to coerce little and the Envoy and else than proposals for expedi- one tribe or another. skill and gallantry constantly Still the people were not subdued. this false and per- The whole of the correspondence of this period. It was now evident to all. or for subsidizing some notorious leader in order to keep open the particular pass or district over which his authority prevailed. they had been engaged.28 larity. acting under the authority of Sir W. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Hay Mac- Envoy and Minister at the Court of Shah Soojah ool Moolk. and that so far was expected. and to the puppet king we had set up.

and Fraser reached camp in safety. which stood to his master in good stead. no adequate had by this 29 on India until object. C.Action of Purwa7i Diirrah. he pulling the one end with his left hand. the nth Light Cavalry. led by the Dost in person. So matters went on " the surrender of Dost Mahomed after the action of Purwan Durrah. The regiment this unfortunate was disbanded the in consequence." its officers. very severely wounded in the right hand. as the 2nd Light Cavalry. as the fears of Russian designs time been dissipated. now Colonel Fraser. which was subsequently restored to the list for good service at Mooltan. and of these four and two desperately wounded. found himself unsupported in the midst of the Fraser was fell. They were led by Captain. by passing them round the wounded arm. whose was most impetuous. an Enghsh ravine immediately in his front. he put his horse. a fresh regiment. was by this means prevented. The excessive hemorrhage. which might otherwise have caused death. In its place. . at a broad hunter.. who. for he was able thus make a tourniquet of his reins. with five other officers. In this action the 2nd Bengal Cavalry deserted either from panic or design. This regiment formed a part of General Wheler's force at Cawnpore in 1857. was raised. Six officers went into action with the cavalry on were killed occasion. amidst a shower of matchlock balls. his sword and finding himself helpless. and its number struck out of army Hst. Fraser's horse by the Afighans. and after many months of sufiering finally recovered. right The animal landed safely on the opposite side. and was the first corps to mutiny there. Affghan Horse.B. fired horses refused the jump. while the horse pulled hard at the other with his mouth.

the whole country would station of Mussoorie. their be withdrawn. unattended. Sir W. in the Government settle down into contented submission to Shah Soojah.30 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilimt. MacNaghten. in his evening ride. Previous to leaving Agra. towards the city of Cabul and happening to meet the Envoy and Minister. alleging that he considered it useless to maintain the opposition to a nation whose officers could behave with such unshaken intrepidity their and noble devotion. a durbar was held to take leave of all the Agra native gentry. near the It was confidently expected by consequence of the Dost's surrender. which immediately followed that event. strange field to say. requiring for suppression our armed interference. was now August of 1841. and was decorated with several medals. and the troopers were the chief actors in the ruthless maswomen and children at the slaughter ghaut on the Ganges on the 27 th June. and that our troops could quite delusive. of battle. But these hopes proved and continued disturbances. as Colonel Fraser and the others had done on sent to India as a State prisoner. continued to break It out in different parts of the country from time to time. The Dost was soon after and a residence provided hill for him at Dehra Dhoon. and the heat being very intense. that. who had served under Lord Lake. and of several successful operations towards Candahar. the Governor and his staff proceeded to the hill station of Mussoorie. he surrendered himself. Among those who attended was an old Subadar of cavalry. . even when deserted by men. rode straight from the . that morning. sacre of the Dost Mahomed.

. The old hero loudly clearing his throat replied.Durbar held at Agra. asked if he could assign any cause for the troopers' conduct. there is nothing like noise. is a most important thing." A hum of ap- probation and acquiescence went round the native portion of the assembly. of the and noise all absence the seemed to agree that in the troopers had only behaved all disgracefully. and fired him a few rounds. reasonably in running away. and we charged at the back of the noise. when ordered to charge. and not at . these guns preceded us. " that to be sure he could for they it was all the fault of the Government. looking round as if delivering the most solemn and weighty truth. At such times. noise and keeping up the spirit. have taken from us our Galloper guns. " for getting up the heart. and lamenting it greatly. mentioned Purwan Durrah affair. Formerly. in conversation with this officer." he added. Indeed. 31 the The Governor.

was about to leave Cabul with the troops returning to India. Robertson. the residence of Dost to raise Mahomed.Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. who had been appointed Governor of Bombay. however. was . MacNaghten. — PROPOSALS SUPREME KHYBER. can are produced The rains soorie. CHAPTER MARCH TO ALMORAH INDUS IV. tranquil than at any previous period of our occupaThe time appeared to have at last really arrived leave the Shah to maintain himself: and Sir when we could in this conviction. W. During all September affairs in Affghanistan remained more tion. and no one who has not appreciate the intense deHght and refreshment to body and mind which by the sudden change from the steaming plains to the cool breezes of the Hamalayah. — RUMOURS OF DISTURBANCES BEYOND THE TO SEND REINFORCEMENTS NEGATIVED BY GOVERNMENT— INEFFECTUAL ATTEMPT TO FORCE THE were drawing to a close when we reached Musexperienced it. did not in reality so tranquil as the feel quite satisfied that all country was described to be for at this time suspicious rumours reached us of messengers suddenly coming to and departing from Dehra Dhoon. Still nothing had occurred that the Affghans were more than an apprehension . Mr. leaving Sir Alexander Bumes as his successor as Envoy with the Shah.

kept a head-quarters. so it was no use to attempt any disguises with him . occasion of tion. for he was sure to be in the middle of his leaving his them before they even could get tidings of Sir George. Sir George in those days. as neither of these animals." and would soon bring their master to the spot This was the first where his presence was required. " Robin " or the " White to hear that Mare " had been those days and sent out a stage or two to wait for the " Umballah wallah. not yet satisfied with Shah Soojah's rule. I well my meeting Sir George. 33 At the end of September the Governor prepared to march across the mountains of Kumaon to Almorah.'his was no unusual ride for whose powers of locomotion on horseback proved one among many the Sikh causes of his then unbounded influence with chiefs and people under his political charge in the cis-Sutlej States. rare numerous and a extent. '1. to confer with the Governor. having ridden up from Umballah. Rumours had remember 3 . and merely the prelude to a storm about to break. just before we started on our journey. and in our conversa- his expressing his fears that the calm then prevailing in Affghanistan was unnatural. of them were well it known but not quite to this to the Sikhs of was often quite sufficient to prevent an impending boundary fight between neighbouring villagers.Sir George Clerk. no doubt. suddenly appeared Mussoorie.. " understood distance. The Sikhs used to assert that he kept a hundred horses in his stables. good stud. One day. Some . Mr. now at Sir George Clerk. his head-quarters. according to Native expression." as the agent was universally called. of which some were always ready posted towards every quarter.

caught a fever which hut for the night. that all was not right. and represented. At passed. in a herdsman's quinine. a large deputation. he missed his horse at the stage in the middle of the jungle. and a messenger to Dost Mahomed had been lately caught with a mysterious letter concealed in a mutton bone. and. was benighted. reached him through the Lahore durbar. headed by the village elders and most influential men of the vicinity. with the greatest gravity and earnestness through their spokesman. to take as he passed through the jungle as a febriride Unfortunately. simple mountaineers of the Nothing could persuade these folly of their apprehensions. from Mussoorie to Almorah." the then uncleared. authoritative interference to fears. and the inability of the representative of the British to expel ghosts from their haunts. for the express purpose of forest-belt at the foot of the hills.' 34 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. we across the hill On our march country. that he So impressed was he that something was impending had risked the ride through the " Turraie. that consulting with the Governor and communicating to him Sir George left us the same evening to his apprehensions. started About the 3rd of October. the terms of which had excited the agent's suspicion. expressing their that if he could not do so they must abandon their lands and remove elsewhere. waited on one we the Governor. Government . the trouble and danger they were enduring from the ghosts and evil nightly infested their village. back again with his waistcoat pocket full of loose quinine. in spite of the hung about him for years after. and at season most pestilential. spirits which and entreating his honour's remove them. and had to remain fuge.

and that many of our leading officers there had been murdered. filled our minds with forebodings that something terrible was about to occur. and congratulating himself on the knew Mr. through Scinde. such as as I have always noticed precede grave events in India. division. added to the unnatural calm which pervaded Affghanistan. to join his new appointment About this Governor of Bombay. progress with his staff Sir Jasper NiccoUs. the then commissioner of the Meerut Rohilcund. then in from Calcutta towards Simla. Robert- son had been ever strenuously opposed. who informed among in us that for several days reports had native been rife the population — who earlier received intelligence those times many days it than the quickest express could convey to the Government — that something very serious had occurred in Cabul. There our camp was joined by Mr. intimating his intention of leaving Cabul with the force. began to circulate. Franco. in consequence. 35 re- During our march towards Almorah. to which he re- quired beyond the Indus. to proceed by forced marches to Agra. as no longer ultimate success of his policy. On 3—2 . We marched from Almorah to Bareilly. Our servants informed us that similar rumours had been heard by them during the day in the Anopshuhur bazaar. the Governor ceived a letter from Sir W. where he was to meet the Commander-in-Chief. The Governor considered it advisable. then about to proceed to India under Sir Robert Sale. Sir William stated that he intended to go down the Indus. These rumours.Rumours of an Outbreak in Cabul. time mysterious and ominous rumours. thence across which we crossed at the large and important town of Anopshuhur. MacNaghten. to the Ganges.

and caused us to lean to his view. We were. who was then holding with a small body of men. if not of Cabul itself This he considered quite feasible. fated to be soon disabused of these the hopes. conveying the first authentic intelliaffairs in Cabul which he had just received from Lieutenant (afterwards Colonel) Mackeson. who in 1857 commanded the Cawnpore garrison. In forwarding this news. however. in the centre of the this Khyber pass. where 48th Regiment Native Infantry was cantoned. for the relief of Jelal- abad. tion. the important post of Ali Musjid. The 48th Regiment. if reinforcements of artillery were sent on without delay to catch up by forced marches four regif?tents of native infantry. then a particularly fine one. which post he then occupied. then a very active officer. . The news contained in despatch was of the most disastrous character. with difficulty and considerable loss.36 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. com- manded by Colonel (afterwards Sir Hugh) Wheler. to the effect that the city of Sir Cabul was in open insurrection. succeeded in forcing his way to Jelalabad. that no real disasters could happen to our armies beyond the Indus. was paraded for the Governor's inspec- It . spoke of sepoys. as opposed to Affghans. for same evening an express from the agent gence of reached the Governor. Sir George urged the paramount necessity of immediately appearing in considerable strength at Peshawur. the our way we passed through the station of Allyghur. that Alexander Bumes and several other officers had been murdered. and that General Sale had. and had but recently returned and the tone of confidence with which Colonel Wheler. and fell in the massacre at that place. had served in Affghanistan. tended rather to raise our spirits.

and thence to advance on Jelalabad and suggesting General Sir Harry Smith (then colonel.Proposal to send Reinforcements. been .permitted to pro- . artillery and ability. Mr. when all was supposed to be at peace beyond the Indus. having been ordered. Robertson accordingly lost no time in communicating with the Commander-in-Chief. already on way Peshawur. neither the Commander-in-Chief nor the GovernorGeneral (Lord Auckland) acquiesced in Sir George Clerk's views and measures. adjutantgeneral in attendance on his Excellency) as a most fitting person for the duty. Had the troop of horse artillery. of to and native infantry. then available at Ferozepore. which started by Sir George Clerk's orders on the 4th December. and neither Sir Harry Smith nor any other general was sent to command the force then at Peshawur. to relieve a similar number of corps. energy. supported as they were by the Governor of Agra. to command far this force its . on his own responsibility. Sir George reported that he had. and determined to support him with all the weight of his position and influence. as it appears to me. of Agra fully and entirely concurred in Sir George Clerk's views and measures. urging upon his Excellency the vital necessity of immediately deputing an officer of reputation. which duty ultimately devolved on the senior officer of the four native corps present. whose term of duty Acting upon having expired were about to return to India. to cross the The Governor and proceed by forced marches towards Peshawur. 37 which were already nearing Peshawur. artillery. ordered the 3rd troop 2nd brigade horse Sutlej. his own earnest conviction. The orders directing the advance of the artillery were countermanded. Most unfortunately. 1841.

Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Lawrence. and commanded by an able. which.38 Remmisceiices of a Bengal Civilian. of the Affghan army was then beleaguering our troops in Cabul. self to Sir George Clerk lost no time in addressing himprocure the loan of some guns from the Sikh durbar. and their attention was fully occupied in that direction. Reinforced by these troops. Intelligence of this forward movement must in the meantime have reached our troops at the capital. it must be remembered. our hands. in the centre of the pass. Musjid was still in most reasonable to expect that fort of Ali the four native corps. to take command of them when supplied. where the four native The main body regiments must have already arrived. therefore. and. have prevented the negotiations which resulted in the disastrous retreat of our army. resuming offensive operations. The Khyberees had not then and the It is. which they could have reached by the end of December or the early days of January. energetic officer like Sir Harry Smith. and thence advancing to Jelalabad. in all human probability. 1842. and. instead of remaining shut up in Jelalabad. Time is everything on these occasions. it ceed as he intended. 1842. aided by a troop of British horse artillery. would have reached Peshawur towards the close of that month. to advance for the relief of Cabul. and which ended in the annihilation of the entire force. would have found himself in a position to move out. to Peshawur. and an opporis lost tunity once gone for ever. and sentotf his assistant. Disappointed in his endeavours to secure the aid of our own artillery. entirely declared against us. or closed the pass. Sir Robert Sale. raised their hearts. did not commence until the 6th of January. . would have found little difficulty in forcing their way to Ali Musjid.

when already far advanced on its way across the Punjaub. an attempt was made alluded by the four infantry corps already and commanded by the senior officer of the But troops.was dread of the Sikh durbar. : . and the fort of Ali Musjid had to be evacuated. 39 Four guns were furnished by the durbar. until Khyber remained unforced. The reason given by the Government for recalling the troop of horse artillery. which. had they been followed up. Colonel Wyld. and the deficiency of But the Political Agent was the indeed the only competent judge. the spirits of our men were disheartened by news of the disastrous events at Cabul . of the temper He had the durbar completely under his of the Sikhs. he the Sikhs were confidently assured the Government that ready to co-operate with us actively our troops across their territory. the Clerk's lieved. whose aspect was then considered artillery to on the best. and the Jelalabad garrison unrefour months later in the year. in under Providence.Uyld's Force fail to foi^ce the Khyber. line of the Sutlej. was fully defended . to. to force his way through the pass and advance on Jelalabad. to force their way to Jelalabad. what were considered safer counsels prevailed. have averted one of the which has ever befallen us in the East. the attempt failed. Thus and Lawrence's almost superhuman efforts to save the Cabul garrison and British honour were baffled . all probability. when General difficulty. and knowing perfectly how to manage them. and zealously in pushing But alas. and the energetic measures thwarted. it was too late invaluable time had been lost the Khyber early in January. be threatening. would. not without great flower of Affghanistan was then opposed to him. as the Pollock was able. neither well equipped nor efficiently manned. most serious reverses . influence. Aided by these.

and bring them to the Governor for perusal. CHAPTER V. and ending with an exposition . at others. in the end of January. at Cabul. ANNOUNCING DESTRUCTION OF CABUL FORCE LORD ELLENBOROUGH SUCCEEDS LORD AUCKLAND AS GOVERNOR-GENERAL. merely forwarded translations of native intelligence which had reached him . I was awakened by an I express. before Sometimes Sir George passing them on to their destination. and of the imprisonment of Colonel (now Sir) George Lawrence . on opening the despatch. he passed on the original little letters. — — During the whole of December. 1842. MacNaghten and General Captain Trevor. in the soles of the messengers' shoes. DISASTROUS TIDINGS FROM CABUL NOTE FROM SIR ROBERT SALE. giving the terrible details of the murder of Sir W. so as to escape detection. expresses follow each other into the messengers to Job —each the bearer of more It Agra like disastrous intelligence than his predecessor. en as they came in George route to the Governor-General in Calcutta. 1841.40 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. which had passed through the enemy's posts concealed in quills. was my duty to from Sir receive and open the despatches Clerk on the frontier. One night. and by other devices of one kind or another. found it to contain a short note from Major Eldred Pottinger. January and February. and.

therefore. At last. until.Evacuation of Cabiil. and gloom and doubt began to prevail. 41 of the almost hopeless and desperate circumstances of the force unless immediately relieved. Sir Robert Sale intitimated his resolution not to obey the instructions he had received from the authorities at Cabul. Days. Other communications — some more hopeful. passed away without any tidings. expressed his hope "that the British Government be absolved from the disadvantageous and humilimight ating consequences of such a capitulation. it never entered into any one's contemplation that the force under General Elphinstone could fail to make good its way to Jelalabad. For days. in transmitting both the letters. of course. just as close his the Governor was about to despatches for the home Government by the out-going mail from Bombay. a little from Major Pottinger notified had been entered into with the Affghans. we expected the information every hour to reach us of the retreating force having formed a junction with General Sale. after the receipt of the inteUigence that the evacuation was certainly to take place on a fixed date. under which the British were bound to evacuate Afighanistan. all the treasure in the chest and making over some Sir officers as hostages —among them General George Lawrence. In forwarding this communication. to vacate his post at Jelalabad. at Cabul. that a convention giving up the most of their guns. by the Affghans violating its terms. at length. one forenoon. whether the Affghans kept faith or not." Grieved and depressed as. we all felt at our troops having to evacuate their position and to retreat. and Sir George Clerk. some equally or more gloomy letter —followed. an . however.

unable as they were to render any effectual assistance or even to ascertain the truth of what had occurred in the retreat. children. when compared with I countrymen shut up in Jelalabad? afterwards heard from some of the bravest among illustrious garrison " that of our that " that their feelings of gloom and depression were almost beyond endurance." plorable condition. and occupied its citadel. perhaps. we should receive intelligence of some of the fugitives having reached Jelalabad in safety. had day arrived in Jelalabad. and at last we also became as hopeless as General had represented himself to be. and followers as composed the Cabul force . tain a small note On opening the packet I found it to confrom General Sir Robert Sale. that General Sale was led to the conviction that the Cabul force was annihilated. .42 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. But it was not to be Sale . By day. consisting of fighting men. women. and he that stated that he entertained no hope of ever seeing another to man of them None of alive. Brydone. I can never forget that sad and trying period. our party at Agra could bring ourselves believe in the utter annihilation of so vast a multitude. and each day we buoyed our- selves up by the hope that by the evening. and the sickening despair which crept over our hearts. Dr. wounded and half dead from Dr. Brydone. as days and weeks passed away and brought no favourable tidings. although in this defatigue and privation. express arrived. giving the awful inteUigence that that "a single officer. was able to give so clear an account of all had happened. or that some of the force had returned to Cabul. But what was our state of mind or our anxiety.

all in vain and at last the wailing notes of the bugle. on the 16 April. the most desponding feelings were entertained in the highest quarters as regards the position of our still remaining garrison in Affghanistan. directing them to a place of safety. parties of horse 43 were sent out from the fortress to as far as was possible on the Cabul road. having now no to Jelalabad. ineffectually sounding every now and then through the darkness. soon the attention and energies of the officers and fully men were in Cabul. were found to that the practice have such a depressing effect on the mass of the garrison was obliged to be discontinued. Happily. but to confine himself to such measures as might ensure the safe withdrawal of the garrison shut up in Jelalabad. distinctly informed General Pollock that he was not to advance into the country beyond the Khyber Pass. In these feelings of despondency neither General Pollock. The then Governor-General. 1842. as the enemy. How nobly the garrison defended themselves and maintained the honour of their country until relieved by General Pollock. so intervals. and the bugles sounded at picking up hope of attracting the attention of some and But poor fugitive. in the . burnt and rockets sent up. are matters of history well to all. Sir George . force to contend with and besieged the fortress. in the proceed hopes of evening after stragglers. and breaking the stillness of the night. both at Jelalabad and Candahar. occupied in taking measures for their own defence.Sir George Pollock forces the Khyber Pass. after. but they returned For many nights blue lights were evening bringing none. Lord Auckland. crowded known Previous to the General's successful advance through the Khyber.

in also knew our well the dangers which In own provinces. without inflicting some signal punish- ment on the Affghans. at a period of more imminent behind the peril or more general despondency. and compromise our safety in India . now that Runjeet Singh had died. would have a very bad effect. requiring troops in the field. was alone to its kept faithful influence exercised over the chiefs Clerk. at all times the most arduous and responsible under the Crown. Clerk. failed not. and certainly no Governor-General ever was called upon to enter upon the office. that infantry who were corps with General Pollock at Peshawur were not to be depended upon. with its army. that the Sikh durbar. and Scindiah's at that time unbroken army. it splendid much to say.44 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. after having relieved the Jelalabad garrison. nor the Governor of Agra shared. both and they far and near. Lord Auckland was relieved by Lord Ellenborough . as indeed did most of us scenes. Bundelkund was then commotion. were within a few days' march of Agra. to give free expres- sion to their sentiments in their dispatches to the Govern- ment in Calcutta. They were all of opinion that a return to Peshawur. the native His lordship well knew. and that it and devoted zeal of their officers that kept to advance. and might at is any moment advance into our not too territory. engagements to us by the astonishing and people by Sir George . In the meantime. was nothing but the unflinching courage them together and forced them The Governor-General menaced us in the rear. with a splendid artillery and clouds of cavalry. especially Sir George Clerk. Besides this.

of doing so. and added already existing gloom. and so return Candahar fall Scinde. and of a check received by our troops in attempting to relieve Candahar from Scinde. He is military. by retiring through the passes from General Pollock should Jelalabad. and after having reoccupied that position. either by Nott's nication with India. We know we did not fully appre- ciate at that time the dangers which surrounded our position to these. his to the A Governor-General has to take it measures on all occasions with. and he is bound to act after a political.Lord Ellenborough's Almost immediately tion of the after Instructions to Pollock. a halter round his neck. With due advertence cannot but think that the Governor-General exercised a wise discretion in ultimately coming to the conclusion that the safest course for the general interest of the vast empire placed under his charge was to instruct Generals Pollock and Nott to withdraw into easy and certain commu- them the option as best acquainted with the temper of their troops and the difficulties they had to contend with. 45 Lord EUenborough's assump- Government. Candahar to meet General or into Pollock his at recapturing Ghuznee en route. giving advancing from Cabul. resulting in . the only really responsible man in India. while back on Peshawur from Both generals concurred in the propriety of mutually advancing on Cabul. had been received. as were. The successful operations of both generals. calm and deliberate view of the general and now. financial if position of the empire at large. the intelligence of the capture of Ghuznee. retiring on India through the Khyber. to Hindustan. and destruction of our garrison there. I in India in 1842-43.

the recapture of Ghuznee and Cabul and the release of our prisoners. but itself. Him be ascribed all the praise. and the dangers that encompassed us. When I look back to that time. are all matters of history.46 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. more than sufhcient not only to overwhelm our forces beyond the Indus. I to annihilate our power in India can regard our safety as owing only to the signal interposition of and marked and to Almighty God in our behalf. .

a durbar was ordered for the reception of the It was my duty to ride out with an escort to receive Dost. a country-seat of the Maharajah we were Thence we proceeded to Loodianah. the Simla. where meet an embassy from the Sikh durbar. to with Dost his Mahomed. month of October. the GovernorGeneral thought it expedient to proceed in person to Simla to be in immediate communication at such a critical juncture with the Political Agent and the Commander-in- Chief At this time I was transferred as Under-secretary In the from the Government of Agra to that of India. and permit him in to return to resume throne and kingdom Affghanistan. and Pollock from Jelalabad. left and joined his camp at the foot near Pinjore. to form a junction at Cabul. Governor-General of the hills. of after the our arms in news of the successful progress Affghanistan had been received. and where the Governor-General intended to hold an interview of Puttialah.( 47 ) CHAPTER VI. LORD ELLENBOROUGH's INTERVIEW WITH AMEER DOST MAHOMED KHAN SIKH MISSION ARRIVES WITH PRESENTS FOR THE QUEEN ARMY OF RESERVE AT FEROZEPORE GATES Ot" SOMNATH. . On reaching Loodianah. — — — While Nott was advancing from Candahar.

I the party. the Ameer. Government since I came Your I admirable. with all the respect due to royalty. and dismissed his guest to take possession of his ancient kingdom. observed. and the conversation Dost's related chiefly to the future and the approaching journey through the Punjaub towards his own dominions.48 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. where " It was by no wish or there is nothing but rocks and stones. your arsenals. Lord EUenborough received the Dost with much kindness of manner. in Persian." order of mine. The Dost's manner. met them a short distance from camp. wishing him a long life and prosperous reign. and received no marks of honour he returned from it as a . Few remarks were made. Just before parting. and have been forts." the Governor-General replied. after so many vicissiThe Ameer came to the durbar as a state prisoner. your ships. and wealthy a nation could ever have entertained the project of occupying such a country as Cabul. your palaces. tudes. but to me the most wonderful thing of all is. white flowing beard. restored king. astonished with your wealth. with snowy. on the past. all remarkably fine-looking men. as well as that of his sons. a complete patriarch in his appearance. and surrounded by six sons. was calm and dignified. your marts and your Mint that so wise . of course. and the . on duty presenting arms. showing evidently that he sympathised with the old king in his peculiar circumstances of humiliation. all are have been down to Calcutta. state tent and conducted them to the Governor-General's I never witnessed a more striking scene than the presentation to his Excellency of the old Ameer. Governor-General the addressing — " I have seen a great deal of your to India. the troops Artillery firing a royal salute.

to meet the embassy from the Lahore The day I Clerk and durbar..as we [sent [also [usual were waiting to conduct them to the durbar at the Then a point of meeting on former occasions. to tell us that the sirdars were waiting for us about two miles beyond the fort. in his deposition. and there remained to await their advance. would surely now go on so welcome them 4 " . To have proceeded a yard beyond this point would have been derogatory to the dignity of the British Government. and conduct them ceeded as presence. We pro- far as the old and then partially ruined fort of Loodianah.Conduct of Lahore Mission. Sir George proceeded as a deputation on the part of the Governor-General. horseman after horse[Governor-General. They were back to say that the sirdars should hurry on. It was. and dread of the power of the Khalsa. " the sirdars were coming m. lorseman would dash up to say. greater marks of deference than had been [man was despatched to us. proves how incorrect was the information which led our Government to adopt Shah Soojah's cause. in the eyes of the Sikhs a proof of weakness on our ever. which was encamped on the banks of the to his lordship's Sutlej. would not we go to meet them?" then another to [report that they re " had come to within half a mile of far to us. howthe great object of the mission to draw us beyond this point. and . and the supposition that the Dost was hated and abhorred by his subjects. and part. 49 His long undisturbed reign since then. who would willingly aid following the Ameer's interview. and thus lead us to acknowledge their right to paid to any which had ever waited on previously any [mission preceding With this view.

and once in motion. The durbar in consequence recalled this mission. the justly state we returned and reported of things to the Governor-General. the Singh. and sent another. deceive us. and a cavalcade of elephants advancing in our front. to meet Lord Ellenborough at Ferozepore. to secure the unmolested passage of our troops across the . pointing out the impropriety of the conduct of the embassy. Four hours we waited patiently. and by this time the horsemen and elephants had vanished from our front.50 to Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. sirdars' tents. conit sisting of the celebrated Rajah Dhian then heir apparent. or show that the Punjaub was in our eyes any more important than it had been prior to our Cabul reverses. the Talleyrand of the Punjaub. and addressed a dignified remonstrance to the durbar at Lahore. who was incensed. been by this time collected at Ferozelarge A pore. under It the immediate command of Sir Jasper Niccolls. should be was deemed very important that this army assembled immediately on the frontier. Purtaub Koonwur. they hoped they would have induced us to proceed beyond where they were assembled and up to the embassy had never quitted. and not an inch would we advance. and Fakeer Azeezoodeen. army of reserve had. by the orders of the Governor-General. of Jummoo. a cloud of horsemen were seen dashing about. But it was not a time in to lower the prestige of the British Government the smallest degree. and distinctly refusing to receive composed any of the persons who had on any subsequent occasion. showing that they were a mere decoy to get us beyond our fixed limit . which the Finding further delay useless.

then beginning to be turbulent. and found the young Prince Purtaub Koonwur.o Majesty the Queen. plunging the two servants sitting behind me in their scarlet state it left the bank than animal's weight. to Fakeer Azeezoodeen as my some words of conversation and complimounted our elephants to proceed in rose and we ments. Had the L .Secojtd Sikh Mission. pitched in the middle of an artificial garden. might otherwise have possibly menaced. in which we all embarked. his head. and conduct the embassy to the British side of the river. here a deep. I crossed the river. as the usual sign of bag. and just wetting myself. state across the Sutlej. and few struggles regained the bank. I was ordered proceed to their camp. and then handed offering. which the Sikh soldiery. my boat was first shoved off. in a beautiful shawl tent. that we were informed already arrived the on the right embassy from Lahore had bank of the Sutlej. for his Highness on the bare sands of the The Prince being heir apparent to an independent throne. and no sooner had it began to sink under the huge Comprehending the state of the case. containing it acknowledged hundred gold mohurs. Accordingly. I liveries right after a under water. bringing g I ostly presents for her . 51 Punjaub from Peshawur. wide. and rapid stream. on going up and paying him a silk my one compliments. On the Governor-General reaching Ferozepore. the elephant immediately backed over the side. I waved round sovereignty. formed of flowering shrubs and orange-trees. which ihis followers had with wonderful taste and promptness constructed Sutlej. a boy about twelve years old. After Each elephant had a boat for himself.

as the boats were British. Major Cunning- Purtaub Koonwur. Fakeer Dhian and Heerah Singh. Purtaub Singh and hame. Azeezoodeen. accident happened to the prince.B. or any members of the mission. we all took the precaution of dismounting and crossing in a Of the boat. while the elephants waded and swam across. and were subsequently forwarded to England under charge of Colonel Fraser. and their bodies cut in pieces by opposing parties at Lahore a few months subsequently .. as has been described. C. wan Durrah. expostulating with his last breath against their the days of the Khalsa were numbered. who distinguished himself. were murdered. and prophesying that This embassy fully made up by their almost obsequious courtesy for the insol- ence of their predecessors. I am the sole survivor. and who was garrison of Jelalabad. The Governor-General arranged that the Jelalabad garrison should have the precedence and cross . and his son Heerah. Rajahs and myself. the Prince Rajah Dhian Singh.52 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Major Cunninghame died from exposure and hard service during the the old Fakeer expired as the mutinous first Sikh war . and army marched from Lahore in 1845 to invade our territories. at Pur- afterwards one of the illustrious Our army returning from Affghanistan had now approached the Sutlej. ill-conduct of the preceding mission. they might have taken offence at the want of due caution in supplying boats of insufficient size. party which crossed over that afternoon. over which a bridge of boats had been thrown for their passage. and imagined it a sort of retaliation for the However. madness. The presents they brought for her Majesty were rare and costly. assistant political agent.

I went to see the gates the evening of their arrival. The army of was directed to move down to the bridge of boats their passage. under Seaton. His lordship took up his position upon a raised platform to the left of the bridge. so nobly upheld the name and honour of our country. and in front of the latter were borne.Reception of Illustrious Garrison. and examined them closely . mounted on Lady Sale and Then came Sir all Robert Sale at the head of the column. Abbott the most trying circumstances. Broadfoot. and the garrison as they in marched to The Governor-General proceeded accompanied by all his staff. . Mayne. and of veritable sandal-wood. her daughter. 53 reserve one day in advance of the rest of the troops. on a triumphal car. they appeared of an immense age. from whence he descended to speak to and congratulate each commanding officer as he passed at the head of his men. each regiment cheering as they set foot upon Indian soil. It is impossible to describe the feelings of interest body of men. as I satisfied ^myself by picking out a loose piece of the carved work. the famous gates of Somnath. each and deep emotion with which we watched that small arm headed by its well-known leader all of whom had. in order to receive illustrious on the day fixed for present arms to the past. and rapidly passed over. which >n being rubbed emitted the peculiar and delicious odour of Pthat wood. state bridge. The first persons who crossed were elephants. The armies of Generals Pollock — — and Nott crossed the Sutlej some days after.

and for splendour and perfect taste in the dress and equipments of themselves and followers.54 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. were For height received in durbar at a place called Somanah. As we marched through chiefs of that tract. RECEPTION OF SIKH CHIEFS ARRIVAL OF CAMP AT DELHI REVIEW FOR CHIEFS OF RAJPOOTANA VISIT TO EMPEROR PROCEED TO AGRA AND CALCUTTA AFFAIRS OF GWALIOR RETURN TO AGRA. noble bearing. the grand army broke up. where the rajahs and chiefs of Rajpootana and Central India had been directed to meet his lordship with the Political Agent. of stature. the several divisions marching in different directions to their final destinations. I have never seen anything in my varied experience which could vie with these two chiefs and their feudal retainers. commanding presence. Each stalwart baron. the Maharajah of Puttialah and the late lamented Maharajah. for the edification of the Sikhs. tendered to his acceptance either a silver model of the key of his feudal castle. CHAPTER VII. — — — — — — — After a series of reviews. with the the Sikh protected states. then a youth. One brigade escorted the Governor-General to Delhi. as he strode up Governor-General. Colonel Sutherland. his son. or a to the .

At Sojnatiah Mr. order that made to the etiquette followed as regarded the Emperor. and security in their hereditary possessions for all^ A loud hum of pleasure and confidence passed through the assembly. translated thus to the assembly by the agent " " the Lord Sahib's meaning Listen. no question was raised as to its propriety. on those previous rare occasions in Governor-Generals had visited the imperial city. As soon should be camp arrived at Delhi. and tender him a " Nuzur " of a certain to amount of gold mohurs. yet that a deputation had been sent on the part of the Governor-General to ask after the health of his Majesty. both being the tokens in that part of the country of fealty and submission to Governor-General made The paramount power. 55 bow. Thomason joined the camp as chief secretary to Government. this had been the usual practice. however. on Sir Herbert Maddock's elevation to the supreme council. brothers. a chiefs the assembled speech. and therefore. sure and ample. the in Government reference durbar records were produced. and as the I resumed my old position as his immediate assistant." he said. the : which I recollect being very concisely.Arrival of Camp at Delhi. and an acknowledgment of holding our Indian possessions as his feudatory. without any previous intimation . and was the only response they made. but with evidently striking effect. my is this. justice— justice to all. As. which It was found that although the relative position of the GovernorGeneral and the Emperor did not admit of their exchanging visits. Government to which in reality amounted an expression of submission British and fealty on the part of the the Great Moghul.

and presented my Nuzur Majesty's accept- ance. and on approaching the throne. such having been in all ages into the immediate presence vided with a silk — in India the usual mark of respect on the part of an inferior on approaching a superior. I confess to a feeling of awe and solemnity passing over me as I stepped sentative of a long line of kings up and addressed this repreand of a once powerful to his empire. a curtain being drawn aside. to The King simply heads. proceeded to the palace on elephants. accompanied by Colonel Broadfoot. each being pro- bag full of gold mohurs for presentation to We were required to proceed without any shoes the King. as he sat cross-legged. and inquired after his Majesty's health and prosperity. and to bound round our mounted our honour.56 Reminiscences of a Bejtgal Civilian. We elephants. which was elevated so as to have the royal person. then apparently a very feeble old man above seventy years of age. received it. Mr. We made a low obeisance to the Emperor. and thus entered the hall of audience. and ordered us have turbans be robed in dresses of honour. seated on his throne. on a level with our faces. we re- made our obeisance to the King. On this occasion we compromised the matter by putting short worsted cashmere socks On over our boots. and departed." This was done in due form . we saw the old King. each in succession presented his bag of gold mohurs. which was remarkable as being the last that was ever offered on the part of a British subject to the imperial house of Timour. and were paraded through the chief " streets of Delhi as those whom the King delighted to The ridiculous transformation we had all three . to the Governor-General of what was about to be done. Thomason and myself.

however. 57 undergone." The Governor-General begged me to explain what we had been first doing. and myself. in order that an equivalent amount British should be added to the royal stipend from the treasury in future. to beg his lordship to come and see the chief secretary and Colonel Broadfoot as they arrived in camp. Colonel Sutherland. and decked themselves out in a manner worthy of " Madge Wildfire.Presentation of Nttzznrs to Emperor. The durbar for the reception of the chiefs of Rajpootana The Governor-General's measure was and politic. I myself became alive to the impro- I priety of an act which. The misfortune was that was splendid and imposing was no easy matter. for the time. and then. clad in these robes of tinsel tissue. who had the conduct of it. made stripping off my own my way to the Governor- General's tent. as these two estimable gentlemen looked as if they had gone suddenly mad. for the agent. in reality. Eastern estimation at 'feast. hold her Indian posses- sions as a mere feudatory and vassal of the imperial house of Delhi. and directed me the average annual amount of gifts received by his Majesty for the past ten years. and finery as I sat on the howdah. to induce these high and in the extreme. and on my informing him. trived to get ahead of my party. without doubt right it had not been adopted years before. It . drove all I confeelings of solemnity and respect out of my mind. in made Queen Victoria. and before dismounting from their elephants. The Governor-General immediately offerings issued instructions. his lordship's indignation and surprise were extreme. forbidding the presentation in future to the King of any to ascertain by British subjects.

alone should have the privilege. it and they never At last. The force was exceedingly well manoeuvred by General Menteith Douglas. carved out for himself the principality of Tonk. Lord Ellenborough remarked that sight which would keep Rajpootana quiet years. which in the troublous period of our war with the Pindarees. and deeds and exploits atrocious even in India. who was in command. remaining neutral. as well as the Delhi garrison. nor their ancestors. " booter. on condition of his up his guns. The troops forming our escort.58 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. we and were glad to guarantee to him by delivering treaty. for the for next twenty during our late . privilege of entering the presence of the " He was a freeGovernor-General wearing their boots. were reviewed for the entertainment of these chiefs. yielding some 150. and the son of a freebooter.000/. went into Rajpootana. disbanding some of his army. a year. was agreed that Nawab lowers. in life Ameer Khan who. and the review was most successful. starting from Rohilcund with six horsemen and after sixty foot followers." and his lordship was right." the living. I remember having considerable trouble with one of them." he declared. . As we were riding off the " it was a ground. and neither he nor his followers. not his folThis potentate was the descendant of the notorious freebooter and mercenary leader. had ever taken off their boots for any dignitary would. mighty personages and their followers to submit to all the forms and etiquette requisite to maintain the GovernorGeneral's dignity on these receptions. who demanded. the Nawab of Tonk. not only for himself but some fifty of his the followers. after many discussions.

than they threatened to light up again in the neighbouring dominions of Scindia. had been a menial servant in the employment of the Peshwas.000/. Scarely had we got settled there than it became probable we should have speedily steps. a man of great talent and energy. procured from him estates in Central India yielding some by his second son. disperses another as dark and ominous No sooner had the flames of war been extin- guished in Affghanistan and Scinde. in my experience. He was succeeded in these estates command of French officers introduced into it the European . Agra. which ceeded by land to Allahabad. Thus it always is in India. ancestor of the family. 59 1857 these chiefs remained for the most part and their states tranquil. Madhogee Scindia. Gwalior. of June. and thence by steam down we reached about the close 1843. Ranagee Scindia. which had by this time become a British province. and placing it under the 70. having great influence with his master. This Ranagee. to retrace our from the threatening aspect of political affairs in the North-west. and we accordingly prothe Ganges to Calcutta. was only a few marches from the seat of the North-west government. After a stay of some days we marched from Delhi to Agra. where the Governor-General proposed to spend the hot season.Proceed troubles in loyal to Calcutta. a year. when one cloud succeeds. who raised a large army. But by the middle of May his lordship found it desirable to rejoin his council. the capital of which. Scindia's family was one of those which from small beginnings had rapidly risen to power and dominion during The head and the decadence of the Delhi empire.

by the Duke of Wellington. on the other. and Laswaree. and the main army to dislodge and . became the Gwalior Contingent. Dawlut Rao This potentate joined the general confederacy against the British Government in 1803. recognized by the British Govern- ment as an independent prince. By its terms he agreed to maintain a certain number of auxiliary troops. After this Scindia gave us no trouble until 181 7. gave him the choice of either co-operating with our troops against the common enemy. Arghaum. system of discipline. Scindia adopted the former alternative . which in the rebellion in required the Chief. and a new treaty was formed with him. By its means he acquired complete ascendancy over the Peshwa and the Emperor of Delhi. was succeeded by an adopted son. Scindia then sued for peace and the Duke of Wellington. on the part . He died in 1794. of the British Government. and immediate presence of the Commander-in- Lord Clyde. and Scindia. and reconquered for himself the possessions which the Mahrattas had lost after the disastrous battle of Paneeput.6o Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. of siding with the Pindarees against us and the Governor-General. Lord Hastings. He was attacked and his power completely broken at the battles of Assye. to be paid from revenues of certain assigned districts. concluded a treaty of peace and alliance with him in 1804. in 1783. and which were to be commanded by British officers of the Company's This force was the origin of what afterwards service. or being himself coerced. . by Lord Lake. Deig. and Ahmednuggur. Madhogee Scindia was. on one side of his dominions and by the victories of Delhi. when he was suspected . 1857 very nearly defeated our troops at Cawnpore.

in communication and with the approval of the British This arrangement had not been long in force native Indian court when the intrigues inseparable from a commenced and assumed a very serious and complicated character. Scindia's old brigades. by the Tara Baiee. adopted as his successor Bhageerut Rao. the " Mamoo Sahib. but now that these intrigues commenced capital. was appointed regent during Government. They were scattered all over Scindia's wide dominions in forts and at garrisons. had soon numbers. . and rulers were afraid. these troops after Since the close of the recovered their organization and Pindaree war in 181 7 no fighting " had not been regularly employed. and had seen except in making raids and forays on their "Fulness of bread and abundance of this force into idle- neighbours. Acting under the influence of the troops. by an adopted son." as his minority he was called. Gwalior. disperse 61 them.000 men of all arms. with February. the Tara Baiee. Maharajah Dawlut Rao Scindia died in and was succeeded 1827. dying in without issue. Tara Baiee. they began to concentrate at the until some 40. with a powerful artillery. a age. his widow.. were assembled there upon our immediate frontier. These troops never allowed any reduction to take place in their body. 1843. expelled the regent from office and appointed in his place the Dada Khas-jee-wallah. nor any vacancies to remain unfilled. the permission of the British Government. a man of infamous character. ness of had converted their whom own officers a vast mutinous army. although dispersed and broken up by the Duke of Wellington and Lord Lake. who. the Queen.Affairs in Gwalior. The child's boy then about eight years of maternal uncle.

and therefore he thought it necessary to from Calcutta to join the army at Agra. own territories. . our boundary.62 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and compelled the Governor-General to interfere for the protection of the general interests of India. The necessity of immediate action to secure improved relations with a power situated in the vicinity of our like Gwalior. proceed the Commander-in-Chief. with a it was imperatively neces- secure the safety of our rear without delay.000 men. Lord Gough. and with a superb force of cavalry and artillery attached to them. his lordship was determined to use every effort to accomplish his designs by negotiation. fast gathering ordered two armies to accordingly at and the other at Agra. and more unmanageable lected at Lahore. by reducing the power of the Gwalior durbar before the storm broke upon us in our in the Punjaub. statesman's prescience. a mutinous army of 70. This was a state of things too dangerous to be permitted. under no discipline or control. by his con- nivance the troops dismissed all officers who were known to favour British interests unruly as to endanger the safety of our and they became so own provinces and of the states of Central India dependent upon our Government. which we saw was He though these ample preparations were made. front. the The Dada conducted administration in a spirit of manifest hostiHty to the British Government their . But assemble. within three marches of the Sutlej. there under assembled in person . the army there were becoming more and at this time there were col. was forced upon Lord Ellenborough by the events then occurring in the Punjaub. Ever since the demise of Runjeet Singh. saw that sary to Lord Ellenborough. one Cawnpore.

and safety to our allies and our to Gwalior. the the obnoxious minister should be mutinous numbers. and subjected auxiliary to army reduced in and the proper discipline . and resolved on moving forward the troops with little delay as possible towards Gwalior. so as to secure the the unopposed passage of the Chumbul River. The efforts of the chiefs were mainly directed to induce the Governor-General to delay his advance. advanced towards the same point from Cawnpore. the own frontier. We were soon after leaving Sir under Agra joined by some of the leading chiefs frohi Gwalior. force increased under British officers to an extent which would give us in Scindia's some assurance of tranquiUity dominions. which Mahratta army v/ould probably defend should the durbar refuse to accede to his lordship's demands. second John Grey. 1843. and long and fruitless negotiations were entered into. — CROSS CHUMBUL RIVER — BATTLE OF MAHARAJPORE.( 63 ) CHAPTER ADVANCE FROM AGRA TO GWALIOR VIII. As our force advanced from Agra division of the army. removed from that office. but his lord- . These demands were. The as Governor-General arrived at Agra early in December.

and none of sufficient strength could be spared. first was of the importance that the head of the Government . Still the other to. As. an operation which. had that river. which his lordof at the moment and on the spot. But even leave the army. therefore. after that date. and we received secret intelligence that one army had been de- spatched from the capital to oppose Sir John Grey's force. ship alone could dispose with the army. the Gwalior durbar and army. while another was advancing to meet ours. Upon latter the 28th December it was ascertained that it this army was it in our neighbourhood. that the Governor-General should at this critical juncture The country in our rear. it The Mahratta was clear negotiation was at an end. had must take place the following day. however. been defended. could not have been effected without heavy loss. deposed and sent into our camp the obnoxious minister. with its precipitous banks. however. demands of the Governor-General and the chiefs were not acceded advance. and was pretty certain that a battle course was now impossible. between us and unsafe to traverse without a large escort. who was passed on to Agra. the Governor-General might at any moment receive overtures from the enemy. seeing we were really in earnest. Of it been at all desirable.64 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. was the Chumbul. and up to that day it was not certain whether all might not be yet amicably arranged. to halt a day. As soon as the river was crossed. had the road been open. it was his place. and would not be persuaded We were thus enabled to cross the Chumbul without opposition. ship was fortunately resolute. British troops continued to remained in camp until the 26th December.

only he. under the command of General Sir John Littler . The night before a general action is always a serious and a solemn occasion . and Colonel Durand. would then probably be sufficient to disperse them and complete the victory . or even fore. be fornied in reserve. with about a mile between each. It consisted of her Majesty's 39th I . and the Governor- General before dawn had joined the reserve division which we were to accompany. all into three divisions His Excellency replied that the army was to that on the left was to be held . therefore. waited on the Commander-in-Chief. Frederick. and on the extreme I right. ought to accompany into this reserve division. it was not. to inquire what was the best position for the Governor-General to take up during the action which would no doubt take place the following day.Battle of Maharajpore. of the arrangements camp I was informed by Sir Frederick made for the Governor-General the had allowed all and that as his lordship his aide-de-camps to volunteer to serve on the Sir staff of different commanding officers. from : which his Excellency expected they would be easily driven the cavalry division. On my return following day. the Governor-General's private secretary. and myself. chief secretary to risk. The Governor-General. We were all early astir. Sir 65 Frederick Government. likely that the reserve would be called upon there- to act. Colonel Durand. would be with his lordship. be under fire. were to advance in front of the at enemy's supposed position Chanda. that The centre division. should not be exposed to any unnecessary Currie. three columns were to march parallel with each other. with the horse artillery. and the camp was very soon unusually still and silent. on the evening of the 28th.

It was immediately followed by several others in quick succession. secretary to Government. that General Stuart was not. As we advanced the sun rose immediately in our front. without our even seeing them. " its colours the motto Primus in Indis. Colonel Durand. the political agent. General Sleeman. nothing the wiser. and Sir John column. I. It was fortunate for our small party. we should most certainly have gone on. and ahead of us again General Stuart. dazzling our eyes so that we could see nothing distinctly. and one shot better aimed than the rest hit an elephant of General Sleeman's. the enemy still . on horseback. Suddenly a heavy gun was fired. who were so much in advance. which.. and the morning was very hazy. It was evident Littler halted the that something was wrong." the 56th N. that superb corps. might have opened fire. and induced them to open fire from a distance. proceeded on an ele- phant. Soon after we halted. until we had come within grape range. as he could not ride on horseback. having fought at Plassey. like the rest of us. Sir Frederick Currie. when the enemy. as his elephant attracted the attention of the enemy. Had we all been on horseback. aimed evidently at General Stuart's elephant.66 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. just grazing his ear. We marched long before daybreak of the 29th December. and a hght field battery. and deployed into line. and to avoid the dust Lord EUenborough. thus giving us timely warning of their vicinity. as the sun was in our eyes. and in front of the I. rode some way the military column. bears on Regiment. at a short distance from us. and the Governor-General and the most of us might have been killed or wounded. We could still see nothing in our front but high crops.

where General Littler was. and both corps were in a few minutes engaged in severe and bloody conflict with the enemy. a spot where some wounded men were collected and a field had been established. driven out of and were pursued by our village. fifty-sixth Off went the thirty-ninth. main position at Chanda. which was soon taken. on their who advanced troops. Richmond delivered the order to advance at once. In the meantime the Governor-General and his party had advanced some way in rear of General Littler's division as it pressed forwards. were far their position the previous night. and asked me. as the I man he and Sir pointed him out. The thirty-ninth drove the Mahrattas from their guns. At this juncture. which was I halt. hospital A few soldiers of the thirtyas escort ninth had been left as a hospital guard. Richmond Shakespear came met. while the two fight the I away little to our right. the The enemy was soon fired. visible as the it sun rose higher and the mist cleared that and was then apparent us. firing 6'/ upon the us. and we had 5—2 . at At length it was deemed more prudent to which we did a short distance from the burning village. galloping when down from first Sir the Commander-in-Chief. followed by the Native Infantry. whole Mahratta army was before having changed main divisions of our force who were intended to action.Battle of Maharajpore. which were planted in different parts of the open fields the half-standing crops. in which General Valiant's division was able to take an active part. capturing several guns. and among on into the village of Maharajpore. There a severe struggle took place. happened to be a to the right of our line. their line became off. and take the guns in front.

sufficient effective soldiers It was altogether was an anxious moment. These had been directed to follow in the rear of General Littler's division as the safest place. the Governor-General's . but the insufficient for number of the purpose. We knew. on their elephants. for we were only of numbers to attract attention. they had no better resource than to join the Governor-General's small party as likely to afford them some protection. and passed rapidly away from us. we could see nothing but the flames of the burning village and the smoke from the guns. that our troops were advancing and gradually driving the enemy before them. but it when had to go unexpectedly into action. Situated as we were at this time. now Lady Grant. but totally unable to make any successful defence against any attack which might be made upon us by any considerable body of the enemy. her daughter. we were joined by Lady Gough.68 Remtmscences of a Bengal Civilian. and Lady Smith. ladies wife of Sir Harry. I was grieved to find con- tained Colonel Fitzroy Somerset. On going up it to one and lifting the curtain. Fortunately. a party of the i6th Lancers rode up. Suddenly our attention was directed to a cloud of dust approaching us from the rear. however. from the roar of the guns and the rattle of the musketry becoming less loud. however. we did not ascertain. a few irregular cavalry troopers and some Affghans. the cloud of dust turned to the right. to take our troops in to form square. escorting some wounded officers in doolies. Shortly afterwards. and a cry was raised that it was the Mahratta cavalry advancing An immediate order was given rear. and whether they were a portion of the enemy's cavalry or not. While halted in this spot with the battle raging immediately in front.

which. and were in full retreat Grant followed him almost immediately with a request from the Commander-in-Chief that the Governor-General in the enemy's entrenched would advance and join him He camp at Chanda. said to " Look what a nice figure they have made of me. mond. Soon afterwards his staff. aide-de-camp to the Com- mander-in-Chief. Richmond Shakespear standing under a I where was laid the On going up. military secretary. rode up to report their position. Sir Rich- Saunders. the cost is not much taken into account. had cost us more than 800 men in killed and wounded. Colonel (now General) Gough. . smiling. and the fight than poor Saunders. on the way many of the As we went on.Battle of Maharajpore. in the moment of victory. Presently Captain Macdonald." By this time the firing in our front had become irregular and far less heavy. Sir Patrick that the enemy had been driven from towards Gwalior. however. who. and hearty were our I mutual congratulations on the victory achieved . accordingly advanced. and looked as if none was more eager for He had been shot through we joined Lord Gough and he were asleep. 69 wounded in who had been a vain desperately to several places in endeavour rescue General to Churchill from a party of the enemy who were about despatch him as he lay wounded on the ground. and soon after entirely ceased. was grieved to find it was that of Colonel He. passing enemy's guns I noticed Sir left standing in the fields. the heart. — me. body of an officer covered with a sheet. was sensible. Somerset. but. tree. though exhausted by loss of blood. and myself had dined together the previous evening. military secretary to Government.

. causing con- siderable loss of followers.70 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. doing us any . of course. without. having received a contusion by a piece of grape in the ankle. I happened to be sitting conversing with General Littler as he reclined in his palanquin. however. when us. fell over us. I noticed I called out to the general to run. Our sepoys and camp followers. CHAPTER IX. sometimes immediately above them. an upheavement of the ground close to which we both did but a shower of dust and in time to escape the danger small stones injury. never. and these numerous explosions were the result. among the native soldiers and The Mahrattas had for security' sake buried to in the ground in earthen jars their spare powder. We a had scarcely been an hour life in the enemy's position when camp number of explosions of gunpowder occurred. commenced lighting fires to cook in the immediate vicinity of these buried stores. expecting be driven from their entrenched position. in ignorance of this. MEETING OF SCINDIA WITH THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL ADVANCE TO GWALIOR LORD ELLENSUBSEQUENT ARRANGEMENTS — — — BOROUGH'S ADMINISTRATION.

although highly displeased with the Gwalior durbar. and to submit to any terms his It lordship might impose. as I had never before seen the dead committed uncoffined to the earth." with one division of the army. following up the Mahratta army. which would have cost much time and many lives to reduce. for that night. was fortunate that Lord Ellen- borough was on the spot. bringing a despatch from General Gray. delays must have occurred. and probably have held that strong fortress against us. to their senses. and General who had died of his wounds during grave. the night. were buried in the same To me it was a most solemn and impressive scene. camp. a message arrived in camp. with the cheering intelligence that his division " had on the 29th also won a victory at " Punniar over the GwaUor The the lost troops opposed to them. only covered each with a In the afternoon of the same day.Burial of General CJmrchilL It yi should was determined in that the Governor-General remain the position of " Chanda. and they no time in sending offering to come into messengers to the Governor-General. " Tara Baiee. and the Gwalior troops would have had time to recover heart. wound round them. while the remainder was to advance with the Commander-in-Chief towards Gwalior. Upon the afternoon of the 30th December. Intimation was sent back to the Tara Baiee and her advisers in reply. defeat of both her armies brought the Maharanee. poor Saunders Churchill. that the Governor-General. and clothed sheet in their usual dress. and able to conduct the negotiations in person. Had it been otherwise. and the opposi- ." and her advisers.

The whole party were in a state of great alarm. I was directed to go out to meet them. and accordingly of the started with a small escort for of Governor-General's body-guard that purpose. nevertheless.J2 tion Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. A separate in adjoining tent was prepared for the Maharanee. without any ceremony or any salute. in the arms of one of his chiefs. mounted on bare-backed horses. and by the Maharanee's female body-guard. and a variety of glass and porcelain vases and other ornaments from among the durbar stores. to amuse her highness and keep her in good humour. the 31st December. and the our pickets. not object to receive her highness and her son. They were accompanied by a small escort of foot soldiers and sowars. Accordingly. that the Queen and her son were in the immediate neighbourhood of our camp. the young rajah. shown by the army. they started to accompany me to the camp. consisting of astride some twenty or thirty Mahratta girls. but as a suppliant. fitted up with a very handsome French looking-glass. information was sent in. and desirous to come in and deHver themselves up. the next day. but after a few words of encouragement. Scindia and the The Governor-General received chiefs who accompanied him the in boy full durbar. and conduct them to the GovernorGeneral troopers . The Mahratta chief who carried Scindia in his arms walked right up to the Governor- . boy rajah on an elephant. of jungle. which she and her attendants remained This tent had been handsomely during the conference. would. After proceeding about a couple of miles beyond I came upon the party halted in a small patch The Maharanee was in a palanquin.

and stopped me. into. no opposition was shown. 73 General. as it was to his lordship's intimate to When the conference was the satisfaction. borough to retired with and then informed them of the terms on which he was prepared make peace with the durbar. Lord Ellenthe chiefs into a private tent. ended. I diflferent was told to in . On the ist January. 1844. and by which Scindia was disbandment of his II . and the citadel fort and made over to his to our troops. said are his father and protector. the camp marched toGwalior. the chiefs that the articles Maharanee's tent were intended for her acceptance and I then reconducted the party beyond the pickets to the spot had previously met them. It was evident that the party were much at their ease. Upon the the 13th January.Reception of Maharanee and Scindia. While the discussion was in progress. A missed the way. As each separate proposal was discussed. had just a glance of the interior. while her maids stood behind her. one of the chiefs went to the Maharanee's tent. and enjoying themselves greatly. You moment. and informing her highness of its purport. and placing the child in his lordship's arms for a " He is now your Highness's child. came back with her reply. By mistake ran into the Maharanee's tent. a new treaty was entered restored throne." After a few words of conversation. In consequence of the energy of the Governor-General's proceedings. and he looks to you for every: thing. I had occasion to leave the tent to fetch I some document required for reference. and saw the Tara Baiee with bare head and face gazing at herself in the looking-glass with much self-complacency. and Mahratta seated at the I door caught my leg as I passed.

and retired to their homes. we are indebted to the wise. his lordship had extricated the state from its critical position. under Providence. and bind by feelings of gratitude to our Government. and of the greatest peril. on which. effected. not only flourishing internally. firm. had recalled our armies within our own territories. Under his wise and energetic government. the Governor-General returned to Calcutta. had crushed the power of the Mahrattas. Lord Hardinge. Thus were the famous long been a battalions of Scindia. the treaty. politically cially. therefore. and generous policy of Lord Ellenborough. effectually broken up and rendered comparatively innocuous. All being now arranged at Gwalior. and such arrangements made most for the future govern- ment of the country as were likely to it secure the integrity of the Gwalior state. reaching the Presidency in the end of February. while the greater portion of the splendid artillery of the state passed into our hands. his lordship had found the country. as has already described. He. but to all appear- . made over his charge to his successor. On assuming charge of the Government from Lord been finan- Auckland. mutinous army enlisted into the Numbers of the soldiers were new contingent raised under the terms of received their arrears of pay. 1844. in circumstances. which had terror to their neighbours. For all these measures. and a source of continual anxiety to our Government. and had placed our finances on a satisfactory footing. our safety in the subsequent war with the Sikhs mainly depended.74 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. The remainder with a gratuity of three months' pay.

75 ance externally secure. I . except from the one great danger which had long menaced us. the mutinous Sikh army congregated in the Punjaub. and which the feeble Government then existing in that country was apparently totally unable to command or restrain.New Viceroy.

D. character of a dangerous They were divided into each twelve clans called Messals. formed the Sikhs in A. then seven- teen years old. they were subjected to severe persecution. the tenth spiritual head. Mahomedan bigotry was aroused. In the year 1778. and each male was a soldier from his bound always to go armed. OF THE SIKH POWER TREATY WITH RUNJEET SINGH AFFAIRS AT LAHORE LORD HARDINGE's MEASURES FOR STRENGTHENING OUR FRONTIER. a certain ii'^to dress birth. and thus from harmless the sect devotees nation of gradually assumed the fanatics. CHAPTER RISE X. 1675. century the sect attracted little notice. a religious commonwealth for mutual deAll distinctions of caste were aboHshed. was prescribed. by a devotee named Nanuk. fence. presided over by a chief. which had increased with a large and powerful nation. the then King of Cabul. Goroo Govind. . but as their numbers went on increasing. At the nead of one of the least important ^f these clans in the year 1792 was the famous Runjeet Singh. and In consequence. Shah Zeman.76 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. was founded in the end of the For nearly a 15 th century. — — — The religious sect of the Sikhs.

chief of who thus became our 1808. eight were recovered and retained by Runjeet. in chief under his power. On his army crossing the Jhelum. Puttialah. and it necessary to interfere for his protection. Among these was the ally. considered Runjeet Singh. was deputed to Runjeet's camp to require him to rehnquish his attempts against Puttialah. had made their submission to the Shah. provided they either aided us or remained neutral. and the possession of this ordnance proved the commence- ment of his power. and extended his influence over such of them as occupied the country between the Sutlej and the Jumna rivers. tlje and confine himself within territories already acquired by him on our side of the river. offered to undertake the recovery of the guns. Runjeet very unwillingly acceded to our demands. endeavoured to bring this our Government. Majesty was he was unable to attempt its recovery. with his clan. 77 finto invaded the Punjaub with the avowed intention of marching Hindustan. but in Out of twelve guns reality to secure them for himself. Shah artillery feeman's was swamped. and as his 'forced to return hurriedly to Affghanistan. ostensibly to return them to the owner. Runjeet Singh. by which he bound himself . the Government of the time had been anxious to conciliate the Sikh chiefs living on the left bank of the Sutlej. Lord Metcalfe. In our war with the Mahrattas in 1803. swamped. then Resident at Delhi. in virtue of our engagement. He immediately commenced encroach- ing on the power of the other clans.Runjeet Singh. who. and a treaty was entered into with him. and promised to gua- rantee them in their possessions.

who was almost immediately — putative son of Runjeet's. succeeded." and by her minister. watching his father's obsequies. aided by her " Jowallah Purshad." formed the regency on behalf of the minor Rajah. was proclaimed ruler. These " Punches." and the troops they represented. attended the durbars. termed Punches. while we pledged ourselves never to concern ourselves with the Rajah's subjects in that quarter. the Ranee Chundah. Runjeet Singh rigidly treaty during his lifetime. with The soldiery was represented by dele" gates from each branch of the force. with the rest of his family. however. whose great object to compass their overthrow. and enforced compliance with all their demands for increase of pay and constant largesses. became a constant source of terror and alarm to the regency and the leading chiefs of the State. maintain no more troops in his cis-Sutlej possessions than were absolutely necessary to carry on the internal duties of administration. and quite a child. a gateway. never appeared by stones falling upon him while standing under an arched Shere Singh. consisting of above 100. at this time.000 men. and acknowledged as such by the British Government." who a powerful artillery. killed it —^whether by accident or design Nao Nihal Khurruck Singh. adhered to the obligations of this In 1839 he died. another son of Runjeet. which the chiefs it became knew well could only be accomplished by bringing the anny into . brother. The real rulers of the country were. Rajah Lall Singh. by his son. but was soon cut off assassination. the army. by Then the present Dhuleep Singh.y8 to Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. " His mother. who was again succeeded Singh. and was suc- ceeded by his son.

were earnestly exhorted to be in constant readi- This was the state of [the Government . Loodianah. Notwithstanding. the Maharanee's brother. the force on the frontier was. for by this time the Sikh army had thrown off excited all control. that notwithstanding their threaten- iing appearance. and both felt that their only chance of safety and was by employing the troops re- immediately in active operations against the British. who was now left with Rajah Lall Singh as her sole adviser. however. was imminent. Meerut.Affairs in the Punjatib. possible.fidently when Lord Hardinge assumed His 1844. taking menced. by sending up troops of all arms in the most unostentatious were. Delhi. view the troops were constantly inflamed by representations of the insidious designs of the British Government. And it was not a moment too soon. and Umballah. stations of Agra. measures for reinforcing our frontier . by the hot season of 1845. comfrom the moment of on his office. and. treble that Lord Hardinge had found it on assuming the government the previous year. lordship was. With this view the previous rumours were sedulously . and was in a most dangerous condition. opinions to the contrary. and its [and they ness to advance and repel the invaders. the Sikh army would never have the temeall rity to cross the Sutlej in any force to invade our territory. however. They had murdered Jowallah Purshad. in the course of the annual manner reliefs. Ferozepore. ^collision with the forces of the British this 79 With Government. intention speedily to annex the Sikh cis-Sutlej territories. contold by those whose opinions were supposed to be affairs in most worthy of attention. as it By these measures. entering feeling that the danger Lord Hardinge.

among them. became clamorous to be led across the Sutlej. formed the chief topic of discussion General. on the 26th of November. and was proceeding by Delhi towards Umballah. earnestly requested that the orders for the march of these troops might be countermanded by the Governor-General himself. from the had no opinion that the advance was all a sham. Suddenly. Benares. Gust. therefore. Muttra. left In the meantime the Governor- who had Calcutta in September. It happened to fall to my despatch to the Governor-General. the measure which had been already taken by the Commanderin-Chief (Lord Gough). and the booty they should bring back from the sack of Delhi. of ordering the advance to Umballah of the troops stationed at Meerut. therefore. intelligence reached our camp. Major Broadfoot. The soldiery. The with two exceptions. and Patna. however. then some marches beyond Kurnaul. and that their threats and vapourings could come to nothing. The agent. Major political agents on the frontier. we intended invading the and to effect this had procured from Bombay Punjaub itself. in consequence and it was further reported that of these rumours. He. vived of British aggression on the Sikh cis-Sutlej states. boats for bridging the Sutlej. and only calculated to precipitate the collision it was so desirable to avoid. and . political agent. had reached Agra. were still strongly of opinion that the Sikh army would never invade British territory. Nicholson and Mr. that the main had advanced from Lahore on the 23rd towards the body He at the same time expressed his confident Sutlej.8o Remi7tisceiices of a Bengal Civilian. deprecated as highly impolitic. and that the army real intention of leaving Lahore. who duty to carry in this quietly read it.

for the Sikhs would certainly make at for and if it fell into their hands. then holding the magistrate of the place. " I want to see all the roads leading to plied his lordship. long afterwards. by the measures office taken by Sir John Lawrence. from the prestige attending its name. while a fugitive in the re- bellion of 1857. in which he urges Delhi. the political his repre- camp the same evening. after having proceeded some marches on their way towards the frontier. I at once remarking that Delhi was its id so. and admired his prescience. now far in our rear. reinforced. me most strongly to look after all its garrison. great rallying rebellion. have just received a letter from the Duke of it.Garrison of Delhi reinforced. the illustrious Duke. had long passed away. reinforce it. agent. and that importance. joined the of Major Broadfoot. . and point him out Delhi. and by sentations induced the Governor-General to countermand the advance of the Meerut division." How often. and the result might be most disastrous. become once a rallying point for the disaffected all over India. and watch roads leading to it . while humiliated by my own and its a different opinion. hen directed 81 me to spread out before him the map of the orth-West Provinces." repoint of view. distant rom the frontier. the place would. for I Wellington. in a political " Never mind. which accordingly re- I trograded. and while Delhi had become actually the point of the disaffected and the focus of the I have pondered over these prognostications of presumption and ignorance in holding The result was that Delhi was strongly safety well cared for.

to poHtic. — — — — Some days left later. I left the camp. informing me that although some Sikh troops were then known to have I received a letter . CHAPTER XI. a time. aide-de-camp to the Governor-General. this manner by our chief authority on Sikh and being myself. as quite chimerical. as his " Teraiee " jungles. Assured in affairs. Although my presence there was urgently was very reluctant to leave the camp at such Before taking any measures for leaving. I was suddenly called to rejoin my family at Agra. I required. of the same opinion. and lead them to think that an invasion of the Punjaub was really intended. ADVANCE OF THE SIKH ARMY BATTLES OF MOODKEE AND FEROZESHUHUR ORDERED TO SIEGE TRAIN ENTRENCHED AT PEHOA PROCEED TO PUTTIALAH AFFAIR AT BUDDEEWAL. 3rd of December. go shoot tigers. arrived at from Major Herries. dated 12th December. therefore. He ridiculed the idea and hoped the Governor-General would. in concert with most others. and would not remaining on the frontier was very imfail to alarm the Sikhs. and Agra on the Upon the i8th of the same month. I consulted Major Broadfoot as to the probability of the Sikhs crossing the Sutlej at that time. off into the on reaching Umballah.Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

It is not to be wondered that so much doubt and uncertainty attended movements and ultimate intentions of the Sikh army. at empire in greater time. he was proving the incorrect- ness of these prognostications. many The Sikh states in the rear of our army were up in arms. considering their mutinous condition. for the action of Moodkee first must have been raging. the threat of invasion often repeated. he. and he was himself one of the who the fell mortally at. I Poor fellow ! just about the time was perusing his letter. than at this I sole for Major Herries's letter of the 12th December was the communication from the army which reached Agra days subsequent to these battles. totally disregarded I believe there by our poHtical officers at the frontier were at this time only and two among them. officers These two stood alone in considering the danger result very imminent. and communication 6—2 . that still 83 of Broadfoot's no collision would occur between them and our forces that season. since Runjeet's death. who were of opinion that the present threatened invasion was anything more than an empty menace. crossed the Sutlej.Death of Major Herries. that at last it had been so came to be . Cust. was opinion. with others. ciplined The Sikhs were the bravest and best disenemy we had yet encountered. and the proved that they were right. in the state. and never was an peril. Major Nicholson and Mr. and the absence of any one controlling authority ledged leader. wounded in that battle. any previous period. The actions of Moodkee and Ferozeshuhur are matters of history. or any acknowEver who could direct their movements in so formidable an enterprise as a war with the British.

General Eckford. proceeding to the front. Rumours of the most alarming and disastrous character now began to circulate. siege-train. though greatly exposed in constant attendance on their father. at Allahabad. altogether unhurt . and the Sikhs in full our army annihimarch on Delhi. meaning by white cloth our European troops. which This force was mutinied in 1857. unless in company with a body of troops. but at a sad cost of life. and staff We all had. under the command of Major. intimate friends had fallen. killing many of its officers. by post was cut off. as there written in cipher. Hardinge. totally inadequate to defend a train of heavy . who. telling him " to be to had been a very great expenditure of white cloth " " on the and that the supply was supposed be nearly exhausted Sutlej. watchful." Agra was ready for despatch from Delhi. It was not till killed. Hke him. My me on no account to attempt to rejoin the camp. My first intelligence of what had occurred was from a cloth-merchant of Agra. who came to tell me that he had received a letter from a friend at Delhi. indeed. the 28th of December that I received authentic intelligence of what had actually occurred. except own two most gallant sons. Many his of my most the Governor-General's had been killed or wounded. letters directed not even their horses having been wounded. the present Viscount Hardinge and Colonel A. had come out. won two great victories. " . as the country was impassable for single I was accordingly detained " which a had been called for. The convoy consisted of a squad- travellers or small detachments. at until ron of native cavalry and the 6th Native Infantry. It was reported that both the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief had been lated.§4 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

by name " Sheva Parshad. however. until we came to a place called prosperously Pehoa. in the heart of the disaffected country. disguising himself as a Sikh traveller." The will get — remarked significantly the " You servant reported this to his master. silent who were and sullen. The convoy. as all off. was at us." Much to his surprise he had. however. Up to this time we were in complete ignorance of what was going on in our front. I immediately proposed to send forward one of the " Meer Moonshees of the Government." with me. fallen in with six native camp-followers in a state of great exhaustion from fatigue. The moonshee started ligence immediately. after to completing his work. fasting. While encamped curred. having ridden up to the town of " Mullair Kotilah. close to that town. notwith- standing our successes at this time completely hostile to progressed very Moodkee and Ferozeshuhur. to my tent to inform of endeavouring to " me.Rumours of siege-guns Disaster circulate. servant. and at who was dusk returned. while traversing a country which. in order to endeavour to pick up intelfrom the villages in our front. and consult as procure some reliable who immediately came to the best way intelligence. forming a miles in length. next. which led us our front. and terror. communication with the army was cut and no information could be gleaned from the people. at Pehoa. line 85 of several and of ammunition. They repre- . As he the man was going away. an incident oc- to believe that all was not right in A silversmith of the town had been hired by one of General Eckford's servants to repair some articles be- longing to his master. on very well to-morrow and the but on the 3rd day you will be attacked.

so that they had no opportunity of communicating with any of the sepoys. but of what really had occurred it was impossible for cut up and dispersed. was attacked by an overwhelming force.86 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as it There was. however. merely saying that the Queen's Regiment. great seemed by no means imto halt at Pehoa. they saving themselves by flight. and that the dust was caused by a messenger. we might also be attacked. and that several us to form any accurate idea. were brought where the general joined me. and cause a panic. something had gone wrong. accompanied by some elephants and troopers of the Governor-General's body-guard from the camp at Feroze- . we questioned them separately as to what had occurred. It turned only to the general out to be a false alarm. reason to be on the possible that silversmith. and European soldiers were straggling about in the It was evident that jungles. which they said had been attacked by the enemy and cut to pieces. When the men in. as predicted by the I and the general determined present. and their tidings were known and myself About midday there was a report that the enemy was advancing on our position. to which they had been attached. They could give but a very incoherent account. all the baggage plundered. and entrench himself for the tent all night. as a cloud of dust was seen approaching the camp. kept the fugitives in and long before the dawn sent them beyond my our pickets. but wisely to my tent. Sheva men to accompany him back to them beyond our pickets. sented themselves to have been attached to a European regiment. I ordered him to bring the men straight Parshad had induced these left our camp. as he feared they might spread their ill news in the camp. alert.

with the object of cutting off the siege-train and stores of from head-quarters contained the rather startling that a large force of the enemy. 8y me the Governor-General's instructions young Mahawho had his of in the on the father. to use my best endeavours to induce the young chief to continue to follow his father's example. and with his subjects remain faithful to British interests. the instructed. would be I was cut off. hostile to us. My letters [intelHgence ' " Runjore Singh. place rajah it was feared and by poison. of his son and successor. and Major Balderston and Major Reid. A letter from and sunnud of forwarded to the Governor-General to the investiture together with rich presents. offered to accompany me.Ordered pore." had crossed the Sutlej at Loodianah. The principality of Puttialah was in consequence of this it chiefs death in a very excited and disturbed state. front. conveying to to proceed to Puttialah. and the results might be very disastrous. for presentation. and was considered of the fidelity greatest importance to secure the as. suddenly to proceed instantly to Puttialah to instal the account of his steady adherence to British interests. on mysteriously died. who were proceeding to join their respective regiments. under Sirdar amon munition in progress to the to take possession of Delhi. and then to proceed A division of our army had to intercept this force -------. sent off under General Sir Harry Smith to endeavour but in the meantime General Eckford fbeen . throne. young Prince. therefore. which passed chiefly through Puttialah territory. were to take me and I was ordered two officers of the detachment with me as aides-de-camp. should the state become main army's communication with its rear.

capturing our siege-train and the Sutlej. effectual resistance to a large and well- equipped The tialah. was clearly silversmith had alluded Runjore Singh's army to which the as likely to attack us. ment. We. As by advancing from Pehoa General Eckford might be proceeding right into the lion's mouth. had escaped from Buddeewal. Had ammunition en route. there is little doubt that he would have been joined by the country people. It was most fortunate for our interests that this affair. and reached unopposed. had already occurred between the Sikhs Sir Harry's troops. and await further information or orders. who had suffered severely and lost their baggage. and reached Delhi unopposed. It turned out. with our be able to reach our destination crossed the country. news of Runjore Singh's success at Buddeewal had by this time spread over The people were in a high state of excitethe country. as ascertained afterwards. instead of advancing directly on Delhi after remained stationary and entrenched himself on he pushed southward. with intelligence received during the night from the stragglers made and it more than doubtful no good success on our side. where Runjore Singh's force had made a partially successful attack on our troops. was doubtful whether we should. that the stragglers who had come into our camp. following morning.88 I Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. . for the detachment in charge was too weak to make any force. lost no time It in communicating this information to the general. he determined to remain entrenched for the present at that place. and it small escort of troopers. Runjore Singh. and the that a collision. however. I It left Pehoa en for route for Put- was rather an anxious time.

and The prestige of our arms had suffered greatly in native estimation it by our disasters beyond the was deemed by no means unlikely that our as army on the Sutlej might be destroyed in like manner our forces had been annihilated in Affghanistan. and known. was presumed. the only incident to us as being that some abuse was addressed through the town to the quarters assigned to us —the townsflying to we passed " Kaffirs. that whatever his own disposition towards us might be. happily for the true reason. next day. that of his chiefs and people was by no means friendly. want of heavy artillery and small-arm init ammunition. This was scarcely to be wondered at. afraid to attack for. met with a severe check at Budwas supposed that Runjore Singh was himself advancing on Delhi. for »diate any means to our prospects were not by cheering at the time. The it force sent to intercept Runjore Singh had. and. as time was pressing. attendance on the chief and it was clear to me. was not known to be the real cause of our activity. I had an interview with the young chief.P Interview with Maharajah of Puttialah. was also well deewal. us. that the formal installation should take place the was a good deal struck at this interview. by and reserved demeanour of the sirdars in imme. It was plain to me from the temper of the sirdars and people that I must do something more than merely place I . it ." asserting that people calling us Calcutta to our ships. the sullen I It was then arranged. be inactive it in front of the Sikh position Our main army was known on the Sutlej. without any let 89 |V Puttialah or hindrance. and condoled with him on his father's sudden and unexpected death. we were Immediately on my arrival. Indus.

90 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. faithful. and that it was necessary at such a crisis to conciUate him and his people. some more substantial marks of our if he remained favour. the young chief on the throne. and deUver to him the usual sunnud of investiture. with the presents on the part of our Government . by promising their chief. and endeavour to bind them to our interests. I .

and meditating as to the course I should follow. YOUNG MAHARAJAH MEASURES TAKEN TO CONFIRM HIS ATTACHMENT TO OUR CAUSE REJOIN THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL LORD HARDINGE's ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF FEROZESHUHUR. surrounded by the whole of the sirdars and the palace ras )y on elephants with as much :hief men of the state assembled in durbar. After some conversation of a general nature. id that and as I hoped between Sir Harry Smith's force under Runjore Singh. — — — IThe morning after reaching Puttialah. practicable the Prince. in the absence of I suddenly heard the sound of from the direction of the Sutlej. At the hour fixed for the investiture. ^direction. and soon heavy guns became confident that a battle was being fought in that any definite instructions.( 91 ) CHAPTER rSTALLATION OF THE XII. ith and then invested him the dress of honour. fixing in his turban the diamond . while walking up and [down the garden in which we were encamped. I produced the Governor" reneral's letter and the sunnud. we proceeded to state and parade as under the We were received circumstances." confirming the young [aharajah as his father's successor.

ornament. his Highness had. and to forget old feuds. people remained steadfast to our his Highness ." I added that although I if was not authorized to say so. When we You see were it is. the Maharajah room. as his parting advice. I said that himself be well aware of the wisdom of his father's advice. in a very earnest tone. head. consisting of gold tained in muslin bags. for may his hereditary enemy. and he might feel assured. which it was quite absurd they to suppose they would be. the chiefs and retainers pressed forward to present their offerings. From our Government. always true engagements. and that in this were victorious war. and I don't know what " his Highness must happen. he said was admitted. wish to side with the Khalsa. " how none of all people are favourable to your Government . first " mohurs. urged my father me never I just before his to lose my hold of the skirt of the British Government." conchief's waving them round the feet. I felt confident that the Maharajah and his interests. the emblem of chiefship." In reply. on the contrary. they would certainly depose him. but death. my I am in a great difficulty. his advice. and incorporate Puttialah with their own territory. As soon as this ceremonial was over. want to follow but I am quite alone. every- thing to expect.92 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. me to retire alone with him to a separate which only seated. of the Governor-General's anxiety to perpetuate and maintain the dignity and honour of the Puttialah State. and then depositing them at his When requested to all had presented his Vizier their offerings. from the fact that no time had been his father's lost in recognizing and installing him as successor. and so if he knew the Sikh durbar was wipe to its off all old scores.

that I had made a favourable impression. I remarked. his former )mpeers. . that if the Mahasupplies. )romise." With this assurance. the [aharajah nobly loyalty fulfilled the assurances time. and upon him of some of the lands which would territory become the war. to which he was himself as cordially ittached as was his father. replied that he quite agreed in I had and that I might assure the Governor-General that he would exert himself. irticular but on the increased salute." My first assurances were. after some conversation of a and we returned to the after the usual ceremonies. our interview ended. in maintaining the fidelity of his chiefs and people to the British Government. British on the successful termination of would take upon myself to Finally. to the utmost of his power.Installation of rould be rewarded Maharajah. of fidelity and made this very critical During the re- . satisfaction. and keeping open communications with the rear his — that the present salute which iture to Highness was entitled would be increased in such a number of guns as would not only raise his ink above all other chiefs of the cis-Sutlej states. I saw. but place id him at once on a level with the great ancient Rajahs of Hindustan. jeneral nature. I said that I Mah aided us by forwarding ir on the part of the Government. and that of his Vizier. received with no promising from the Maharajah's pleased expression. and both. lurbar. which shortly broke up that From day at until his recent lamented death. 93 by the bestowal by the enlargement of his territory. that I might hope to gain " my point with them what The Maharajah said.

The day succeeding the his installation. The siege-train was its in con- sequence able to pursue tion. his Highness rendered us valuable aid in men and money. as I thought. and saw that . and keeping our communications open with the rear. we received. I dismissed them. for the first thirty time. While galloping through the low jungle. who had been shot through it pulled up. asleep. and proceeded with an escort of Governor-General at Ferozepore. It must have been the firing of artillery during the battle which I had heard while walking in the garden at Puttialah. he rendered most ing suppHes for the army. In the second Sikh war of 1848-49. its course unmolested to destina- and all fear of the enemy getting into our rear and proceeding to Delhi was removed.94 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. I a soldier was the dead body of of the 31st Regiment. so averse were the people to admit the fact of any success on our side. and in the awful crisis of 1857. and with a few troopers of the body-guard pushed on rapidly for our camp. and the news of the victory must have been known there that same night . his fidelity remained unshaken. it was never reported to us. I took leave of the his horse to Maharajah. and efficient aid his ready and was of the most vital importance to us. intelligence of Sir Harry's Smith's victory at Alleewal over Runjore Singh's army. -. efficient aid in furnish- mainder of the war. When about join miles from that station. Thinking that we had now no further need of the large escort of Puttialah horse. my horse shied violently on passing a bush on looking down I saw a bare-headed European soldier lying under it.

'hat presented an awful scene of havoc and laughter. It was easy to trace by the heaps of dead men id horses where the struggle had been most severe. Hindustani sepoys we came upon many bodies of and European soldiers lying about long the bushes. went from regiment to regiment. the wearied soldiery lay down to sleep . mixed up with the . than that at had guns in position of treble the fcalibre ever used in European warfare. id so gorged that they scarcely noticed us or moved out our way. as he informed me. Shortly after dies were strewed here and there itil all along the road we reached battle-field the scene of the action of Ferozeshuhur. Neither side had been able to take efficient for the burial or leasures "just removal of the dead.Lord Hardmge' s Account of Ferozeshuhur. In the evening Lord Hardinge gave me a most interesting account of the battle of Ferozeshuhur. camp and proceedings at Puttialah. both sides had ceased.entre of the Sikhs' carcases of animals and fragments of tents and gun-carriages. who lay as ires Vulthey had fallen some three weeks before. The scene was one calculated to impress the mind I most deeply with the horrors of war. As soon as darkness pad closed in on the evening of the 21st. The entrenched position was heaped up with bodies of our soldiers and of the enemy. my The fire was even more for the Sikhs terrible. joined the Governor-General reported in his In the afternoon at Sobraon. chest. his lordship then. he said. and we found that we were traversing le The dead scene of the late battle of Moodkee. and other birds of prey were collected in numbers. which were approved by his lordship. lying down on the ground for a . le 95 Skhs. and the firing on IAlbuera.

Colonel. their entrenchat the repeated —"My men. in which they had suffered severely. rejecting the many suggestions made to on Ferozepore. annoyed discharges. was the turning-point of From . Finding the men all good heart. sprung up. His lordship. saying. spiked. called on the next regiment to charge and silence the gun. The regi- ment happened sprang up thinking to to be the ist obey the order Bengal Fusiliers. which they had been engaged and the Lord Hardinge made up his mind to retain his position. thinned as their ranks them too weak for the duty. was lieutenant-colonel. While lying down along with the men of one regiment. . most had been by the day's battle. a solitary heavy gun from the to retreat him enemy was every now and then fired from ment directly in front. who was severely wounded in the thigh. we must silence that gun . where the men lay down to rest as before. his This happened to be the 8oth. and overthrew it. took. notwithstanding the terrible struggle in heavy losses sustained." and ordered the regiment to form up to attack it. it won't allow me to get any sleep. now General Wood." as he said. returning in a few minutes with the greatest order to their position. which instantly but the Governor-General. Lord Hardinge and in darkness. with the Fusiliers in support. made middle of the night and this battle. with each. told me he considered that in the this brilliant successful attack. The 8oth had several men killed and wounded in the operation among the latter was Colonel Wood. and recommence the action on the following morning.96 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. . This regiment. this won't do. " in to feel short time their pulse. advanced straight on the gun. of which own nephew and military secretary.

to which !ing rode out the morning after I rejoined the camp. thinking it use^^Bss to continue a struggle with soldiers so brave and so disciplined as >. hard at work strengthening their de7 . British. when it was found that the Sikhs had in a great measure abandoned the field. 97 our troops were about to recommence the attack. e night. to us why this fresh army had failed to advance and reinforce ever. was one of great. the result must have been very disastrous for lus. who. Next morning. both for artillery and small It was inexplicable at the time arms. I their comrades.^. strength. |. had not advanced to reinforce Had they advanced during eir brethren at Ferozeshuhur. called Rhodawallah. on the contrary. The retired Sikh position of Sobraon. almost expended. From an advanced I post in Kont of our army. the soldiers were to be seen. as our European regiments were much reduced in numbers. it the pretext that the day was inauspicious for a that their troops should by no means being the intention of the regency be successful. and our ammunition. happily for us. The soldiers had one and all joined in construct- the earthworks in front of a bridge of boats which biey had thrown across the Sutlej so as to secure a passage to their own side of the river. '^^ighly t ^^Kid commenced abandoning their position.„„ the English.Sikh Position at Sobraon. how- was informed that their leaders had restrained the men on battle. but. where a large body of fresh troops was assembled. and were retreating to Sobraon on the left bank of e Sutlej. Subsequently at Lahore. thick as bees. to which their army had from the field of Ferozeshuhur. so as to get rid be destroyed by the of them for ever._.

a distance of some seventy miles. made the Sikhs cautious of encountering our army in the open field. fortunately for us. or had my skill so severely Buddeewal affair it . You Sir should rather congratulate me on that brilliant affair. and. from the insufficiency of our Their for all arms. and. This animal was subsequently my proof considerable size perty. rejoined the army. was carried one evening off by a leopard from my walking in a forest near Simla." Harry mentioned to me at the same time a curious incident respecting his dog. Sir Harry Smith. we experience of Moodkee. although and great side. a large and handsome Newfoundland. until our siege train and ample supplies of ammuni- tion had been brought up. Some days after my return to head-quarters. his master's deputy. while strength.98 fences. ammunition of suppHes to attack us. we got out of in a masterly manner. have retreated. and I can tell you I never was so hard pressed in all tasked. and entering the tent of Colonel Barr. as in the my long career. however. but it : takes a general to retreat. lines Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. with his division. At this time. lay down under his bed. thanks to Cureton and the cavalry. but. The exhausted was the first state of the dog and his sudden appearance intimation which reached the main army that something untoward had occurred to the division detached under Sir Harry. On congratulating my old friend on his victory of Alleewal. they remained quietly working and completing their de- fences. made his way back to the head-quarters' camp. had the Sikhs advanced out of their must. which had probably preserved my neck on my " shoulders. he replied Any man can win a battle. . which getting separated from his master in the confusion of Buddeewal.

to Sir directed to Gilbert's commence Walter division was ordered Sir be in its immediate support on the right. 99 ^^reparations were commenced for an immediate attack on ^Hie Sikh entrenchment. marched Queen's regiment. Robert Dick himself mortally wounded. as Lall Singh's emissaries reported. assault The morning of the loth February. and Harry Smith's division to be again close to Gilbert's right to support him. When this fire had continued for some division advanced and found the defences weak and had easily surmountable. was driven back. and the whole division • had penetrated some way before they were discovered by the Sikhs. emissaries While ^Kajah Lall Singh arrived. and where government was carried on. In the meantime the Governor- ^General had returned to Ferozepore. The loth gallant Colonel. with their firelocks at their shoulders. From ^^ceived. Sir overpowered by numbers. Gilbert 7—2 . and gave us valuable information the intelligence thus ^Rspecting the enemy's position. time. to be low and weak.Battle of Sobraon. where his large all camp from was estabhshed. Franks. who at once turned upon them their whole force. totally unopposed. under its in. it was determined to attack the entrenchment on its extreme right. and the Governor-General left Ferozepore on the 9th for for the was fixed the immediate scene of action. where Lall Singh reported the defences Sir Robert Dick's division was the attack at this point. Dick's commenced by a which had been moved from our into position on the previous night. the loth the action Early on the morning of terrific fire heavy guns. the civil business of the there. The and division.

Sir were driven back with very heavy loss. The Sikhs made a gallant which were also ultimately and desperate resist- ance. and in front of the very centre of the Sikh position. which. Gilbert's troops immediately advanced. but find- ing the centre of the works. from their height. and shot down or drowned as they strove to cross. had become general. but were driven towards the river and their bridge of boats. retiring troops. their attacks. broken down. had. had withdrawn the chief part of their force and Dick's division effected an entrance. They fully succeeded in their purpose. as far as possible. until the stream became actually choked with the dead. he sent his military secretary. As soon as the Governor-General saw that the action was decided in our favour. and having no means of escape. was on the extreme left of the Sikh position. his division had been posted some distance off. to order Sir John Grey's reserve division. and was driven back with great loss. Gilbert's driving divisions the enemy before them. and Smith's renewed successful. that they to those points. now MajorGeneral Wood. the annihilation of the feared and detested army. . was ordered up to support the but instead of being close to Dick.100 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as soon as the action their leaders. for the retreating masses. By this time the attention of the Sikhs was so taken up by repelling the attacks on their centre and left. pre- Rajah vious consent. Harry Smith's division. were driven into the river. finding the bridge broken. their object being to effect. taking the precaution retire across it Lall Singh and Tej Singh. Colonel. instead of being near the right of Gilbert. perfectly impracticable. It also advanced on the works in its front. by first to themselves.

but as I thought the news so good and and inform him ." on the road to Lahore. right. as our loss in the morning's was very heavy but his lordship. and not a Sikh remained on our side of the river. to position this crosses the Sutlej. on His lordship had seeing our men. when at his heart at you have knocked the wind out of your enemy. brigade major with Grey's force. that night. thus " for once violating his repeated Never wake me injunction. Lahore. his lordship saying. I received a pencil note from Colonel Eraser. I deemed for it best to rouse for good news. immediately retired." Soon about eleven p. informing me of the division having safely crossed the river and occupied the high ground of " Kussoor. retired to sleep. In the afternoon of the loth. after leaving his lordship's tent m. That tent. .Our Army stationed at Attaree. Many remonstrances against movement were made to the Governor-General as rash battle and dangerous in the extreme. to me good news will always keep. is to go right once before he has time to recover. the victory of Sobraon by an immediate advance of the whole army into the Punjaub and on to the capital. if you have bad. I when remember the writing letters from his dictation in his in reply to folly some earnest remonstrance " against supposed and rashness of crossing our army at once upon it into the Punjaub. happily for our interests. the Governor-General returned to his camp at Ferozepore. night. without opposition. when the action was completely over. and determined to follow up . but come immediately and wake me up. cross 10 1 a the Sutlej. cheering. for the safest Depend I am and wisest course. who. remained unshaken. just as some of the enemy's troops were advancing upon it. and take up on the right bank.

paralyzed the enemy. ." There can be which was no doubt Lord Hardinge's and genius we owe the advance of that to inflexible determination this division. a the army was able a few days later to cross the river movement which. with the very diminished number of European troops at our disposal. however. and they neither attempted to its attack our army on crossing the Sutlej or to oppose our advance to Lahore. as immediate measures may be requisite. the coup of the war. in consequence of which the rest of — unopposed. The rapidity of the Governor-General's movements. could not have been successfully attempted had the passage been opposed.102 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

TERVIEW BETWEEN THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND MAHARAJAH DHULEEP SINGH. offering to come in and make t their submission to the Governor-General. which had been completed as soon as the victory of Sobraon had been decided. Upon the nth the main body of our army commenced crossing the bridge of boats near Ferozepore. I could not help being most favourably impressed by his courteous and pleasing manner and address. on the part of herself and her son Maharajah Dhuleep Singh. . Within three days the whole force was assembled at "Kussoor" and ready to advance on the capital. and. This was the first occasion of my meeting this remarkable man. At Kussoor Rajah Golab Singh arrived in our camp with overtures from the Maharanee. though well knowing him to be one of the most cruel and treacherous of mankind.( 103 ) CHAPTER XIII. which incorporated with his own territory. Golab Singh was hill one of three inhabitants of the district of Jummoo. who cultivated a few acres Runjeet Singh had (brothers. Early in the century their father.

the army lost confidence in Rajahs Lall. which he retained until the death of Runjeet Singh . and their other leaders. in whom he could place implicit reliance. and with whom their lives from hour to hour. which he did so effectually that the government of the country. and were attached immediately to his person. He persuaded the durbar to allow him to garrison the fortress of Lahore with these men. to quell some disturbances in his native district. he became an almost in- however. Golab Singh had been sent by he was rewarded by Runjeet. would attack and capture the position When . to get rid of the it ceed to join their brethren on the were ordered to proGolab Singh's Sutlej. Golab urged the army not he joined them. acknowledging nominal to the and durbar. of the Maharanee and her mutinous army. on one pretext well that in due time the British at Sobraon. while the Sikhs then occupying object was the same as that advisers. The Rajah promised compliance. with whom they soon became favourites. Dhian and Golab Singh. its service. ostensibly for at all still. knowing to attempt attacking the British until this full he evaded doing. and invited Golab Singh to place himself at their head.104 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and then. With this view. and arrived in due time at Lahore with a large body of his own hill troops. fealty maintaining a body of troops dependent prince. Ferozeshuhur and Alleewal. British whom they accused of conspiring with the for Government their destruction. taking advantage of the disturbed state of the Punjaub. When the Sikhs were defeated Moodkee. in 1809. Tej Singh. which none of them could hope were not safe to control. as troopers in Runjeet's service. and or another.

escorted by a few I troopers of the body-guard. in concert with the vent. defeated and driven the Golab Maharanee. it or desirable. After proceeding about three miles beyond our picquets. This. across 105 Sutlej. information was Maharajah Dhuleep Singh had come up to brought miles of our picquets. I was directed to go but to receive his Highness. that leaving Kussoor. I met the Maharajah. mind Annexation of the country was with the force at our disposal perfectly out of the question. determined to the enter into negotiations with Governor-General. as the Punjaub would never. however. with a powerful it artillery. had it been in respects politic inge's opinion.000 Sikhs. and with The Rajah hoped to prethis view arrived in our camp. their intentions being unknown I^MJLahore HPto the army. our advance on Lahore. in our immediate neighhourhood. tther . by negotiation. then a mere Rajah Golab Singh. advance. Singh. who would. in Lord Har- could not be. The Governor-General had previously made up his with respect to the policy he intended to follow. had they received the least intimation of their intention. as there was this the still an army of 40. safely in They. seated with secretly in the night. and this force was doubtful whether hesitation might not attack us. with a few attendants and no state. escaped notice and arrived camp.Advance of the Sikhs were the Army to Kussoor. if we showed any reached in our When we had after the second camping ground. The party had left child. have certainly taken measures to intercept them on the way. on an elephant. but to Governor-General would not consent. which I did. and was anxious to some pithin come in and make his submission.

in conducting the party back. I thought in could detect. I contrived to halt the procession for some moments elephants. as the sight would not fail to make a salutary impression upon him. had been received as a mere On clemency without ceremony or salute. Accordingly. With this view. his greater ceding to us the JuUundhur Doab. in which of course Dhuleep Singh was The too young to take any part. a look of . and disbanding the number of its mutinous army. and give Rajah Golab Singh an opportunity of seeing them. close to the reception tent. his departure he was regarded as a Sovereign Prince restored to his kingdom. Maharajah. and which being no longer protection of our old territory. and that of the large force which would be required to available for the garrison it. repay the cost of its administration. the Governor-General had directed that the siege guns should be brought up during the conference. each drawn by two and as they thundered forth the salute. His lordship therefore deter- mined. the meeting broke up. These demands were at this interview with Maharajah Golab discussed duly Singh. After a long discussion. assured. Golab Singh's countenance. to pass close to these guns. and were agreed to by him without hesitation. and entitled to all due marks of honour and respect. would *have to be replaced by fresh masses of troops.io6 he felt Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. in order to fire a royal salute on the departure of the Maharajah. on his suppliant for arrival. to promise Highness the restoration of his kingdom on condition of the Sikhs paying an indemnity for the expenses of the war. His lordship had previously directed me. on receiving the Maharajah's submission. I close to these enormous guns.

Sir Henry Lawrence. rode on with a small escort. with evident wonder. battle array. and which might at any moment attack The Governor-General travelled in us on the line of march. the army advanced towards Lahore. and flying banners.000 men. notwithstanding the amicable negotiations of the preceding day. for several miles to take pitched. There was no dust. Frederick Currie. under the silent and apparently deserted walls. and the scene very im- pressive. Sir he was lame in consequence of a fall from Sir Henry Lawrence. their number in and size. and myself. each division taking up its assigned position. Golab Singh had fairly warned us that he could not control the army. which was in our neighbourhood. I than that of never witnessed a more beautiful or imposing sight this large force advancing in a hne extending up its position. in order to avoid the stifling dust. We were mounted on elephants. and pushed on rapidly until we were close under the walls of Lahore . The day following. when suddenly a . as. as his horse. his carriage. until our army began to arrive. accoutreSoon the difl"erent camps were ments. about 40. the chief secretary. and myself were deputed by the GovernorGeneral to place Dhuleep Singh on his restored throne. 107 anxiety as he regarded. and the morning sun was shining full on their arms. of the The procession was a grand one. the political agent. In same the afternoon day Sir Frederick Currie. ahead of the troops.Installation of Maharajah DJmleep Singh. and during our passage from the camp to the citadel my elephant be next to that of Rajah Golab Singh to happened with whom I was earnestly conversing. we halted and sat under the shade of an old gateway.

went off quietly. fired matchlock was we were visibly at the moment from the wall of the city under which I never saw a man more passing. however. When the Governor-General came opposite the 50th Regiment. forming a strong body-guard. very few officers surviving. desperately wounded at your head. alarmed and excited than Golab Singh was for the The locality was associated in his mind with and murder. and we all pressed up. and with due ceremonial the kingdom of Runjeet. Lord Gough. and line. and had been conspicuous for its dash in and was consequently reduced to half its with strength. . hoping to hear Sir Charles. at Lahore. all four battles." The regiment instantly cheered. and was pointing Charles. Sir Charles Napier joined the GovernorGeneral. moment. having been summoned from Scinde to take Lord Hardinge's place as second in command of the army . greatness and power. and shortly after his arrival a review of the troops his honour. and scenes of bloodshed gave a hurried order to some of his attendants walking by the elephant's side. While was ordered in Lord Hardinge. Fiftieth. and it was evident to me that he anticipated some treachery. He abruptly broke off the conversation. and we entered the citadel without molestation. here is your old colonel. Lord Hardinge " and called stopped out. someits what shorn of successor. was restored to his Dhuleep Singh. which formed part of Sir Harry Smith's division.io8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. All. and in an incredibly short space of time a number of his own immediate followers crowded round his elephant. Sir Charles rode along the corps receiving the salutes of the different as they passed. of which this might be the signal." " to Sir who led you at Corunna.

109 who sat on his horse bare-headed before the regiment. the Koh-i-noor. he got silence that morning "when we up and explained his might. Golab Singh went to fetch General. and on Sir on. he remained perfectly silent. jewel letting to the English officers. could only trace its progress by watch- . so crowded upon where the Maharajah and all his nobles received the Governor-General. never. he on to the next officer. it benches my begged me to it out of hands let until some it friend on the back I him see for a moment. past associations him that he felt quite overcome." unable to utterly The next day there was a grand durbar in the palace. pression that his heart was as hard as the sole of his boot but when he saw his beloved old regiment. and as address the men." he remarked." he said. and Sikh chiefs. " under the im. however. the former on one During the durbar Lord Hardinge asked to see the famous diamond. and presented it to the GovernorAfter inspecting and admiring it. and show this wonderful and priceless I did so. to render thanks for his clemency and The vast Hall of Audience the restoration of the kingdom. Charles's health being drunk. the Governor-General passed In the evening there was a great dinner. was crowded with sitting in tiers British officers side. when handed passed it up to him. Several minutes elapsed. however.The Koh-i-iioor. so reduced in numbers. moment he had been. and with its colours so torn and riddled with shot. " justly I Until that have expected to hear him address his old regiment. and utter a word. me to take it round. his lordship told it. which he had never met since Corunna. and so it went on from I one to the other. Instead of returning it to me.

bringing in their arms and artillery to an Through appointed place. The duty stone. No doubt both parties were under great obligations to this extraordinary man. one of the Governor-General's and myself. and in vain I implored its return. At last. after it had passed through the hands of got possession of it some hundreds of door of the the Rajah. watched in its progress in the might be lost in the crowd. lest it to our infinite relief. officers. I close to the its and I gladly handed it over to keeper. was nation of our negotiations. Our army remained at Lahore until the peaceable termi- The kingdom of Cashmere. The Jullundhur Doab was without opposition ceded and made over to our officers. his influence the Sikh troops were disbanded without coercion. which the Punjaub Government could not retain. The coffers of the state did not afford sufficient had been long impoverished. so we agreed to receive the equivalent by weight in The result was that we were immegold and silver bullion. where they were received by our troops. and money to pay more than half the amount. being appointed commissioner of the new province. Sir John Lawrence. diately surrounded " by heaps of barbaric pearl and gold. I For above twenty minutes it Rajah Golab Singh and greatest alarm. of receiving it devolved upon Colonel Johnstaff. and which it was not the Governor-General's policy to annex.1 10 Remijtiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the . ing the eyes and hands of the crowd of officers. The indemnity was also paid up. made Singh over in undisputed sovereignty to Rajah Golab in return for his exertions at this critical time. hall. and he had well earned his reward. then collector and magistrate of Delhi.

assuring him that if the troops were disaster . vessels of gold just and silver of various sizes and uses. he. Lord Hardinge sent for me one morning while this measure was under discussion. it each Sikh as he deposited his costly burden salaaming to deigning to notice us the receivers. would remain and to take the command. When was completed. his lordship It was finally to remain with him. that Sir John with a division of the army . but that if it was determined that Sir Charles would wish me should assume the command. at length consented as a temporary measure for a certain fixed period. Littler." Jewels and ornaments of all kinds. The Governor-General. unless a all British force were left in Lahore for their support. and walking away without This work occupied us different coinages many days. our army was about to march away to our own provinces. 1 1 1 Ormus and of I Inde. and told me that Sir Charles Napier had strongly dissuaded him from leaving a British garrison in Lahore. when the new ministry demurred to remaining in power. such as could fancy must have adorned Belshazzar's in feast. however.Sir Charles Napier wealth of offers to remain at Lahore. though most reluctant to comply with this demand. Sir Charles. and his lordship told me that he did not think it would be necessary to accept his generous offer . his Lord Hardinge was much struck with the chivalrous gene- rosity of Sir Charles offering to give up government in Scinde for so comparatively unimportant a post. and the new regency installed. came pouring upon us. left if thus isolated there would be another Cabul his lordship considered the step but a necessary and imperative one. volunteer to in that case. and the valuation of the and of the various articles cost infinite wrangling and trouble. arranged.

should remain at Lahore to maintain by presence and influence the new ministry in power. the Commanderin-Chief. the rest of the army broke up.112 Remmiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Napier returned to Scinde. and departed Sir Charles to its quarters in our Provinces. quite secure. and Sir Charles Napier. . and the Governor- General marched through the newly acquired Jullundhur Doab to Simla. Sir and with the present their George MacGregor as the Governor- General's agent. which we duly reached in the end of March. 1846. When these troops had been located in positions in the city which appeared to the Governor-General.

the commerce with Asia beyond the Caspian was deemed of so much importance that the English Government granted the exclusive privilege of conducting it to the British factory at St.( 113 ) CHAPTER XIV. — — — While at Simla my attention was much drawn to the importance and advantage to be derived from opening a direct overland commercial intercourse between China and India. MEASURES FOR OPENING DIRECT COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA RUSSIAN OVERLAND TRADE WITH CHINA LORD HARDINGE ENTERS INTO A NEW TREATY WITH THE SIKHS RESIGNS HIS GOVERNMENT. : the Cas- coming within the limits of their the whole. thereby diverting into our own provinces valuable and extensive trade which Russia was much of that known to carry on with Thibet and the northern provinces of the Chinese empire. In former times. this trade had not attracted much interest. however. Petersburg. charter. as they maintained. a proceed- ing which was protested against by the Levant and East Indian companies as interfering with their interests pian Sea. and Russia was left to monopolize Her attention had been systematically directed years to absorbing the many commerce of the whole of Central 8 . for In later years.

will ultimately have the effect of bringing back the trade of Europe with Asia into its original channels. including China. howand our holding that country from the sea to the mountains. to enable us to secure a great portion of this trade. and the influence of the . It was becoming to her what India and her other colonies are to Great Britain. unless British view. as a great naval and maritime power. Our ever. Our position also in the Red Sea and Mediterranean would enable us to that Hne. and advancing her to and beyond the Caspian. that the result of steam navigation in the Danube and the Black and Caspian Seas. The events which followed the overthrow of in the Sikh power 1845-46. and to secure its monopoly had been the main object in pushing her conquests eastward. with common e»ergy. Once let commerce follow this direct' overland channel. it would add an amount of wealth and power to that country almost incalculable. ought. and Northern Asia. to the abandonment of the tedious and circuitous voyage round the Cape of Good Hope.1 14 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. secure a great portion of the in commerce following which event the influence of Great Britain. as well as the formation of railways in the countries adjoining them. position of supremacy and influence in India. entirely indepen- dent of Great Britain as a maritime Passing almost entirely through the dominions of Russia. and the intercourse of Europe with Asia will become state. Russia appears to have posts foreseen what in all probability will occur. disturbances in while Europe would not affect it nor interfere with its progress. in energy and capital interfere to prevent it. would be increased rather than diminished.

appeared to thereby diverting into our own provinces of Hindustan much of the valuable commerce which. to send to Ladakh. and China. subject to it accordingly brought the to Lord Hardinge's notice. The imperial through his interposition. skirting the countries subordinate to our influence. by the issue of . Sir John Davis of a authorities. to use his influence also in inducing Government to despatch commissioners to the frontier officers meet a deputation of our Governor-General whom it was the desire of the point. and consented to despatch a deputation to their frontier. In due time. requesting him and with the imperial authorities at Pekin on the subject of opening the trade that to . with With this view. then Sir John Davis. passed I on to the marts on the Russian frontier. Thibet. No time was lost this intelli- by the in Governor-General on the receipt of gence Chinese deputies. the Government addressed a comto enter into negotiation munication to her Majesty's plenipotentiary in China. to 115 Government being thereby extended Cashmere. a central where both parties might mutually deliberate and determine on the best means of opening the trade. had entered cordially into the views of the Government of India. who immediately took up warmly. and determined to use his best endeavours secure the consent of the Chinese Government to commercial overland intercourse opening a direct India. a reply was»received from very sa^sfactory character. deputing commissioners to Ladakh to meet the They were instructed. and the countries immediately on the frontier of I me to offer pecuHar advantages for a commercial acquiring footing in Northern China.Commission appointed British to proceed to Ladakh.

"and many an anxious thought and watchful hour they cause me . John. which appeared to when walking with Lord Hardinge and Sir me illustrative of his lordship's readiness and Quickness of resource in pened were stored. John where all the thousands of muskets which we had taken from the Sikhs. best calculated to promote the important views of the Indian Government. advantages of a required to direct trade with They were their attention to develope the commerce. and Cunningham During the hot season of 1846 all remained tranquil at Lahore. India. to confer with the Governor-General. I remember. and suitable to their peculiar In short. in command there. when all disarmed Sir at Lahore.Ii6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. of the Civil Service. as their local experience advanced. proclamations and other means. are all in the repHed John. to inhabitants. direct make known the to the as they passed along. take all measures which might appear to them. they were citadel. a conversation occurring between them. selected for the The officers duty were Colonel (now Major-General) Mr. the commissioners were requested to climate. and to acquaint themselves with the produce be most suitable for European were recommended to fix they at upon convenient fairs near the frontier for establishing —a or mode of con- ducting trade congenial to the tastes and habits of the people of Chinese Tartary. Vans Agnew. Further. on one occasion." to ask Sir Lord Hardinge hapmilitary matters. posts the wants and tastes of the people. so that Sir John Littler. " They as. by ascertaining of those countries which would markets. was able to visit Simla once or twice during that period. on any outbreak .

ceeded to when a new treaty between the Punjaub and the British Government was agreed upon. and let them oflf half the lock from each away. the Governor-General pro- visit the newly acquired province. on the Beas river. they might will tell fall 117 " I into the hands of the Sikhs. the Jullundhur Doab. Lord Dalhousie.Treaty of Bheyrowall. Commissioner was appointed and it Under to its terms a British reside permanently at Lahore. the loyal services rendered by that chief during the late war. Sir nominated to important post. The muskets musket and carry them thus are not rendered unserviceable." said " : Lord Hardinge man take order down a party of soldiers. each with a screw-driver and his haversack." In the cold weather of 1846." you what to do to make them harmless. . in order to when Lord Hardinge proceeded make over the Government to his successor. as a mark of his esteem and consideration for to Puttialah. and there held a meeting with the Sikh Regency. Henry Lawrence was From the Beas river we marched where Lord Hardinge visited the Maharajah. to watch over the administration of the State. but are quite useless if they fall into the enemy's hands. 1847. and thence to a place named Bheyrowall. We returned to Simla in the following March. and remained there until October. was further determined to maintain a force of British for his this troops there support. and return home. occurring. to Calcutta.

I was induced at this time to leave the secretariat. offering to confirm them in their hereditary possessions. and at the same time issued a proclamation to the several chiefs. — — As my health had already suffered greatly by a residence in Calcutta." the station of Simla being my Sutlej head-quarters. contained four principalities and thirty petty chiefships. tract between the and the Jumna over which I was now called upon to preside. and when war broke out between Nepaul and the British Government.8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. by the Governor. on condition of their co-oper- ating strenuously with our forces in the expulsion of the The call was cordially responded to . All these states had in 1811 been conquered by the Nepaulese . and reinstate the sions. The mountainous rivers. APPOINTED SUPERINTENDENT OF HILL STATES MEASURES FOR ESTABLISHING SCHOOLS IN THE HILLS SUCCESS OF SYSTEM ADOPTED. his and was appointed. in 1814.General. CHAPTER XV. before departure. many of . former rajahs and chiefs in their hereditary posses- Accordingly. Sir David Ochterlony advanced into the Hills with a considerable British force. future aggression. and protect them from Goorkhas. it became an object to drive the invaders from these hill tracts. superintendent of " Hill States.

termed a nuzzur. after some severe fighting. The only persons. who came up seeking employment accountants. One in my first objects. . I found no schools of . and district schools. as had been the custom heretofore. on the occasion of any chief or one of his immediate followers visiting the political agent. It is customary. any description were in operation. with rare excep- tions. as ." of money. a mark of respect to the British representative and it would be a breach of etiquette highly offensive to their feelings. or of the products of their respective districts. with two or three was from that time stationed in the Hills. and so return the chiefs substantial compensation for their gifts by affording them the means of educating their people. on entering on my new charge. and the chiefs restored. the enemy was driven out. spending the amount thus received in the purchase of return presents. and manage the crown by the of failure of British districts scattered through the Hills. " to present an offering. others assisted in and. A political superin- tendent. to watch over the interest of the chiefs and people. instead of presents were not accepted. the chiefs joined Ochterlony's standard various ways . able to read and write were adventurers from the as writers and plains.Vernacular Education in the Hills. assistants. December. one in each chiefship . was to endeavour to introduce into these Hill districts the people totally ignorant and barbarous some system of vernacular education. 1847. if their It struck me that. 119 . it would be of greater advantage to form the whole of these offerings into a fund for the establishment of a central school at Simla. and indeed none had ever existed up to that time. which from time to time have escheated to the male heirs.

Sir sioner at Lahore. able to train masters of a superior description to those generally to be met with in Indian village schools. so as to raise a feeling in favour of education in the minds of the parents. substantial. proposal was cordially assented to by my immediate Fred. Duff's institution in Calcutta. and the instruction conveyed them should not only be interesting. for none were in existence of any kind. but of practical. and immediate utility. man was fit for the duty. none being able to read or write. then officiating chief commis- My superior. successful in parish schools I felt that with a rude and ignorant people. Before the training school could be set agoing. it was necessary. the next thing preside over Having thus secured the means for supwas to procure teachers to not a Hill them . Currie. who were perfectly apathetic on the subject of the instruction of their children. and instruct them in the manner of teaching found most in England. that these institutions should be of as superior a description as that we in could make them. except a few individuals employed in our public offices. or one or two in immediate attendance on the chiefs. necessary to prepare it was and print elementary school-books in the Hill dialect.120 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. There appeared to me to be no reason why the books found most useful for children in Great Britain and Ireland might . and place the advantages to be derived therefrom in a new and striking light. first thing was to establish a training school and with this view a duly qualified teacher was pro- cured from Dr. porting schools. To supply this want. to carry on their necessary business. the . in order to induce them to permit their children to attend the schools.

dissension. and the result showed that the books were in the time a every respect most suitable for the purpose. under my own By super- intendence . less 121 who are no intelligent or capable this view. eligible It was necessary first to make the education afforded in these it schools at entirely grafuifous. however. to give the whole course of instruction a practical tendency. the teaching was to be had for least that the people would incur the nothing. justice. writing.Preparation of School Books. As. were instructed in reading. dishonesty. The children were trained to habits of reflection and the exercise of the judgment . ciphering. and industry . and geography. and the number of pupils soon These children surpassed my most sanguine expectations. With a complete series of the books published by the Irish Education Society were procured. not be equally fitted for the minds of Asiatics. The education was purely secular. and some of these were modified and cumstances. lessons of truth. prudence. translated into altered to suit local cir- the Hill dialect. of which several were established in localities. of receiving sound practical instruction. through the medium of their own vernacular language. sufficient number of books were ready for use. and the endeavour kept in view throughout. and hatred of lying. was. and finally printed at a private lithographic press. the parents showed no disinclination to allow their children to attend the schools. but the great principles of duty were set before the children . and dissipation were inculcated. as they were perfectly careless on the subject. several teachers district had been trained and were ready to take charge of schools . for was vain to hope expense in the instruction of their children. .

attempt did not answer. in full operation in the Benares province. and are now the in daily use in these At this is moment Simla system. a mischievous delusion. that Mr. and to expect that Mahomedans. under the able superintendence of Sheva Purshad. is. Thomason. to be taught by heathens. He had my permission. schools. Duff.122 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. with no material variation. who saw it in operation. efficiently so much so. and. to read the Scriptures But the with any boy who expressed a wish to study them. in will. it never spiri- Spiritual things can only be properly taught by tual any good will come from our Bible a school-book. formance of the with the view of enabHng the pupils to bring to the percommon duties of their daily lives exercised disciplined faculties. were re-adapted and printed to suit the people of the plains. having been instructed by Dr. although not a Christian. accordingly. of the school-books translated and printed for our Simla schools. Many. in which accommodation was afforded drafted in from the to the best who were district schools from time to time. boarding-house was attached to the Central Simla School. I consider. certainly not a Hindoo. also. The head master of the Central School. my humble opinion. making men. my former moonshee and zealous coadjutor in . introduced it with some few modifications into the provinces under his government. and was anxious to use the Bible as a class-book. in order that they might avail themselves of the superior description of education there procurable. The system worked very of education thus experimentally introduced . was. or others than Christians. and A boys. the Lieutenant-Governor of Agra.

appears to me that this system. disconnecting itself entirely from all superior systems of education. thus a comparatively . Our Government. colleges. to tion. money Such of our native subjects as might be desirous of securing superior education to that furnished in the Government elementary schools. and confining itself to . or schools . should be directed to missionary and private at their establish- ments. Government might. It ought not. which is not of a decidedly Christian character. 123 . to restrict itself to giving to its subjects a simple elementary education in their own vernacular dialects . whether con- ducted by missionaries or undertaken by private enterprise.000 boys now receiving instruc- tion. to offer any education of a higher description. under It his general superintendence. I peculiarly situated as it is. whether in universities. Supplying the means of a should be left to missionary of education superior description establishments and to private enterprise. of a sound and practical kind. It appears to me that the direct duty in this respect of our Government ceases when it supplies its subjects in India with the means of acquiring a sound vernacular elementary education. aided by grants from the State.Government Education Bill. might with advantage be extended all over our territory. in India.aiding by liberal grants all educational Christian institutions. as a Christian Government. provided they be Christian. which has been found well adapted for the North-West Provinces. all schemes for the improvement of the people in the Hills and there are more than 50. ought. the which they might resort or not own discre- Government its confine direct distinctly informing them that it must efforts to founding and supporting elemenat tary schools. have always considered.

to overthrow those barriers all real which caste prejudices now oppose to improvement. although willing themselves to throw off the shackles of caste. would be sure to raise the popular estimate in its favour. and be able by their numbers. set motion all over India a system of national its education capable of unlimited expansion. and the instruction afforded. The educated. a powerful influence. educated caste in themselves. They would form. to which alone we can look for any real or lasting improvement. in little cost. view the spread of intelligence among the humbler classes of its subjects. as few years themselves it were. The thousands all of children over India.124 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as evincing a real and practical solici- tude for their well-being . would be regarded with having for its favour by the people. A comprehensive measure of national education of this sort on the part of the State. . are numerically too few and too scattered and disunited to act in a body. would in a become the nation. or to contend effectually with popular prejudices and customs natives who are now being which are the great bar to the evangelization of India. simple in ing and practical in its work- character. and mutual support. being of itself of substantial utility. who would of all thus be simultaneously educated castes and creeds.

and even Simla itself To prevent this as far as possible. and was highly probable that marauding bands might cross at some of the fords or bridges on the Sutlej. I caused bodies of retainers and followers of the different chiefs to occupy each ford and bridge on the Sutlej. were. as they are called —by which the enemy I was myself employed in conmight attempt to cross.( 125 ) CHAPTER XVI. and there was. visiting these and seeing that their defenders were on the alert. SECOND SIKH WAR ANNEXATION OF PUNJAUB SIR CHARLES NAPIER AS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF ENFORCED LABOUR SIMLA AND THIBET ROAD. and to be prepared to cut down any of the latter —Sungahs. and plunder our districts. The in In 1849-50. on the commencement of hostilities. consequence. . Large bands of the enemy were it in movement in the districts across the Sutlej. withdrawn to join the army in the Punjaub. forming the boundary of my charge. not much time or incHnation to attend to schools while that very serious struggle continued. tinually riding from point to point along the line of the river posts. the second Sikh war broke two British regiments and one of Goorkhas garrisoning the Simla hills. immediately opposite to those under my charge. — — — — out.

Hindoor. so my information could be depended upon. . expecting the I enemy when. which brought the Punjaub to Lord Dalhousie's feet. at A large body of the enemy. informing me that the detachment of regular troops under his orders had fallen in with the enemy. after a severe action. was far as one time advancing. bridges would. was sent a state prisoner to the fortress of Chunar. who annexed British India. was stationed the at place with the chief of fully the district. then the commissioner of the Jullundhur Doab. whence she soon after effected her escape into Nepaul. Soon after our anxieties were completely removed by Lord Gough's brilliant action of Guzerat. they might have sacked and burnt with the greatest ease. the it with Ranee Chunda.126 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the prime mover in all the late disturbances in that unhappy kingdom. and with complete impunity. and incorporated the termination of the war. Her son. indeed. and. Simla and the other Hill stations of Kussowlie and Subathoo. for never made. near Benares. the attempt was attempted to force their way. in addition to the usual fixed residents. On the kingdom. and his men. to my great comfort. no doubt. have been demolished accordto cross by them ing to my orders had any force attempted but I do not think that the fords would have been defended The . then full of the wives and families of officers serving with the army in the Punjaub. had totally dispersed them the previous day. the straight towards one of the fords where I the Sutlej debouches into the plains. Rajah of to appear. on the Ganges. received a note from Sir John Lawrence. one moment had any considerable body of the enemy Happily. Had the enemy effected a crossing at this point.

and had . 127 Dhuleep Singh. The hard- ship was increased as the men might be detained. in-Chief. The men hitherto plying for hire of their own free were quite inadequate. came up to Simla for the hot weather of 1850. Napier. There seemed to state of things. regiments. and that in seed-time or harvest. With this view one of my assistants and myself were endeavouring to lay out a new line of road. while for the pubHc service 15. when their presence there was most required. as subsequently removed to England. whence he Lord Dalhousie. me but one way of remedying this sad and that was by the construction of a road from the plains to Simla and the other stations. by having to serve as forced porters for the conveyance of the baggage of Govern- I ment establishments. was sent to Futtehghur to reside.000 men had on will as porters more than one occasion distances to be collected together from great and for very inadequate remuneration. unavoidably. as the stations became resorted more to. which might be practicable for wheeled carriages and beasts of burden. weeks from their homes.System of enforced Labour. directed to the extreme misery my incumbency inflicted as my attention had been much and hardship upon the poor inhabitants of the Hills. and so substitute animal carriage for human porterage. soon as all arrangements consequent on the annexation of the country were completed.000 or 20. when he was joined by Sir Charles who had succeeded Lord Gough as Commander- During the previous two years of superintendent of these states. and private individuals travelling to and from the plains and the different Hill stations. for even the wants of private parties.

Some labourers were great labour Kennedy's disposal. accompany meet the new Commander-in-Chief. he might open out by their means a mile of road on his new principle. one of the first engineers of the age. I in substitution of was most thankful to accept my own crude and imperfect shortly after placed at Colonel attempt.for his ofler wheel carriages. he succeeded in laying out a line by which Simla could be reached from the plains by a gradual and easy ascent the whole way. Colonel Kennedy suggested that I should place all the gaol. and he immediately offered to survey and lay out a line of road suited. which might attract his lordship's attention tortuous portion of the on passing and repassing —Colonel Kennedy was convinced mind would not fail that the Governor-General's practical to notice the experimental portion. Sir Charles his Excellency from the plains to the old road the flags attracted As we rode along the attention of his Excellency's military secretary.128 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. to be of the highest importance. to its construc- but all my proposals for this purpose were looked on At length very coldly. at his disposal. but after and trouble. the next thing was to induce the Government to accede tion . when I was called to proceed to Napier. and in a very short time. Colonel Pitt Kennedy. only ninety in number. parallel with a very steep and prisoners in my in order that way leading to Lord Dalhousie's country residence. and I almost despaired of success. when explained seemed to his large and benevolent mind. The line being thus laid out. and with much personal risk. to him. and Simla. The object in view. flags marked by a considerable part of it. ority and acknowledge its superiover the old system. and perhaps be led in consequence .

who must amount to about 50. who them under the orders of [Some sapper privates acting as non-commissioned officers. ninety convicts continued under Colonel Kennedy's who employed them in constructing a new road Mahassoo. was the tunnel ever constructed and opened for traffic in India. as now. might with great advantage be extended to all the rest of India. The orders. in the course of a few months. instead of being. capable of admitting two horse- men first abreast. •opened out a piece of perfectly level road superseding one ^of the worst ascents and descents in the Governor-General's i daily journeys. to the Governor-General's country residence at By their aid alone. might with advantage in be employed opening out great works of irrigation and imlines of road and railway.Colonel Kennedy's Meastires. While employed upon its construction and that of the road. It appears to me that a system which proved so efficient scale. This.000 men. and none escaped from custody. no casualty or accident occurred among the convicts. 129 The prisoners were accordingly new road being constructed on the made over placing [to Colonel Kennedy. shut up in unprofitable idleness in central or district gaols. and directed it to 1 be immediately com- menced. The result was as the colonel expected : his lordship was so pleased with the experiment that he sanc- tioned the construction of the road to the plains on the same principle. It is scarcely possible to portant 9 . and that all our convicts. a tunnel was constructed through a hill of almost solid rock of above two hundred feet in length. to the best of my knowledge. on a small but which is capable of unlimited extension. sanction the proposed le principle. who all enjoyed excellent health.

from being continually skilled employed under masons. who would be duration. now would.000 to 8. estimate the extent of the improvement which might result from so large a body of their men being employed continually from utility. instead of being as The prisoners themselves.000. made vested with magisterial powers for the adjudication and punishment of any offences the convicts might commit while so employed. engineers. the labour of the convicts would be skilfully profitably and employed for the public benefit. but of England. under the orders of an officer of engineers. a dangerous encumbrance to the State. year to year in the construction of public works of By means in due time the country might be opened up further cost to the to commerce without any I State than the maintenance of convicts. not only of India. become themselves labourers. would gladly see the whole of the convicts in India.130 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. which must be incurred under any circumstances. undergoing sentences above three months' over by the civil power to the Public Works and Department. neer officers Under the chief engineer subordinate engishould be employed. By this means. and artificers. which hired labourers scarcely ever become. placed in gangs of from 5. each in charge of two or men. as they are so constantly liable to change. regiment of Sikhs or other native corps placed under the orders of the officer A of engineers in command. to four gangs. these gangs to consist of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty be again under the immediate superintendence of sapper privates acting as non-commissioned officers. which they must ever remain when shut up in central prisons. would effectually guard .

district to district and marched from wherever their services might be wanted. The very same thing would occur lade for their again if with similar success.s places of punishment.Employment of Convicts. By means the mutineers and the most remote were able imme- diately to spread. raising the country as they passed rough. and also to get rid of the multiof corrupt and useless guards now kept up for their [tude to Government md central prisons. the contagion of rebellion far [and wide. and were each assigned 9—2 . officers under military and guarded by disciplined soldiers. another outbreak were to take place at any time. being living proofs in themselves that the Government was at an end. This scheme would also have the advantage of enabling the do away with our present expensive gaols which are little dreaded by our criminals . and Convicts employed. The convicts and their guards might safely be encamped all the year round in thatched tents close to their works. 131 10. the released convicts. in 1857. the other officers Colonel Sir (in MacMurdo and Charles Napier's staff. on the other hand. invariably homes. into for depths of the country first . As soon its as the Governor-General had formally sanctioned tion. in the instance. nor be turned into ready and willing instruments for producing anarchy and confusion. a great rebels evil. could never be dangerous. the construc- work was set about with the greatest earnestness. To return to the subject of the Simla road. . on his Excellency as volunteer themselves placed assistants under Colonel Kennedy. Central gaols their are.000 convicts employed on public works. as 1857. [custody. in my opinion.

The second Sikh war had plans of totally defeated all the previous through the commissioners previously mentioned as deputed to the frontier. and enforced labour on this line is a thing of nothing I look back to with greater pleasure in the whole course of my long service. instrumental in relieving the Hill the past. however. an overland commercial intercourse with Thibet and China. and one of them. The work was and able successor. The officers for opening. a section of the road. on the breaking out of the war. which was nothing short of an insupportable and fearful system of serfdom. There is people from this enforced labour. and not a spadeful of earth was wasted ! short space of time for loaded animals and the road was opened up in an incredibly and travellers. and now. each in charge of a gang of labourers. porterage. in some measure. By this means. carried on. Shortly after the conclusion of the second Sikh campaign and the the many Bengal annexation of the Punjaub. all was scientific. left Colonel Kennedy Simla and returned to England before the line was wide enough for carts. Vans Agnew. no man's labour was misdirected. was —one of shortly after treacherously murdered at Mooltan at their post in the civilians who have nobly fallen pursuance of their public duty. skilful w^ork .132 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. with a fixed number of sappers as noncommissioned officers under them. instead of human drawn by bullocks or horses. ply for waggon trains. Government forming the commission were. and completed under his most energetic Major Briggs. intelligence reached the Government that a Chinese deputation was in progress to the . than having been. recalled for other duties. the conveyance of goods and baggage between the plains and Simla .

from the con- stant changes and deterioration of the coinage. that. on the other hand. by which the to that trade was then passing. and the Chinese provinces on the north. exceedingly hazardous. unavoidably elapsed before these officers could reach Ladakh. line of road similar to course from the plains to Simla might not be carried on to the frontier of Thibet. was eminently adapted for an emporium of trade. besides. was and short. leading to the Russian marts. in the meantime. while. however. I laid it before Colonel Kennedy some and submitted that in months previously to him whether a of construction to his leaving the Hills. leading through countries perfectly tranquil. to TJiibct Frontier. where no imposts were levied. by the petty governments along course . the patience of the Chinese deputies was exhausted. no secure markets were afforded to the trader. much time. The proposed direct route to Ladakh. 133 to Ladakh from Simla and Lord Dalhousie despatched a new commission So to meet and confer with them. a place which. very expensive. from the levy of customs' as the price of protection its duties and of black-mail. This latter line was most circuitous. and where the standard of . and from the insecurity of life and property in the country through which It was. This line was evidently superior. requiring many months to accomplish the journey going and returning. it passed. Fearful that the important subject would now be for- gotten or abandoned.opening of Road frontier. on the Caspian. and they had returned home. from its centrical situation between Cashmere and India on the south. and thence to Ladakh. where complete protection was afforded to the merchant. if it could be made.

such as the opening of this road. all Colonel Kennedy concurred in and regarding the subject as one of imperial importance. I Since then I fear they trust. for the attention of the Government of India been anew directed to the opening of an overland In the present position of our relations with the Govern- commerce with China. but. His proposals were sanctioned by Lord Dalhousie the road was surveyed and laid out by Colonel Kennedy and Major Briggs conjointly. It by this route than by was therefore to be presumed. have been discontinued. for other animals. considerable distance the when the works were interrupted by unfortunate events of 1857. ofl'ered. only to be recom- menced h-as .134 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. with his usual zeal and energy. and hardware — could — be supplied cheaper and more abundantly from Great Russia through that if facilities its marts. his my services to the Governor-General to engineer and commence . would speedily abandon the old for the new and improved route. The articles also which were coinage remained unaltered. cotton goods. there it is probable that any proposals we make . which annually crossed the passes. by roads impracticable views. chiefly in demand for the Chinese markets broadcloth. invariably follows what tends to its own safety and interest. which commerce. and was open for traffic to a the Hne. Britain were given. ment of China opening so. into the fully plains of Hindsutan. for if lines of trade would be at once acceded to and seems little reason to doubt that by opening up . That the trade had already a tendency to pass down by this way into our provinces was clear from the vast number of loaded sheep carrying a limited though valuable trade.

with its lovely climate. and beyond the influence of the tropical rains. many of the motives to extend her influence eastward. to secure a vast outlet for British commerce . in many hundreds of valuable The Kunawur climate. . and the valley. the province of Kunawur. Valley. and which seems no unimportant object. addition to its surpassing possesses scenery sublime beyond description. while at the same time. would. if the Thibet road be ener- and travellers. so far as these are now that railways are being rapidly constructed between the southern and northern parts of India. this 15 road to Ladakh and other commercial lines into our territories. Besides these considerations. by a politic and most legitimate use of our position and influence. getically carried on. be placed within easy reach of invalids and might be turned into a sanatorium for our British troops. and thus lives might probably be saved annually. itselt beautiful. we should seriously diminish the power and importance of Russia in Central and Northern Asia. is covered with vineyards producing some of the finest grapes in the world. equal to any in the world. we have it in our own power. and even withdraw from her connected with trade and commerce.Province of Kunawur.

no vacancies ments of the State. with above 300 passengers on board. CHAPTER XVII. — — — In the winter of 1852 I went home on furlough. and was the autumn of 1855 . this when we both had acted as pioneers of now crowded highway of nations.. Instead of the miserable Buggala. 1854. and with 700 boxes of mails for India and other parts of the world. there was the splendid first-class screw steamei. was forced to enter. as there were. General MacQueen. and India. for the first time. RETURN TO ENGLAND MEET WITH GENERAL MACQUEEN AT SUEZ ON MY RETURN TO INDIA APPOINTMENT AS COLLECTOR AND MAGISTRATE OF BUDAON TWO PATRIARCHS. I in the political or secretariat departin which I had previously served. after an I returned to India in absence of above fifteen years. and the single box of mails we picked up at Mocha. November. though. of course. at Suez I met my friend and former traveUing companion. also returning to But how different was the scene from that of seven- teen years before.136 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. On my for arrival in India. unfortunately me. great disadvantage. on which we two solitary Europeans embarked. collector I a was first appointed magistrate and in of Benares. the judicial and at revenue branch of the Service.

and and cultivated " myself that while the district was itself extremely like a watered garden. in order to effect the encumbered estates. transferred in 137 of in that capacity district to the district left Budaon Rohilcund. I traversed During the cold weather of 1855-56 its entire length and breadth. I shall have. consequences to the against the peace of the country. chiefly in and exci- consequence of the reckless system then prevailing. In 1856 I brought the subject to the notice of the expressing my fears of ultimate serious Government. that these salutary pre- cautions have been neglected. and the ties which bind the people to their It is in hereditary holdings are so strong. and while waiting till they within sight of the situated . is India alone where the feudal feeling so powerful. One day. sale of In Ireland also. of selling landed properties for the most trivial debts by the orders of our civil courts. however. in January.Appointed Magistrate of Budaon. and that the creditor should not be the purchaser. and inhabited by a mixed population of Hindoos and Mahomedans. and the consequent dislocation of society. is This Hes on the bank of the Ganges. the causes which. My wife and child were following behind in the carriage. northern part of my district. satisfied fertile. and 1856-57. treating of occasion to revert to this subject hereafter. by requiring that the sales be sanctioned by the highest court in the land." the people in a very discontented were miserably poor and table condition. In England we guard heedless sale of landed tenures. led to the rebellion. in when my opinion. we constructed a special tribunal for the duty. and on high sandy soil. 1857. I when marching through the rode up to a beautiful village snowy range of the Himalaya.

a crowd of came forward. though very weak. he said. several old old. and the villagers begged that little man might be permitted to take my child in . they were children." a gaunt man. 150 years old. another villager stepped forward and said. and his beard only grizzled. 125 You are an old years old. " and he was anxious that we should commence as he feels making his grave." On my expressing my the men with snow-white beards. among that villagers. it was a new " Your father?" man yourself.138 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. " I am He was a tall. who were employed. but he is not the oldest man in our village . who in a few minutes appeared leaning on the shoulder of the messenger. as of local saint. Mahomedans. his father is 125 years old. On asking him what was his age. and assembled." was the answer. that for his father. when great age. not much bent. he has not long to live. I overtook me. somewhat above 150 years doubts. and with no look of very extreme old age about him. we have another much older than expressing my incredulity at him. " boy was sent to fetch the patriarch. whom had by this time assuring me that it was so. By this time. white-bearded villager replied that the grave was empty. tomb some the On asking them. villagers. Certainly. and your father must have been many years dead and buried. entered into conversation with some of the I thought. repairing " " What holy man lies buried here ? an old. and* able yet to go about at his daily like to see occupation." " No. the carriage had the old come up. "Yes. Would you him ? " On replying." On my any man having arrived at so great an age. tomb which they were making I replied. he is " He is alive. they regarded this man even then as of and the patriarch of the village.

for in a very few months he survived. Mahomed Khan" which was his name was a full-grown — — man. The more *' other patriarch of 125 was bed-ridden. whose extreme old age he confirmed by saying. perhaps. I begged this man. nothing all is and peace." and returned her to me. of the bands of rebels. in the village.Mahomed Khans his Description of the Country 139 . which I caused to be taken down in writing as he narrated it. to if remain so." he " said. whose name was " Ahmed Khan. to Now. May your years be more than mine. might have seen the scenes of his early years acted over again for this village lay just in the track . he very solemnly said. but much intelligent than his older friend. I then entered into conversation with this. consented. and " on and never had gone much beyond it. and had married a second time. that he remembered well when the country was all jungle. He stated he was 125 years old. the oldest man upon the face of the earth. and the villagers the inhabitants could not we were then — in these times had to carry their weapons " to their fields. and when as — stir as far from the village " " the dread of Kuzzacks without standing mounted robbers coming upon them. ready to fight in their . and the chief events he remembered during his He told me he had been born and lived long pilgrimage." be seen but one garden of The country was not long this patriarch. and had been born in this village in the reign of the Emperor Mahomed . own is defence. arms to bless her. asking him what he had seen. I of course my placing her in his arms." to give me the history of his life. look around you cultivation. however. as they passed from the Doab into Rohilcund. that when he was quite a child.

greatly exasperated. and at last they chased the Mahrattas He had seen." he way : Some in the time before that event. that of Delhi. for all are old women now in Delhi. but soon the two armies closed with each other and fought with swords. He courtiers. years membered having been taken over the city by his father when Nadir left with his army. he said. when about thirty years of age. that great battle where the Mahrattas were completely defeated by the Emperor. spears. sacked Nadir Shah and he well rewhen old Delhi. " Nadir's visit to Hindosthan. in whose army his father held a post. I will Delhi as well as the palace. and the ing the the Emperor. an Affghan to his officer employed to Deccan came to Delhi pay respects have a long red beard. first began with artillery and musketry. where he was wounded . and that of the . *What next — here hall of audience. anyou what next itself." Ahmed Khan further went on to tell me that. I will tell fill — ^that before a year over. He was seven Shah. The battle. and sent off a messenger to Nadir Shah with a letter stating. happened to on his entersaying. with red- faced baboons like me.' arrival Nadir answered the summons. and plundered the city. he had succeeded to his post in the imperial army. and all he remembered seeing alive was a cat. — You ' are wanted here. he said. for no one had strength to resist him. of the Mahrattas. Affghans. and on his massacred the people. and daggers. — durbar?' ' we have now a red-haired baboon The officer. " the empire of the as far as Muttra. and was. began jeering him. on his father's death. present at the battle of Paneeput.' He then left the durbar in great wrath. " occurred in this said. — is come to swered.140 Reminiscefices of a Bengal Civilian.

according to his statement. . seven years old then. in a remote part of a remote district. and consulting Elphinstone's assertion of his extreme age was apparently quite correct. had always been an agriculturist. or a Httle more. he must have been fully 125 in 1857.Ahmed Khan's Sikhs pass away. might have seen that power also shaken. all to whom I mentioned the oldest inhabitants the fact of who confirmed the extreme old age of these individuals. that he was about thirty years old at that battle. younger of the two. would make him 125 years old. that Ahmed Khan's morning. I discovered. I have no reason to doubt : meeting with them was quite casual. never drank any spirits or wine. which just having been fought in 1761. until old age. and the temporary restoration " in his hot and of the empire whose servant he had been ardent youth. flesh. and he was. on the other hand. when I met His description of the battle of Paneeput also exactly corresponded with that recorded in Elphinstone. At the request of Lord Dalhousie. the evidence of of the neighbourhood was taken. seldom tasting smoked either opium or tobacco. had. Mahomed had the elder. and Narrative. he survived. in 1857. so extreme an old age. for as the sack of Delhi occurred in 1738. thus attained to These two men." if a few months the old soldier. 141 In now the British reigned supreme. but lived chiefly on milk and vegetable diet. and had never the Ahmed Khan. had. His statement of his age was further corroborated by his assertion him. and I found on going their stories were quite unpremeditated. the circumstance. spent their lives very differently. who had Khan." as he called it. the truth of these men's statements my to my tent that history.

and drinking all sorts of liquor. and the hot season.142 been Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and in all respects smoking tobacco. and at last the the down with my month of April. than the threatening clouds of rebelHon began to gather around. \ and no conclusion could therefore be was most conducive to health arrived as to which system longevity. to myself is nothing short occurred What and my family at that fearful crisis. and camps. in courts riously. that it of a miracle that any of us were left alive. will be seen from the following statement of my personal adventures. . No settled sooner had I finished my tour of the district. and had lived freely and luxueating flesh. No two men could have therefore lived more and differently at. for family in the station of Budaon. in storm broke upon us with such fury.

AND DUDE. and commenced plundering on the roads. left bank of the Ramgungah. July 27th. writing for the first time since the first of June. the spirit of disorder began to district show I itself in the Budaon in collector — the right was magistrate and Rohilcund. [a narrative of the events that have occurred to me since that sad day. In consequence of a warning I received from Misr . Bands of marauders sprang up. FUTTEHGHUR. I shall therefore deavour to record. as correctly as I can from memory. of Futtehghur. 1857. PERSONAL ADVENTURES DURING THE INDIAN REBELLION IN ROHILCUND. which were by that time in of which open rebellion. God I that should become a wanderer and a must premise that shortly after the outbreak and massacre at Meerut.E. about the 19th May.( 143 ) CHAPTER XVIII. and sacking and burning villages. about 12 miles N. as it were by magic. This day. Kussowrah. the infection having spread from the tracts on bank of the Ganges. so far as I can recollect. I have en- materials at my disposal. when it pleased fugitive. the I first of June.

for they passed through Bareilly after that station had been deserted my wife and child. began doubled the police my horse and foot. at very considerable risk. who himself. under Providence. the town of Bareilly. prisoners. immediately opposite to Budaon. the runners being unable to convey the mails along the In the district of Moradabad. this fact was informed of by a short note from Camp- the joint magistrate. came out two them through stages on the Budaon road to meet them. on my own responsi- but notwithstanding my endeavours to maintain the peace. they had reached a most alarming height all our communications had been cut off with Agra. to my excellent friend Rajah Byjenath of Bareilly. Since the 28th of May I and it is now very doubtful whether I in this world. the disorders daily increased. by all the European ladies and children. In the Etah district across the Ganges. telling me to look out for myself. I Byjenath of Bareilly. and never left them until they the then disturbed portion of the district accompanied were in safety beyond of Bareilly. as I afterwards ascertained. as the disturbance district. Nynee Tal. and just the day week before the mutiny and massacre occurred there. which station they reached safely but they did not start one moment too soon. may ever do so.* of became alarmed for the safety and despatched them to a place of security.144 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. chief lines of road. See Appendix : Rajah Byjenath's "Narrative." . have heard nothing of them. . due. Calcutta. I or see them again As soon force in bility . . and the South . immediately adjoining Budaon to the north. the sepoys of the regiment broke open the jail and let out a great number of the I bell. as * The safety of my wife and child was mainly.

and in for him which he very nearly succeeded. were to rise at noon and create a riot. who had eluded our years. This intelligence did not tend much to improve my position. had started once towards my with the intention of murdering me. who were on that day assembled for prayers on occasion of the Eed festival. at Bareilly.000 souls. Nujjoo Khan. police force for to justice. I received certain information that the Mahomedans of the town of Budaon. who my the station early in the month. more than two and in bringing him highly exasperated with me. 145 among the liberated convicts was a notorious villain. entire I The . some thirty miles distant On Monday. and I could. and in 1858 killed in resisting a party of our police who had been sent out to apprehend him and his followers. management and responsibiHty rested on me for was a Mahomedan deputy-collector.* who was under sentence of transportation for life for an attempt to murder Court. having maimed I had succeeded in apprehending this mislife. joint magistrate of Budaon.100. influential * inhabitants of that persuasion to meet me was at Nujjoo Khan afterwards become a rebel leader of note. as at he was consequently Campbell informed station me. sole assistant European officers were from Budaon. The nearest of course. and. fonly joined Icreant. 10 . the 25 th of May.Personal Adventures. rwith a lawless population of nearly 1. which would probably have resulted in the plunder and I at once summoned the most destruction of the place. devolve no duty upon him. which already was by no means a pleasant one. \\ was the sole European officer in charge of the district.

come up and quietly behind me. I saw Wuzeer Singh. in the attack on which place by our troops in 1858 General Hope and many of the 42nd Highlanders were killed. with my revolver in his belt my gun all in his hand. in Oude. He has received a Hfe pension from the Government of India for his faithful services during the rebelHon. as Paul did as a brother beloved. he came to Budaon from at Wuzeer Singh was baptized Benares on the i6th of last March by the Rev. years previous. They immediately came. They are all buried in one of Wuzeer Singh's gardens. chair.146 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. I. and where station himself behind my In the was unnoticed. some place). and one my fierce and of my personal guards. belonging to the Sikh company of the 29th Regiment of N. his and determined time feel an assurance difficulty fidefity. house. or danger. and was and all the Europeans in the church at that While on detachment duty at Saharunpore. but demeanour made me for the entrance that he his first quiet were armed. he was converted to Christianity by the officers Protestant baptized. "not now so much as a servant some notice from me here. many of them very Soon insolent. but was never In December. (the corps which mutinied at Shajehanpore. Wuzeer whose tried courage. James Kennedy. a Sikh peon. and devotion make me regard him Onesimus. and murdered all its Punjaub. and immediately tumult and excitement. and all in a most excited state. . and also the grant of the village of Rodamow. 1856." deserves He the is an inhabitant of Nowshera near Umritzur in originally a sepoy. was a man This I could depend upon in any Singh.* * missionaries at that place . after they were seated and I had commenced talking with them.

with the rest of his company. he was therefore only a few days with me before the occurrences to which I have alluded took place. 147 Shajehanpore. were for the time i defeated. and reasoning with them. therefore. and 'came back early in May. There happened to be several native Christians at Budaon. do not doubt were premeditated. By degrees they calmed down. I had every reason and it forming my Treasury Guard. than during these miserable days between the 20th the \ and 27 th of May.. and he attended service with them every Sunday at my When the detachment was relieved. at the Eed festival. feelings of and not from any I ! I :a service extending over a long period of time. The plots. was by no means 10 — 2 . to the at Bareilly. wishing to join himself to this company of Christians. to my infinite relief (ah. where his regiment was quartered. and returned house. when I gave him service as an orderly on my personal guard as magistrate . more in my life for some one of it I think I what a long never wished my own countrymen to to distrust I talk to. and the day. His devotion then and subse- quently. and by leading them into conversation. 1857. to head-quarters in April. which I time fixed for the rising had passed. sepoys 68th Regiment N. does as it him the more honour. who belonged I. Wuzeer Budaon Singh. To return to my visitors. and above all playing off one party against another —knowing several until the as I did that a bitter animosity existed i of them — between attention I managed to occupy their I . springing attachment to a master after did from a sense of duty to his immediate superior.Personal Adventures. to form the guard over my treasury. retired from to the regimeat. \ one \ was!) passed off quietly.

as my police. an affair He Bareilly to procure had come across the Ganges. Phillipps. comfortable to in the close vicinity of these gentlemen. were quite unable or at all events would not exert themselves. saw my cousin Alfred up to the house. May 31st. was forced to disabuse him of this hope. I learnt that the important town of Bhilsea was about to be attacked by the rebels. informing him that I applied for aid in had already myself more than once vain. as I had no officer to whom I could make over charge of the treasury. to send me some aid . who and any moment might break out into open mutiny murder me. magistrate of Etah. Up sibility to the 30th. others common police sowars. and therefore. for the last time . isolation greatly. sitting It was. with the view of going to some military aid to put down the I disturbances. He gave a most deplorable account of the state of things in his district. and I at once sent off entreating establishment as well as the to meet the crisis. with no solitary dinner my joy.148 Reminiscences of a Bengal sit Civiliaft. some belonging to different regiments of irregular horse. the old new levies. matters the disorder being considerably aggravated by the impos- of my leaving the station to proceed to the imme- diate scene of disturbance. with his men. small that I while at my on the 27 th May. On Sunday. escorted by about a dozen horsemen. My police were little more to be at I felt depended on. him an express to the commissioner at Bareilly. I assembled. in which he killed no less than three men with his own hand. as none could be spared. On the afternoon of Saturday the 30th. went on from bad to worse. had with a body of rebels in the town of Khasgunj. ride and had himself.

how Phillipps should punish the rebels in his district. the point fresh threatened I . was to be at Puttealee. . in setting mine in order. I then retired to rest. were all to fly. * It is morning to return native Christians violent death. happy and thankful. that day from Bareilly took measures for sending immediately our carts to bring in the that they might be men at the last half of the way. of these arrange- next sent off a horseman with a note to the commanding of the detachment informing him officer ments. m. in reply to my on earnest appeal for aid.B.C. informing me that a company of start native infantry. a man rushed in with a note from Etah for Phillipps. p. the next day. We full were both overjoyed at this intelligence first and were of plans. C. I received from the Com- missioner an express. the joint magisof trate Futtehghur. probably on earth.. with two regi- of his native ments to restore the peace.Personal Adventures. was to to Etah. saying that Bramley.S. written by one officers. and thus arrive there and unfatigued. B. a most remarkable thing that no single individual among the who were assembled on this occasion met with a hardships for They were all obliged many months. Wilson. 149 Just my little congregation at Budaon. and begging him to press on as speedily as possible. Shortly after. Phillipps.* as I closed the Hindustani service in the afternoon. and then come over about 9 to aid me. so moved once to Bhilsea.. the headquarters of the Etah district. was to I my assistance. equally happy in the prospect of having assistance suited to the start at three in the emergency. under a European to officer. but after enduring great rescued by the efforts of Mr.

which I then might have succeeded in doing. where I could do no good. I my post. however. I it. and the excited manner of the sowar and the condition of his panting horse. fired central gaol. and enable and prayed earnestly that me to do my . a chuprassee rushed I had sent meet the detachment had just returned with the terrible intelli- gence that the road from Bareilly up to within eight miles of Budaon was covered with convicts escaped from gaol the sepoys forming the Bareilly garrison having on Sunday — forenoon broken out into Europeans. and that he had ridden for his life to give I at me the intelligence. Ganges and prevent most bitterly regret that I did not follow his example. and thus make my escape from Budaon. once woke up Phillipps and communicated to him the disastrous intelligence. He further stated that a detachment of the mutineers were in full march to Budaon. half-past About two I got up in order to wake him.150 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and in ten minutes after dashed off at full gallop. off to when up just as I to me. the station. I thought it. massacred the and broken open the great which contained nearly four thousand of the most desperate characters in India. and plunder and burn the This was indeed terrible news. showed that the tale was too true. to join the Treasury guard there. my duty not to desert floated. and endeavour to reach the hills. open mutiny. but stick to the ship as long as she went into my room God would protect and guide me. in order to get to the Ghauts across the before the convicts or mutineers could reach his return to the scene of his duty. He called for his horse and followers. station. saying that the was leaving my horseman room.

there- only hope. quite hopeless to expect to defend the station against the mutineers . Gibson. and in I was happily who. my own but they were unwilling in any way to compromise their own more especially safety by granting an asylum to the others : as some of the party were at feud with the people of the .Personal Adventures. from entering the place this . to keep things quiet Bareilly. They were under whereas the the impression that I could protect them. Customs Department of the district. fact was. I 151 then summoned my kotwal. and at the same time greatly impeded my movements. My great object was to prevent the gangs of escaped convicts. with his wife and family. for maintaining as long as possible the peace and the safety of the town. and arranged with him as best we could. one of my clerks. seriously increased our mutual danger. having had their lives . would be at once joined by I the 100 fore. until the mutineers might arrive from About 10 A. I was satisfied that as long as I was alone I could provide for the district safety.. men forming the Treasury Guard. that the number of Europeans con- gregated together. a patrol in the on duty in the interior also safety in my house — as did Mr. threatened at their residence in Ooghannee. having numbers of friends in able and anxious to protect and shelter me . It was. arrival. however. on their successful. the most desperate characters in the country. and scarcely amounted to a hope. Donald and son. duty. had the station for come into protection. —temporarily sought Mr. it could. Stewart. M. who. by attracting attention. I indigo planters in the district was joined by Mr.

by decrees of our civil courts. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. not pro- prietors. upon as interlopers and unwelcome The ancient proprietaiy of these alienated estates were again living as tenantry on the lands once theirs . to whom I . the very first people who came in to me. a vast number of the estates of families of rank and influence have been alienated. These men. were this new proprietary body. in a vast majority of instances. None of the men who had succeeded them as landowners were possessed of to give sufficient influence or power me any aid in maintaining the public tranquillity.152 district. On the contrary. sold under harsh circumstances. but in the position of tenants. result of destroying the gentry of the which has had the country and breaking up the village communities. and the operation of our revenue system. The ancient landed proprietary body of the Budaon district were thus position still their feudal superiors in in existence. were also absentees. fearing or disliking to reside on their purchases. To the large number of these sales during the past twelve or fifteen years. where they were looked intruders. but maintaining their hereditary hold as strong as ever over the sympathies and affections of the agricultural body. either wholly or in part. who were ready and willing to join any attempt to recover their lost and regain possession of their estates. and have been purchased by new men without character chiefly traders or Government officials — — or influence over their tenantry. imploring aid. I attribute solely the disorganization of this and the neighbouring districts in these provinces. By fraud or chicanery. by no means reconciled to their change of position. in consequence of having purchased estates.

had a right to look for vigorous 153 and efficient efforts in the [maintenance of order. and I said distinctly. who. those who masses of the rural population were interested in bringing about a state of disturbance and general anarchy. and the reckless manner terests which they decreed the sale of rights and inconnected with the soil. or dissolve the any insurrection occurring. and separate their interests. and the dangerous dislocation of society which was then pointed out that. The ever they leaders and promoters of this great rebellion. of the retainers I was treated as an alarmist. ranged against us on the and enemy. fast. whomay have been. although the old families were being displaced we could not destroy the memory ancient connection between them and their people.Personal Adventures. and being totally inexperienced in revenue matters. For more than a year previous to the outbreak. having hitherto only served in the political department of the State. we should find this great and influential body. that in event of of the past. in satisfaction of petty in I debts. could give no sound opinion on the subject. I had been publicly representing to superior authority the great abuse of the power of the civil courts. knew well the inflammable con- . in spite of our attempts to My warnings were unheeded. in consequence being produced. On really could control the vast the other hand. with their hereditary followers rallying around them. Little did I think at the time that my fears and forebodings were so soon to be reaUzed. through whom we side can alone hope to control and keep under the millions forming the rural classes.

from these causes. among whom these cakes spread. with an injunction two for his own. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. to call them to action. now is. and they therefore sent among them the chupatties. trict from the adjoining one of Shajehanpore .154 dition. where large masses of mutinous The chupatties entered sepoys were congregated. were as igno. and the people at once perceived what was expected of them. rant as I was myself of their real object but it was clear they were a secret sign to be on the of the people were through alert. Where they came from originally it is impossible to say. will never consent to the restoration . as a kind of fiery cross. retain two of the cakes. others the watchman of who would of follow the same course. who are num- bered by tens of thousands. Meerut and Delhi. and the minds As soon as the disturbances broke out at them kept watchful and excited. and who are the real thews and sinews of the country. but I believe Barrackpore was the starting point. These cakes passed with the most amazing rapidity over the length and breadth of the land. all rural population classes. entire district became a scene of anarchy and The ancient proprietary body took the opporof tunity murdering or expelling the auction purchasers. and give the the next village. that this vast mass of our subjects. The danger confusion. a watchman of nearest to that my dis- village place giving to the watchman of the Budaon to village make six fresh ones. and resumed possession of their hereditary estates. and continue the manufacture and I truly believe that the distribution. of the rural society in the North- western Provinces. the cakes explained themselves. and the In Budaon the mass of the population rose in a body.

by which the old be and their sympathies and inreinstated. or flour said to be made of human bones. purchasers are also duly cared I am fully satisfied that the rural classes would never have joined in rebelling with the sepoys. whose system tended to depress and dispossess them. Mr. and could not then have been acted upon by any It is questions incry of their religion being in danger. invariably termed by them as "jan see azeez. had not these causes of discontent already existed. and we all joined I trust all my guests into the in hearty prayers to God for his mercy and protection in our desperate circumstances. except myself and Mr. Gibson. pointing out that our safety was far . may to terests enlisted on our behalf. and the Stewarts.'' degree. those present. They evinced no sympathy whatever about the cartridges. return to my narrative of events all on the fatal ist of About noon.Personal Adventures. that we were heard but what has been the fate of . To June. 155 of a Government to power which they consider treated them with harshness . I collected drawing-room. whom they hated. I feel convinced that no amount of force will restore us to power. and whose first measures after the return of tranquiUity they consider must be to put back the auction purchasers and evict them. while those of the auction for. Gibson. unless at the evils same time some measures be taken for undoing the past." " dearer than which excite them to a dangerous life. to leave me and make for the hills. while there was yet time. volving their rights and interests in the soil and hereditary holdings. not. of the and coming families some compromise. I know I then earnestly advised the two Donalds.

and break open the gaol. who would then sack the treasury.M. the native officer of the sepoy guard men of the 68th Native at Bareilly the previous day. My own duty was clear. however.156 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and of the near approach of a large body of mutineers from Bareilly to murder me. he was confident the He then informed me that regiment would remain loyal. About over the treasury. fearing they might be attacked by overwhelming numbers of budmashes. Every moment reports of one complexion or another were being brought to me of risings in the town. which corps had mutinied the four P. which was a very hot one. the defection of indi- viduals in the police. He ledge of the Bareilly mutiny solemn oaths any person of his persuasion could take.. all know. The day. All my arguments quite in in vain. who would thereby be quite reassured. asserting that no intimation had come to the that. as long as guard from their comrades at Bareilly. wore on most gloomily. I took him aside. be maintained they were under no such obligation. plunder treasury. and he begged me earnestly' to come down and join the guard. The man's earnest and respectful manner quite deceived . attention than more endangered by remaining together and attracting by separating. came to* report all right. were paralysed. to at remain my post as long as any semblance of order could . and denied. composed of 100 Infantry. had only to consult their own and entreaties. They were and seemed to feel that their only hope was sticking close to the magistrate for protection. with the most inquired the real state of affairs. and Colonel Troup lived. the guard were much alarmed in consequence of the excited state of the town. and safety.

and him and I to go. destruction announced \ me that the work of had begun at the same moment information .Personal Adventures. and they should lose their share of the spoil. and sent off my buggy. distant about 100 yards from the treasury. I at once. but might easily broke out into open mutiny. but not a man would consent to leave the immediate neighbourhood of the treasury. when Wuzeer Singh came and implored me not told to. A party of them have been sent to my house to seize and [destroy me. they would immediately have murdered me. expressed my wihingness to go. A some 300 prisoners tumultuous noise and shoutto ing about six p.m. I then ordered my buggy. if ever any one spoke truth.the evening. and that they meant mischief the took his advice. therefore. and prepare advance of a body of mutineers to Budaon in them for the . Their first act was to break open the gaol.me. they would be restrained no . as one of many marked serving placed myself in the hands of the guard. I 157 it thought. J my life. and release who were confined within. . lest the plundering should commence in their absence. them of what had occurred there. for I subse[quently ascertained that a messenger from the regiment at [months. saying he I knew these fellows well.longer. The guard waited for my expected arrival at the kutcherry for above an hour and a half. is this ij^erson. start. and then finding that I was not coming. Had I interpositions of Almighty care in prewhich have occurred within the past two Bareilly to inform had reached the guard about four in the morning. and was about stepping into it to drive off. would follow presently. I regard this incident with deep thankfulness.

speed and endurance all The town.158 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. followed by the Messrs. The him I sheikh at the same time said he would grant an asylum to . felt my work was then over . which I knew would be I their first point. was met by the chief of Shikooof family and influence. Donald and Gibson. on whose me. then full of mutineers. and take refuge in his house. lay between us and the road to Moradabad. that the ship had sunk under to try and provide for my a small grey Cabul galloway besafety. This readily consented to do. fall and then endeavour into the to make I a circuit round. day standing rode slowly away from the house. come in and a I different direction from that I taking. He begged about three miles had intended me off. The released prisoners I then came shouting and yelling close up to my house. a Mahomedan gentleman frequently to visit me. had been I at once mounted him. and thus Moradabad road. and that my police had thrown away their badges and joined them. as I hoped that I could remain con- cealed with station . My horse. as the roads were crowded with sepoys and released convicts. When had gone some hundred yards from the house porah. was brought me that the mutineers from all Bareilly were entering the station. by which I had hoped to escape to the hills . longing to my wife and constantly ridden by her. when resume my until the mutineers had abandoned the would have returned. who used He dissuaded me to from attempting to get round the town. I was therefore anxious to give the mutineers time to get to the treasury. and that it was now time own I knew I could depend. and endeavoured to duties and restore some degree of order. and saddled.

Personal Adventures. but as they were East Indians and it fared with me. or even it. C. and after enduring great hardships. his family. hide in the fields and to see how I ^hem. dark as the natives. linutes 'he first man I saw was one of my own orderlies. . was to consign them to the ire of an influential man in the city who had just come up le mutineers and rebels. Stewart. C. hope know not .B. course I was in no position to resent his conduct. alone. my clerk. le 59 I.* I trust they managed to escape. were among the number of those rescued by the noble efforts of Mr. alive. and that my own :huprassies were busily employed appropriating my property. for they had ieglected it my warning in the morning to effect their escape was apparently too late . however..S. was possible. and these were all blocked up by it and now There was nothing for them but all I could do for them. I iearly as f He promised to look after what has become of them. lotice I |Lnd was now obliged to leave poor Mr. has so done . though scarcely ten had elapsed since leaving it. and who lad )f been a favourite of mine. and. rhile leir only conveyance being a buggy which could proceed mly by regular roads. We then turned and accompanied the sheikh. with my dress-sword on him. and lowever. It him to abandon and retain us all. and I therefore took no notice the time. but not to the others of my party. ^e had to return past my house. this lought I might be able to induce resolution. in my )wn desperate circumstances. . I found the work of )lundering it had already commenced. Wilson. They were in sad distress. * and are now I subsequently ascertained that the whole family escaped.

an Afghan named Sooltan Mahomed Khan. and bring down upon us the mutineers we must therefore at once leave. and 150 rupees divided between Sooltan Singh. and blessed in When I look back to that time my present circumstances of peril. with my watch and revolver. We waded my house . like the patriarch. about an hour's riding.i6o Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the Yar Wufiardar river. than our horses and entered the walled one of the sheikh's brothers came up to me. for the past eighteen rational happiness months. and with them I went forth for the first time in my life without a home or a roof to cover me. one change of clothes. reached Scarcely had Shikooporah. I took with me so I was reduced to those on my back. and which had just reached me : from home these. One of my private servants. my groom but he disappeared immediately. about eighteen miles distant on the left bank of the . accompanied me. tran- we had enjoyed much quillity. remained faithful to his salt. and darling May's purse. ment me Budaon. also a for little my Testament. and respectfully stated that it would be impossible for us to remain with safety there. as our attract attention. not knowing whither I went. numbers would certainly . without notice or molestation. and I never saw him again. and go on to a village of his. Mahomed and Wuzeer were all who carried them round their waists. the worldly goods I possessed . we dismounted from court. and. it appears like the days of heaven upon the earth. which ran just below after and. intended birthday presents. which I entrusted to at I had with . heart was indeed My peacefiil heavy in finally leaving that happy home. of all the police establishalso Wuzeer Singh . and who alone. where.

and then return p therefore remonstrated strongly with the chief hospitality . blessed be God. I resume my writing. merciful God to save my for shortly after we left 'Shikooporah. As they would not leave me. as they expected. on his want that )f but he remained quite firm. and the consequent lie istration of my hope of being able to close until the to the station. for this morning. I i6i was deeply mortified at this. beat up my temporary hiding place. but with a lighter heart . who had accom)anied the infantry portion of the mutineers from Bareilly (an event wholly unexpected by me. 28th July. ranges. he would not [while int an asylum to my companions. and I would not desert them. I have received tidings on which I can depend (the first since the 25th of May) of the safety of my beloved wife and child at Nynee Tal. as the corps to which they belonged was considered staunch and loyal). I Fortunate it was for me that I humbly regard this as another marked interposition of life . that inquiries a stranger in the night and was making . and would have assuredly murdered me had they found me there. an had arrived zemindar of Oude). Information was brought to this village (in me morning by some of the people in which we are now living. and on. lutineers should decamp. assuring me he was quite ready to shelter me alone. Kussowrah. under the protecin the influential tion of Hurdeo Buksh. there was nothing for le lid it but to comply with the sheikh's wishes. start for village further so. a body of Irregular Horse.Personal Adventures.

but at last You I are the sahib I have often seen in kutcherry at Budaon. Kahar. and in hiding. that and has assumed the government of poor Hay. by the tidings. received the title of Rajah and some valuable estates from the Viceroy.1 62 me. however severe. . I was in native dress.* the Bareilly me to ascertain if the report which that had reached him and sahib safe. with his brave son. as (if I could find you) that the at 'mem Nynee Tal. and he did not seem at first to recognize me." he never ceased his efforts to aid. and quite and want my master has taken care to have them supplied with necessary funds. dismayed this undaunted old gentleman. I was suspected to be a spy from the rebels at and his movements were being told this my informant that I thought no harm could come of He being brought before me. Bareilly. by Nynee Tal. rendered at the risk of his life to our Government. his family. Lord Canning. This is the first messenger who has reached us from the outer world since the 13th of June. or palkee bearer. Byjenath was imprisoned and tortured by Bahadur Khan. and. although imprisoned himself. He informs me that poor Mr. you were alive. and he has sent a servant of Misr Byjenath's. for He Futtehghur or elsewhere. am banker. and Raikes. Stewart. •closely watched. what a load was lifted off my heart. for his eminently loyal and devoted services. hiding in money and Gunga Purshad." Oh. No treatment. the English at " sufferings they underwent. supplies. and the native Christians His own narrative in the Appendix relates the Rohilcund. my clerk. Robertson. was accordingly summoned. the rebel governor of Rohilcund. is true. and in hiding near Budaon in and . are as yet safe that Khan Bahadur Khan is power at Rohilcund . were * Misr Byjenath. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and turned out to be a man common " said. to inform ' you and the child are both well for nothing.

I easily hidden in the mouth in case of challenge. owing to the inundations. They were silent and not disrespectful. obliged to take the precaution to each village as to send men ahead we approached it. Tal. I must now resume the narrative of my proceedings on the night of ist June.Personal Adventures. in case of pursuit. to prepare the people for our coming. leaving the high-road at some distance to our left. the city Tal. He left us on his return in the evening. the as it heavy a most fortunate thing for us. villages. whose tenantry they were. after leaving Shikooporah. however. 163 among that he those massacred at Bareilly on the 31st May. dead bodies dragged through but that several Europeans had escaped to Nyne^ their among them the Commissioner Alexander and Colonel Troup. daily Khan respecting me. and had himself seen . and travelled through byways and fields. and I gave quill. He informs us that our troops are at is Delhi. for Singh wished at once to return to his master with the news him a little letter. literally seeing us accompanied all by the sheikh. whose name was Khan rains being peculiarly Singh. that there fighting. We passed through a number of swarming with men armed with swords and iron-bound lathees. enclosed in a Nynee so. had been ten days coming from Bareilly. and that Agra and Meerut are still safe. which he promised to convey safely to have great hopes that he will be able to do as the piece of quill is not an inch long. and prevent any attack II~2 . The messenger. We were accompanied by one of the sheikhs. He was. and can be my wife. and all is going on well there . bands of mutineers and rebels wandering prevents — about the country.

and return to I Budaon. but containing one better sort of house. Although weary and worn out with the events of the past 24 hours. to pass the night in the and there commenced my sleeping we all open air. who recommended. I have since. which I knew full .164 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as the sequel the to took leave of the sheikh about 5 a. we were awoke by order of closed an eye. to a place called Kadir Gunge in the Etah district. safe . to bitter disappointment. been forced to do ever Before going to rest joined in prayer. quite which we could not hope to be much longer in his village. upon As we travelled on I looked back and saw a bright gleam of light in the sky. to attempt to restore order. assembled to attack and plunder some . where we found a boat and crossed The right bank was lined with a large the opposite side. thinking that by joining Phillipps and Bramley at Puttealee. We . in which the sheikh resided when he visited this the place on business. We reached our destination about 12 p. I scarcely About 4 a. I was..m.m.m. however. will doomed show. We concourse of people. he declared. were sent up to the roof of house. as the Irregular Cavalry would soon be on our track. which. indeed insisted. the sheikh. us. I might get aid from them. where we would be. It was a miserable village called Kukorah. and rode to bank of the Ganges. on our at once crossing the Ganges. well all was the from the burning bungalows in poor Budaon property I possessed adding to the blaze. consented. thanking God for having so mercifully preserved us hitherto. and commending ourselves to His merciful protection for the future. with one or two exceptions.

* stream but the balls 165 three shots at the boat. and did no harm." and it is quite astonishing how soon multitudes collect for this lawless purpose. I sent off a This was most cheering news for me. who was at had been joined by Bramley. a ruinous old fort. and rode on to Kadir Gunge. only eight miles off. by this time become intense.M. and was in high him. . and recommending me to join them imme- diately. as a large hood — body of marauders were assembled in the neighbourothers than those we saw on the river bank — judge. and saying we would join him in the evening. saying that Bramley had only brought a few horsewith him. The owner. and how completely they do their work. and that they would at once commence restoring order in the district. and assigned us a room. At this time. as it were. About it 5 P. this and threatening an attack. informing disaster. spirits. a Mahomedan gentleman of some influence. a reply was brought. him of the Budaon messenger at once to Phillipps. as far as I could man was very well affected towards our Government. as it was it their intention to make at once this for Agra. information having just reached Puttealee. about two miles inland. that Phillipps. were all assembled about the premises for the protection of the place. neighbouring village. and fired to or we went down the centre of the never came near us. where we were sheltered from the heat. We * thought as well not to communicate news to our people These assemblages of several villages to attack some large one the call "Pukars. His retainers. this We landed unmolested about a mile below mob. fully armed. almost rooting up.Personal Adventures. The crowd hailed us. received us very kindly. the place attacked. with a large body of horse. and disheartening enough was men . as .

as the causes. consisting of body of horse which had been sent Oude Locals from Lucknow. some to their homes. and might rise and murder us at any moment. that immediately on reaching the place. upon whose fidelity he said had frequent communications with this is and about twenty I we could depend. now. were not to be depended on. some twenty miles off. in the curtailment of furloughs and other privileges. and very anxious. in a body composed of and that the guard with themmen from their homes on leave . had to Delhi sixty to their the day before murdered their officers on the line of march. in which there was a considerable sum of Government money. these fellows seized the money.) as to the causes of disaffection in the native army. the levy . I hear. We remained the 3rd and 4th at Puttealee with these fellows all round us. by the way. reaching Puttealee about I found Bramley and Phillipps in very low spirits and no wonder. for they informed me that news had just reached . we got rid of the greater number of the troopers.1 66 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and we 7. old Resseldar of Liptrot's Horse remained with troopers. and commanding some of his troops. or fear of outrages on their religion. We heard afterwards. A fine us. by sending them nominally to guard a Tehseeldaree. but were supposed to be in league with the Oude mutineers. from different regiments. but ascribed them to the great dissatisfaction which existed at the acts of the Government. and then went off. host. left him immediately . and pro- ceeded selves. some to join the mutineers. He never mentioned the cartridges. in high favour Nawab of Futtehghur. On the 5 th. with the old officer (who. them that the aid.

from which payments they were . and that was safe thus and Bramley. 200 mutinous sepoys were who intended coming to treasure with start for attack Puttealee the next morning. an anonymous note was brought to Phillipps. the and gave up my sowars with the old resseldar number of half-armed thakoors followed next. and stating that I arrived. intention. I received. 167 en route to their homes. as they heard the district officers were assembled there. what had occurred. a We set off. telHng her far. and urging me strongly was no longer any danger.m. from sepoys. also On at the afternoon of the 5th. a communication pur- porting to be from that some of my friends in Budaon. provided they would send me a sufficient force for my protection to the bank of the Ganges to conduct me to Budaon . but to accompany them. at 10 p. This intelligence determined us at once to for leaving as Agra. and had much them. however. stating that a place some ten miles off. as there and had gone back to Bareilly. being treated as a privileged class the distance they had to serve from their homes. stating the mutineers had treasure. strongly Phillipps that I acceded to their representations. about the same time. formerly exempt.Personal Adventures. I despatched a reply. and in Government Seraiees. and preparations were made soon as the moon rose. of tolls at Ghauts. I would remain at Puttealee till I heard it had sent by the messenger also a note to my wife at I Nynee Tal. both urged me so to not return to Budaon. saying that I was quite willing to do so. after firing the ings. led. and we . decamped from thence with the place and destroying all the build- to return.

horse and foot. came charging wound administered by attacking. halting in our immediate vicinity. were. down upon back and the and forwards us. and their intentions. until he was stopped by a severe spear which. while we sent out for information as to the road being clear in our front towards whom Myn- poory. and that once to be attacked. a mad. through body of galloped foot and horse.1 68 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. for this The messenger despatched purpose soon returned with the very alarming intelligence that there was a body of mutineers. vicious brute. fort. a sowar whose horse he was marched without any other interruption all night. after The killahdar upon us unless we was one of our Bramley. It was caused by one of the sowar's horses. with own zemindars and a parley with fortunately he was previously acquainted. on their way to Delhi. so the might prove treacherous on the that way and thakoors were interposed between us and them. and completely blocking up the . in order if they did charge down upon us they must first pass through that body. he allowed us to enter the place and rest. we should thus have warning of miles. having thrown his rider. about five miles from the Grand Trunk Those inside threatened to fire halted and told who we . for there was a sudden halt and a great noise and rushing about in the front. only halting once or twice to rest the men and horses. As the morning dawned we found ourselves in the neighbour- We hood of a small Road. ourselves brought up the rear. for which place we were marching. We marched about four when we thought that we were at what we feared had actually occurred. We feared that the sowars attack us.

Personal Adventures.
road in our



immediately consulted together on
the zemindar insisting on our

what course

to pursue


diately removing from his

which he feared would be

attacked by the mutineers, as soon as they heard of our

being in


thought of making an attempt to cross the road in front of this body, trusting to the speed of our horses
at first


to escape, if

we were



consultation, however,

plan appeared too hazardous, and

we determined
village in the


retrace our steps
until night fell

and remain



when we might hope

to elude these troops,

and escape past them
approached the

Agra through Mynpoory. As we where we thus intended remaining,

we thought


best to send on a sowar to see

the place


ourselves halting in a small grove about a

where we were hidden from observation.


very fortunate that

we took

this precaution, for

our messenger

presently returned, telling us the village was occupied, by

200 mutinous sepoys; the very party who we heard intended
beating up our quarters at Puttealee, and who, changing
their intention,

had moved

off in this direction.

This intelligence caused us entirely to
and, striking through the jungles

our plans,

and by bypaths, to return to The sowars under the resseldar had by this time

become very

insolent in their bearing probably in consequence of our having already dismissed our thakoor guards of infantry, who were quite knocked up with the night


became very

desirable, therefore, to get rid of

these fellows

Bramley accordingly called up the old resand told him we no longer required his services, or


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

those of his men, and that they might return to Furruck-

abad, whence they had come, or go anywhere else they


attitude of these fellows


at this


most threatening ; they seemed just wavering as to whether they would charge down upon and destroy us, or go off and leave us. They consulted together for a moment one of

breathless suspense to


then, to our great relief,

suddenly turned about and rode off. We now went on, changing our direction as soon as we lost sight of the
sowars, with the view of preventing their afterwards fol-

lowing our movements. We marched from 6 o'clock in the morning until the afternoon, when, completely exhausted by the terrific heat and

we came upon a

small hamlet.

There an old


a pensioner of our Government,
istan, greatly

who had

served in Affghan-

commiserated our position, and in answer to

our request for water brought us milk and chupatties, which were most acceptable in our fainting state. We rested here

an hour, and on going away


offered the old

man a



in return for his hospitaHty.



to receive

saying, with apparently real sorro^v,



far greater

need than



now, who have

a home,
ever your

whereas you are wanderers
raj is

in the jungles




remember me, and the
and then


service I


been able

to render you."


promised to do




through the jungle,
out, at nightfall,

we reached

Puttealee, thoroughly tired

since ten the previous night

having been in the saddle continuously than twenty hours. Here ; more Bramley and Phillipps determined to halt one day and rest


A dventures.




and then

make a

attempt to






we were under

the impression that our

was best consulted by separating from each other, instead of keeping together; and as I could not abandon
the persons

who accompanied me, but


at the

same time
by imlatter

had no
go on

right to

Bramley and

Phillipps' risk

posing ourselves

upon them,

determined to leave the

vour to

Agra by themselves, and with my party to endeaget back to Budaon, and if possible push my way

through that district to the hills. The two Messrs. Donalds, Mr. Gibson, and myself therefore started from Puttealee

about II A.M. of the 7th June, to return to Kadir Gunge. Phillipps, as I was leaving him, said in so marked a manner,
I feel certain

and confident




meet again," *

that I


quite cheered about him and myself passed unmolested through multitudes of

men who

were crossing the road, laden with the plunder of some large village they had attacked and sacked during the night. The






through which

we passed were

collected in bodies at the entrance of each, and, while quite " When will respectful, crowded round us, asked eagerly,




? ?







in ten days

or fifteen days



worn out and

tired with this con-

and being on the alert in case of being attacked, and we long for peace and quiet again."
tinual watching




turned out,

we met

afterwards in

1859 in Calcutta.

Phillipps succeeded in reaching Agra in safety, and subsequently rendered excellent service as magistrate of that city during the rebellion,

and behaved with great gallantry at the battle of Shah Gunj did Mr. Bramley, who was severely wounded in the action.


as also


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.
reached Kadir Gunge about four in the afternoon,


civilly, but very coldly, received by the zemindar, our host of two days previous. Since then he had heard of

and were

the mutiny at Bareilly, and

the conduct of the regiment

coming up marked effect on

to Bramley's aid,

and the


had a


would secure a boat


He, however, said he take ourselves and our horses to the
was an alarm of an


side of the river.

Shortly after

we were

seated, there

attack, and a general rush of all the where the stand was to be made;

retainers to the tower

about an hour's

anxious waiting, intelligence was brought that the body of
threatening the attack had gone off to some other plunder place in the neighbourhood. They in number several thousands, within half a mile passed,

men who had been



As we were
start to

sitting inside the house,



about to

cross the river, a traveller from the


entered the court outside, and from which

we could not be

was asked the news, and gave a dismal account of the state of the roads along which he had passed all the


villages having

been plundered, and many burnt. He then said that a large body of horse was the day before at


(the village

we had

slept in

on the

ist of


and the place we were then bound for), searching for the collector (myself), and that they were now in a village opposite
Kadir Gunge. This news determined me to remain where was until the next day, in order to get some information if possible from Budaon as to the state of the district, and



could pass through


with any chance of safety.

Personal Adventures.


I accordingly sent off a note to a person I considered staunch in the town, and requested him to write an imme-

This I hoped would have reached us by the next morning, but no messenger returned. Wearily the day
diate reply.

passed on until evening, when our host, who had been much displeased at our remaining so long with him, and had scarcely given us any food, came to say that the boat was

ready to convey us to the other side of the Ganges, and


7nust start at once.

There was no help


we mounted and rode


but on reaching the Ganges we found that the boat provided for us was too small to contain any one of our horses, and


therefore could not cross.


in vain


to get another



depressed, were

at last forced to

betake ourselves again to the zemindar. on our arrival, but was at length pacified.
us to



strongly urged thoughts of crossing the river into Budaon,

He He

was very rude

and to go on

to Furruckabad,

which place was

sixty miles

the road being pretty clear,
told us the reason

and the




why he

certain that

no mutiny

had occurred there as yet was, that several of his people were prisoners in the gaol at that place, and had it been
broken open, they would surely have come back to


in this village ere that time.


were perfectly helpless, and determined to follow his Doing so, has brought me indeed to this place of

misery; but had

crossed into Budaon, what might not

have been


fate ?

Byjenath's messenger.


Singh, informed



written to Puttealee to induce


to return to


Remhiiscences of a Bengal Civilian.
trick of the sepoys to get

Budaon, was a


into their hands.

They had
river, in

therefore sent the


to the

bank of the

expectation ot


crossing, to await



landing. destroy They had been greatly exasperated and determined to have my life, in consequence against me, of finding only one lakh and a half in my treasury instead

me on

of seven, as they were led to expect
deficiency was caused



; they knew that the having refused to receive their

money from
bability, fall

the zemindars, as I
into the



would, in



hands of the mutineers.
us two footmen for guides,

The zemindar gave



ducted us through several villages where we were unmoAt length, about midnight, I saw the guide who was

immediately in front of
to us to halt.


stop suddenly and


a sign


accordingly did so, and coming close up

to us he silently pointed out a large body of men, apparently between two and three hundred, lying in a hollow among a few trees, a little to our left. We thought they were all asleep,

rose up as one

and that we could escape their notice, when man and came towards us.

all at

once they


was no use

attempting to

then have lost our guides, fly, for we should we were mounted and they were on foot so we stood



told the guide to


who we



go forward to meet them, and was a sharp fellow, for I heard

him immediately saying we were " Sahibs," going to meet and bring back some troops who were coming up from Furruckabad to restore order.



seemed quite


this information

us pass.

They were

lying out about a mile from their village, as an advanced " Pukars" picquet, in expectation of an attack by one of those

Personal Adventures.


have already spoken of, with which they were threatened. They were much pleased to hear that there was a prospect
of order being restored by troops, and

was not

for us to

undeceive them.

After leaving them

we passed through
to pass through their

the village, which was
or stopped us, as




but they never noticed

we had been allowed



o'clock A.M., the guides

left us,

having put us

in the straight road to Futtehghur,

and we

on by

Just as the

surprised to see

morning dawned, we were much an encampment about a mile to the right of

the road


apparently of a considerable body of men, from

number of



being disposed in regular


There were, however, no sentries, nor any signs of and we passed unchallenged. After travelling the
one halt of ten minutes to water the

entire night, with only



arrived about 8 a.m. at a considerable Pathan

village called


Gunj, where there was a Government




summoned the tehwho appeared after a considerable delay he was a oM man, but, as we afterwards discovered, with a noble
rode into the enclosure and




under Providence, he was the chief instrument

in saving our lives at this place.


the time he

came a


crowd had assembled




tehseeldar seemed anxious to get us to leave the tehseeldaree,

and go with him

to the residence of



Yar Khan," a native gentleman of
proprietor in the place; to receive us,


and the chief

who, he said, would be happy and who could protect us, as his house

and they themwill selves quite expected he would fire on them. will protect you as you are a of Government them. and very insolent and excited in his manner. armed with double-barrelled was quite intoxicated with He opium. "You I know. and officer as for these fellows. and . distant about a mile from the teh- and were at once led into the garden. garden. but were most desirous to press on to Futtehghur.1/6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. was situated within a walled We accordingly removed seeldaree. and hoped he would get us a boat to take ourselves and horses down the river to that place. as the trees afforded us no sufficient shelter. Fortunately. and sent a messenger to the Nawab Doollah. at this juncture the Nawab himself appeared. all attended by three followers. he turned to me and said. We sat down under this the shade of the trees for the heat was by time intense. came to look at us. infuriated as he was with drugs. however. he might shoot down my companions at once." I thought it highly probable that. I told him we had no wish to remain with him. Presently the Nawab's brother. a relation of his . and that the others were indigo planters and a customs patrol. I know nothing have nothing to do with them. but After to allow us to enter his house. to this place. off He professed his readiness to help us. questioned us as to who we were. much demur he admitted us on my representing that we were greatly fatigued. and suffering much from the heat of the sun. and told to remain there until the Nawab could himself receive us* . and on my telling him I He that was the Collector of Budaon. guns. The Nawab was kind and seemed most reluctant polite in his demeanour. and the brother was at once taken away.

Donald. to allow the riding camel on which Mr. five and that he would himself furnish us with an escort of horsemen under the orders of one of his relatives. who was on horseback. we halted. Donald said to me. We were then conducted to the top of the house. senior. After riding for about four miles. Mr. and avoid all villages \ and he at once struck off at a rapid gallop. Multan It is as well for us whispered to me. As we were eating our breakfast. taking leave of him. of course. as persons to whom such documents are granted always all consider their possession must clear them from blame. having fallen considerably behind. My two servants were not allowed to accompany us.Personal Adventures. by name Multan Khan. a messenger came in and who was sitting with The communication produced an immediate change in his demeanour he rose. who was also sitting with us. and some food given to us. saying we must at once start for Shumshabad. Gibson and Wuzeer Singh were mounted to come up. with Mr. who we were assured would order a boat to be in readiness for us by the afternoon. us. the gate- forced to give the certificate. the certificate that Nawab required me to give him a he had treated us well and given us an escort. . 12 . This demand is almost invariably a prelude to treachery. whatever may happen Khan to the granters. where the Nawab Doollah would receive whispered something to the Nawab. I was. and fifty a fine powerful Pathan between forty Before years of age. (living at 177 called Shumshabad). a place about eight miles off near the Ganges. " to go across the fields. On riding " I have heard something which up. but remained with the horses in the court-yard below. us. As we rode out of " way. they.

After halting about ten minutes. ring. and must now go on with our escort. in the interior of the house. It required duly inspected a great effort to . saying the Nawab would not see us (which I thought a very bad sign) . for it.17B Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and would see and assist us in procuring a boat to take us to Futteh- The man soon returned. and he wrote a purwannah. it was their deliberate intention to murder us all. showing no doubt of their fidelity. Gibson's camel and questioned Wuzeer Singh. that we were helpless. There we were received with great civiHty by the Nawab's head man. which was handed round the civilly and returned to me. from what he had heard. * will make your blood curdle. took the opportunity to send that him my compHments. Mooltan after Khan leading. who was sitting transacting business in an open verandah. before leaving Kaim Gunj. in reply to Mr. say that we were all to be killed as soon as we embarked on board the boat. and shortly arrived at the Nawab Doollah's. and I pulled off my) signet ring to seal Some of the party asked to be allowed to look at the circle. hoping ghur. but that we He should have a boat as soon as it could be prepared. Several messages immediately passed between the Nawab and this official. me to sign. a Hindu. but what could we do ? merely said. or order. and trust in God to protect us. who at last went to speak I to his master. he overheard the Nawab's people and our escort. we again set off at a gallop. Wuzeer Singh informs me. then recommended my sending intimation of our coming to the kotwal of Futtehghur. surrounded by a number of people. he was well. Donald. who assured me that he believed." I rode up to Mr. Of course I I was much shocked .

and then got on his camel. and sat down I with us. but he being an indifferent horseman declined. when Mr. we were invited to adjourn to a bungalow of the Nawab's. Multan Khan. ridden up to this was standing 12 — 2 . Gibson to mount him. and our accompanied us to this bungalow.Personal Adventures. but I by this time so great that could not see time by my and we begged at the door. and try to get some rest. you will be all killed if you remain any Return whence you came. As I rode out of the enclosure. Donald. Mr. Affghan servant. when my suspicions were aroused by Multan Khan coming up and saying. so." asked him why? He us. " I pity you from my I heart. saying. fortunately for me. from the state of the villages and roads. I looked round for the crowd was my two servants. My second horse. The Hindu Kardar. to have some refreshment before starting in the boat. and into the pouring compound. junior. " You must all leave this place at a crowd of armed men longer. The Kardar almost at the same moment came up to me. who was standing at the window. and stick to the sowars who accompanied you from Kaim Gunj. 179 but we contrived to do maintain a composed and cheerful demeanour all this time . and to converse with those present. once . escort. ate. Up to this them. built and furnished in the European style. boat had been prepared for was explaining that no and that we could never hope to reach Futtehghur alive. I I was about to lie down. for was sorely fatigued. After sitting about an hour. called out to me in much alarm. that there was collecting round the house." Our horses were immediately ordered and we mounted. which sustained me well during the next eighteen hours. some hard eggs.

this It he said that neither with us another men would advance body by our I was out of the question to attempt to get through four selves. Gibson I shall . Gibson and striking sticks. and so we turned back to the in front. 200 panied by Multan Khan. I saw Mr. Donald. mob opened I upon us. across the road. the Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. him with swords and I now noticed Multan fate. and waiting for Multan Khan pulled up for and bade us at once return to the house. of horse- men drawn up his horse. without his hat. senior. Donald. senior. house. trying to get out of the crowd. so I called out to Mr. put my horse right at for the crowd as hard as I could go.i8o time. but my horse becoming very restive under the fire. only chance of saving our lives himself nor any of his yard. and opened a way accom- for us to pass through. and had advanced about when we observed a body us. in a grove immediately in our front. with savage shouts and How the bullets were rapping into the wall escaped I know not. and not far from the gate. Mr. crowd did not meddle with us. Khan and our escort galloping off. junior. to follow me. and drawing I my revolver. and passed close to poor Mr. as the . plunged so much that they could neither hit him nor myself Turning round to see what was going on behind me. Donald. was some way and riding along by the wall fire of the enclosure in which the house was situated. and yards from the house. They opened me : right and left. when the yells. for all about me . leaving us to our My only chance was to attempt to rejoin them . and a number of at men rushing in upon Mr. I were riding in front.

and then support. followed me almost immediately. escort. I and the senior. He they not dependent on you for their bread ? "Well. as imagined. hand on and little rode up to the former. and I am replied. i8i never forget his look of agony. some of the fellows.Personal Adventures. soon got clear of the mob. lost. fancying that I could no longer hurt them.'' I . " And are " I asked. Multan Khan and the others seemed by no means pleased that we had escaped. A man also joined us mounted on my second horse. and jumping his horse over a ravine where the fellows could not follow him. but refrained thinking that threatening them with my pistol was most likely to deter them. said to him. and was. Once or twice I was on the point of shooting . as when once a barrel was discharged they might close in upon me. and joined Multan Khan Mr. "so have I." I said. severely wounded by a matchlock ball in the but he was himself untouched. he threw I his rider almost immediately." children ? " He confident you are not the their man to take means of said. "Yes." " I will save your He looked at life my life and destroy me for a moment. Donald. and putting my " Have his shoulder. can : if I follow me. and were very threatening in their demeanour. as he was ineffectually trying to defend himself from the ruffians who were swarming round him. a difficult animal to manage . I could render him no aid. His horse was near hind leg. after. you a family I — answered by a nod. His son also rode up soon he had escaped unwounded by riding through the town. then bolted. who had by this time halted. and was only enabled to save myself through the activity and strength of my horse.

if they saw us. a scoundrel belonging to the Mehid. and remonstrated . who had been with us a few hours The Nawab before. arrival.. Finding he could not persuade him or the other sowars to attack us. ourselves to no one. This caused Multan fields to Khan to take a long circuit through the avoid the village. order to raise the villagers to intercept and murder us. and they believed we were covered with jewels. and said. that the people believed that we were covered with rings and jewels. soon after our . tothe treachery of the Nawab Doollah He then plainly told us. and that nothing would perat suade them to the contrary. and were and show instantly told to ascend to the roof of the house were almost immediately informed that poor Mr. and we followed him. . and mounted on a poor alongside of me. and that the very children would tear us in pieces. He at a gallop. that he could of Shumshabad." I put him at at once murdering us. He said he could only consent . We visited us for us. in much enraged Multan Khan for not my by some civil answer refusal. — horse.m. One pore of the sowars. Gibson. and seemed heartily sorry made upon " " and very justly. Contingent. I told him that I we had nothing with us. We reached Kaim Gunj about four p. he struck off to a village through which we were to pass. to plunder us. But he said the ring to seal story that had produced my signet the purwannah Shumshabad had got about. what had occurred attributing the attack afford us no protection . rode is " Give me off your horse mine good enough but he was with for you.1 82 Reminiscences of a Bengal immediately turned and set ofif Civiliait. had been cut in pieces by the mob.

The Nawab was impossible. the for fifty rupees. who had poisoned himI repre- though we gave out he had died of cholera. I begged him earnestly to go to the Nawab. and return by the way I had where I thought friends would said this protect me. The Nawab allowed this was our best plan. we must have a guide to lead us through by-paths and fields. and it was reported quite unable to move from his became necessary to supply his place. I then said that we would try and make for Futtehghur. perish senior's horse sented that without a guide we must wound. After the Nawab for we sent for the old tehseeldar. for no Mr. saying he could not help us.Personal Adventures. . army before Delhi. that news had been received of the total destruction of our death of the self. and the Commander-in-Chief. our preservation in the midst of such great danger. to my own district. After much trouble. and on to the his coming pointed out to him the hope- lessness of our ever reaching Futtehghur if we had to keep main road and pass through the villages. left us. Nawab procured for him in the bazaar. but he was immovable. to it. by the way . therefore. and that. when we must him I would try come. or if not to prepare us for Himself. his inability to get a guide to conduct alleging as the reason. who had befriended us in the morning. but he at the same time declared us . Donald one would consent to aid or conduct us. a miserable pony. 183 quit keep us I told in his house until nightfall. heavy a man God to travel with at thanking all three joined in prayer. and entreating Him mercifully to open a door of I then escape for us. as I should be cut to pieces within the first mile. quite unsuitable for so any pace.

in continued for about an hour. and we were . Khan. They returned at the appointed time. and I now lay down myself. and available for Mr. I then roused up accompanied by our friend Multan my companions." I started up and called them both in. and fell into a which I light slumber. conveyance to my this family he then me." With seeldar shuffling inexpressible delight. if he succeeded he hopeless a guide. if you have good news for him. He would come back again. Donald.184 and try Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. dressed in the Nawab's clothes every article of our own . and of course second horse had been recovered. and made them over officer left to him^ to give to for European . senior. enjoining me to lie and promising to come back soon with which to disguise us. when the Nawab told me he had prevailed on two trusty men. connections of his own. : — He is rest. He also gave me the satisfactory intelligence that my was in the stable. when I was awoke by the voice of the Nawab saying. he might meet. My two poor companions had been fast asleep during conference. to convey us safely to Futtehghur. saying. and induce him to give us at least one horseman as consented to go. He and the tehseeldar then sleep. — waken up a man. I then heard the old lame teh" It is never too soon to up and saying. as had little or no hope of the first surviving. but as it would be only painful I then took off if he failed he would not return. I my watch and ring. in and that we must start two hours thereafter. " don't let us rouse him he is in need of asleep . for him to part from us again. down and native clothes in left me. but expressed himself very a of favourable result .

missed us very kindly. but mind. showed me that he had appropriated a good-looking bay it . and replaced by a miserable article without any stuffing. being burnt in our presence. When all part of our costume to arrange. think of that loss. were ready. and whom it is probable we may never again meet to say so in this life. purse . and been alas I ! in it my has my solace in many an hour I of anguish and peril . but the purse I dropped weep now when for on the road. and am not ashamed sorrow and anxiety such as ours make the . from which. or you will be at once discovered. put on. " The Nawab disYou make a very good Pathan in this dress . which I feared might seriously injure • my horse's back and render him unserviceable. dress." . but found to my dismay that my own saddle (an excellent Wilkinson and Kidd) had been removed. never venture to speak. waist-belt The Testament I have still with me. to I only contrived to destroy traces of us in the house. and never saw again. I had to cut off the silver rings and tassels. I mounted. the most difficult we descended to the courtyard and there found our horses and the two guides ready. which the old tehseeldar returned to me. however.Personal Adventures. the other two may speak. heart very ready to overflow at any remembrance of those we love. lest they should attract notice. and have the native accent. and our turbans. but it was no time for remark. saying to me. the guides. with my ring save my Testament and my darling May's and watch. I put these. 185 down all to our boots. far less remonstrance. a fine tall A glance at one of man mounted on mare. for they are country born.

fight near relation the Nawab. the and had many a brute as . who. but afterwards. and do everyit . in We town of Kaim which no one was stirring. stopped and examined. We had not proceeded very far when my little horse. and I our guide. a most vicious interest. For the few miles she went on without a check. He assured me that 6. notwithstanding my having scarcely been off his back for the past week. Immediately on getting beyond it. After going about eight miles we halted to breathe our my horses. while I contrived to replace though not in a way we had been to escape detection.1 86 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. ran me under the branch of a tree. was hopeless of being able to put it this. and led us through fields and through by-lanes for several miles without a halt. was pulHng hard. rode slowly and in profound silence. to He was a splendid horseman. and knocked off the turban which had been arranged with so much care. and. and that only but happily I caught one end knot in my curb after the education of years it as it fell to the ground. not been for the earnest solicitations of his which he at last yielded. to guide my horse. I on of again. rear and plunge. through the Gunj. as none but a native can do . managed turban . on leave at his home had in Kaim Gunj. He took the opportunity of having some talk with turned out to be a trooper of Cox's troop of Horse Artillery. first which I watched with intense and breathless on the result my safety mainly depended. and when was highly important for us to go at speed. tying a it rein and taking in my teeth. with mare. the guide on the bay mare set off at a gallop. the brute would suddenly stop. or give us any aid.000 rupees would not have induced him it to guide us.

but it was of^no use. who were As we came on at full speed. Happily firearms. our guide leading us with admirable decision and It was a most exciting race for about fifteen minutes. They raised a tremendous shout. Thefi we did ride for our lives sagacity. carrying his if he was a feather. busily engaged in plundering The one on it. and noise of the flaming villages. been mounted on the miserable pony he purchased. close to each other. thing to get rid of her rider. the right was in flames. and we were therefore quite safe from had once got beyond them. with about two hundred yards to and I shall never forget the yell of rage the fellows spare . Had Donald after we them. the fellows caught sight of us. succeeded in doing so. we must all have perished . and surrounded by a band of marauders. . raised when they saw they had missed their prey. he was glued to it. and at 187 He last stuck to the saddle as if he would force her on. that I quite forgot the danger for the moment although for some time it was doubtful whether we could clear the mob or notj we just . we approached two villages and between which we had to pass. and commenced rushing to a point where they hoped to be able to cut us off. as he never could . After riding about two hours. the The shouts and yells of these miscreants. excited our horses to such a degree that they needed no urging to do their best. if he The excitement was so great.Personal Advetitures. when within about a mile of the village. fourteen stone rider as Both mine behaved nobly Jan Baz. and my own little : Cabulee tearing along and clearing every obstacle as enjoyed the fun. instead they had no of my horse.

killing many prisoners who were trying to this make their escape. About 4 A. have gone the pace. and I have heard of them since. and walked our own then horses about. and we. not recognize him at the moment. but. We remounted. asking at the same time the news. native fashion. the standing that the station had been deserted by the Europeans. a I did * One evening. and rode on with our guard to the public serai. In the grey morning light the faqueer did not recognize us as Europeans..* at Agra. if my life is spared through these troubles. as morning dawned. . was but one of the instances of God's merciful interference on our behalf my I horse. to cool them. man accosted me as I was walking home from Court.1 88 Remi7tiscences of a Bengal Civilian. 1864. We were much comforted by intelligence. Our guide soon and went to the kotwallee for news. could not have deserted him we must all have been cut to pieces. our guides continuing with us for a short never seen or way suddenly they left us. bringing a chuprassie with him to conduct us to the collector's house. but returned. to preserve our lives which I have thankfully to acknowledge. in January. The : recovery of mount. in the town. having ridden about twenty-four miles. but the Collector Sahib Probyn was still at his post. we neared Furruka- Our guide bad. of course. where we dismounted without attracting any notice. in Furrukabad. their duty to us and I will do my best to requite them. and told our conductor that regiment still all was as yet quiet . a pulled up at faqueer's hut for a drink of water. Right well did they do . when many and his being available for Donald to thought him lost for ever. . left us.M. and that the previous day a portion of the regiment had put down a serious mutiny in the gaol.

if on I told him inquiring I found he had behaved loyally in the rebellion.m. but without success. and inquired after him. I. fearing the result of inquiries about his career. and what had occurred to us by the way. however. none of us could speak. I gave him a present. from emotion . reached Probyn's house about 8 a.. I saw he was the trooper who had guided I told him I was glad to see him.. as I had repeatedly us so well. in Oude. left had in conse. 189 We entered. but had been temporarily brought back to its duty. most desirous of proceeding down to Cawn: on his explaining who he was. and as we and received his hearty welcome. not to be depended on. including Probyn's wife and children. and threatened its officers.Personal Adventures. quence of the state of the regiment. He had probably been a leading rebel. and I know not what has become of him. and others. who had offered to protect them. He informed us that the loth Regiment N. which formed the Futtehghur garrison. Probyn urged us very strongly to join this party we were. with the exception of the officers of the loth Regiment and Major Robertson. Probyn then gave us an account of matters at Futteh- ghur and elsewhere in his neighbourhood which was far from cheering. were at a fort across the Ganges. The European gun residents. Futtehghur some of them had proceeded in boats to Cawnpore. broken out into open mutiny. in charge of the carriages manufactory. belonging to a zemindar of considerable influence named Hurdeo Buksh. I . thought it best to disappear. but he never appeared again. had already . and was then apparently staunch . it took us some minutes ere we could explain to him whence we had come. though in his opinion. and. told him I would apply to Government for a reward for him. to come to me the following morning .

and Major Vibart. pore by boat . and attacked the Europeans. at Futtehghur. commanding the loth N. the latter. Major Vibart had commanded the party of the loth N. when on his way to join his own regiment at Cawnpore. the 9th of declared this impracticable. who the day before quelled the riot in the gaol. reached Probyn during the day had mutinied.ops under General Wilson. from a brick- Both he and Smith faithful seemed very sanguine that the regiment would remain more especially as news had just been received of . left eye. We found a large assem. had volunteered to remain with Colonel Smith. called upon me . and he had received on that occasion a severe contusion under the bat thrown by one of the prisoners. by the Meerut tro. this day. The heat was most the sun blistering but doing me my hands into a mass of pulp.. it was that I did so. I. for me at least. of the 2nd Light Cavalry. — Hurdeo crossed the Ganges and joined the party at Buksh's fort. remained at Futtehghur until the afternoon of the when we Dhurumpore intense . and happily. who gladly availed himself of the offer. a successful action against the mutineers near Delhi. no further harm. but state of the roads We then wished to make for Probyn and the large bodies of mutineers passing up towards Delhi. therefore. I. Agra. but to follow Probyn's advice . but (most providentially for us) intelligence. and this plan we should no doubt have followed. blage of people congregated in the fort among them the . June. which that the troops there appeared to be authentic.190 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. from the We While remained there. We loth. Colonel Smith. burned the cantonments. There was nothing for it.

led danger to was no longer any be apprehended from that regiment. when a sudden thought struck me that I had better stay with Probyn. an act which the party leaving conI at first sidered one of great and foolhardy.rashness. This party had been already some days at Dhurumpore. the Rev. He at once. and only remained true to it duty which depended on the movements of other mutinous corps with whom they were in daily corconvenient to mutiny . 191 Judge of Futtehghur. Probyn himself. Fisher. along with the two Donalds. Thomhill. consisting of his wife and four children. intended to accompany them back to Futtehghur. and his assurances.Personal Adventures. The accounts they had heard hopeless. and my former assistant at Budaon. continue notwithstanding Probyn's repeated remonstrances against the step. The I . fort must say was it in so dilapidated I thought very justly . its until such time as they found respondence. which would staunch. determined to remain under Hurdeo Buksh's protection. begged that I would remain. that the regiment was not to be depended on. now They accordingly determined to abandon Dhurumpore. with their wives and children. I. Robert Lowis. and I asked Hurdeo Buksh's agent if his master had any objection to my doing so. Mr. on behalf party left of his master. who were also returning . from the information he possessed. for the a condition that successfully to defend quite against any organized attack of the mutineers was N. and return in a body to Futtehghur. and his family. the outbreak at the gaol and down putting them to believe that there of the loth returning to their duty. and were very much dissatisfied with I their position.

showing the accuracy of the information on which he had been acting throughout. in all probability. right He informed me that on glad to have him again with me. if any I showed these communicapressure was put upon him. come I instantly jumped up and called Wuzeer Singh has him in. He body lying at the gateway. His prognostications proved correct. and so all the calamities which averted. listened to his advice. in the crowd from me at Shumshabad. Gibson cut to where it remained . therefore. to ensure his own safety. About to welcome voice P. and reached Futtehghur Dhurumpore next morning. Had Colonel Smith and the other officers of the loth. and none whatever loth. as I was was aroused by hearing a familiar and " saying. as well as the others attached to the station. and was lucky enough pieces. ordered it otherwise. subsequently occurred would. and garrisoned by pensioners and others to be depended on . On the 12th I received letters from Lowis and Vibart begging us to join them. as Hurdeo Buksh would certainly fail us. to escape notice. the night of the nth. have been provisioned. however. lying half asleep. attack made upon and his us till There he remained during the the crowd dispersed. concealed himself among the bushes in the garden. assuring us that the regiment was quite staunch. early in May. Tell the sahib. he had. tions to Probyn. have been Providence. and that we were in much danger at Dhur- umpore.M. he had no hope of rejoining me .192 Reminiscences of a Beitgal Civilian. I " ! on the evening of the 13th. who expressed complete confidence in in the fidelity of the Hurdeo Buksh. saw poor Mr. the fort of Futtehghur would. and being separated seeing me ride off.

but. but had escaped into Futtehghur.Personal Adventures. who. He brought with him the whole starting had entrusted him on as also my gun. At nightfall Wuzeer Singh left his place of concealment. pitying him. morning he searched for me in vain through the cantonments. yelling round strations of joy at villagers coming up to look and it. however. when he was discovered by a man. and the loth did their duty as usual. this intelligence. and marched towards Futtehghur. which he had contrived to carry off safe from the midst of the enemy. and." At nightfall two sweepers the body and threw it on a dunghill. until the 193 evening . Seetapore in which had been quartered at Oude. to be exhibited to him. where it at Nawab Doollah's house. made his way to Reaching it early in the Futtehghur during the night. Wuzeer Singh lay close the whole of that night. He also saw the poor man's riding camel taken in triumph into the inner court of the a marriage. across the Ganges. of the money with which from Budaon . For two days after the return of the Europeans to Futtehghur. until evening . were Suddenly the 41st N. 13 . and told him that I had not been killed. crowds of the at it. in consequence of. I. exhibiting the greatest demon" the sight as he expressed it rejoicing — as they do dragged off was devoured by the dogs. he made of finding I his way . brought him a little food.. At last hearing that some Europeans were still at Dhurumpore. did not give information. as have already described. in hopes me among them I in which he was successful. all went well. having mutinied and massacred the Europeans there. and the next day.

we were much surprised to see that a fine it i8-pounder gun had been dug out of the wall . While sitting there. native fashion. had not then they escaped being massacred. We to saw at once. fired very irregularly. we were dis- turbed by a knocking and digging at one of the outer walls of this room. Fortunately. him their and fire a salute in his honour. where had been concealed since the proclamation issued last . we imagined must be an attack on the fort. the morning of the 14th of June and as the Europeans. that there excited thereby among Hurdeo Buksh's be expected was not much mutineers from them. as we were permitted to do. as it consisted of 30 or 40 guns. if loth had sent them word that and to admit no one. offer services. the fort. On this intelHgence reaching the loth. reported to have arrived on the bank of the Ganges opposite Furrukabad. The noise suddenly ceased. and that the going they advanced nearer We were then than the bridge. this occurred early in . they would attack them. lay the colours of the regiment at his feet. that the 41st were not from Futtehghur near the town. The first intima- tion we j received of what was going on was the firing of this salute which. During the day we received very conflicting reports at one time. should the make any : attack upon Dhurumpore. told to keep quite close within a room. The first act of the regiment was to march to the Nawab. to avoid being seen. but straight on to Delhi. from the consternation people. which continued many hours. and on going out in the evening. who had taken in the precaution since their return of sleeping left it. it at once rose in mutiny.194 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

We were far from being favourably regarded by his people. who looked upon us as the proximate cause of the mutineers advancing on Dhurumpore the latter having been attracted by the report. do drawn up just outside the gate of the fort. In an incredibly short space of time nearly one thousand people.. and plunder the fort. assembled at his resi- ready to enemy. about 8 p. where they had been hidden. The their best to oppose the expected with these retainers in the rear. produced 24-pounder where it had been concealed about fifty yards from a neem which marked its tree. had. a great commotion in the and messengers despatched in fiery haste in different directions to collect the chief's feudal retainers . were guns. position. year by the Resident at 195 Lucknow to the Talookdars of Oude A requiring them to give up all their ordnance. from a the same time was at field. the neigbourhood. there was fort. We heard that there were many more guns which could be produced if need be. and there Probyn and I joined Hurdeo Buksh. the alarm having been given that a large the body of mutineers had crossed Ganges. summons. into position sooner than for suddenly.m. and were marching towards Dhurumpore to seize the two Collectors (as Probyn and myself were called). where they had been concealed six and all were mounted and in position in the court-yard ready for service by night-fall.Personal Adventures. : 13—2 . in answer to their dence. The wheels and other portions of the carriages of these guns were fished up from wells. The guns were not brought they were required . Four other guns of different calibres were brought in from the chief villages in . all armed with some weapon or chief's other.

went up to him. where some connections of his own would receive us.196 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. which they. quite false though very generally believed. to This ensure our safety. wished to Scarcely had mated to us that we joined Hurdeo Buksh. " have our throats cut in half an hour. saying — " My is blood first : shall be shed before a gone. interior of the fort and convince them we were not to this plan at fighting shall first. when he intiwe must at once leave Dhurumpore. if he would pledge his honour as a Rajpoot for our safety." however. gether our bedding and a few things . that Probyn had of the removed to Hurdeo Buksh's care several lakhs Government appropriate. and conceal then be able. Probyn and said to I demurred greatly Probyn where we are. of course. that Hurdeo Buksh was in earnest. for if me." knew of old that when a Rajpoot chief once gave his right hand and pledged his honour. and that he would on no I therefore account permit us to remain longer with him. I can help you no longer. pore. It is better to die we once leave Dhurumpore we I saw. and miles proceed to a small village across the Ramgunga. hair of your heads touched after I am my power I is at end. but his if the move he declared would not only own also as he said he should mutineers did actually come to Dhurum. of course. said that we would at once go. his word might be fully depended on and I told Probyn and his wife that I thought \ we ought to lose no time Hurdeo Buksh desired us. treasure . and seizing his right hand. and that most heartily. three off. in moving off and doing as We accordingly gathered tofor the four children. show them the within. This he at once did.

Ganges the night before. and started : 197 . We This. We had to walk for till we reached the Ramgunga. After walking about two miles on we reached the village of " Kussowrah. had actually crossed the their intention was to attack us. Probyn carrying one child. and the effluvia of the animals. : some of found the animals were cleared out for us we were promised. two hundred fifty strong. the of the place. Probyn himself carried guns and ammunition. At last it came.Personal Adventures. We and were informed that a body of sepoys. we were told. and Probyn's his three servant the fourth child." and were very civilly received by the Thakoors. In the morning we contrived to make ourselves more comfortable. but of an inferior rank. our quarters the rest. where we were detained for a long time waiting for a boat. would be removed the next it morning. safe in and that had to face alone these alarms and about a mile perils. giving out that and plunder Dhurumpore. was to be assigned as . belonging to the loth Native Infantry. Mrs. How and thankful did I feel at that moment the hills. and This body advanced to within a seize and murder . and several goats. as I hoped. I the baby third as Wuzeer Singh a well as my gun. as their mother had never their father. a mare with her foal. been married to were led through several enclosures to an inner one where there were cattle penned. and were very miserable and depressed. and we crossed ferry of the about midnight. our fourfooted companions having been sent out to graze. who were uncles of Hurdeo Buksh . We filth impossible to sleep from the excite- ment. that my wife I child were.

198 Reminiscences of a Berigal Civilian. and destroyed. they without the ghur knowledge of their comrades. and was carried in a dying state into a village. he would never after be able to restrain them. June . were They accompanied by an officer of the loth Native Infantry. as he subsequently told us. short distance of the place. which. but soon recognized that peculiar different sound of shotted guns. as we afterwards learned. when they suddenly struck off They had with them three lakhs of which had contrived to remove from Futtehtreasure. as they said it was on his account they were attacked. We remained perfectly undisturbed to Sunday. plundered. deceived by their story that they were only going to Dhurumpore and would rejoin them next day.M. when we were about 4 it A. who were towards Lucknow." This party accordingly passed through his estate quite unmolested . This he was forced to do . he received a sunstroke while crossing a stream. but as soon as they crossed his border they were attacked by the villagers of the next Talooqua. convinced us that it was an attack on the .. and after wandering about for some time. the 20th of at Kussowrah up startled. but he very wisely would not permit them. into whom they had promised to convey safely Lucknow. by hearing heavy guns open. " feared that if because. and on being attacked by the villagers. Hurdeo Buksh's people wished to attack and plunder party. as well as the rapid and continued fire. where he shortly after expired. so from that emitted by blank cartridges . they desired this officer to leave them. he this once his people got the taste of plunder. At first we hoped might be a salute.

we were receiving the most conflicting of what was going on at Futtehghur . these miserable hours was well forced as we were to remain inactive. and unable the to aid in men and women. we imagining that this was one of those in the fort . it continued so night and next morning until midday. Hur- deo Buksh. and he never entreating came near him to send a body of men to assist our people. sent a reply that it was quite impossible for him to do so .Personal Adventures. prohibited from going to him. however. as on the previous There was one very heavy gun which was discharged every five or ten minutes during the whole time. 199 We were able also to distinguish replying guns. and in repelling any attack on Dhurumpore. all slackened when it again but only to recommence. with increased fury. to cross the Ganges. any way our poor beleaguered countryProbyn. . fort. and assuring him that in the event of their attacking the mutineers they would be handsomely rewarded. reports In the meantime. that the mutineers could make no impression on the and had suffered so severely from to our fire that they had determined abandon the attempt . firing. Our anxiety during nigh overwhelming . as his people. although quite willing to peril their lives in our defence. would not consent or act against the mutineers. The fire slackened for a short time during the heat of the day but towards evening became very heavy . one man in would come and say fort. on the commencement of sent a message to Hurdeo Buksh his (for we were us). and we always encouraged ourselves by day. which earnestly trusted was on each discharge doing much execution among the enemy.

and under deep depression. Probyn incessant). and were quite worn out by continual fighting .000/. and massacre the inmates. Matters went on in this way until the 22nd. listening sitting together firing on the forenoon of the to the (which by this time was deepest anguish of mind. The note was written in great haste. promising to bring us back news by the following night. and that : in Regiment was so dispirited that they were to and move off next morning no sooner had he delivered his news than we were told that the Nana 41st raise the siege : had offered the mutineers a lakh of rupees {10. in the and the Judge of Futtehghur. that their feet and legs were so swollen with the fatigue of standing day and night at their posts.200 to Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. He went away. scarcely had he when another of the villagers would cast down our hopes by informing us that our people were very hardly pressed. while their eyes were starting from their sockets for would come the want of sleep then an eager messenger from Hurdeo Buksh. that they resembled those of elephants. when we prevailed on one of Hurdeo Buksh's men to try and make his way into Futtehghur. the place. had left the fort the previous evening having eluded the besiegers by dropping down from the wall into the Ganges and swimming across. informing . to say that he had sure intelligence that our people were all safe. it The messenger who conveyed . and learn how matters really stood. received a note from our poor friend Robert Thornhill. As we were 22nd. and proceed to Delhi : take left. almost despair. and that they were preparing to escalade that night.) if they would carry the place by storm.

He. said he knew the greatest pity They expressed up in a for our miserable position. Probyn accordingly again communicated with Hurdeo Buksh. and it almost broke our hearts to to have to do so. and sent them some speedy He implored Probyn induce Hurdeo Buksh to go to their assistance with all the men he could muster : guaranteeing him in that case the highest rewards and to the pensions to all families of those his men who were wounded. had been reinforced by the Mhow Pathans that — the garrison was completely unless aid. no good. and were them to be well-wishers. and that there was no . and with our lives hanging by a they assured us of their great anxiety to help us in any way we could point out . and must all perish. who were supSadhs . God befriended them. shut cowhouse without comforts of any kind. however. Probyn advised Thornhill to endeavour get the assistance of a body of men in Furrukabad. posed to be very hostile to the Sepoys and would act against them. that I after When they appeared. only send a reply to that effect to our poor friends in the garrison . worn to out. We . the Mhow men were much dispirited. Probyn did not like their manner. In the same afternoon we were visited I by two bankers said to from Furrukabad. therefore. could. by a messenger but with no better success.Personal Adventures. saying that the mutineers as well as thread . and who might be killed. called " " a fighting class of religionists. us that they had the 201 for been assailed without intermission who past forty-eight hours by the 41st Native Infantry. and was sure they were spies. and gave us very cheering accounts of Futtehghur.

Jones. Among them to Thornhill and Robert Lowis. Phillimore of the loth wounded. women. and had seen and spoken with some of those inside. He had been. and who had been in the neighbourhood of the Ganges during the day. human nature could not hold out much longer . the wife of the sergeant who was killed. on their return. from both sides was incessant. and the loss on both sides very heavy. told us. were shut up in had been shot dead. the entire remaining garrison having to remain on the alert night and day. Mr. seized He told us that the case of those within the fort was desperate . that. having death by killing first many of the mutineers with a avenged her husband's rifle f^om . his He make way into the fort. where they were pretty safe from cannon shot. and which accordingly we never saw. Colonel Tucker. One of them. and obliged in self-defence to drop a note he was conveying to me from Lowis. us. he asserted. although fighting with the most undaunted resolution. and never for an instant leave their posts. Thornhill having accidentally shot himself in the right arm. Mr. danger of the garrison left They then from saying they would send us Furrukabad of what was going on. by the sepoys. and an artillery sergeant having been shot dead at their posts. falling into their hands.202 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and R. Their original number of thirty-two fighting men was then considerably reduced . About noon on the had contrived to 24th. daily intelligence All this night the fire some persons belonging to the village. Major Robertson's house inside the fort. The and children. our messenger returned. ladies. that the musketry fire was also tremendous.

I subsequently ascertained. the bastion. . : the thickest of the directing messenger. plainly said defence could not be and encouraging it was all in vain Our am- that the much further prolonged. killing 203 He unerring marksman. This sentence was. This man was shot dead on the top of the breach. by an explosion on the previous day. Seton's He subsequently commanded at the battle of Shumshabad.Personal Adventures. numbers of the enemy with a pea rifle from his post on the wall. where he and his troops were defeated by Brigadier-General Sir T. Multan Khan to whom I had been so greatly indebted a few days previous. column. when the : attack was made on us at Shumshabad. had considerably injured one of the bastions. They were led the second time by one of the Mhow Pathans. Walpole's force. was a relative of Multan was killed was a mistake the man who He himself became a Khan. and commanded the rebel army at the battle of Putteealee. personal intercession on his behalf. where she had taken her stand until killed. Multan Khan was afterwards captured. and that Vibart. which he never left . was who was an was the real commandant of fire. and the enemy had commenced mining the place. munition of the garrison was The mutineers had twice attempted to storm the fort . in consequence of my commuted to one of perpetual banishment in India. as the failing. by the breach thus formed but were on both occasions driven back with heavy loss. as we might have supposed from his undaunted character. : noted leader. and sentenced to transportation for life beyond seas. and going about among all. and. told us that Colonel Smith. and also considerably alarmed for This.* We * were greatly distressed by this account of the state of things in Futtehghur. the fort. however. tried for rebellion. where he was again defeated by Sir H. and Multan Khan is now under surveillance at Saugor for the rest of his days.

and were at that moment being butchered by a bloodand merciless enemy. Two ones. the cannonade continuing as heavy as on the previous Suddenly. gular firing of heavy guns by the renewed quick and irrethe sound coming from another further quarter than hitherto. bankers who had visited on recrossing the Ganges. entirely ceased.204 our Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. other miserable nights and days passed over us . they would take for seizing us. still All remained perfectly for more than two hours. who were concealed at Thakoor Kussuree Singh's bukree (farm-yard). villagers — the and gather some intelligence. impossible to describe the state of mind we were Suddenly we were aroused from a kind of silent stupor. own safety. We morning of (I think) the at once imagined that the besiegers had stormed successfully. men. and informed them that they had just " seen the Collectors of Futtehghur and Budaon. into which we had fallen. Wuzeer Singh went out ignorant as It is in. as the messenger informed us that the two us the previous day. had. gone straight to the Nawab and Subahdar commanding the 41st Native Infantry. women. had said on receiving measures intelligence. and we could only look at each other in silent anguish . to try but returned unsuccessful we being quite as were ourselves of what had taken place. . where a few armed men could easily seize and destroy them. and down the river than . feeling assured that our poor friends children. on the eastern side just adjoining the road. thirsty and acquaintances. as soon as the fort was taken and the troops were at liberty." this The Nawab and Subahdar. about it five in the 29th June.

Much time. when the heaviest laden grounded about three miles below Futtehghur. 205 We were listening attentively to every shot. the boats made our side of the river. to ascertain soon as the the cause. It then became necessary to abandon this boat. It was while engaged in transferring the unhappy people . They had. and so that they had only got a short way down observed. in order to take the passengers on board. and not daring to exchange a word with each other. stores . ready for required. before the morning broke. Futtehghur. who got into the stream. the river when day dawned. in the early and having delivered the intelligence he had to his master. together with the baggage. which was obliged to work up stream. notwithstanding all the efforts of the male portion of those on board. beyond the reach of the sepoys' fire. and to summon back the nearest . had been lost in getting the women into these boats. however.Personal Adventures. able to float if river in face of the fort. pacing up and down the narrow space allotted to us. when a messenger came in from Hurdeo Buksh. and they were as they As soon saw they were perceived and for the alarm given. had been sent on to tell us the gathered news. and children ammunition. and remained immovably fixed. Disastrous enough it was during the night the : Europeans had evacuated the fort and betaken themselves to three boats. and to be. to lighten and shove her off. of course. and were dropping down the stream. This man had been sent to the bank of the Ganges as morning. hoped to be down the stream unnoticed. which had been secured before the siege and anchored under the embarkation. firing ceased.

until late at night. having taken on board its passengers. This was the fire which was then going on . that the boats were out of grape range. but only rumours reached us. About four o'clock in the afternoon. We in a state of the most painful suspense . at another they were reported floating down the stream unharmed. The only consolation he gave us was. notwithstanding every effort to float her. we were again aroused by the firing of heavy guns. many of the balls had passed over the fugitives and buried themselves in the sand on the bank of the tidings . the sepoys. from the one to the other. and remained grounded immovable. had opened on them. was endeavouring to drop down the stream. The messenger had left as the firing was being continued. gradually slackened. one had near the village of Singerampore. and. and then ceased for several hours. that the sepoys having dragged four heavy guns along the river bank opposite the boats. however.2o6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. returned with the awful intelligence that of the two boats in escaping from Futtehghur. We begged of him to which we awaited with anxiety far too deep and terrible to be described. Men were every now and then rushing in with vague reports. as the firing had sepoys' guns. as we feared. and beyond the range of the This we hoped was true. At one time the boats were said to have sunk. and while the second boat. had dragged down two guns opposite this boat and . to the river when a horseman despatched which had succeeded by Hurdeo Buksh. which lasted for about an hour. and that the firing being high. apparently from a good way down the remained the most conflicting river. go off for more river. with inevitable fatal effect to all. who had been watching her movements from the bank.

some were into the shore. reach us of having safely reached Allahabad may be . opened fire 207 came also upon her. that " who mercy. which was considerably in advance. had contrived to escape." and save them out of the hands of the enemy. and conduct them to some haven of safety. commenced boarding under the cover of this fire. next morning the tidings of the previous day were Of those who were in the last boat. and was impossible entirely to discredit We us. three join up and pacing Earnestly and God. escaped. the number jumped by being either massacred on board. none had confirmed. It is said to have contained the Lowises and Thornhills. The — Mrs. Miss and Mrs. Two boats full of sepoys down the stream. we passed a miserable night. in his repeatedly did infinite we prayer. and three or four ladies were taken Ganges and escaped a worse shot down or drowned. Of those in the boat. May God its grant that the rumours which now true. This intelligence was too yet it terrible for us to believe it. trusted that in the morning better news might reach In the meantime dejected to .Personal Adventures. There was no help greater fate left. Fitzgerald. rising anxious and alternately sitting down. were called by his name. Jones. with her little daughter of eight or . and in and fro the small space of the enclosure. and was reported to have got safely away. prisoners and conveyed on The other boat. opened a heavy fire of musketry on the unfortunate party and when they had approached close enough. although attacked at Singerampore. would shield and protect his poor people. except three of the ladies . and as soon as they were within range .

2o8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. The Nawab. as his contribution new raj. that he was prepared to waive this claim. was at belonging to that nation. Hurdeo Buksh's* and cared villages. He all sent messengers across to that the English rule Hurdeo Buksh. desperately wounded. nine years old —who had all : been taken to Furnikabad and made over to the a sergeant. and no more firing was heard. provided he would send him in by the evening the two own. All was now silent the work of slaughter was over. however. We were therefore left to brood over our own position. Collectors' heads — Probyn's and my The intelligence of this demand having been made was soon conveyed to us. Nawab also one man. and we were told that Hurdeo Buksh had thought it best to temporize. was reported to be about sending over a detachment to seize us. . who had been stationed in Futtehghur. the "Dubyes" and the Nawab.000/. called. which now became one of extreme : peril. informing him an end . intimated at the same time to Hurdeo Buksh. He had therefore * The title on Hurdeo Buksh of rajah with extensive confiscated estates were conferred for his faithful and loyal services during the rebellion. described to us as who had come ashore. and demanded from him that he had killed an advance of a lakh of rupees towards the expenses of the (10. of the most influential Talookdars of Oude. The sepoys of the 41st. which he had received from the bankers. person we afterwards discovered was Major Robertson.). and a Knight He is now one of the Star of India. were now disengaged ' as they were acting . on the information as to our place of hiding. close to one of and had been This immediately sheltered for by his orders.

We therefore begged of him to pay us a visit.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. however. about the safety of himself and of his which was seriously compromised in consequence He told us. and send an answer afterwards. replied to the 209 Nawab that he would think about the matter. He. and to encourage him to oppose the Nawab. of the mutineers. if he did not give us up. After several days' delay —during which we were tortured all by frequent reports of detachments of troops from Futtehghur being in full march on Kussowrah to seize us (which they might easily have done. where the English had been so completely destroyed that not a dog remained cantonment that Agra was besieged that our troops at Delhi had been beaten back. assured us to the that Nawab . prising). with his people. and were in a state of siege . on the top of a hill near there that the troops in Oude had also mutinied. but. as we were prohibited from going to see him at Dhurumpore. that besides the having harboured us. We our felt . enter- He was much anxiety. . and Lucknow was closely invested. threatening. . Hurdeo Buksh visited us late evidently in his family. pretty confident that Hurdeo Buksh would not give us up but we thought it best to do what we could for own safety. to take very complete revenge upon himself and his He of affairs gave us at the same time a very deplorable account around us saying that Nana Sahib had assumed . he had received sundry other messages from the Nawab and the two subahdars in command people. had they been at at night. communication already alluded to. he would never give us up do his best to oppose 14 . command in the of the mutineers at Cawnpore.

tive his on him. he would then make us over to the Nawab." the subahdars had. not much encouraged by his visit. overbearing and threatening . but as he had always. since the fall of Futtehghur. and that it was only the . from Furrukabad. clearly giving us to know that they wished us no good. rise in flood. Hurdeo Buksh informed expressed themselves satisfied with this explanation. and asking what he should do If they did not otherwise instruct him. for the pupose of seizing us at the same time : he said he thought his wisest course was to temporize. until the rains. until the annexation of Oude. to which place he had sent a messenger? informing the new authorities there that he had two Collector sahibs with him. now Ramgunga and Ganges would and the whole country be inundated. he did not like to act without previous communication with Lucknow. and they would not dare to move without It artillery. to gain time. so that the islands sur- Dhurumpore and Kussowrah would become rounded with water sepoys. been immediately under that government. but it was quite impera- with them. who might be expected in ten or twelve days. as it for miles . much changed towards us they had become : insolent. had therefore sent a confidential agent to the Nawab to that '' He say- he was with him. was nearly morning when Hurdeo Buksh left us. and in a state of great doubt and perplexity. In this close at hand. The Nawab and us. any force which might be sent against Dhurumpore. way he hoped when fell . he might then defy the would be impossible for them to bring guns against him. to await the return of messenger. The tone of the people had.210 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. before doing anything.

They : told us that it Hurdeo Buksh and to protect us any longer was quite impossible he had already : risked enough for us tection we must now therefore leave his pro- shift for ourselves. a poor Brahmin who had shown us much kindness and sympathy. and could only do as we were 14—2 . The two old Thakoors of the village. the boat assuring us that if we did so the villagers on the banks would murder us before we had gone five miles down We tried to communicate with Hurdeo Buksh . would listen to this no expostulations. by which time the boat would be prepared for us." as they termed Hurdeo Buksh. they told us. which lay between us and Dhunimpore the : we were therefore quite helpless. the stream. They. depriving his give it own family of milk to to Probyn's children.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. however. sent them to tell us to prepare to start in a boat down the Ramgunga not yet for fallen. that prevented their getting rid of us. He had. as well Ram. fear of the " 211 Konwur. telling them it was quite contrary to Hurdeo Buksh's own sentiments so lately expressed to us by himself. and ordered us to be ready to start by next evening." who we knew felt accompanied by another relation. A day or two after this we were the " visited by a connexion of Hurdeo Buksh. We that their much for anxiety that coming boded us no good. bore the bitterest animosity towards us. called Collector Sahib. entreated us not to proceed in . and it was with we received them and awaited their communication. We remonstrated against arrangement. but our messengers were not permitted to cross Ramgunga. Cawnpore and which we might : which place they asserted had easily reach. who ever since as Seeta our arrival had been uniformly kind and civil to us.

hitherto faithful. He expressed the greatest reluctance to leave me. We then joined in I surely thought for the last time on earth. I for this purpose. at and only consented do so my earnest and repeated solicitations. would.212 Reminiscences of a Bejigal Civilian. So convinced were the natives that the expedition would be fatal to us. me. all and that he must try and reach my to wife had befallen me. but. throwing down the he entreated little parcel on the bed. and were prepared fate. interposed to . hour he came back into only for a short time. when God in His infinite mercy. saying. to tell her what had become of summoned him he must now leave me. ordered. He happened." So determined was he consent to my fate. little almost resigned to our baggage ready. almost in my : the words of Ruth I to Naomi. as it In little more than an room. which he would do he accompanied and tell her us. I then determined not to take Wuzeer Singh with me. but to send him to Nynee Tal with a farewell note and my little Testament to my wife. in all probability. implored him never to desert his faith or revert to idolatry but. whatever happened. to cling to the Saviour he had once prayer together. that Probyn's three servants. I " Where you go forced to I will go. and to his where you die share will die also. and we parted . and in answer to our prayers. that was accompanying me. and told him that as I was going on a journey which fatal to us . We had got our to start. said he could not go that I might allow him to accompany me. and prepare ourselves to go to what we felt assured was certain death. be that I could not if allow him to perish on my that account. and. as I . refused to accompany him. acknowledged. wept much.

Thus were we reprieved. About 8 o'clock in the evening. and that as the boat in was ready we must Again did the to depart the evening. I forget the precise date. he informed us that the boat was not quite ready. The Ramgunga having in the meantime considerably risen. Mr. we were then informed that the voyage was in consequence quite be prepared safe.M. The Thakoor Kussuree came with us end of the village. carrying our little baggage. for the time as were. prevent our going. from certain destruction. and that we could not move it that night. breathless messenger met us from . We had proceeded when a tion of the boat. Ram implore us to refuse to leave the we were. Probyn each carrying a child. 8 P. The road one mass of able to leading to the Ramgunga from .Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. wade through poor Mrs. but declined going any further . who had on teered to occasion volun- accompany him. and what necessaries for the boat we could collect . and Mrs.. quite helpless. and the only one of the children who would old I taking the baby. we started from the village to embark \ Wuzeer Singh. he could not be a party to conducting us to what he knew was intended for our destruction. and could only obey. was mud and water it. the village. about we thought summon us to start. as 213 When to the messenger appeared. we were allowed to day or two unmolested. to come to the me. for not one of us expected to see the remain for a morning Hght. Probyn was scarcely and we could afford her but little about half a mile in the direc- assistance. After this. and this two of Probyn's servants. however. saying. Thakoors and Seeta village .

who had on on every other occasion. We returned back in accordance with these orders. and Mrs. it embark in the boat. as Kussowrah. every moment expecting to hear the firing We village had gone about three miles in the direction of the indicated. shown the most patient fortitude. his people. by so doing. to a village them with commence.214 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. . he might prevail on him not to expose us to a cruel death by sending us down the river without a guard. Probyn. and I followed. and stopped half an hour in Kussowrah to rest . when we were overtaken by a second . the children. and procure an interview with Hurdeo Buksh as we thought that. Accordingly we again retraced our steps. had retreated. mercifully. and her We were not allowed clothes saturated with wet and mud. as a last resource. this. was very much exhausted. try to get across the river to Dhurumpore. and with boatmen who would certainly desert us. as to remain long. ordering us back to the boat as the sepoys. and proceed instead of to the boat . and after much fatigue reached the bank of the Ramgunga. held a consultation together it . that Probyn should go on ahead of us. and were reported to be re-crossing the Ganges. Wuzeer Singh. however. who had advanced some way towards Dhurumpore. as Mrs. and that Hurdeo Buksh had gone out to meet Dhunimpore. but to were ordered off. messenger from Dhurumpore. God. beyond the sepoys were in full march from Futtehghur to attack Dhurumpore. was determined. When we about half-way between Kussowrah and the : river. telling us to turn back at once. as we thought finally. ordered otherwise. He started . Probyn.

In about . he agreeably disappointed our forebodings \ for he gave us the welcome order to go back to Kussowrah. either bank could. we saw by the moonlight.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. who was by this time much exhausted. who . Probyn. arm to Mrs. We reached our old quarters about 3 A. for " before the throne of God. and his appearance. and thoroughly worn out as we had been moving almost continuously from 6 p. and destroy No boat. without much it reach the boat with their matchlocks as us. and we argued no good from there await further instructions. We met one of the Thakoors. where they if slept in their innocence as soundly about an hour. and a cloth was spread for the children on the driest spot we could find. passed down. Probyn she being too much fatigued to proceed without his help. Probyn joined us. a mere thread so that the villagers difficulty. and and securely as In this they had been in their beds. was on the bank. soaking wet.m. A wood furnished a seat for Mrs. an hour after our arrival. which was one log of mass of thick mud. We accordingly set out : I took one of the children (Leslie) on my my him his arms.. instead of . being in flood as we expected. and carried in " now " no : poor longer. He proved to be the connexion of Hurdeo Buksh.M." who has called lent to Himself. however. 215 We on were dismayed at finding the stream. who. was approaching us from some distance down the stream. my he poor is little friend the baby back. however. position we remained for were expressing our surprise that Probyn. when we were hailed by a man. On this occasion. He had been . was so long in rejoining us. who had crossed the river at the ferry. who had " " visited us with the collector some days previously.


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.


to see

Hurdeo Buksh, who was

at first

displeased at his unexpected appearance

but after Probyn

had explained, was very gracious, and assured him that for the present he would abandon all intention of sending us


the river.


then joined in prayer and thanksgiving for His gracious interference in our behalf, in thus


delivering us in so remarkable a

manner from






at the


His guidance and

protection for the future.


this, several

days passed without




except that

Wuzeer Singh on one occasion came in to report when strolling beyond the village, he had met several

men whom he

in a very miserable plight.

once recognized as sepoys, almost naked, He had learnt from them

that they were deserters from the mutineers at Delhi,


when going home with

their plunder,

had been attacked and

by the villagers near Mynpoorie. They told him things were not prospering with the mutineers at Delhi ; that they had suffered most severely, and were heartily sick

This intelligence was for the time cheering




were soon depressed by the news, brought to us almost simultaneously from Dhurumpore, that the Nawab and subahdars were becoming more urgent with Hurdeo^Buksh
to deliver us up,



to destroy us

and had repeatedly forwarded purwannahs and send in our heads. They

had even gone so far as to send him a firman, purporting to be from the Emperor of Delhi, conveying the Imperial order

our destruction.

Hurdeo Buksh

sent his brother-in-law, one of his most

confidential people,

us to explain


hardly he was

Persoftal Adventures during the Rebellion,
pushed, and


how much difficulty he had in He had therefore come to the conclusion that

protecting us.

our safest plan

was to


arrangements for
tection for us

Lucknow, and was accordingly making our journey there, and for securing pro-

dars, friends of his.

by the way, through certain influential talookHurdeo Buksh was led to recommend

consequence of the intelligence he on the Residency had been signally repulsed, and the mutineers withdrawn from the town and, as the place was well provisioned, and conour going to



lately received, that the attack


tained plenty of ammunition, there was no fear of the garrison being unable to hold out


especially as

none of

the Rajwarrahs, as the chief talookdars are called, had as
yet joined in the rebellion
quite; aloof

but on the contrary had stood
our willingness,

from the sepoys.





and indeed eagerness, to proceed at once to Lucknow, as recommended by Hurdeo Buksh. We were ourselves


pleased at the prospect of quitting Kussowrah, and

finding ourselves once

more among



was accordingly arranged that night, as soon as it was dark,

and countrymen. we should start on a

Lucknow, by

Sandee, which we were to reach in four marches.
horses, which


we had not seen

since the 9th of June, were,

on the night appointed, sent up from Dhurumpore after dark, for the conveyance of Probyn and myself, and a
palanquin was prepared for Mrs. Probyn and the children. To avoid observation as much as possible, Probyn dyed
his face, neck, hands,



a dark brown.

This was

considered unnecessary for



the exposure to the sun


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

having already made me almost as dark as a native, so I escaped a very disagreeable process. We were sitting all ready to move, and, for the first
time in

many weeks, were in something approaching to and to our bitter spirits, when rain came on we were told that we could not in consedisappointment, start that The next day we were informed quence night. we must not move until Hurdeo Buksh came to see us


and that the time of




the return

of a messenger he

had sent


depended on make some
to wait four

arrangements for us on the road.



this manner feeling much chagrined by the and accusing Hurdeo Buksh of supineness. On the fifth night he came about midnight, and was more


depressed than

we had

ever before seen



he informed



Lucknow had been

only temporary;








attacked the Residency, and that fighting was going on without intermission, day and night. He told us that
just as

we were going

to start for

fixed for our departure,

Lucknow, on the night a rumour had reached him

of the renewal of
the pretext of the


had accordingly seized



our starting,

and had continued
the real state

to detain

us until he could ascertain

of affairs, by sending a messenger to the This messenger had only now returned, and conleaving

firmed the previous intelligence;
the garrison

hope that

could long hold out against the multitudes Our plan of going to Lucknow, was thus

Had we

started as at



we must

Personal Adventures during the RcbclliotL




hands of the mutineers, and been

for Again, therefore, had we to praise God which into imminent the danger having delivered us from


we were blindly rushing. Hurdeo Buksh then gave
that the younger Mr. Jones

us the pleasing intelligence,

and Mr. Churcher, two of the had escaped out of the boat which had Futtehghur party, been boarded near Singerampore by the sepoys, and were
then concealed in one
of his villages.

They had been

kept so strictly hidden by the herdsmen among whom they were, that the fact had only a few days before come



and he had given orders

that they

should be provided with both food and clothing. The most appalling news, he, however, informed us,

had reached him from
whatever of the



There was no doubt

of Cawnpore, where every European

had been destroyed.



who had gone down


by the


boats from Futtehghur, the American

Monctons, Brierly, &c., had, he heard, been attacked and massacred near Bithoor. Agra was have and the to fallen, Europeans destroyed reported
missionaries, the
there, while attempting to

the Jumna.

make their way in boats down The Bombay army had revolted and, to



there were


signs of aid coming, nor troops

Under these circumstances, arriving from any quarter. he thought our only chance of safety was to remove where the Nawab and sepoys, secretly from Kussowrah

from the information given them by the bankers, knew we were living under his protection, and where we were
never safe from attack


go into hiding


one of



Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.
about twenty miles distant, in a very deso-

villages, situated

and immediately on the bank of the In order to maintain Ganges. secrecy as to our position, the Probyns should only take one servant with them,
late part of the country,


Wuzeer Singh should go with me.

once we

proposal being made,



confident that


Kussowrah and the protection of the Thakoors to proceed to the village indicated, we should be left entirely to the mercy of some of Hurdeo Buksh's people

who were most anxious

to get rid of us,

and who would

use the opportunity of having us in their hands, to put us on board a boat, and make us descend the river which would

be equivalent to certain death.

There was not a moment to


for us than

go we must, should no other mode of providing going to this village be determined on, before

Hurdeo Buksh


whispered to Wuzeer Singh,


was kneeling behind me, during the interview, " You hear what the chief says if we go to the village, we shall be all



go out to the Thakoor Kussuree, and


him what

has been proposed, and beg of him to make some better arrangement for us." In a few minutes he returned, and

" It






for us,


meet him


soon as Hurdeo Buksh goes, and offer to be responsible


to conceal us in

one of





Hurdeo Buksh took

his leave of us, to return

Dhurumpore. I gave a sign to Wuzeer Singh to follow, and bring us back intelligence of what passed between

Hurdeo Buksh and Kussuree.
very cheerful, and told us that


soon returned, looking

proposed, and that

had been arranged as Hurdeo Buksh was himself coming back

Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.


us of the change of plan.

In a few minutes he


accompanied by

Kussuree, and told



he could


on the Ganges we had better go wherever he arranged for us, and put ourselves This we at once gladly consented to entirely in his hands.
jungle, in a village nearer than that



and Hurdeo Buksh

left us.

Next day Kussuree informed me that he was now entirely responsible for our safety, and he feared he had
undertaken more than he could perform.
him, saying




quite confident,

and easy

in our

as long as he remained with us.


then told


would be necessary for him to go out into the jungle which extended for many miles towards the north-east, commencing two miles beyond the village of Kussowrah

— —


select a place in which we might be safely hidden. He proposed that he and Wuzeer Singh should ride out in the afternoon, for this purpose, on my two horses which had

been kept at Kussowrah ever since the night we were to have started for Lucknow. Of course I readily agreed.

At 4


they started, and returned about



Wuzeer Singh
jungle, which


that they

had proceeded

far into the

was very dense,

to a small village

where we

were to be concealed, and where he was sure that no one
could find us
they searched for a year.

Kussuree and the other Thakoor, Paorun, came early
next morning to explain to me alone, the plans they had formed for our future concealment and safety. These were
rather startling.

less to expect that

they insisted that it was quite hopeour movements could be kept secret, or


Remmiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

our position concealed, so long as

we were accompanied
that the

by four



was therefore quite imperative

Probyns should leave these behind in the village ; where If, as was every possible care would be taken of them.
very probable, the enemy came to Kussowrah and instituted a search for us, they could contrive to hide the children ;

was not probable that the If they gone, would injure them. sepoys, finding did kill them, there was, of course, no help for it but it

they were discovered,


we were


chances of safety for the children were far greater separated from their parents than remaining For ourselves, it was arranged that we should with them.
their opinion that the


moving about from place occasion to place as might require, and returning, if we could, at nightfall to the little hamlet, which had been
in the jungles all day,

be hidden

prepared for us to sleep



plan appeared to

me most




that considering the season of the year, the

rains being close at hand,

was not

likely that

any of


certainly not Mrs. Probyn, could stand the exposure and fatigue of wandering about all day in the jungle, as they



reminded them that they had always told us

Kussowrah would be a secure asylum as soon as the rains commenced, as it then became an island from the swelling and this must soon occur. Why, then, not of the rivers


us remain for the present quietly where


were, to take

our chance

This both Thakoors declared to




Hurdeo Buksh would not consent
longer in Kussowrah.


our remaining any


the usual rains fallen

we might,

although they might feel quite convinced that the Thakoors would do lives. But then came the might they not be destroying any Httle chance of safety which remained for them by determining to keep the . but not suffi. yet. but repaired : they could never get second lives they had. I then informed the Probyns of all that had passed. not to part with the children. 223 and but they had hitherto to attack. assured all. all in their power if to protect They. connecting Kussota. If.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. me all that it and preserve their was quite impos. have done so the place . was then quite open They safe further told me that although the village was quite during the early part of the rains —being from attack entirely surrounded by water deep enough to prevent any one reaching the place except by swimming and wading alternately. as soon as the rains reach their " a or channel. I said I would go out and discuss the matter with the Probyns. they said. by which the sepoys might reach us easily from Futtehghur without our receiving any intimation of their intentions at sunset they might be upon then expressed my conviction that the Probyns would never consent to abandon their children. if they once lost those Finding the Thakoors immovable. the children did perish. ciently so for boats sowrah with the Ganges and Ramgunga. : starting any night I us before morning. and navigable for boats. failed. They of course declared their determination reflection. however. sible save us we remained together while by separating from the children might possibly be saved. to in reply. is formed. their loss might be their parents might have a second family . and let them know the result." height.

We called and told them of our determination.224 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. day the rains held even flew near the earth. watching with the it most intense anxiety each cloud as of fair rose . The continued drought caused the hearts of the Thakoors . which Mrs. in the event of the children being she left at Kussowrah. Probyn then thought that she might. and to trust that. When there were no clouds in the burning sky over our heads. to protect us in the Thakoors. we tried to gather hope from the flight of the swallows . as there was a good prospect of the rains falling . But day and there seemed a prospect of their failing altogether. which had hitherto so still. trust to Almighty care. the children. At and last it was determined we should the all remain together. would be given up to some of our own countrymen as soon as Futtehghur was recovered ? The hearts of the poor parents were torn with anguish . not knowing what course to adopt. in the very if event of themselves perishing. and many a day promise of torrents did we sadly see pass away with- out a shower. which the natives told us was a sure indication of rain after when they ofl" . children with themselves ? Was it not better to make them probable over to the Thakoors. soon. be allowed to remain with her children . They and did not any longer insist on our immediately Kussowrah but said we might remain there for the leaving present. graciously watched over us. saved. she would stay with them . perhaps. pitied us. Eagerly did we wait for their coming. but Probyn said he would never consent to leave her flatly refused to do. behind. The ayah was then asked if.

was At three a. they said. and had gone in the meantime to sleep. to fail. and after sending many messages. with which he went off quite satisfied . when I was woke up by the Thakoor Paorun. joined us. but evidently with much reluctance. with due form. he sent it on by a bearer a mile on our proposed route. and we started. to go anywhere . but that we must . 225 and at last they fairly told us. belonging to us should be sent on were going said. and —never remembered if his own repeated us. he light... and of which there was only one watch then remaining. That very day. Probyn. 15 .Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. and I and Wuzeer Singh walked.m. and we were all to move as soon as the moon rose packed up ready for departure. to hand. and the children. were starting. An elephant had been procured for Mrs. I missed old Kussuree. they had arranged to conceal us.m. they dare not keep us a village any longer in Kussowrah. where it was. buried. the Thakoors woke us up. he did not accompany waited for him he. I As we could not sufficient it ourselves leave until the moon gave direction us was imperative. saying they had only just found out that the We moon did not rise until three in the morning of the next day to that fixed on as lucky. at night. start for in the jungle somewhere to the north in which. her ayah. the first thing that came once made over to Paorun. that something —which at in the we the astrologer declared would as ceras proceeding tainly secure the happy influence of the day ourselves in person. about 11 p. and as I had great confidence in him. A table-fork. had been fixed on by the village astrologer as a lucky one for our start. they said. at last. Probyn and one servant (the other had When we advice I absconded the night before).

wetting us as also stream of water so deep that the elephant could not wade across and was therefore dismissed. we painful. to a large piece of water. the rain all the . The scene was desolate beyond description. At last. One of the Thakoors roused up the who pointed out to us a It was wretched hovel. We had to be ferried over in a little and then to proceed on our feet. solitary hamlet of four or houses in the middle of the waste. and on fast asleep. Probyn. through. while pouring in torrents. and wept . My heart sank within me. fairly broke down. of us carrying a child. and inhabited by only a few herdsmen and their cattle. a wild-looking Aheer. in a little charpoy which a child of one of the herdsmen was Mrs. which made our progress slow and About a mile and a half from the stream. all As we came up. for hut. but with full much diffi- of thick slippery mud. the down the poor baby on a door of which was open. being yet asleep. and the effluvia stifling. as Probyn it was deep and the bottom as the day carried his wife over. the mud and dirt were over full of cattle.226 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. each The path lay over ground thick with thorny bushes. sooner had No we started than the rain came down in our Httle bedding. we reached our five destination a wretched. hopeless scene. as I looked round on this I laid desolate. just was dawning. we came on a torrents. which he said was for the Probyns. in of mile advance About a Kussowrah. boat. Poor the first time since our troubles comat the miserable pro- menced. and very filthy chief man. no one was moving in the village. came across. which we had to wade culty. : our ankles.

clean and sweet. saying. but quite sufficient really I don't know that any one. " If there is and remonstrated with the Thakoors. most thankful to have it to shelter us. priating The Thakoors made no objection the room. 15—2 . Soon after we got into this place. and with apparently a water-tight roof I called out to the Probyns below. established ourselves in this little space. to our appro- within it. 227 Probyn was much roused. where I deposited my blanket and bundle which served : me and as a pillow and contained my worldly goods merely. observing a little place on the roof he imof one of the huts. neither so broad nor so long as the smallest berth in a ship's cabin the all little . and then the children Probyn fol- lowed. One little corner was assigned to me." if In the meantime I had looked round. spect for her children and herself. requires more. you had better kill us at once. small as it Avas. no better place for us than this. to see any arrangement could possibly be made for sheltering them. for the children cannot live here more than a few hours : they must perish. and we. the Thakoors took leave. and Wuzeer and . a single change of native . in places fixed for each. and.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. called out was empty. I helped up Mrs. eight persons in all. provided we kept strictly . with the place below. pointed it out to Wuzeer Singh : mediately scrambled up. mounted up with and was overjoyed to find a little room. and a palace compared his assistance. clothing. and never showed ourselves outside as they feared we might be seen from the roof. clean. and having examined that it it. in the best of circumstances. and our hiding-place discovered. Probyn. I and dry. We the could only be contained in this room by lying down on mud floor.

Him. and neither Probyn nor I could sleep. The rain. they could not be : allowed to leave the room. much. and there was no space in it for them to crawl or move about. but approin for themselves. visit promising often to us . the only relief we had was to turn on our backs. they made over let the charge of us to the Aheers. " a very present help in time of trouble. and for several days there were only occasional showers. as the Aheers will on no account part with the milk of their cattle priate it on that day. Notwithstanding our miserable compawhose blessing and protection we duly implored together morning and evening finding Him. and happily : slept . as we were so closely packed together in this little room. on the roof of the house just outside the door . enjoining them to no strangers enter or stop in the village on any account." Suddenly the rains came down with tremendous force. we lived with much harmony and Almighty ! Thanks be to the . all were also now a good deal pressed for food we could get being a little milk and chupatties and not We the former on Sundays. We could only get out at night and during the day.228 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. circumstances. and to maintain perfect All which they professed their secrecy respecting us. The heat was intense. They were much more patient than we could have expected. or from one side to the other. or . which had come down heavily all the morning. poor children were in sad misery . as He will be found by all who seek rative peace. readiness to do. asserting that they would die for us rather than betray us. now ceased. as we had hitherto done. sit up The standing or moving about was quite impossible.

r Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. therefore. It was. pleased. become untenable secure I was. forced to try and some shelter for myself elsewhere. for years.) a small. emerging dark. and found on inquiring that he had been a traveller. when he went as he had been regularly paid for . I inquired campaign. Wuzeer Singh a month hitherto succeeded in renting a cow-house for me for two rupees (4^'. at another not far to off. and Wuzeer Singh having cleaned it out. without any door. peace. I was surprised to find him much more quick and intelligent than the generality of the villagers. so they went and came just as they One day a relative of the chief man of the village. arrived on a at visit. The men of the hamlet used to come and visit and talk I had no means of keeping them with me now and then. He down. little whom room. I thought of was probably never to see and some also of blessed again. attached to our commissariat far as during the first Sutlej if Lahore. and had been. sat came my room to have a look me. have I spent in that those dear to me. 229 it of our room. who were rude in the extreme . with his four bullock cart. and having probably not been cleaned out filthy was beyond description. in when in it fell The space inside had become much circumscribed having consequence of leakage. I was. out. as usual. thankful for this shelter. and. and contrived to hire a charpoy (native bed) for me. therefrom at nights. one or two places . and we entered into conversation. I was. even if I desired it. of intense Many an hour all made comparatively agony of mind when I comfortable. however. and residing of course. as the roof did not leak. miserable hovel in which two cows had : been stalled.

sent Wuzeer Singh. after him. and knew the way. fearfully massacred I told the man (whose name was Rohna) the misery I was enduring about the "Mem Sahib" and the "Baba. and carry a note from me to my wife telling her of I told my I safety. if he once my wife. he assured me." that if I knew they were safe I could bear anything and . the It lamb and the Hon could drink at the same stream. to endeavour to find out whether the man was in earnest. I was in constant and terrible suspense : for could I be sure that Nynee Tal had not fallen as well as Bareilly and Futtehghur. the 17 th my wife at Nynee Tal . I assured him she would reward him felt handsomely." me to that I could perhaps induce this immediately struck man to convey a letter that date. and bring me back an answer . arrange his affairs from thence in the morning. him had scarcely any money. who had been present at the interview. and would certainly do his best to convey the letter that he would to Nynee Tal. of whom on July. for To my great delight. and concerning whose safety and that of my child. fully and liberally. set out the there. going through he had been there before. or merely deceiving me to get the . He for his start I same evening then retired. and could only give him reached eight rupees but. under which. and : Bareilly home. and commenced of our praising the justness and liberality Government . entreated him to take pity upon me. and the dwellers ? there. he said he deeply me.230 the duty : Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as at the other places. as he expressed " it. saying he would be back in an hour to take my letter. I had heard nothing later than of the 26th May. and to bring me back tidings of her. .

one to Bareilly. nor any means or hope of getting any. He soon came back. followed it with one of the . floor. the little atom of lead out. and felt heart-broken with vexation as I had no more paper. Pen or ink I I instantly commenced my fell writing I : in the middle. on which to write another note. seen the crow. or would it consent to take. it was gone for ever. him my messenger in reaching Nynee had but a I small scrap of paper (half the fly-leaf of Bridges on the 119th Psalm. and only the stump of a lead pencil. I At last. and then to dry in the sun on a wall just outside my it room. my I wife and to another to Misr Byjenath at aid entreating Tal. write both notes. off : In an instant a crow pounced on one and carried it was that for my wife. me was all the two very brief notes. I. of course. and had already killed several who were discovered with English letters on them. 231 vance of money I had offered. which happily we had with us. as was reported that the rebels were all in the habit of searching travellers for letters or papers. and was in despair. determined to write two notes.) on which to had none. about one inch square which man could conceal about his person. it. of which the lead was so nearly exhausted that only a little atom remained quite loose. and would certainly undertake the journey. after much searching in the dust of the to refix it mud found and contrived to finish in its place sufficiently to enable . thought . Wuzeer Singh had. little milk and steeped them put them out to make the writing indelible.Personal Adventures dtiring the Rebellion. unknown to me. be desaying he thought from the man's manner he could pended I on. When the notes were ready I got a in it.

and nowhere under four or four and a half feet. the mud is reaches over my ankles. but I think. of about one hundred yards square. is which curiously enough. be deterred by no difficulties. far as the was a jungle about three miles eye could reach. To reach this pasture the cattle and the herdsmen have to go and return by swimming. and surely with the great truth. The whole country round. and the only pasturage is about three miles distant. where Byjenath would. was flooded . known by name of " " Runjepoorah (the had now become. by the constant rains and the swelling of the rivers. I was certain. aid him in going on to Nynee Tal . which seems as easy and natural a mode of progression to both as travelling on dry land. that he likely to do The place of village. where we have our own scanty meals. and many injunctions my messenger with both notes. but are allowed . except to the north.232 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Just round the village the water very deep. long chase of about an hour. not whether he has succeeded in his is mission. which is only partially submerged. When I step just immediately out of my own shed to go up to the Probyns. from the look of the man. but push his way through to Bareilly. on the high jungle land I have mentioned. one complete island. and bird drop injured. the water being in some places very deep. up to I then despatched to this date I know so. it. our position is considered so much safer that we are not required to keep ourselves so strictly concealed. saw the and recovering it brought it back to me unafter a herdsmen. as affliction). where there off. Since the waters have gone out over the country.

and sometimes mounted on the stronger animals of the herd. poor Mrs. This is a great boon . we sent sundry messages to the compared with Runjepoorah. and walk about towards the afternoon. We and much enjoyed each evening watching the strange interesting sight of the vast herds of cattle emerging from the jungle. As the inundation was now at its height. sant evenings in this also We spent some comparatively pleathis way with primitive people. and receiving most curious information. when the herdsmen had returned and the cattle with them for were folded. and we inquiring of them about their cattle and habits of life. Thakoors sign . we were most anxious to get back to it. Probyn and the children hitherto (and who came every morning from Kussowrah. as we looked back upon our quarters there as palatial. which is a source of the most unfeigned surprise in them . to and swimming off in droves to their different which they seemed to direct their way with . we knew. unerring instinct the herdsmen generally swimming behind them. and the waters. and never ceasing in their inquiries as to how it is that our Queen's husband is not our king. villages. returning from continuing her in the same manner of an evening). who used to attend on Mrs. they seemed inclined of to leave us to our fate. swimming and wading. . would equally surround Kussowrah. after sunset.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. but neither they nor recognition : on the Hurdeo Buksh made any contrary. . and here. This caused services. They even prohibited a poor woman. With this view. to 233 go on the roof of the house near Probyn's room. have we sat together and talked hours they asking much about our country.

There exposure). constantly messages by this man to the Thakoors . and the Thakoors being much displeased. influential people. This was discovered. as well as the others. and prohibited from sending any of our own servants out of the village. in their wives of the Thakoors. for intelligence. which he was and although Probyn had left some milch goats belonging to himself behind at Kussowrah. To add to her already baby. The . began was no sustenance for him but buffalo's milk.234 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and supply her with many comforts. prohibited him from visiting us any more. which she bore with such patient fortitude as made who were not me feel proud of her as of this my countrywoman. or the Futtehghur. but no expression of sympathy whatever. or myself there to witness her troubles. and who had it power greatly to alleviate her position. exception poor woman and own Mrs. The only person who still remained We sent was the Brahmin Seeta Ram. her With the ayah. visited. He had lately gone into Futtehghur for us on one or two occasions. distress Probyn more those imagine and labour than like I can describe. he could not induce the people to send them to him for the susteunable to retain . had up to the spite of the droop and grow daily weaker. she not only received no act of kindness. a fine time we left Kussowrah continued well in to overwhelming sorrows. Probyn had not conversed with a female since the day in which the party of Europeans left Dhurumpore to return to From the Ranees of Hurdeo Buksh. the poor little child (who. nance of his dying child. Our position we were kind and was becoming daily more deplorable. but they never took any notice of them.

and much was attracted by seeing a person wading and swimming towards the village. arrived in great numbers in Furrukabad. we induced Seeta Ram to go across to * Seeta Ram. .Persojtal Adventures during the Rebellion. and reminding us of the near prox- imity of those who were. went down to meet him as he came ashore. and had utterly defeated the Nana's troops with great slaughter at Pandoo Nuddee. which put us in high spirits. and gave us some hopes of ultimate release. hearing distinctly a military band the playing English airs in Futtehghur. of course. >nly incident 235 which marked these weary days. watching him for some time. we knew. Kussuree and the other Kussowrah Thakoor. that they had advanced as far as Cawnpore. I think Thursday. by the signs he made. my attention from I his manner I inferred there was something unusual. thirsting for our blood. to catch my eye. accompanied by Seeta Ram. one morning. the wind carrying sound across the water. and found him in a great state of excitement. Seeta Ram asserted. with the good news that our troops had at last been heard of. putting the Nawab and his people in the greatest alarm that they will soon meet with I rushed up the same fate . one morning. most anxious to ascertain the real state of the case. as I earnestly trust they may. Being. They have visited me each year since i860. Rohna and the Aheers of Runjepoorah. have all been rewarded by the grant of confiscated villages for their services to us. The flying troops had. and are now one and all very prosperous and happy. Early when I was sitting on the roof of the house. to give him the welcome news. I recognized Seeta Ram :* depressed. the 22nd of July. to Probyn. was Probyn 'and myself. and evidently After desiring.

in all some sixty-five or The Nana's soldiers. in conjunction with the selves by the deliberate little Nawab. might have by this time reached Futtehghur. The firing continued at irregular intervals for about own who. we were startled by the full firing of heavy guns it in Furrukabad. and in reply to our eager inquiry. had remained untouched several in discharges of grape. Seeta Ram informed us. Ram many state.236 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. promising Futtehghur. Christians. to procure intelligence. remained during the and sanguine of return. revenged themmurder of these poor martyrs. under the orders of the Nawab. thought. The day passed without Seeta Ram's and no tidings from any quarter reached us. Seeta soldiers . and of many native seventy persons. On the morning of the 24th. and brought back to Futtehghur. and want of food. Have our troops arrived ? " What was the firing ? he cast down our hopes by the terrible intelligence. speedy deliverance. had spoken with several of the of them were wounded. after Mrs. Jones's daughter of about nine years old. when it entirely ceased. and a sepoy rushed up and cut her pieces with his sword. that the firing we heard the previous morning had been caused by the blowing away from guns. and all fugitive were in a miserable from fatigue. We day in a state of the greatest excitement. our We were of hope that was the fire of troops. infuriated by their defeat. Seeta " Ram arrived. On the morning of the 23rd of July. we an hour. had. to be back the next night. . and the shooting down with grape. of the poor ladies already mentioned as having been saved from the boat. in pursuit of the Nana's retreating forces. terror. He started.

This request. We received congratulatory visits from the Thakoors seen since . old Kussuree also." Seeta Ram also said. They Ram that the action in in had been fought which they were beaten a Nuddee between Futtehpore and Cawnpore . that the Europeans had killed numbers of them. . however. the " which carried so far that they were killed before Minie).Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. was In short. and had communi- Nawab and his followers. that such was the panic in Furrukabad. came to visit us in state on acceptable. our position was much not. which were most Hurdeo Buksh sent his brother-in-law to inquire after our welfare . They were completely panic-stricken. had the day before nearly cleared the city. they heard the noise of the discharge. an elephant. and two cated their fears to the told Seeta or three elephants. quite clear that our visitors at the were altogether pleased news of the Nana's defeat. and the poor woman allowed Mrs. The news of the success and advance of our troops caused an immediate change in the demeanour of the people towards ourselves. the Nawab's troops and the inhabitants all taking to flight. who used muskets (of course. and taken all their guns excepting the one they had with them . and brought us sweet cakes. whom we had not we left Kussowrah. We took advantage of this turn of feeling in our favour to entreat Hurdeo Buksh's brother-in-law to procure from him permission for us to return to Kussowrah. It Probyn's goats were sent to him. that it was quite in vain for them to think of con- tending with our troops. Probyn's children. that a few persons shouting out that the Europeans were coming. to resume her attendance on improved. 237 They had with them one gun.

a few hours before our return. it would be impossible to get a dry spot in which to bury him . to take off Mrs. we looked upon them after as most com- fortable and commodious. as there was now nothing to fear from the terror-stricken sepoys in Futtehghur. and until within but filthy as they were. On Probyn and the children . go through deep water and mud. our sufferings during the previous fortnight at Runjepoorah. so our quarters were as filthy and disagreeable as when we first came to them from Dhurumpore . Kussuree. where we were received by The place had immediately on our departure. it was no easy task to stick on. who was rapidly sinking consequence of all his hardships and exposure . our old quarters. about 9 P. and as we had to half-swimming.M. This was the first time I had ever ridden one of these animals astride and bare-backed. off. all the country around the village being flooded to a considerable depth. half-wading. would be immediately granted. in consequence little of the state of the poor baby. Saturday the 26th we heard that we might return at A boat was in the afternoon sent nightfall to Kussowrah. An The Probyns went elephant was also sent to assist in carrying us in the boat. We felt it a most blessed deliverance getting away from Runjepoorah. except the sites of the houses. We in were particularly desirous to return. and I and Wuzeer Singh on the elephant. .238 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and we feared that if he died in Runjepoorah.. the brother-in-law assured us. for the waters were now deep enough between Dhurumpore and Runjepoorah. been occupied by the cattle. and were really in a state of cheerful excitement on reaching.

in sure and resting place. little : although in deep grief at losing their sweet child. and then two o'clock went out with Wuzeer Singh. I almost envied . and suddenly missing the heavy breathing. and I woke up the parents. which was not inundated. little body wrapped in a sheet and Mrs. procured after much means of keeping him difficulty some hot water alive for a warm bath for him. She was perfectly exhausted." his quiet rest. had some difficulty in getting through the cattle We which were penned in the enclosure. His mother. and not by the hands of assassins. There was no time for more. Probyn followed leaning on my arm. but at last for him. and we dare not be seen beyond the village in the daylight . during which she had to keep him in her I was lying down at some arms. whose unceasing care and devotion had been the hitherto. and prayed beside the I body . When all was prepared. as day was fast breaking.T^sonal A dz^niuresaurmg the Rebelliojt. she then him. I read a few sentences of the burial service over him. the poor father took the in his arms. and she soon fell asleep. to look for a dry spot where we This was a matter of some diffi- might dig a grave culty. who. went up to the bed to look at the child all was still. certain hope. little We in the all knelt down. so we laid him in his little " dust to dust. which seemed to restore laid him down on a charpoy and lay down beside him . ashes to ashes. distance. having had no rest for several nights previously. we found a spot under some trees. and hastily covered him in. the little spirit had fled. 239 The poor little tnd breathing very hard. ful that its felt thank- death had been natural. about morning. nor likely to be so. baby was by this time much exhausted.

240 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and dripping with water. they managed. as already described. before dawn by a noise in the enclosure. They enemy's then determined to escape in the three boats. The account he gave of his escape and adventures. and on looking — up saw a tall spectral-looking figure standing before me. without doing any damage . He had until then been hidden in one of Hurdeo Buksh's consequence of the good news of the successful advance of our troops. Jones. join us. without . the shot passing clear over them. naked except a piece of cloth wrapped round his waist. Hurdeo Buksh had informed' us. which were until their held ready under the walls of the fort in case of being Jones happened to be in the third boat. when he and the others on board were taken into required. with the rest of the Europeans to return to Futtehghur. After abandoning their first boat. who. which after they left the fort. in villages. and seeing one of his own countrymen. and had to be abansoon grounded doned . had been permitted to and. I recognized young Mr. had been saved from the boat captured by the sepoys. He was very weak. it was possible to do ammunition was almost exhausted. burst into tears at hearing his own language again. sepoys kept up a continual fire on the boats from their guns placed on the banks. I was roused this morning Sunday^ August 2nd. was most wonderful. and when I recognized and spoke to him. During the time the was this transfer going on. much him as emaciated. since he Dhurumpore. and the mines had rendered the place untenable. They had conleft tinued to defend the fort as long as so . but the second boat.

wounded by a musket ball in the thigh. and Jones. Robertson. Mrs. jumped into the water to try to shove While in this position. and two guns were brought to bear on them from the bank. was poor Mr. and immediately a heavy fire was opened upon them from the boat. Robertson was washed out of her husband's grasp and immediately 16 . the villagers . The sepoys then ladies commenced boarding. Jones shot him dead . 241 to get as far as the village of Singe- rampore their boat grounded. with the other but there gentlemen on board. the boat off. which most difficult to maintain a footing. he saw a sepoy slowly raise the chappur (roof) of the boat and look out. a merchant. Jones. he thing writhing about in his blood in the agonies of death. Churcher. attacked them with matchlocks.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. The last saw as he quitted the boat. Just as he recovered it. damaging the bone. with most of the and gentlemen. wife with one which grazed the right shoulder. by which Mr. senior. which happened to be in the stem. but without any effect. they saw a boat coming down the stream upon them . Jones himself had scarcely got into the water when he was hit by a musket ball. was mortally wounded. The water was up very strong : to their waists and the current running the bottom was shifting sand. without At the same moment he saw Major standing in the stream supporting his who was arm and carrying his little child in the other. los^ or interruption. Churcher. while he held a musket in his disengaged hand. and Captain Fitzgerald supporting his wife on his knee. and several of those made it who took to the river were at once swept off and drowned. jumped into the Ganges. Jones jumped back into the boat to seize his rifle.

Jones finding that he could do no more good. Fisher. a beautiful eight or nine years in with the other he supported his wife. all The To- night. and by the pain of his wound and of his back. —who had maintained her fortitude through- and was indefatigable during the for the and refreshment men —immediately siege in preparing tea got him some brandy and water and food. one arm. On being taken on board. the boat. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Robertson then put the child on his shoulder. Fisher was swaying about in the stream almost insensible. little son. much exhausted by swimming. a grape-shot from one of who had been killed by the guns on the bank near Singerampore. when was growing dusk. and her husband could with great difficulty retain his footing. almost in same position boy as Robertson. as he was naked to the waist. he found that the only casualty which had occurred to this party since leaving Futtehghur was the death of one of the Miss Goldies. and swam away down the stream. determined to try to save his own life hoping the to reach the leading boat. holding his old. by swimming down the river As he struck out from . Mrs. he continued as it swimming and floating for five or six miles.242 drowned. which. and he was then able to acquaint them with the miserable fate of his own party. while Mrs. . When alternately just Jones had got clear of the boat. he saw poor Mr. he saw the leading boat for the anchored night. of whom he supposed himself to be the sole boat remained anchored in the same spot survivor. the chaplain. had been blistered and made raw by the scorching sun. He reached it. Lowis out. wounded as he was.

down and fell fast asleep. determined. in hopes of being able to procure some milk for the children and food for themselves. able to move. and begged to be left behind. who. dead than alive. He. officers as Towards evening they became so exhausted that they made for a village on the Oude side of the Ganges. : sent back a message that he could not come. that Jones could find no space to down and sleep he. and only the exhausted rowers. steersman on board. He was roused by a summons on shore and endeavour A from Colonel Smith to rejoin the boat. which at 16—2 . both of whom were drowned. Fisher. as there was no pilot or skilful . therefore. as they were on the point of starting but finding himself very stiff and scarcely . to get some him a on which he lay villager brought charpoy. as he was .Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. to overtake the boat. had managed by swimming a portion of the way. though badly wounded in the thigh. or attempt attack the to eighty lie The boat was so crowded with its freight of from seventy human beings. The ill-will villagers brought supplies. At dawn they weighed anchor and proceeded down the stream but very slowly. 243 wards morning a voice was heard from the bank hailing the boat. quite exhausted. Colonel Smith after to join the this sent him two length more urgent requests boat. as he thought he might as well die on shore as in the boat in either case he regarded death as inevitable. and raved about his poor wife and son. It proved to be that of Mr. therefore. he determined to remain where he was. then landing and walking along the He was helped on board more bank. to go rest. to and did not show any party.


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilimi,

He slept till morning, when a poor on him, and permitted him to remain in pity a little shed, where he was partially sheltered from the sun. There he remained unmolested by the villagers, and prodeparted without him.

Brahmin took

by the Brahmin, until he was permitted to join us. sufferings had been very great, from exposure and from his wound, which threatened mortification this would probably have killed him, had he not hit upon the following



remedy shed when he was

^A little

puppy came

frequently to the

at his meals, to pick

up any crumbs that

he thought that if he could get this animal to it might have a good effect ; accordingly he made the attempt, and with the most fortunate result. The might

lick the


puppy licked the wound morning and evening ; it at once began to improve, and was well advanced towards healing

when Jones

joined us.



the village where he had been concealed

yesterday afternoon,

and by traveUing all night, swimming and wading (for the whole country was under water), had reached Kussowrah just at dawn, with much difficulty.

Major Robertson, he

told us,


in a village

about four

miles from that in which he had been living, and was kindly

Mr. Churcher, junior, was in an Aheer village at

a considerable distance from either his or Robertson's place
of hiding.


of them had been permitted to see or

communicate with one another.
Such was Jones's account of himself. Of the boat he had quitted and those in it he had no certain information.

Reports had reached him similar to those we had heard, the boat had succeeded in passing Cawnpore and

Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.


reaching Allahabad in safety ; again, that it had been seized near Bithoor, and all on board murdered. This he, as well


ourselves, feared

strove, however, to

was the most probable story. We hope for the best, and to believe that

nothing so terrible could have happened.

Our morning service to-day was one of peculiar solemnity for we knew not how soon our own fate might

be the same as that of those dear friends and acquaintances so lately with us in health and vigour, and who we had too


reason to fear had
depression, the


been massacred.

In the midst

of this

peculiar soothing " in the Litany

reflection came upon me with a and strengthening power, that the petition That it might please God to succour, help,

and comfort


that are in danger, necessity,



which we knew would be offered in earnestness on
for us

by our beloved relations and friends wherever and by thousands of God's servants throughout they were, would no doubt go up with acceptance, and that the earth

we would

yet be saved

and be reunited

to our people.


intimation also in the


of Hebrews, that some of God's

people through faith had escaped the edge of the sword, seemed to be lit up, as it were, with a gleam of light, as I

If they



be so also

had been thus saved, why might not we ? The arm that saved them was not

shortened that

could not save

and the ear

that heard

and answered

their prayers

receive ours, offered as they were in the

was equally open and ready to name and for the and all-powerful Advocate.






" I will be with him in trouble and Already has the promise, will deliver him," been fulfilled so singularly in my own case,


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

that surely

does not

now become me

to doubt.

My heart

was thus raised from the borders of despair assured hope and almost to cheerfulness.
In the afternoon the

to nearly





had sent


on the 20th of June




endeavour to take a note through wife at Nynee Tal. He was in a miserable


told us that he

had been seized


Budaon by
he thought

one of

my own

chuprassies, Hasseinee, to


he might safely communicate the object of his journey. His confidence was sadly misplaced, for he was instantly

the district for

and conveyed before the Nawab who was governing Khan Bahadoor Khan. My letter was taken

from him

he was beaten and imprisoned ; for twelve days ; he was kept in confinement and treated with great severity ; and at last allowed to depart only on his pledging himself
never again to act as a messenger for any European. Being released, he determined to come back to me ; he had
arrived within about twenty miles of Furrukabad,

when he

was arrested by a guard of the Nawab's troops as a spy of the English, and sent into Furrukabad, where he was detained
in prison, with several others, for three weeks.



afternoon of yesterday he was released by the man in charge of the prison ; whom he bribed with eight annas, all he had
in the world.

Just before





had seen three
on them,


who had been

seized with English letters

which they were conveying from Agra down the country, blown away from guns on the parade ground, by order of the Nawab. He described the state of the town and
district of

Budaon, and of


the other British districts he

Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.


had passed through, as deplorable in the extreme. Villages were being burnt and plundered daily ; the roads deserted, and no man's

or property was safe for a






had been some


between the
of heads

Mahomedans and Hindoos, and he saw a number
of persons of the latter exposed on
the town.

poles at the entrance of



and native Amlah were

in the service of

Khan Bahadoor Khan; my

old Foujdarry Serishtadar*

(head clerk in the criminal department) was magistrate of Budaon, and my Kotwal held the same appointment under
the rebels.

am much

surprised at the defection of these

two men


both excellent

who have




for at least forty years with credit to

themselves and advantage to the State, and were about to

on handsome pensions.


messenger said that

while our districts were thus subject
those in

and sword,
certainly the

Oude under

the talookdars and powerful zemindars

were calm and peaceful as a lake.
case with the extensive talooqua of




of powerful


Hurdeo Buksh, and immediately around us. The

has not as yet extended to these estates ; the people go about their usual avocations, and all is quiet and

peaceful within



Lucknow, we




holding out, and some of our troops from Cawnpore have,
it is



to the relief of the garrison.

May God

grant them

Tuesday^ August 4M.


was walking up and down the


* This man, together with others of my native officers, were shot as on the recapture of Budaon, by our troops.


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.
space in front of our room to-day,



was rejoiced by

the arrival of

a letter from

my messenger Rohna from Nynee Tal, with my wife of the 27th of July; the first I have

had from her since the 26th of May. Rohna had seen both her and Gracey quite well. He told me that she was
dressed in black

when he reached

the house,




she received


she had gone away and put on a

white dress.
Before opening the note, which was, of course, of the
smallest dimensions, I






to bless


for his great

goodness in granting
letter I read,


this great



opening the

with deep thankfulness,

not only of her own and my child's safety, but also of that of my brother Roderick and his wife at Mozuffernugger ; of

which he had been appointed collector immediately after He has been able to hold his own, the Meerut outbreak.

and maintain


some extent

means of a

force of 60

the peace of the district, by Goorkhas and some Affghan Horse

placed at his disposal. Her note confirms the news which had reached
before, but I


hoped was not true, of the murder of poor Hay, Robertson, and Raikes at Bareilly, and of the Shahje-

hanpore massacre.
safe, also

By her account Nynee Tal



Agra and Delhi, though not taken, is likely to The Punjaub and all down to Meerut quite quiet.

first authentic intelHgence we had received of the real state of affairs in the North-West since the 13th

This was the

of June, and we were much comforted by finding that matters were not quite so bad as the Thakoors had made us


Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.


difficulty in

had experienced the greatest the hills, as all getting through Bareilly and on to
told us that he



searched for

letters at different posts

of the rebels along the road.


had concealed mine



wife in


interior of a



knowing that this would be most likely seized and examined, he cracked it across half-way up, so that if taken from him and broken, it might give way at that exact part, and the portion in which the letter was concealed remain sound and
escape detection.

This actually occurred.


was stopped


a post

between Bareilly and Rampore by a soldier, who took the stick from him, struck one end on the ground, breaking it in half as was intended, and then, thinking it contained

away Rohna picked them up his on way without further notice. again, and proceeded My wife's letter for me he had sewn up in the lining of his
nothing, threw the pieces



which had more than once on the road been

taken from his head by sepoys
that I

but without the note being

Wuzeer Singh to tell Hurdeo Buksh had good news from my wife, who gave favourable

intelligence of the state of things in the country to the north of

back many congratulations and kind messages, with the news which had just reached that the boat full of


Futtehghur refugees had reached Allahabad in



Agra had been reinforced by three European, and two Sikh regiments. If this be true, we may hope that for from no other quarter could the Delhi has fallen

reinforcements come.


Wednesday^ August

—Last evening,

heat to-day was terrible. for the first time

since our

Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

arrival at

Kussowrah, we have been allowed

go out

to take a


as the waters completely surround

the village, and there

and seeing


no danger of any spies or strangers The change was most refreshing,

from our miserable

pent-up quarters to the open country. looked Everything peaceful ; the people were at their usual occupations ; there were no external signs that war and

rebellion were raging all around us, and that we ourselves were as " the hunted partridge on the mountains," with but a step between us and death, and that in a fearful




sent off a


of Byjenath's,

who had accom-

Rohna from

Bareilly, with another letter for



He made

strong objections to taking any, on account of the

great risk of detection

which would

result in certain death.

could only be induced to do so a piece of quill about this size (




my note


sealed at each

end, which he could carry in his mouth, and swallow in the event of being stopped.
I learnt




that the

Mahomedans had begun

persecuting the Hindoos in Rohilcund, slaying cows in the









The Thakoors

the people to

had, in consequence, summoned assemble and attack their persecutors. If

they answer the summons, the Hindoos, from their superior numbers, may expel the other sect; and, in that event,


Europeans may have an opportunity of returning to Heard from the Thakoor that the reinforce-

ments from Cawnpore had reached Lucknow. They had a fight en route, in which the enemy suffered most severely ;

Personal Adventures


the Rebellion.


a chief called Jessah Singh was wounded, and one of his sons killed. The result of this success to us was a great
increase of politeness,

and the permission granted
find the

to take a


last night.








remember once

reading of Arnold's, that


the Psalms have

been a storehouse

of never-failing comforts to believers in every age." Since our return from Runjepoorah, Mrs. Probyn has received a

box of her


which had been


Hurdeo Buksh's

keeping at Dhurumpore. Among the contents was her Bible ; and, oh what a comfort has it been to us since,



are thereby enabled to read the Psalms.



not a day on which

something that appears as if written especially for persons in our unhappy circumThis stances, to meet the feelings and wants of the day.

we do not

morning, for instance,
evening from verses Psalm.


derived unspeakable comfort from

the 15 th and 20th verses of the 25 th Psalm, and in the







Thursday, August



news yet





now have

evil reports

as of late, they have been

unusually favourable.


faintness of heart.

This has been a day of much depresHelp seems so far off, and
I shall

rescue so improbable, that fears constantly arise that

one day perish


those so dear to

my affliction, and never again on earth see me. If this be God's will, and if this little my
beloved wife, children, and

journal ever reaches


home, it may interest them to see how I spent my day, and where we live, so I shall endeavour to draw a plan of the


Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.



Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.
Robert Thomhill, and was


behind at Dhunimpore when

he returned to Futtehghur. The heat, glare, and flies, which come around us now in
intolerable. myriads, are most distressing and well nigh



to my little escape the two last plagues, I generally resort which I darken by hanging my blanket across the

The atmosphere within is opening, as there is no door. I but prefer breathing it to remaining outside, quite stifling, I then employ myself in reading as the glare hurts my eyes.
the Scriptures and that excellent book, Bridges on the 119th



of which Mrs. Probyn had a copy in her box, lately

received from Dhunimpore, as well as her Bible.




return to


Kussowrah from Runjepoorah, I had only my Testament but Mrs. Probyn now lends me her Bible

some hours
it is


when not





a blessing

to us having the Scriptures with us


no books and no other employment than studying them ; and what a source of real substantial comfort and support
they are

But, alas


the bitter thought constantly occurs,

For you these lessons how to lead a Christian life are no longer applicable you have now but to study how to meet

death like a Christian."






About three o'clock Wuzeer Singh read a portion of Scripture and

pray with him in Hindustani. Some weeks since, before
inquired of the Thakoors
as I wished to






they had any books in Hindee, amuse myself by reading them the only one

was a copy of St. Luke's Gospel, which one of them had received some years before from a missionary at a festival, and had treasured carefully ever since.
in their possession




Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.
lent this


copy to




read portions of


daily with

Wuzeer Singh.


five o'clock I


to get a bathe in

the cattle-shed just beyond our dwelling.


the time


are dressed the shadows of evening are lengthening,

and we

the charpoys (our beds) ; as as This meal generally tables well seats. our only being consists of a little rice, chupatties, and a watery kind of native vegetable, something like cucumber, stewed ; sometimes we
are fortunate enough to purchase a kid or lamb, and then have a sumptuous dinner on chops, but this is rare. At Runjepoorah we could procure no meat or rice, and lived

have our dinner in the verandah

on a kind of chupatties

called poorees,

and tea or



This poor food made us all, especially the children, and weak. Our meal is soon discussed, and then




talk together, or

the Thakoors while the cattle are being milked.

go out and have a chat with As soon


grows dark we have prayers and go to bed, as we have lights, and cannot better employ ourselves.

Our sleep is, of course, much broken, for our senses have become so acute from constant watchfulness, that the slightest unusual noise, even the movement of a bird on the trees close to us, is sufficient to awake and make us start up.
At present scarcely a night passes that we do not hear the sound of heavy guns at a great distance in the Lucknow direction, which we suppose to be the fire of the besiegers on the Residency. Thus our days

sometimes diversified by the receipt

of favourable, at others, and, indeed for the most part, of

very dreadful and alarming rumours, most trying and disThe inactivity is so tressing to persons in our position.

Personal Adventures during the Rebellion.
lard to




we can do nothing


improve our position,

but merely await the progress of events as patiently as we In the morning we feel inclined to say, would God it can.

were evening; and in the evening, would




Just as I supposed, we have Saturday^ August Zth. this accounts morning, to counterbalance the unpleasing


ones that have reached us for the past few

it is

said to have fallen



be empty," as

the Thakoors' expression

May God






Another report is that two regiments of our Irregular Cavalry, who had joined the Nana and were among his defeated troops which had arrived at Futtehghur, had gone
off to



endeavour to be re-employed by us


being enraged by

the conduct towards

them of the Furruka-

bad Nawab, who caused them to be plundered of two elephants and other property, and, telling them he did
not require their services, would have nothing to do with


The Thakoors made a

proposal to





Tal, via Phillibheet.

this morning to Kussuree had a

daughter married to a powerful Thakoor, near Phillibheet ; she died leaving a little daughter, who has been living for

some time with her
to her father.




now about

to return



be conveyed


it is

proposed that

am to be

in a covered palanquin, concealed within, travelling

all night with this child, and halting during the day in the houses of friends, where I would be safe from detection. In the event of being stopped on the march, the child was

Lucknow. By a we discovered that he had all cross-examination. man returned to-day saying that the place was so beleaguered closely by the Nana's troops all around it. stated. from the numbers investing it. all pledged to prosper it. — the Ganges. of our want of success at Cawnpore. and This that he he had hidden the where he had had been so hard pressed that. and of weakness everywhere. likely to opinion good . to escape detection. From that is. what they call . which it was expected once remove suspicion and allow of our passing unmolested. Probyn had some days ago. from friend's house to friend's house.256 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. in his village . induced a man (a relation of Seeta Ram) to try and many rumours reach Cawnpore. letter he carried under the root of a tree. whoever he might be. be destroyed in like . secrecy. but had remained the time of his supposed absence quietly in his house. had been taken and the garrison put to the sword and that Cawnpore must soon. most strong against or if not. the Thakoors' house I was to be sent on by Kussuree " Teehun Teehun " to the foot of the hills. defeat Probyn's all attempt to escape by any other course than down Not so peaceful a Sunday as we Sunday^ August ^th. and bring us news from thence . by the advance of twenty rupees. giving him a letter to the commanding officer. left it. he reported. May God it. that he could not get nearer cantonments than nine miles . would at immediately to be shown . if it is The plan seems be for is possible. however. little To prove that he had actually been as far as lie he brought us a piece of the telegraph wire. could wish our minds are cast down and distracted by . manner. never attempted the journey.

and the Hill stations. and were burning to revenge themselves on the Mahomedans. Monday. Bahadur Khan's army he describes as most contemptible. 257 at Seeta Ram was so exasperated the conduct of his relation. Much. practicable. August 10th. were quite safe. unarmed. us. been present at conference with Khan Singh. as the Hindoos were on our side. At its close I dismissed 17 . He was I disappointed to find that he had not been there. and having only six guns of small calibre. and to ascertain the exact posture of affairs at Cawnpore. however. he assured us. about fifteen miles off. to clear Rohilcund of rebels. —Despatched He is Rohna with a little endeavour to Tal . that I could hardly speak to him or listen to his news . and only came from Bareilly. as well as the Thakoors. who had previously visited me. charged by his master to see how I was getting on. I was so vexed at getting no letter. arrived. We this had all. had scarcely been gone two hours when Misr Byjenath's man. Khan Singh. The report of troops reaching Futtehghur would be quite enough. was rather satisfactory. I immediately sent for him.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. confident that he had brought me a letter from Nynee Tal. he states. and to and go to thence Nynee arrange for my journey from bring back news to me whether the road is to to Phillibheet. Khan runpore. note in a quill for my wife. and restore it to the British.. whenever we might wish to send him. that whom he had recommended to he volunteered to convey a note for us himself to Cawnpore. most successful. which. and ill-disciplined. however. Our troops before Meerut and Saha- Delhi were.

258 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. had not been heard of must be in great of money. unobserved by the others. Singh suggested that we should consult with old Kussuree on how he knew not. The real difficulty to get the to money back safe after the bills were accomplish this. his master had sent off a boat laden with indigo seed. Khan was this : that before the disturbances. Khan would not would be cashed \ interfere with him. and which he place. under care of his that this boat as the people own want people. Wuzeer . and half an hour in after. I me that his master. and . and provide for their expenses. and to when bring was alone my own room.) for " hoondees " my expenses. intended to repeat to the sepoys if seized by them there. Singh. which would be useless to them. thinking. to for Cawnpore three months. nominally. All this is easy enough. I sent Wuzeer Singh him back. that if I for was must be hard pressed Goorsehain Gunj. he could hear of and find them. Singh said he could easily make his way into that The story he had told along the road. As he was to rising to go away. but really (bills). in order to deceive any parties who might seize him and take them from him. saying I would let Khan letter for Byjenath. through a secret cipher. had sent me 500 It was contained in two at drawn on a banker payable. dees. I me took the hint. rupees (50/. then told He alive. money. by a banker in Furrukabad. near Cawnpore. showing that he wished to say something to in private. so long as Singh said the sepoys he had only hoon. and one for him go the next day with a Nynee Tal. he made a secret sign I me. his master had sent him with these hoondees to if cash at Goorsehain Gunj.

in the Greek character. could be trusted. and the 17—2 . he was certain. We all then jumped letter for us. and requesting information and advice. in order to possess themselves of they might the money. get rid of was dark. We had gone to bed early. and saw a man just entering the This was Probyn's water-carrier. exclaiming. " There is the her from charpoy. rainy. beside a favourite mare and foal of his. a heavy bamboo. and the stick so hard. and was a shrewd safe man none of the others. enclosed in his stick. up. beating back with ease that sallies of the mutineers . . could : be confided in.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. and Kussuree had gone to rest. If they once knew that I had 500 rupees. at and gave us most welcome news since an action they had fought retire into the fort . I told him that. so the conference was sure to be secret. his uncle. was well Agra. he had The better speak to him. whom a fortenclosure. as I it was a dark. who. night or three weeks before he had despatched to Agra with a letter to Reade. to when they had that our troops were pretty successful at all Delhi. It was . telling him of our position. Probyn tempestuous night. and if he had got a He said he had. The note was so ingeniously and securely secreted. be kept a profound secret from all but Kussuree. China troops had reached Calcutta and that General Havelock was coming up to relieve Lucknow. therefore. and try to arrange some plan. the whole matter must. was awoke by Mrs. when old it man always slept in a place by himself. 259 the subject. he assured us. that it took us more than half an hour to get at it. starting up when — bheestie " ! I started up. that all in July. me. and eagerly demanded his news.

offering a reward of a thousand also that a rupees for each of our heads to any one who would bring them The Thakoors plainly told us that the arrival of this proclamation had greatly increased the danger of our position . ourselves. this was a day of unusual gloom and depression. and in the meantime Agra was -safe. Tuesday^ August —Notwithstanding the news of last night. that our troops have been beaten and obliged to raise the siege of Delhi . garrison. in strict They urged us never little show daylight the enclosure outside our . to sinister rumours. for that now it would be an object for any of the villagers to take our lives.000 ourselves in to rupees.26o Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. until had probably done so by that time. ii fh. and keep a watch at night to be careful to . as the party would be worth to to them 4. they could not cross it for some time. that General Havelock's force had failed to relieve the Lucknow . He did not anticipate that our forces would recapture Futtehghur for a long time to come.000 or 5. and never always ready to give credit that to any in our favour — Cawnpore completely surrounded by the rebels . For recommended us to remain where we were. proclamation had arrived from at Lucknow. Reports reached us. which were fully believed by the Thakoors —^who is are. and had been driven back to Cawnpore the Begum in. rooms. The only unsatisfactory part of Reade's information was that the Gwalior Contin- gent had mutinied and was threatening Agra \ but as the Chumbul river was in full flood. he a safe at opportunity offered of our getting into the British camp Cawnpore. of course.

Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. close the entrance. he had professed his willingness to receive us. that I ought once to start for Nynee go with the Probyns. and every avenue of escape would be closed to us. Buksh allowed was no fear. Hurdeo . said. ready beside us. he feared he could at keep us no longer Tal. saying. 261 and have our guns and pistols always Things certainly looked very gloomy. or . his great dissatisfaction at this part of it saying was well known that Jessah Singh I was a confederate of Nana Sahib. but said that there Jessah Singh had pledged his honour for our safety to him. who was in hiding at his place of Futtehpore Chowrassee and that besides. as that this was the case. off. he said. into General Haveldtk's camp. whom he intended to send down by land to Cawnpore. He had received favourable replies from several of his friends on the line. and plainly told us. however. and pass us on safe into the British camp. Jessah Singh had been wounded when fighting against us. by passing us house to another friend's house. sent down some of his people to endeavour to arrange for our safe on from one friend's conduct through Oude. He then left us. and a Rajpoot was never known to break his pledged word to a fellow chief Go. he said. the Aumils would be sent all over the country with troops. and only awaited answers from one or two others. for as soon as the Lucknow garrison fell (an event which probably had already taken place). whatever objection we had . we must. He had. In the evening Hurdeo Buksh visited us. he would let us know as soon as final arrangements had been made for our land journey. Jessah Singh. Probyn expressed the proposal . This determination of Hurdeo Buksh to send us and .

and seized at the Ghauts on the Ganges by the Nawab's people.262 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and asking his advice attempt our escape to join his camp. These ponies were to be brought to Kussowrah. and that consequently our only chance of escape the opinion expressed by Reade. morning. morning Wuzeer Singh informed me. was commanding selves We. and would loads. there laden with grain. not interfere with them. determined to avail ourof Seeta Ram's offer to go to Cawnpore. that to get into the British camp at Cawnpore. that he had in the night sounded Kussuree about the best way of conveying that from and he and Khan Singh Furrukabad. him with a to Havelock. the . telling the General of our desperate situation. villages would be liable to be stopped. that he does not This expect to cross the Ganges until to-morrow night. and we hope may return inundation. and enclosed in a quill. it was by no means probable that Futtehghur would soon be retaken by our was troops. Seeta how best to Ram is to start on his mission early to-morrow . is in eight or ten days the so widespread. money would come in the evening and talk it over ^which they did the — Kussuree proposed that two ponies should be hired from a neighbouring village beyond Hurdeo Buksh's domain. as any from one of his about 5 o'clock in the afternoon. made us most anxious to communicate with General Havelock. however. who. as if to dispose of their The Nawab's people and the sepoys were anxious to encourage supplies being brought into the city. and taken into Furrukabad. When the loads were sold. and to send there. letter. which Probyn wrote in Greek characters. therefore. learnt for the first we time from Reade's communication.

would not probably be suspected or stopped. I would rejoice in such an equitable measure at another time . fancying . who were forced to retreat and are probably besieged themselves in turn. this is the just arrived. animals would be taken across the river. village. by ments hearing that : Cawnpore had been reinforced by China force All of course. and of great and deplorable weakness. —Last night we were made happy eight regi- be suspected. contingent as soon as the season Another report has reached us. All these reports. may now be repaired. after. and the money would Next morning the then De sewn into their pack-saddles. but at present. Heard also that Delhi had been without it is doubt abandoned by our troops. a sign of a falling cause. that Oude has been restored to its King.th. and the rest had remained Scindia's in Gwalior.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. almost a terrific night . mutinous regiments from Bombay had Of these eight had crossed the Chumrebels at bul to reinforce the Delhi. good a plan as could be adopted This appeared to . me as and Wuzeer and Khan Singh are to go in the morning to some villages about eight miles off to hire the ponies being strangers and not known . and being apparently merely on their return home unladen. to the people. added to great heat and swarms of mosquitoes. and in the very nick of time. made me pass a miserable. that fifteen arrived at Gwalior. 263 of the ponies were to be taken at nightfall to the house banker who was to cash the bills. which I cannot believe. given by a sepoy who halted for a short time in the returning to his home. to join in the attack on Agra with permits. they will not Thursday^ August iT. if it be true. Soon we were depressed by the report.

" setteth the fact asserted in the following verse. It is at mind and such times fail body which I feel the real blessing the Psalms are. as peculiarly suitable to our case. and restore me to my family. night Our general defence against mosquitoes is to light each some dried cow-dung in the corner of the place where we sleep. and had to extinguish the fire." most comforting. this resource failed us. impossible to describe the depression of follows nights of this kind. that God the solitary in families. drains off these insects. breathe. and He may show forth His power even for me the most unworthy of His servants. The circumstances under which many hiding from bloodthirsty enemies. in that case. when dark and gloomy within and without. the Goorkhas must have deserted us. in the assurance gives me that if I am cut off. —David and — we render them fleeing of them were written. that we could not The mosquitoes. Unto Him be pleased belong the issues of to life and death. Delhi had been abandoned. . be in extreme had not already and all Europeans in it massacred. however. in myriads. if it Nynee Tall. It is fell upon us and rendered sleep or rest nearly impracticable. all is They never to give peace and refreshment. to windward . Last night. seasons of danger and almost despair are This morning I felt the 5 th verse of the 68th Psalm most soothit ing. my God will be with my widow and is fatherless children. not a breath of and the smoke from the burning fuel hung so thick and heavy about us. and the thick smoke being carried over our beds during the night. and danger. for there was air. Again. taking advantage of the opportunity. fallen. of course.264 that if Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

" They speak with the greatest respect and affection of some of our officers. not one of their interests these . they frequently mention to me with expressions of I the deepest hatred. they administration . 265. as Sleeman . The native officials they describe as regular harpies." meaning the Court of Directors. slippers of extra size This fellow. late Commissioner at Seetapore. or to sign any agreements respecting the disposal of their villages or land that he chose to fix upon." They often speak to me about the annexation. on purpose for shoe beating (the most disgraceful punishment that can be inflicted on a native) in open Kutcherry any one who refused to pay him what he demanded shape of bribes. would have had no reason to complain of our say. had a pair of " " made. and say the orders have come from the " English council at home. August i^th. and was seldom If they could always visible. and a native deputy-collector who had been stationed at Sandee. and ask " Sullivan Sahib's Governor-General acted on they call me why " the advice. Oude is to be forThe Thakoors seem quite delighted at the prospect. reach Cawn- and that their arrival made over to its ancient ruler. was the man who ruined their "raj. they assert. especially of Christian. Friday. who. " who always do justice. they place. sees (the 41st) and swear vengeance against the Dobuhis family at that who murdered him and have got access to him. they assert. but he had too much to do. Old Kussuree told me that he had paid a thousand rupees in petitions alone. —Strange on rumours to-day that the will Governor-General with the King of Oude pore mally this day.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. however unjust and ruinous to in the might be.

that he had only been able to pay his rent the preceding year by the sale of some of his family jewels and a mare he highly and this year he said he would no doubt have been . No . '• him life. He an old and recognized me and parts. which ever reached Christian. crying out. stopped of friend mine. I was unaware of the rules of the Court. an officer met the party. had not the bulwah (rebelvalued lion) fortunately occurred. with open in these my sword. armed in the usual way. then. and carried off to be blown from a gun. and more than 6. and matchlock. a defaulter. I Seize and kill him he wants me ' ! was instantly pinioned.000 rupees in bribes . and had left men to enter the match of it my matchlock burning. and been sold up. Most fortunately for was carried as I off. which forbid armed the durbar. shield. and me. but an honest . Kussuree Singh is no traitor. khoob in in- wan. and it so nearly cost city again. I with some his petition about his villages. that he would never enter that " I was " a fine powerful man. notwithstanding which he had lost the villages farmed by him and his ancestors for many generations. asked him why he did not go to Lucknow and complain in person to the Chief Commissioner. and had been assessed so highly for those he had left. act of attempting to cried ' out. one would listen to my expostulations. as I I was a in the stranger and it was believed that had been caught murder the King. and as we all are parts." he said. : and rushed out of durbar.' and passed my way into the King's presence durbar. He replied that he had made one journey to Lucknow in the King's time. to assassinate The King caught ' sight of alight.266 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. being at the He was from these it to look prisoner.

" made our rule to stink in the nostrils of the Of Christian and many other officers he spoke in terms of high commendation and respect. but to any native under Government he declared he would as soon lose turned with the ponies. by I my allowing the match of into this trouble. at Futtehghur. Khan Singh went in the boat. and conversed with him with official affability. and never with my will. and driven to a ghaut on the Ganges. He never hesitated. Government employed in collecting revenue. and in such shoals into after the annexation. The any connection with were allowed to ponies pass with their loads. there must be some mistake. likely to cost had got life. where they crossed. The had been hired by Wuzeer Singh and him. people. he said. were duly laden at Kussowrah. it left Lucknow will again. but did not ostensibly have same them. who always treated him (as Probyn had invariably.) as a gentleman.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. as soon as the guard at the ghaut ascertained that they did * Civil officers of the . and on his explanation I be released. to remain alight. he has given me to understand that the native Omlahs.* who were introduced Oude immediately were the curse of the country. my gun which was to stop me my He had influence enough was ordered to my I execution until he could communicate with the autho- rities. —This safe money all evening Khan Singh refrom Furrukabad. who is a very superior intelligent man. in his plain-spoken " phrase." In the conversations I have had with Hurdeo Buksh. which his life as go. have never seen since. to go to Christian. 267 zemindar of high character. Tuesday^ August \Zth.' I then told him how. that night. gave him a seat.

or detain him. and the animals themselves taken at nightfall secretly to the banker's. their drivers . I was afraid to keep the . am supplied with as much cash as I can possibly require. I will take as he first desire was to pay had received no pay since leaving his regiment in February. not belong to any of Hurdeo Buksh's villages. as was the object of the sepoys not to hurt but to foster honest traders. where the money was sewn into their pack-saddles. saying. and they all through the noble conduct of Misr Byjenath ^who. on landing. master to He exhibited his hoondees. without any solicitation of mine. The Subahdar believed his story. and placed above want. again. most uncertain— and the cool his time when my I life is by no means secure and repayment is intrepidity and intelligence of servant. seized and brought before the Subahdar in command. drove them back across the to avoid recognition. told the story he had prepared beforehand — that him —and expressed make advances to the boat's he had been sent by his crew belonging to it his confidence that. Next morning at dawn." Nothing could move him from his determination. and dismissed him. they would not interfere with. one cowrie. Khan Singh was. On receiving the money. — And now. my Wuzeer Singh some wages. arrived safely at Kussowrah.268 Reminiscences of a BeJigal Civilian. at a rejoined this He them on side. He refused to receive "When : I see you seated in kutcherry pay until then I can support myself well enough with the balance of my pay. Ganges. wished him success. has of his own accord advanced me money. The ponies' loads were disposed of in the bazaar. recrossing himself at a ghaut some miles higher up the ghaut unquestioned Khan Singh.

to our bitter mortification. August 20th. The messenger informed us that he had seen numbers of sepoys on the road. Probyn begged soon that the man might be to He after arrived. and informed us insur- gents was going on favourably at Delhi. 269 money for myself. which place he had only left nine days before. home was carrying plenty of plunder. Tuesday. but quite legible. from Hurdeo Buksh. without any note from General . and turned out be a messenger from Deighton Probyn from Delhi. Probyn's messenger inquired of this man when he had left Delhi and on hearing that he had started two days before himself. of course that all much soiled. asking for Probyn. and gave himself out to be an replied that he The man imperial messenger to save himself from being stopped and plundered by the villagers. He had met one man on a camel. returning to their homes with their plunder. to say that a man had arrived at Dhurumpore. —Nothing has occurred since last To-day a messenger was sent to us entry worthy of note. sent on to us. and that he had him detained as a spy. and remonstrated with him for propagating such falsehoods. so I made it over to Kussuree to retain me. The letter was sewn up It was in the sole of the man's shoe. was quite false. who gave out in the villages as he came along. and the Emperor had sent tidings to the him down express to announce the happy Nawab of Furrukabad. and had to be cut out.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. and the were losing heart from continual defeats. Seeta Ram returned this evening from Cawnpore : but. that the British army had been cut to pieces in his presence. knew that his statement .

and ever since our return had . as us some reply. in A battle accompanied General Havelock's was fought about midday. This he did for the whole of the next day. As Havelock is an old friend of mine. but received none. fearing and Seeta Ram. Ram was present throughout. and Seeta Ram servants with the force. Seeta which the insurgents were beaten with much slaughter. we might be much disappointed by the delay in his return. The order was then given to return to Cawnpore. and states that the fire terrific. where he beat them again soundly. it it of our artillery was so the was impossible for enemy to stand against for a moment. : — Poor Probyn's little girl died this morning she had drooped ever since the exposure and privations of Runjepoorah. Friday. as we told him. and was told to wait for an answer. General Havelock moved to attack a body of the enemy which had retreated to some place near Sheorajpore. and falling in with some Sikhs. he had brought us no reply from the General. I have thought it. Seeta Ram is to start with this letter to-morrow. and reached us in due course. and entreat of him to send useless. Next day. had been . that. After the action he tried to get speech of the General. His news was good and most cheering but his mission. in reply to Probyn's. but he was too busy to attend to him. Havelock Seeta Ram had safely reached the British camp. and thinking there was no hope of getting any reply from the General. August 2isf.2/0 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. was conducted by them to General Havelock's tent . The second morning the force moved out towards Bithoor. when he delivered his letter. best to write to him myself. started on his return.

with the exception of Jessah Singh . as the good effects of the opening the roads might soon wear away. Hurdeo us that he has received a copy of a proclama- . and very dug a pretty child. 271 gradually grown weaker. and what we know not now we shall know hereafter. in all human probability.Personal Adventurer during the Rebellion. grave. When I joined the party at Dhurumpore. He was high spirits in advance. without being able to administer anything for her relief. for all first make the time at this hour since we have been in this place : he generally chose the dead of night in for his visits. had the child not been subjected to such hardships. Hurdeo Buksh called upon us in the forenoon of to-day. Not one of the Talookdars or men of influence in Oude. she was a as it fine. was almost too distressing to bear. and the consequence of Havelock's successful intelligence which had reached him of reinforcements pouring into Cawnpore. she would have lived. As soon and at was dusk. with beautiful hair thickly curling over her head. Saturday^ August 22nd. But it is God's will. had yet joined the rebels. notwithstanding her mother's inanother victim to these sad creasing care and watchfulness : troubles . he asserted. as. She had been a daily and see her wasting away and suffering from disease. desiring him late success in speed in returning. child. can never forget her parents' agony. — I sent off Seeta Ram this morning with to my note to General Havelock. and buried her by her to brother. healthy. who had been Buksh tells reported dead of his wounds. or even if medical aid or medicines had been available. we went out and little midnight carried out the little body I wrapped favourite in a sheet.

for the sake of their common faith. Hurdeo Buksh nonsense and gerous folly " said. to army with their forces. The Subahdars. the Subahdars. and to entreat them. . therefore. the landowners had not co-operated with the soldiers. who against the English. its contents are are conse- implicitly believed by the common people. document they express although the army had risen and in defence of their and for the common good. to this in all command of the muti- the chief landowners in their surprise Oude. and this ill-feeling has been much aggravated by the Nawab and Subahdar in Futtehghur having issued orders to prevent his villages crossing the Ganges. and to rise and exterminate the infidels. sorrow religion In that. issued neers at by the Subahdars Delhi and Lucknow. he says. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the army now found themselves unable to contend successfully against the British . In consequence of their backwardness. or given them the aid they counted upon when they rose. therefore. or getting from any people . thought fair it their duty to give the chiefs warning of the intentions of the British Government. You and I know for that this is is all but the proclamation a highly dan- and inflammable document. to collect men and sweepers in the province at one enormous and make them all eat together. soon as they had destroyed the army. as all was the intention of the the high-caste feast. and avoid so fearful a catastrophe as the loss aid the of their caste. have quently much exasperated His own relations and become in consequence highly displeased with him for harbouring us . that British.2/2 tion. thought it right to warn it all the chief men of influence and rank in Oude." tenantry.

turning over the Bible. the this deprivation is that the inundation was. and Hurdeo Buksh fears he cannot much longer restrain them. who might be expected in a few days with a reply from General Havelock. and river . and that God would in mercy be pleased to open a way of escape for us. with reference to these circumstances. —We had for some days made our projected attempt to escape by the Ganges the repeated subject of prayer.Personal Adventures during the Rebeilioji. I went into my room this morning to look up the lessons for the day before meeting for prayers. Hurdeo Buksh was satisfied with this. Sunday. and he had always told us that the moment the waters subsided his power to protect us would bef at an end. it He as had ordered a it was ready he We told him that we quite coincided in his opinion. together and to by ourselves. and as soon should start us off. and other The result of necessaries hitherto procured from thence. 22. while the recent successes of our troops were fresh in the minds of the people. August 2T.rd. therefore. 273 any supplies from Furrukabad of salt. people are becoming excited to a degree highly dangerous to us. Besides all this. thought we should. which seemed so when . for guidance as what course we should pursue. and 31. left us. boat to be prepared for us. 23. he observed. I was much struck by coming upon the 8th chapter. all He. that was now high time to attempt to escape by the and that we would be ready to start on the return of the messenger we had sent to Cawnpore. verses 21. and to start without loss of time. daily diminishing. and the route was comparatively safe. of the book of Ezra. make up our minds to endeavour to escape by the river to Cawnpore . sugar.

Sinister rumours are rife to-day in the village. that the insurgents are again re-assembling in the neighbourhood of — Cawnpore. Monday.274 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. reaching her destination. and have attacked and expelled the police from the re-established stations. and she succeeds in route to the Punjaub. to our bitter disappointment. the consequences troublesome. en If this be true. We jumped . ever our I think. or our 11 6th verse. 2^th. How- own frames may : power of compre- hension vary. Bridges on 1 1 9th Psalm . yesterday. It is also reported that Ranee Chunda Koonwur. the sole book : in my hands. to-day^ and can we neither add to nor detract anything from we were falling off asleep last night the completeness of His finished work. and of course are duly communicated to us. the real scriptural doctrine. suitable to I peculiarly startling. if not disastrous. our circumstances as to be quite by this little read the passage to the Probyns. I except I the Bible. found that he had . may be most Finished to-day. and has arrived at Futtehghur. which contains. has effected her escape from Nepaul. Just as we were aroused by the arrival of a messenger from General Havelock. in his remarks on commentary on the change. eager to get his expected communi- cation but. that excellent work. for the second time. for ever He remains the same. for the past two months and fortunate have been great to have had these sources of consolation. found comfort and encouragement to-day in reading his faith. mother of Dhuleep Singh. up. and we were incident so much strengthened and encouraged that we feel now little or no hesitation in undertaking our perilous journey.

along the banks until but to remain quietly where by the rebels we were Havelock's army advanced and captured Futtehghur. much disturbed and so that this route is quite impracticable. giving good accounts of herself and Gracey. Almorah. as the country . These Reingave us a good account of affairs generally. however. Rohna. might fall by the end of the month. with the other ladies. — by informing us that the army was to move on Futtehghur before making its any as fresh attempt for relief strongly urged us not to attempt to escape The messenger. 2^th. and that Lucknow was quite safe so much so . which. as accounts up to the i8th June have reached 18—2 . arrived to-day from Nynee Tal with a welcome letter from my wife. Ramsay. It appears that open between Nynee Tal. forcements had reached Delhi. They. Mussoorie. it was hoped. commending him he would send us for his humanity and loyalty in having if it protected us hitherto. and twenty thousand men are '' announced on communication their is way from England. down the Ganges. —My messenger. and killed we should certainly be seized .Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. The messenger that quite raised our spirits below Cawnpore all was tranquil daks running and telegraph communication with Calcutta open. only brought a letter 275 from the General to Hurdeo Buksh. as soon as reached Futtehghur. just as before the mutiny. and other parts. entreating rebels letters me not to attempt to reach the is hills full by of Phillibheet. had been removed as a matter of precaution to Tuesday. as Khan Bahadur Khan's troops were threatening Rohna brought me also a little note from Nynee Tal. and assuring him of high rewards safe into the British camp.

Late in the evening. sent by his master to ascertain the state of the river. had returned and reported all clear and safe as far as shall it Cawnpore. to his certain knowledge. are position of the rebels between not to start until they return. like Ezra.. which it is im- possible to pass through. might accompany us. who were quite well. as to the state of the river and the us and Cawnpore. . mation to the same effect had also reached Hurdeo Buksh. all my and wife of in the dear ones at home. which of course we could never Wuzeer Singh to tell Hurdeo Buksh what On his return he said that inforthe hurkarah had told us. pass. we we deemed make the attempt ere right to intimate in many days our intention to order that they Major Robertson and Mr. All this is very depressing : We we seem to be surrounded by a circle of fire." A messenger arrived to-day bringing a letter from Delhi. All that with earnest prayer to seek of we can do is. our God " a right way for us and the little ones. Wednesday. the enemy were posted in force with guns. Probyn accordingly sent a note to Robertson to warn him. Churcher. 26th. happy ignorance of our desperate situation. one of Hurdeo Buksh's people came from Dhurumpore to tell us that a messenger. August —General Havelock's mes- senger again advised us strongly against attempting the river route . but enjoining him to maintain entire secrecy. sent We who had in consequence sent off fresh messengers to procure accurate intelligence. maintaining that at several points on the banks on both sides.2/6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. as upon this mainly depends our safety and the success of our enterprise. As it is now pretty certain that elapse.

we know not from what cause but reminded us of our fearful to that they painfully proximity place where are so all. which business. which God has put in his way. as opening it. bringing a letter from Major Robertson. On the 12th an : outwork was carried by our troops without much loss.) to an officer of the but was from Yule (of the name of Beatson at Cawnpore. the enemy losing five hundred killed they daily sally out and attack our siege operations. he thought it his duty to avail himself of this opportunity. he will hold himself in readiness to start to join our boat whenever he receives . telling us that although so weak that he faints whenever he is moved in order to have his wound dressed. Churcher. August. we when suppose. Nothing new settled about our and we are much harassed. which was. On it we found to our great disappointment that . and said to be much in his confidence. Although he considers our chance of escape very slender. the messenger and the siege train from Ferozepore was it close at hand. to try to escape from these awful dangers which threaten us on every side. 277 usual. Reinforcements from Bombay. and cause us no said. especially the 121st. — Furrukabad to-day. Amidst it to-day's Psalms most consoling. was hoped would at once settle the Thursday^ plans. on the 1 8th. had arrived. 27//.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. I A Brahmin in the employ of Mr. and wonderfully suited to our case. was not addressed to either of us 9th Lancers. concealed in the sole of his shoe. but do little mischief. all The messenger said he left Delhi was going on well. Heavy guns firing in . many thirsting for our lives. and the attempt a desperate one. came to us to-day. loss.

he told us. but a choice of dangers ." I suddenly commenced singing the never felt more deeply affected in my life . both enclosed in quills.. although hazardous in the ex- treme. in We dismissed the messenger. as Seeta Ram reported that the rebels were again . all in 29M August. Jones. after all. and another to Hurdeo Buksh's address. and. indeed. There was no time to lose. we were much longer was almost certain destruction to go.master that we are quite determined to start as soon as the boat Saturday. was. last night. so we three determined to try the river. bringing a note to me from General Havelock. and rendered travelling most dangerous almost impossible. instructions of the time fixed for departure. not run the risk. and while pondering over our gloomy circumstances. who has a very fine voice. unless Hurdeo Buksh would in send down with us at least four hundred matchlockmen separate boats. assuring us must end in our destruction. Mr. Seeta Ram soon after arrived. would certainly but preferred remaining where he was. as the rebels infested all the roads. ing him to inform his. The Brahmin it did his best to dissuade us from the attempt. but none of us asleep. — We were much to down. and consulted together whether follow the General's advice and remain where we were. to remain where . and of course very brief. offered at least a chance of safety all and escape. this was the case with all of us while listening to the song.278 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. or cast It risk the river journey. tellhiding with the Aheers. " Old Folks at Home. —Late is ready. The General strongly recommended us to remain where we were and watch events. after we were bed. Churcher.

as he knew where our troops were located . but that as yet there 279 were no bodies of men and no guns on the river banks. in earnest prayer together for a blessing on our undertaking. as also bearers to he could not walk to the boat convey the to-morrow morning. and in thanksgiving for the — The morning many mercies we had received. and intimate that we were ready to start as soon as he He accordingly set off. and protect us. Tuesday. accomwe found moored on the Ramgunga. of Hurdeo Buksh's Thakoor Pirthee Seeta Ram also accompanied us. and for our I wonderful preservation hitherto in this place. collecting. for the last time. others. September 1st. all under the command Pal. May God in his infinite mercy go forth with us. and roused up the and rainy ^just fit for our expedition. and all ready for us. who in the habit of coming and sitting with us and panied us to the boats.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. Hurdeo Buksh came himself to conduct us to the boat. it We all thought best that Probyn should go at once to Hurdeo Buksh. The Thakoors and had been giving us the other leading men of the village. I awoke very was dull early. We all in that little shed joined. August 30th. and bring us to our desired haven We sent off a messenger to Robertson to ! inform him and Churcher. eight rowers. Our party consisted of eleven matchlockmen. —On Sunday. opposite Dhurumpore. and former. and returned in about two pleased. hours.m. At seven a. brother-in-law. as a guard. which news during the past weary weeks. deliver to him General Havelock's letter. stating that Hurdeo Buksh has determined to send us off by boat to-morrow morning.

jected attempt reached the Nawab and Subahdars in Futtehghur. and at the imminent peril of our own lives our safety mainly dependIf intelligence of our proing on expedition and secrecy. to the point where the Ramgunga falls into it. very essential for our safety that we should embark and start without further loss of time. We could not bear the idea of leaving our poor countrymen behind. in his opinion. to attract notice and excite suspicion and it was. on to if we reached Cawnpore Hurdeo Buksh. and might be useful Rohna.28o at Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. . and one for my Nynee Tal. the night before. wait' Major Robertson and Mr. fail. nothing was easier than for them to detach some sepoys down the Ganges. before we could hope to enter the Ganges. with a note wife. whereas it would occupy nearly from till mom evening. At last. We ing for remained for more than two hours at the boat. a mes- senger anived from Major Robertson to say that neither he . We were in a most painful position. just as our patience was exhausted. One of the Kussowrah Thakoors. and intercept us there. Churcher. to us en route . who was to return at once to to take and also in safety. Cawnpore. Paorun. Any lengthened interruption of the passages across the Ganges would not . thus cutting off all communication with Furrukabad. Hurdeo Buksh had happily taken the all precaution. of seizing the boats at the ferries on both rivers. within the limits of his domain. owing to the winding course of the Ramgunga. They could reach that point in less than two hours with ease from the time of starting . however. and yet if we delayed any longer we might lose our own lives without benefiting them. also went with us.

for I believed they like fish. would take the very to the river. however. Churcher. and then enjoining us to be careful to remain under the covered part of the boat. judge. so about eleven. he had. 281 were. fidelity for whose on we have a first substantial guarantee . There was nothing now far as to detain us. sidered the road safe. he informed us. I. safe arrival at doubted them much more than the boatmen. he was to accompany us to that place if he did not. we Hurdeo Buksh rode miles along the banks of the stream. This man is a great friend of Hurdeo Buksh. and in such an event to our destruction. nor Mr. and until something was determined upon for our disposal. The boat was nominally conveying the female portion Hurdeo Buksh. as far as Cawnpore. he was to give us shelter and protect us for the time being. Chiircher would risk the attempt. in which they can swim approach of danger. belonging to a Talookdar named Dhunna Singh. as started. who would only be released on the news reaching him of our Cawnpore. If he con. who had used best arguments to deter us from the journey. To secure the fidelity of the boatmen. doubtless. and on no account to show ourselves. L \ . and possessed of considerable influence on both sides of the river.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. on a visit to their relations at a lonely place on the Oude side of the of the family of a relative of Ganges called Tirowah PuUeeah. seized their families. as that would lead to our discovery. and fully trustworthy. They of dissuaded by the his Brahmin servant Mr. with we could us for some left us. The matchlockmen were his own immediate retainers.

we the sufficed to protect us. that for several reaches. its lay some four This village bore the worst inhabitants had. crowded as we were in the close covered space allotted to us. until the river joins Ganges. with an abrupt fall of. At one point we were boatmen in considerable tried danger of being wrecked. taken an active part in the massacre of the Futtehghur fugitives and the plunder of their boat. nearly four feet. we found ourselves directly opposite the village of Kassim Kore. character. while the boat hung as it were on an inclined plane. could not be extricated. met us us whether at different points bank to warn we might safely proceed or not.282 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. we were aware. that was with breathless anxiety. The stream was running with great rapidity but from its shallowness. For the last thirty. we watched this village. and for ten minutes . therefore. the boat stuck in the middle. twenty miles of our course down the Ramran Uttle risk. We dared not show ourselves outside. the water roaring and surging round us. situated on the right bank of the Ganges. and we floated down. The a new channel and came upon a rapid. within two or three miles of the mouth of the The river had so materially changed its channel this year. From the great height of the bank on which . At last they managed to get her clear. and it was most trying to sit still. I should think. the danger was great. without further interruption. that fearful tragedy having oc- curred in It its immediate neighbourhood. along the Messengers. however. and which we supposed miles higher up the stream. as Hurdeo Buksh's influence first For the gunga. till we reached Ramgunga.

and we hardly dared to hope that we could safely pass this ferry. still in flood. but it was like a village of the dead could we discern moving about. with several boats close to the bank. when we found scarcely ventured that we were But we to consider ourselves secure. fail to attract attention. as we came winding down the stream and rounded the reaches and the : unusual sight of a boat could not. Instead fifty years had been passing up and down without intermission. feel human being and deeply thankful did we not a passing unnoticed. all ready. their and powder horns by them. and of whose the place. our guards got their cartridge boxes handy. It was with a this sickening sort of anxiety we continued : to watch place . as far as was possible. not a single boat had been seen on its waters since that one which had escaped fate we were in the utmost unusual The sight of a boat rowed rapidly ignorance. down stream. and only about a quarter of a below Kassim Kore. keeping. attracted immediate attention. . and a number of people collected and about ferries. if required. we feared. Except the boats at these and other there was nothing floating of the fleets which for the last on the Ganges. it 283 was placed the people must have seen us. As we approached from Futtehghur. it and we floated down very rapidly. here about a mile broad. there At one point where the stream narrowed considerwas a ferry close to a large village. The Ganges was stream. until we lost sight of the hateful spot in the distance. The sun was mile setting as we floated out into the Ganges. the middle of the ably. and lead parties of them to come off in boats to intercept us.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. with a number of armed men on the roof and deck. to cross.

and the sight of the guard all ready with their matchlocks. At . as he was to for us to accompany us on. and by the receding waters of the river. Only fort." " Stop and come ashore. and commenced cooking. You have Feringees (English) concealed in that boat. challenged and asked who we were. we heard. but by this time. and it would be hopeless one of our attempt to proceed without him. It was. was a a half mile and from Tirrowah Pulleeah. and he declared he would not go alone at this time of night.284 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and we should soon dispose of them and get their plunder. Pirthee Pal. left half-dry desolate place covered with long grass." was the ready- answer of the Thakoor. After this when the boat was stopped. on shore. a deep creek intervening. essential for us to communicate with Dhunna Singh. we passed on without challenge until nightfall. replied that The Thakoor to he was taking his family down Tirrowah " Pulleeah. " I wish we had. : Some of the guard and this boatmen were in vain ordered to accompany man . as We we expected. come ashore at once. river we had floated past. were. A voice called out. — owing to the rapidity of the stream. the distance thus put between us." " Feringees on board. of course. and could not stop. knew the way to his which lay directly across the waste. alongside of which we were anchored with. party. we anchored at a most solitary. not one would leave his cooking. and we bore out into the centre of the stream. and told to stop and pull in shore. a boatman. no doubt deterred any of those on shore from putting off and following us. This place. as he told us. The widened." was repeated . Dhunna only crew and Our guards immediately went Singh's stronghold.

accompanying They followed a long grass. Probyn agreed terrible anxiety I to remain for another half-hour : one of and suspense it was. and were soon lost in the Probyn and I got out of the boat and walked the bank. last 285 the Thakoors seized one of the boatmen. and most likely give information to the villagers. when . anxiously discussing the probability and down up of the messengers failing us. who would come down and destroy us. in so important a point. it was necessary river the of dangerous part darkness. It was the wildest and most dismal scene . and almost in despair. and frightened him them. and might desert us. but the croaking of innumerable frogs in the pools. without any sign of our messengers us. as the herdsmen grazing their cattle would no doubt discover us as soon as it light. or in event even of their reaching the place. and as the most was before us. It had been part of Hurdeo Buksh's arrangement that he should accompany us. and sat cooking in silence : heard. and if once we deviated from it. all Nearly two hours passed away not a soul came near : At last Probyn determined that we had better go on at was slipping away . the crew might not consider themselves any longer responsible for our safety. of Dhunna Singh's answering our sumI mons or not. small path. My opinion was strongly against starting without Dhunna Singh. and crabs in the swamp. was pacing up and down.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. the Desolate as the cover of to pass it under hazards. have ever witnessed the boatmen and guard even seemed not a sound was depressed. as the night place was. gave into him a sound thrashing. it would not do was to remain there for the night .

so far as floated rapidly down the river. answer to any challenge. for the explananot a second and more believed. as it was this most desirable pore by to be beyond a part of the river near Sheoraj- the morning. a celebrated bathing ghaut near to Cawnpore. On tion of the men this . . He said we must go on at once. Dhunna Singh had instructed could in the centre of the stream. the men in were instructed to say that Dhunna Singh was repeating himself on board . being he had to do peremptory summons was given to stop and pull ashore. and lamented that so much time had already been lost. that the boat belonged Dhunna Singh of Tirrowah Pulleeah. keeping as we could much judge. We two of his to reply in men. I saw at once that he was the right sort of man for kind of work. and if even this did not suffice. but very- wiry and and from his frank and self-possessed manner. it If this explanation failed to satisfy. instead of on board ours. him we expected him to come did. who was taking his family down to bathe at. man with a white head. Dhunna Singh's own powerful and peculiarly harsh voice. whom he had brought on board with him. he would himself come forward and answer several occasions the challenge. heard the sound of voices approaching. as we were challenged bank and ordered to from either stop and come repeatedly ashore . and he We and started about ten o'clock. and Dhunna Singh almost immediately came up with our messengers and a few followers . into our boat . The Dhunna Singh was his desiring to only thing suspicious about accompany us in a small I told this boat to be towed astern. after some hesitation. but on starting. 1 he was an old athletic.286 I Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian.

began asking quesand places . Go on. however. when he wanted called out that he could not stop just then. On saying this. be at the ghaut in time to bathe before the morning but that on his return. and begging him to come ashore and take them on Dhunna Singh showed great readiness and presence of mind in this difficulty. go on " ! At one caused by the was village. we passed down About one side of the river. He answered their hail with great apparent cordiality. a sluice. we approached Mendee or Ghaut. and telling the tions about different persons rowers to stop pulling. In this way we down the stream very rapidly. as was we approached within a very great. great anxiety to pass this place in safety assuring us that the risk of detection providentially. either . which they did .Personal Advcnttircs during the Rebellion. a large bank of clouds came over the moon and it became partially dark. rebels. and . he thus held the till party in conversation we had floated well past the village. however. The rowers were told to ship Most their oars. the chief ferry between Gude and the Futtehghur for. he would make a point of stopping in the village. on hearing " remained silent. in two or three days. in the morning. and the whole party glided to keep profound silence. 287 who. expressing great satisfaction at his arrival. or said.mutineers and a great place of resort Dhunna Singh expressed . as he his family to . Singh. he ordered the men to give way as fast as and as the river was nmning like possible. that any attempt to have pursued us by a boat from the village would have been quite vain. mile of the place. so rapidly. much embarrassment Dhunna with intimate party challenging being board. never failed to satisfy inquirers his explanation.

but remained for more than an hour stuck fast on the sand-bank. as it was now daylight. . Dhunna Great. and then nearly capsized. upon rounding a reach of the river. the boat was got off without we grounded much trouble but on the second occasion she struck several times very heavily. About an hour first time. . broke just as we were nearing a place on the right bank day where a body of the enemy with guns was said to be posted. in getting her The delay caused by this mishap was very serious . succeeded. after heavy labour. and. by thus lightening the boat. relief. some ten miles further down. Had hands Singh the . however. who could not it to notice to the mercy of the and come down on us as soon as was light. left with us that we could not fail it surely was all up and that we should be deserted by those on board and villagers. for and which we had calculated upon passing during the night. this point. soon righted a little. which he supposed was occupied by our troops. Singh. the risk of being stopped was great. twice the . silent as the owing to the darkness and perfect still- ness we passed : this critical point altogether after this unnoticed and unchallenged. we found this place silent and deserted. but until we arrived there. as well as the rowers. Dhunna now we could only succeed in reaching Bithoor. was our and deep our thankfulness. we should be safe . I thought then float her. got into the water. however. afloat. Nearly the whole of the guard. at our earnest entreaty. She. when. As we approached ourselves. grave . as well as felt most anxious.28S Remmiscences of a Bengal Civilian. enemy been here we must have told us that if fallen into their for escape would have been impossible.

on a considerable body On of people. we could pro- He was told the exact and then. eagerly inquired of those ashore where our troops were posted. 289 On we went without interruption for some miles. and Dhunna Singh. and how ceed down the stream with spot. force in Bithoor. Dhunna Singh lenge. would in that case inevitably fall into the hands of the Gora log (Europeans). affected great alarm at this intelligence. 19 . and Dhunna Singh. who were completely deceived about us. I So near were we to the party on shore. and cross to the Oude side of the stream. and thus escaped a most imminent danger. and winking coolly far at me as I lay inside the covering. and now in your own territory come as . which would have betrayed us been lost. and We met with no incident for the next about II o'clock we reached Bithoor. and we must have few miles. We and shot rapidly away. who were would kill all in the boat. We were now be- ginning to congratulate ourselves that at last safety. safety. with his usual presence of mind. saying he would avoid that point. told the rowers to give way. replying in the usual manner to their chal- what was our delight and surprise to hear the party. on rounding a point suddenly. that Probyn each caught up one of the children and kept our hands on their mouths. " You are we were in we approached the place. at once. some bathing and some sitting on the bank. in front of where we lay.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. we came. earnestly warn Dhunna Singh not as he to proceed much in further down the river. lest they might speak or cry out . the stream carrying us close in shore on the right when bank. removed the curtain hanging called out to us.

little. into the I me caught his leg. had about a fortnight previously died of his wounds. to convey away some of the Nana's property. . Dhunna Singh he replied that he was a sepoy of Jessah Singh's son. left my lips. and while floating past some high buildings.290 Reminiscejices of a Bengal is Civilian. Jessah Singh himselfj who was the Nana's confederate ing that Bithoor in the Cawnpore tragedy. out and look about. and reoccusome of the Nana's. when. character of the boat. fled from our troops on their capture Dhunna Singh completely deceived this man by his ready replies to all his questions. the bank. or giving the Dhunna Singh expressed great satisfaction on hear- was evacuated by our troops. as he was and by some involuntary and not show himself for a and the words had hardly He had scarcely done so. with whom the Nana was at this moment in hiding a few miles from us. which he had been forced to leave behind him when he of the place. this Soon after passing sepoy. and going out from under cover (where he had been cramped up stepping over all night). several shots were fired in rapid suc. heard no buildings. impulse begged of him to stop. and been succeeded by his son ." Jones was just on the point of avaiHng himself of this permission. open air. and had come across from Futtehpore Chowrassee with some of the Nana's people. when the curtain was hastily replaced. for there no more need of hiding. however. and of his ally Jessah Singh's pied by son. at Futtehpore Chowrassee. and so prevented his suspecting the real alarm. cession gated in and around the and we saw several hundred armed men congreWe. and we in- were hailed by a quired who he was man on .

Dhunna Singh. took us a reconnoitring party. hour of most intense anxiety passed in getting clear When we had left it about two miles behind. and yet no one molested us. and in the service of our deadliest enemies. wind caught our boat. whizz of bullets. all by armed. we heard their drums and bugles sounding the alarm. they suddenly seemed about to be entirely defeated efforts . or tried to stop us. we were being driven across. as . we were a weary long time in approaching the station. which truly miraculous how we this observed escaped being large body of men. An of this dreadful place. said he could take a sleep. Their tents became distinctly visible and. out. and.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. We now being celebrated. It was were the sole boat which had appeared for nearly two fail months on the have drawn river. contrary wind which had sprung up. and supposed that the of the great is 291 firing was in honour Mahomedan festival of the Mohurrum. drove us half-across then. Soon after we were now all we had the and a high great joy of seeing Cawnpore in the distance. We expected that they would 19 — 2 . and in spite of the who were by this time thoroughly to worn river. assuring us that right. Bithoor. for the of the rowers. who as well as myself had not closed an eye all night. and the unusual sight could not to their attention to us. became aware that this bank was occupied by a body of the enemy watching the Cawnpore force. I fancy. for the first the Oude side of the We time. Just as our hopes of safety appeared on the verge of accomplishment. as for they. Owing to the frequent turns of the river. came in and lay down under the cover of the boat.

told us to drop down the stream until had been our own countrymen. for picquet of Sikhs posted near This was the most joyful sight our eyes many a weary day and night. and were capping their muskets to fire. We landed about two p. during which time we twenty-seven had run the gauntlet for more than 150 miles of river-way.292 fire at Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. with grateful and that at last overflowing hearts we were saved. informing them all who we at were. much labour. owing to the violence of the wind and strength of we succeeded in making our boat fast to another steamer. after side. came down to oppose us. then . through the midst of the enemy's country. The native to officer in command. of the 31st August. and the wind falling we were our own Soon had seen enabled. and the men. We left them. but fortunately they did not. A picquet of her Majesty's 84th Regiment was on duty at the ghaut. we stepped on shore. and in about half an hour reached the landing. alongside the Then. and even our own flesh and blood could not have more repeatedly or warmly congratulated us on our safety than they did . came forward congratulate us on our escape heartily rejoiced as if they which they seemed as They camp where our troops were entrenched. us . when Wuzeer Singh hailed them in their own dialect. The congregated round us. which we should know by a steamer being moored below. we came to the the current.m. feeling and among our own countrymen. to get back again to after we came upon a the Old Magazine. indeed. not imagining that by any possibility the boat could contain friends. After some trouble. just we started hours after . The party. men they were ytry .

Probyn. and insisted on carrying the baggage to wherever we wished to On learning that the magistrate's tent was a few yards go. and children. men. Sherer got rooms prepared for us in a house fitted up an hotel. when. and by that time When we had all collected in the tent. I immediately went there. and of as to the fate of the party who had that left whom we hoped time that some had escaped. women. first question was Futtehghur. and the well where so many of those dear . and I on the ground from excitement and exhaustion. everything seemed swim around me. he was being as much surprised as if he had seen an apparition. off at the top of the bank. Sherer soon after returned with the Probyns. as and just beyond the entrench- ment occupied by our troops. and children and our little On announcing myself (for he could not recognize me). close to his tents. of which only vague rumours had hitherto reached us. We also heard of massacre at Cawnpore. found Sherer of our service. and beg of him to go and I fell bring them. too terrible to admit of awful credence. 293 tender of poor Mrs. I was just able to tell him that the Probyns and their children were down to at the boat. To get to this place we were obliged to pass the house in which the slaughter had been perpetrated. as he rushed off for that purpose. truth. We could scarcely believe that we four persons and the two children are the sole survivors of that large body of our country-people. Then for the first we heard murdered the — the they had really all been that not one had survived.Personal Adventures during the Rebellmi. for I had I can long been reported among the killed at Futtehghur. our had recovered myself. in native dress never forget his hearty welcome.

knelt our God. so lately parted with in full strength and When we found ourselves in a house again. we felt quite awe-struck . with hearts overflowing with thankfulness.294 friends Reminisce7tces of a Bengal Civilian. lie. and from those who by the way. whom we had vigour." . for the first time for three months. and in a position of comparative security. who had down together to bless so wonderfully " delivered us from the lay in wait for us hand of the enemy. we. and.

— — — The hotel in which we lodged at Cawnpore had been occupied by of power. 295 CHAPTER XIX. to about was floor. I which must have overflowed the whole space. the poor victims were cut to pieces when cowering under afford. the walls. pieces of clothing. and leaves of devotional books were scattered over I it. dates. The lower part of the walls of the one and a half feet from the evidently showing that room. and children's socks. still The floor covered with blood from end to end.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. was reported that when his unhappy victims were being murdered. When I visited this scene of unheard-of cruelty and I savage ferocity. picked up a leaf containing a portion of a prayer out of Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Dying. locks of hair. splashed with blood. neither names. shoes. so far as of the house was saw. APPOINTED SPECIAL COMMISSIONER AT FUTTEHPORE ALARM THERE PROCEED TO BENARES AS SPECIAL COMMISSIONER REJOIN MY WIFE AND CHILD. this miscreant amused himself with the performances of singing men and women. bore no writing. the scene of the slaughter of the and children. all soaked in blood. But it was too heartrending a scene often . the Nana as his residence during his brief tenure women and it Bebee-Ghur. the walls for such shelter as they might to revisit. was not more than fifty yards distant . nor inscriptions of any sort.

person met was my old friend. though less remains. waiting for full our conductor. and was most kind and earnest in his congratulations.296 as it is Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Almost the Havelock. and we soon got into earnest conversation. after ninety-three first days and nights of I peril. Colonel my own county Oh. listening to enlivening music. General at who was greatly surprised seeing me. offered to the unhappy and no mutilations their inflicted before death. that from the while at minutest and most careful inquiries I could make Cawnpore. I am convinced that there were no outrages sufferers. was intense. and the bravest of the brave. surrounded by my Now own I was country- men. " warmed to the tartan. He introduced me to General who had just driven up in a nice-looking dog-cart. an early friend. not to mention his conversation. When I left him I fell in with a party regi- of the 78th Ross-shire Highlanders. . not having heard of my escape. heart ment. or prove treacherous if he did. desolate island in the Ganges. and there I met. Then we were pacing disconsolately up and down the wet mud of a reedy. and talking to a general whose very appearance. many afterwards upon poor senseabout the In the evening of station. Neill. How different was the whole scene from that of the previous evening. inspired nothing but hope and He told me that when he was left in command confidence. second to none in ability and courage of Havelock's band of heroes. to my great surprise. and of gloomy fear that he would either not join us. how my Fraser Tytler. suffice it to say." Their band was playing close by. my arrival I wandered all The feeling of relief at being able to do so in safety. now to dwell upon .

on Havelock's unsuccessful advance a few days previously towards Lucknow. same station as magistrate. He felt himself in a most critical position.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. to man I the entrenchment as well as to operate beyond Upon was reaching Cawnpore lost no time for in reporting myself to the Government. thousands of rebels congregated around the station and threatened to attack it. thus lead the enemy to believe that he had double the force he actually possessed. but the promised entrenchment had not been even commenced the officer who was to construct it arrived only the day before . and special commissioner to reoccupy the station of Futtehpore. Two days . and. three hundred European soldiers occupying the post. with only a small body of men. at 297 first Cawnpore. fought almost within sight as well as hearing of the station. with the band and colours each morning. and taking them a considerable circuit. Generals into Oude for the Neill crossed and Outram. and ended in Before left we the rout of the rebels to who. which was then one of the most exposed points in the whole North- West Provinces. and march the head of his few men. afterwards we proceeded to Futtehpore. did not intend again oppose the force before it reached Lucknow. was action first Their relief of Lucknow. but putting a bold face on the matter. although withWe found out any escort. enough it. Havelock. he used to leave the out at entrenchment with scarcely a guard. . we heard. Mr. reached that place unmolested. men and an entrenched Cawnpore. and asking consequently ordered to proceed as judge I employment. Probyn was also ordered to join the We were told it was to be per- manently garrisoned by five hundred position constructed.

received no tidings of what had actually occurred there. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Several and. and was that time at his home. I confess this did not surprise me. the Hne of the projected works. we heard heavy firing from the Oude side of the Ganges towards Lucknow. and had nothing to do with the mutiny. and I never saw a more savage and diabolical countenance. indeed. and had attained a defensible all In the meantime our entrenchment advanced rapidly. more than the ground we stood upon. little we held noted rebels and mutineers were seized and sent in for trial and punishment. operation. with the force sent to relieve it. assuring me that he had been on leave from all his regiment for six months. He entreated me to interfere in his behalf. as from what I had pre- viously heard of the I enormous mass of men in arms at Luck- never expected the attempt to bring off the garrison now. the troops with the exception of most of them sick and footsore men. and had the just purchased some string in the bazaar to mark out Daily and nightly middle of September. It was proved that he had been active in the attack on the entrenchment I at and in the massacre at the boats. when. but at this time. the administration was becoming by degrees more organized. was then no gallows. were ordered to the front. However. prove a successful could. happened to pass Cawnpore him as he for there was being led to execution on a neighbouring tree. The Futtehpore district at this time was full of rebels and mutineers. fifty. The first man who was capitally punished was a trooper of the 2nd Cavalry. height. to our dismay. and he produced in proof a leave certificate from his commanding . and police out-stations reoccupied.298 us.

It is impossible to account for the vast numbers of leave men Lucknow. however. This the sepoys themselves bitterly lamented . and Cawnpore. or when arrested proofs to my produced by them as proofs of their innocence and put upon their trial. disseminate their means . The number of leave certificates found on the bodies of mutineers killed in action. is one among many mind of the deep and widely extended character of the plot which existed in the Bengal army to mutiny and attempt to overthrow the Government. from the information I have received. I who were congregated am convinced. consequence of the too precipitate revolt of the sepoys at Barrackpore and Meerut. break the far jails. that the through the whole Bengal May. themselves of the to set up the Emperor of Delhi of her Majesty. in case the attempt should after all prove unsuccessful. I left him to his fate. mutiny to commence was army Sunday. was only some thirty miles from Cawnpore. and then possessing magazines and instead fortifications. the 31st of Committees of sepoys in each regiment conducted day originally fixed for the the correspondence. and as it was proved that he had been active in the murder of our people. and organized the plan of operations.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. open all rebeUion and wide by all and releasing the prisoners. Numbers of the men who joined in the mutiny armed themselves with these certificates for their own safety. seize the treasuries. upon any other supposition than that a plot existed in which the whole army was concerned. officer. in By providence of God this scheme was defeated. which was to murder date in all the European functionaries on that church and in their houses. at Delhi. 299 His home.

and " had cut down his oificer. as all slept in tents outside the entrenchment. and they were hearing the bugle and seeing the European ." The villagers round about the station of Futtehpore were all rebels. I night attracted One got up and walked out to listen. gave them They had heard that the soldiers had been withdrawn from our post. and just as I had done so there was an alarm in that the villagers were set coming yell. saw I my nine Sikhs sitting outside my tent fully accoutred asked them what was the reason. afterwards. and therefore they had prepared for them. when the Sikhs up the most unearthly We all rushed inside the entrenchment and joined the few soldiers who slept there. whom as I I had taken into and with no other guard my pay on arriving was lying awake. and they thought that only the civilians and one or two officers remained. and to my surprise . and the men took their posts on the defences. than nine Sikhs at the station. The bugle immediately sounded the alarm. and the news which at length reached us that Outram's force all heart again. spoilt all. and sent on to Cawnpore. upon us. my attention was by hearing peculiar cries and calls. had been shut up in Lucknow. which appeared to be signals repeated from point to point all round us. and they then told me for the first time that they had received secret information that the villagers intended to attack us that night. I lost no time in rousing up the two officers in the next tent. and used to say that " Mungul Pandy. that the entire force The villagers had supposed so surprised at had been withdrawn.300 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian." the man who first broke out into open mutiny at Barrackpore. whom it would be easy to dispose of.

we should have been massacred that night. emeute occurred in the caused by seventy mutineers under sen- . decaying vegetation. soldiers. and on getting up to see what was the matter. in all human probability. An constantly threatening to come over and attack us. foggy one in the end of October. when I was by a shot. officer was sent to command this force. caught a severe attack of fever from the malaria. ^and was full of rank.000 men was collected near us at Banda. that they lost heart. I had the comfort never rejoined Futtehpore. I gave him up I was lying down in an immediately adjoining tent at noon. a cold. so that we were comparatively safe. Subsequently we were reinforced by two guns and a detachment of artillery. for I years. I was sent off by air. in the extremity of had put an end to his own existence. he was buried in the old cemetery. the doctor of the detachment to Allahabad for change of I was subsequently appointed and commissioner of Benares.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. It slunk off among the jungle in the darkness. found that the poor brigadier. at which station. com- my tent. was for- tunate for us that even so small a left body of soldiers had been with us. judge special as it had not been destroyed by the rebels. until the All remained quiet at this station serious month of March. 1858. about startled two days after his arrival. Being an old acquaintance of mine. and being previously much weakened by exposure. raw. otherwise. which had not been opened his suffering. Poor man ! he arrived in very great suffering from a severe internal plaint. 301 and abandoning their enterprise. Next morning. even although a large force of some 8. when a jail. and one company of Europeans. as I of getting under a roof.

determined to proceed to that station carriage." the at Futtehghur. who had accompanied her from pore. My to wife. with the child and two native Christian servants. and from what station he had come to my extreme surprise. 1858. Delhi had my wife and child left their asylum at tains to Nynee Tal. and thirteen were summarily executed. 41st. dawk Budaon. many daring things. and reached Cawnpore without any accident or hindrance. thinking the road must have been that time cleared Greathed's column. he said he belonged to the : "Dobyes. ruary. and made their way across the mounA Mussoorie. in order to proceed number of ladies had congregated at the latter place in Febdown the country with a sufficient escort of troops when such could be by spared. providence shielded after me and nothing but God's merciful from their savage power. who had lately passed down by Cawn- by herself by She accordingly set off". tence of imprisonment for at who were detained temporarily Benares until carriage for their conveyance to Calcutta could be procured. the very regiment which had mutinied . and had never left her during this long and anxious period. husband and wife. and thence to Meerut and Agra.302 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. tall grenadier. I asked him what regiment he belonged to. One of the first ordered for execution was a splendid. like to have been attempted. and massacred the Europeans and this was one of the very men who had been so anxious to take my life some Soon six months before. and ought never but. Many had to be shot down. fallen. life. on the 8th of February. and determined to die in that to them sacred place rather than be transported. It was a daring journey. They were all desperate men. when coolly .

in the train. time the van was one mass of flame with all its contents. when about half way on my fire cry that the train was on and so assuredly it was : the van was in flames. it was not A voice called out "It is Sunday." What a rehef was to receive this intimation. There is powder and shell in the carriage set off at a most furious pace.Personal Adventures during the Rebellion. the then termination of the railway. however. for bands of rebels were constantly passing and repassing the to Grand Trunk Road and from Oude. there was a sudden . this train for the usual load of powder. The driver at length By this was made to bring the train to a stand-still. It certainly was an awful with into moment when we heard that the carriage was laden combustibles. apparently lost his head. it 303 succeeded. and resolutely entered upon. After leaving Allahabad. and burning furiously. and one party burnt a post station. and journey. The conductor. I Fortunately I never heard of her intention until informing received a telegram me of her safe arrival at Cawnpore. a most narrow escape. thereby causing the flames to ! " burst out with increased fierceness. as we would assuredly have been. I went up to meet her at a place called Khaga. &c. as we expected every instant to be blown the air. had the up by so. She had. which consisted chiefly of the baggage of General Riddell and other officers of the Royal Artillery going up . however. and took away all the post-horses just hours after she had passed it six on her way down. going army been despatched. no powder has been sent up it to-day. instead of pulling up and uncoupling the burning carriage and letting out the passengers. Mercifully. and " screaming out. killed the police.

as the escort. and until then I do not think I ever appreciated sufficiently my native country. to try and make way to Nynee only chance of saving their overruled all lives. . and as the fire reached these they exploded. we reached the and there my great happiness. the 22nd May. The whole of the contents were de- among this stroyed. as the hot wind was raging. Those only who were exposed appreciate as troubles could it we did the security of repose and peace afforded us. 1858. my by the road-side. with a safe conscience. wife and child. but hit in the hand by a no other accident occurred than a native being bullet from one of the revolvers which After this incident in a little tent exploded in the flames. We reached England in May. ordered time home as the only chance of restoring it. a little change and repose at home. I parted with them on the ofl" my district. But God had mercifully for good. rendering it a matter of considerable risk to go near the burning carriage. who had come down safely in the night of some troops of General Walpole's division from Cawnpore. There were several loaded rifles and revolvers baggage. when.304 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. or ever to the valued like home enough. terminus safely I rejoined. and the dust blowing in clouds round borders of us. It was more than nine months since that sad night. so there to hinder one's seeking. and spared us as monuments of around His long-suflering mercy when so many had been cut off" In April my health was so broken that I was us. almost the most trying one in my life. to the front. under escort who were marching that way. and sent them their with a slender Tal. to . Lucknow had been taken and the rebellion was nothing By this well-nigh quelled.

is to be to the disastrous occurrences of 1840-41 in traced back Affghanistan. FACTS AND REFLECTIONS CONNECTED WITH THE INDIAN REBELLION. peculiar and special opportunities of becoming acquainted with the undisguised views and feelings in of our native subjects.( 305 ) CHAPTER XX. both while traversing the country as a fugitive and while asylum in Oude. The change in the feelings of loyalty and attachment which at one time did certainly exist among our Mahomedan and Hindoo soldiery towards our Government. it appears to me desirable to state all the facts and information I possess. The first the condition of our native — wide-spread disaffection. multiform and various. for the first time since . both as the collector and magistrate of the district of Budaon pre- vious to the late rebellion. Having had (as described in the previous pages). which may tend to throw light on the remote and immediate causes of the These causes were. my opinion. in insurrection. and subsequently to that event. The charm was then. and were favoured by a peculiar combination and most prominent cause of the outbreak was. army one of deeply rooted and of events and circumstances.

murdered officers. . recover. especially among Mahomedan by a in rising portion of them. supported in their disciplined. in expelling the British and restoring native rule — that is. their and armed by us from among the people of that These corps mutinied one after another. my humble directly opinion. efforts to drive us out by the corps raised. which it has never yet. had feelings tended to keep alive these of veneration. that time forward the idea has From in the been gaining ground minds of our subjects in India. that a similar course —a the mutiny of the native regiments forming our army. broken and the idea. Although. country. and I fear never will. backed among it the people. impolitic treatment of the King. In their eyes still the legitimate sovereign of India. and there to surround himself with . and foster but. the authority of the Emperor of Delhi. in conse- quence of the successful resistance of the Affghan nation. in our opinion. We permitted him to continue to occupy his palace in the ancient seat of empire. It was apparent to our native subjects that we had been forced to abandon our position beyond the Indus. of our invincibility and good fortune. very different was the estimation in which he was held by Hindoos he was as well as Mahomedans generally. and as such. till then prevalent. of reverence and loyal in Our generous.3o6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and joined the national cause. might prove as successful Hindustan as had in Cabul. our accession to power in India. received a shock. the position occupied for the last thirty years by the Emperor was of the most insignificant and contemptible description. feelings was looked up to with attachment.

which. and the coin effect. the state " " such as Sunnuds issued by subordinate native papers. a nuzzur of 1 01 gold mohurs to the Emperor as a mark of fealty and acknowledgment of holding the British territories in India subject to his authority. Provinces. presented on behalf of the Governor-General. they issued bore a legend to the same Up to 1842. Thomason. The last nuzzurs ever offered to the King by British subjects were. so late as 1842. I am of opinion. should a favourable In this hope. therefore. for I have good grounds for 20 — 2 . in native estimation. in India. position of dignity and importance. It scarcely. through their secretaries. the King was regarded all in India as the fountain of rank and honour.Reflections on the Rebellion. cherished hope of Of late years it has been the our Mahomedan subjects and soldiers to attempt the restoration of that dynasty. the Governors-General who visited Delhi were in the habit of presenting. are indissolubly connected with sovereign authority. and myself. chieftains. W. Up to the rebellion. as has been already stated. they opportunity occur. such as conferring honorary titles on our subjects. Lord Ellenborough. Although a pensioner. by Mr. were sympathized with by the majority of the Hindoo subjects of our N. to be wondered that the imperial its house of Delhi never native estimation. the 307 symbols of royalty. at. and to exercise powers. as Under Secretary to the is Government of lost. the Chief. and by the most insignificant marks of his favour were more highly titles esteemed than the most costly gifts and highest which could be conferred by the head of the British Government or any of its subjects. always contained an holding as vassals acknowledgment of their under the King of Delhi.

the safeguard we thought we much more possessed in having our subjects divided into two great races so totally distinct from each other as to render combination impossible. believing that the King of Delhi was the centre of a feeUng of nationaHty in their minds. and .3o8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the national cause. and they are not separated now from their Hindoo fellowthan different castes of Hindoos are by caste countrymen. has been to fuse into a whole the previously discordant elements of native society. and unmistakable feeling of sympathy with. permanent personal safeguard against mutiny and rebellion. in our native army. there exists among all classes a deep. tranquillity The result of long years of internal under a powerful government. disappeared. no longer exists . general. what they deem. tunities I Indeed no one. colour. the fact. who has had the oppor- have possessed of judging of the real sentiments of the natives. Mahomedans of India have ized in thoughts and habits. can doubt that a feeling of nationality has sprung up in India. by a bond order. gone by. and language. and good of common country. and the day real or has. and to bind together. Hence. when any mixture of can afford any I races. to a great extent. castes. As years have rolled past. from each other. and the surmountable barrier of the caste. that. as well as in those of the Mahomedans. in my opinion. or creeds. those whom we for in- have been in the habit of considering as effectually and ever separated by diversity of race and religion. become gradually HindooThe ancient antipathy between the races has. cannot disguise from myself although there may have been during the rebellion many instances of unswerving loyalty. From knowledge and experience.

of granting increased rates of pay certain limits . white. 309 of dislike to the British as a foreign and impure race. to reward or punish. they had an option. as an army. feeling of nationality and dislike to the conquering race will certainly increase and be more deeply rooted in the minds of the people of that vast continent. had a very prejudicial effect in lowering the authority of Government in the eyes of the army generally confirming them in the idea that of volunteering. and felt itself entirely dependent This feeling arose. But to revert more immediately to the state of feeling in our native army. In " " " to it and is the short. from the unfortunate system introduced by Lord Auckland's Governafraid of them. in 1836. only nominally restored by Lord Hardinge. for the past twenty years.Reflections on the Rebellion. Our native troops did not fail to see at once the weakness and infirmity which this course of proceeding involved. and for personal intercourse railway. how they should and that the Government dared not com- mand. that as tion facilities for communica- by post and and the telegraph. and the withdrawal of all real power. We by more ought also to bear in mind. The system also. increase in India. for service beyond thus substituting a system of bribery and coaxing for one of authority and command. the people will become still united. . the policy pursued towards the Bengal army. tended to foster in the minds of the soldiery an idea of their own power and importance. in no small degree. ment. The abolition of corporal punishment. I believe." feeHng of black against shut our eyes to the fact would be only self-deception. and to lead to the impression that our Govern- ment was on them. where or serve the state. out of the hands of commanding .

and to hold their authority in contempt. that to maintain things quiet in a became a leading great object. at the same time naturally diminished the interest they took in the I men only nominally under their command. and their orders often modified and reversed. presented by sepoys to head-quarters within the past ten years. A return of the number of petitions and appeals against the orders of their officers. of aflbrding peculiar facilities for safely secretly intriguing and for dangerous combi- nation. influence to introduce into the regiments their tions. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. own and dependants. the practice. of late so prevalent. This system. again. regiment result was. and thus closely bound together by ties of relationship and local interest. in men and hence an undue leaning on the regiments to maintain order and disciThese men. and its transference to head-quarters. friends.310 officers. of Stafl" withdrawing for employ all those officers who pos- . had also a most injurious effect on the disciphne of the native army. Then. of course. while it has the advantage corps —a matter of —had and of maintaining order and unanimity in a vital importance to officers whose hands are tied this great danger. and show that the officers mental officers due exercise of authority on the part of regiwas almost an impossibility. so in course of time regiments became great families recruited from the same districts and the same classes. The themselves were by it taught to look beyond their sepoys own officers. it While the system destroyed the influence of the officers. will fully establish this fact. employed their rela- pline in the corps. High-spirited at all would prefer exercising no authority over their men The to the liability of having their acts continually called in question.

and if the sepoys had everything their own way. engendered an unhappy feeling of degradation in the minds of officers as attaching to regimental duty. when the Punjaub became a British Province. as a purely mercenary army. as they themselves say. and rejoining their regiments. from no feelings of patriotism or " " Pet ke to fill their bellies. and themselves unjustly mulcted and subjected considered they to great indignity as soldiers of the state." ." They loyalty. It That change made an essential difference to was the distance from their homes at which they had to serve that constituted. them. But it may be said. by being required to pay for shelter and supplies in the Government " seraies. They enter that army. the stoppage of higher rates of pay for service beyond the Sutlej. and regarded as a breach of public faith. but bitterly resented. therefore. with our service. and thus still more weakened the bonds of sympathy and attachment between them and their men. To these causes. or were of supposed superior abilities. in their opinion. what cause had they of complaint. if the army thus formed one great family compact. 1)6 is to attributed the ignorance on the part of officers of the intrigues and conspiracies existing in their regiments. They felt as a great their hardship the vast distances they had to travel in going to homes on furlough. their right to the higher rates of in pay originally granted . which for discontent or mutiny ? answered. and this was no case altered by the scene of their service becoming British instead of foreign territory. that in their opinion the sepoys had It may be many causes made them discontented. added to the mental closeness and secrecy." wastee.Reflections on the Rebellion. natural to the people of India. 311 sessed interest.

that as empire to Burmah and China. They knew loss that the Government on general felt to their proceeding service was the dread of the of caste into the line and they regarded the enlistment of Sikhs . they had enjoyed the privilege of an appeal to the British Resident for justice and . The deprivation of the pri- vilege of having their letters franked since the introduction of the half-anna postage. and Oude was to their astonishment and extreme is dissatisfaction annexed. Previous to annexation. and the new rules for recruiting. shopkeepers. regiments. Oude sepoys. this state of discontent While restless our native army was in suspicion. were privileged class. and I believe that they would it have resented at first. that the only obstacle they would sooner or later be required to serve beyond sea. also its whom they were ashamed to The sepoys were our Government extended under the persuasion. and restore Oude to the King. was also regarded by them as great hardships and indignities. They attributed these changes to a grasping avaricious spirit on the part of the state . and of petitioning on unstamped paper since the annexation of Oude. and bars and ferries. in the province. and they often termed it " a low Government of Banniahs. viction that the home authorities had they not been under the conwould annul the decision of the Governor-General. viz. as of an insidious attempt to break up the fit the commencement regimental caste. and the corps for foreign service. our exceptions. who.3 1 2 Reininiscences of a tolls at Bengal Civilian.. There not the slightest doubt that this act was regarded by the native army as one of rude and unjustifiable spoliation." serve. with few petty landholders. were a In all disputes regarding their lands or other rights as inhabitants of Oude.

that their claims were. The summary ment which was made on annexation first opened their eyes. or from elsewhere. In numerous instances the sepoys.Reflections on the Rebellion. from this and their rights and interests irritated These ex parte decisions the minds of the soldiery to an alarming degree. found omission. no hope remained of the restoration of the country to the King. All this ceased as soon as the pro- vince level came under of the British rule. Scarcely a day passed during the early months of 1857 that some I sepoy. but to one accustomed to deal with natives. royal family to England had proved ineff'ectual. disposed of ex parte. to I received no more applications from the latter to interfere in their behalf. upon to make good their claims in the same way as and had the mortification of finding these often dis- missed or decided against them. and their previous eagerness gave the subject. in fact. who could not persuade themselves to submit to petition on stamped paper. and the sepoys sank inhabitants generally. small in themselves. and of the the Oude that and sepoys in particular. and caused deep discontent. therefore. independent of to the settle- the local government. did not apply to me to interfere in their behalf. and were. pretty sure indications of their feelings. The sepoys found themselves called others. am. 313 They were thus in a superior position to the rest of the King's subjects. well acquainted with their feelings on the As soon as it became known that the mission of subject. unattended to. ])rotection. way an apparent sullen indifference on still Many things. which led me to . I noticed a marked change in the feelings and demeanour of the Mahomedans of my district. occurred about this time. either of the treasury guard at Budaon.

of Mr. This man made himself notorious by at the murder in February. and absence of quietly all Kutcherry (open court) when the I was struck by the his fate. and with cows' fat that of the Hindoos. a Mahomedan. and suspicious of its good faith. came flocking back again." who was the first man to rise in Oude in opposition to our Government.'' since shot for rebellion. so easy of annexation as that there Government had great explosion. and compel purpose had forcibly to adopt Christianity. full of resentment against the Government.314 think that Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. . of the civil service. sympathy with and by the remark made by the Serishtadar (the head of my office). from the causes I have already detailed. " first inartyr. This gentleman had been my Joint Magistrate in Budaon when he was appointed a Deputy Commissioner Oude. and for this cartridges (" cartouch^' as they called them. was sitting in news of the murder was received. 1857. the report was spread among them by them the instigators of the rebellion that the to take Government intended away their caste. Boileau. that Boileau was the " Shaheed^'' one of deep and using the term boding significance in the mouth of a Mahomedan. I could notice considerable sympathy also with the rebel chieftain " Fuzl Ali. a number of native had proceeded from the Budaon district for service in Oude these. and would be some officials .) prepared with pigs' fat to destroy the caste of the Mahomedans. and no higher rates of pay could tempt them or others to proceed again for employment in the province. For instance. Oude would not prove anticipated. While the minds of our sepoys were. and had been much liked by the people of my I district. on one pretext or another.

in " meats and drinks therefore capable of beingforcibly such darkened understandings the supposed intentions of the Government were a source of real terror. before. I have already alluded to some of the causes which led the sepoys to think that the Government intended right. 315 Wild and extravagant as such notions appear to us. at the time. they were indifferent on the subject. . and so remove I think it their objections to serve should here my the preimpressions of the causes which led to valent idea. and subsequent to the rebellion. had other causes (to which I will hereafter allude) which moved them. regard it as consisting in outward ceremonies. i?nposed. and know that reHgion has to do with the heart. Again and again have I discussed this subject with natives. who afterwards broke out into rebellion. as respects the great mass of our native army. who have been instructed in a pure faith. although deep sympathy with the sepoys. having no alternative between losing their caste and they freely expressed mutinying." and To and I most solemnly declare my belief. that all its Government intended to force Indian subjects to adopt Christianity. also. than that.Reflections on the Rebellion. brought up in the ignorance of heathenism. but as they themselves were not affected by the cartridges. that with the mass of our soldiery. and carnal ordinances. and I am not more confident that the rebellion has itself occurred. they are by no means so to those who. the cartridges formed the real and proximate cause of the mutiny. the dread of these cartridges was the imme- and most powerful cause of their revolt. The rural classes. diate during. sea. that I to take away beyond the give their caste.

" religions The teachers of Mahomedan and Hindoo roots of their national enough the progress to perceive that all these changes faiths. and are spreading slowly but surely." and power over the minds of the There would soon. customs becoming less enslaving. During the past ten years." contempt. tracts. and both determined to attempt to make a stand. be an end of and that awe must speedily give place which in this case would surely " breed before " familiarity. would soon remove the veil of mystery and sanctity which constituted the secret of their influence superstitious. great and important changes. and Juggurnauth. new system throughout multiplied. Allahabad. prejudices were being weakened. and rouse the national fears and superstitions against the new order of things. of the Government education has been introduced country." fears Leaders of the Mahomedan faith had similar about their sacred places. A physical and moral. A mass of sound religious and secular knowledge has begun to be diffused among the people by means of school books. have been introduced into India. " old things were passing away. and other publications. unless the ultimately to perceive of events was arrested. Truth was been constructed. which would bring within easy access to the mass of the people the celebrated shrines of Muttra. were quite sagacious were striking at cause their and must. " travellers' stories.3i6 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Railways and telegraphic lines have in active operation. The Brahmins were farsighted enough that railways. Gyah. they saw. In the native . in a cheap and acceptable form. downfall. and the all things were becoming new. Missionary efforts have been and have extended over the length and breadth of the land. Benares.

its subjects. consti- tuted the government. Our Government. and clings with intense tenacity to old customs. are suddenly transplanted into the midst of an ancient community which for ages has remained stationary. we have as yet only seen the commencement. they found an instrument willing and ready to their hand. It surely ought not to be matter of surprise. between ancient barbarism and modern progress. in my opinion. usages. Our Government cannot be fairly blamed for the troubles which are the natural and necessary result of the struggle between light and darkness . however philanthropic its intentions. fell at. passed nearly the whole of their official career in that city. or have been its chief advisers. and feelings have kept pace with their advance. for the past ten or fifteen years. have. desire for progress. already predisposed to mutiny.Reflections 07i the Rebellion. 317 army. At the Presidency they were surrounded : by all the outward signs of an advanced state of civilization . with the best is into this error very plain. nor proceed too far in advance of the public mind. and society be shaken from in its foun- dations. habits. the fruit of the progressive civilization of censetting the clouds in turies among nations whose minds. that when intellectual and physical improvements. forgot the necessity for caution. cannot safely ignore the feelings and capacity of intentions. and superstitions. with few exceptions. Why is our Government. Their error was in not being prepared for such a catastrophe. and that a despotism. of which. and in forgetting that the sun cannot rise without commotion. and the officers who have. and not to be wondered India chiefly governed from Calcutta. a great revulsion its of feeling should follow.

at the same time. it will be necessary to offer some remarks on the working of our revenue. them was calculated to give the idea of power and complete highly educated natives conversing in further.-. they instituted measures of a dangerous ten- dency. while. official was derived almost from reports and documents. They lacked the personal experience and local knowledge which in India are all important. were lulled into a state of security which led to an abandonment of all necessary safeguards. instead of worked out for itself all existing having had them suddenly implanted from without. seeing through a false medium. and for which the people were by no means prepared. and particularly of the agricultural classes in the North-West Provinces at this time. Hence our Calcutta rulers. revolt. as if if the India generally was similarly situated to mind of the nation was in that forward state of social progress it which would have been the case had improvements. They. in the hands of the originators of this great instruments ready rebellion. thought and acted as Calcutta. which predisposed them to and rendered them. English. as I shall hereafter show. In doing this. and to show how these severally affected the people. consequently. crowded by the most All around magnificent shipping the world can produce. and They. entering on this part of the subject. equally with the native anny. however. telegraphs. . and give their chief value to official aptitude and intellectual activity. Before.3 1 8 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and police systems. railways. it is requisite to consider the condition and feelings of the people in general. Their knowledge of the interior of the its countr}. universities. had before their eyes a river security. and of entirely millions of inhabitants. judicial. scientific institutions.

It has been generally supposed that this system was one of unmixed good. Provinces within the revenue system introduced into the last thirty years. become a mass of falsehood. First.Reflections on the Rebellion. It was an endeavour. through rights its own officers. and of all rights and interests connected therewith. I fear that the revenue records of the N. to details. from constant mutations in occupancy. must be all its completely trustworthy. it becomes one of the most powerful engines of evil and misgovernment which is possible to devise. The fact is that the system attempted too much. inaccuracy and confusion. and the light in opinion as to which they regard it. a supervision over the and interests of its millions of subjects so minute. that it had sincerely attached them to our rule. detailed. however correct they may originally have been. and led them to desire its continuance. and a record of the Government claim accruing thereon. W. it falls be of any value. it If short of this. as respects the 319 N. The basis of the system is. My its short time I was a acquaintance with the system during the collector. as would be scarcely practicable even own estate and . a survey of all lands held under the Government. it must be borne in mind. and be- yond suspicion. I and so highly appreciated by the people. have. on the part of a government of foreigners to exercise. Provinces. admirable in its workings. W. and the source of much of that litigation which have made our civil courts the opprobrium of our rule. But a record of accurate in this description. and complete in its details. and the corruption of native officials. for a private proprietor to maintain over his and accurate. has led me to form a different adaptation to the people.

as well . This functionary has from time immemorial been the sworn registrar and accountant of the village community. and attesting all engagements and transactions. can by the direct agency of the servants of a government of foreigners with that accuracy or completeness requisite to maj:e it fit right.320 tenantry. so to be received as final and complete evidence of long as the people themselves. They are consequently how left entirely dependent on our native revenue officers. one of the village serving their confidence as regard for his community. as his father before him. The most important. and highly distasteful to the people. hereditary." as he is termed. of these native officials employed in " the revenue department is the Putwarree. Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. who are as a class very corrupt and untrustworthy. were powerful guarantees own . enjoying. being the Putwarree. as regards the people. It was also many years in A record of the rights and interests in the advance of the people. recording all arrangements respecting their lands. and generally defor an identity of interest. On these points the Putwarree registers and his oral evidence are final as regards their The office until lately was possession. or able to test the accuracy of the record on which all his earthly interests and those of his family depend. &c.. are incapable of watching over their interests. Recent changes introduced by us have rendered them more so than before. subject to continual mutations of milHons of men. reputation. in our courts. from their inability to read or write. In the North-Western Provinces not one own man in a thousand of the agricultural body is acquainted with reading or writing. and those of never be maintained the most minute and intricate character. soil.

and the agricultural body comprised within the circle were functionary's salary. or " Hulquahs. but the examination. and accounts. was appointed. with scarcely an exception. 321 to the faithful discharge of his important duties. beautiful on paper. and to all appearance excellent. which it assessed to meet the fixed at integrity new was an amount sufficient. improved system of Putwarreeship in general. with its increasingly- and voluminous details. and in land that they should pass an examination in these branches by a given time. Government nominees connected with native officials in the officers Collectors' offices. under the orders of Government. to secure and independence of conduct. in their opinion. Attempts were made. and introducing a new. and it was ordered to our system. The Putwarrees of this old school were soon found unequal to the task of working the intricate new revenue system. holding a diploma as having passed the requisite examinations. not only failed. but this of course failed. and. but caused the most bitter resentment and disaffection among the agricultural body. as might have been expected. This term of probation was extended from month to montft under one pretext or another. its An attempt was made new to induce each circle to elect own Putwarree. This scheme. writing. was supposed. to instruct them in reading. as might have been anticipated. each collectorate was divided into circles. It was one among many causes which made 21 . The were consequently. Over this a new Putwarree. was never passe^.Reflections on the Rebellion. With this view. according surveying." each circle to comprise several original Putwarreeships. The Govern- ment then thought rid of the original the opportunity favourable for getting body.

scheme based is individual and joint Each member of the village community is held severally and jointly responsible for the Government demand assessed on the village. an authority vested in . civil who ended by suing theix debtors courts. As estates became divided and subdivided. the agricultural existed. well-founded dislike to the people. realizable any time . virtually a dead letter. and obtaining decrees. it on account of itself its intricacy and minuteness of of its contained in principle the elements own is destruction. and erection into a separate and distinct estate. each co-partner an estate or village entitled to claim the separation of his its own interest from that of the rest of the community. the whole breaks down. no longer Hence. the village system was or less broken up. There was no relief in emigration as in similar circumstances in Ireland. besides the imposof working the system. be departed from.322 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. Under more the action of these laws. and a source of But. detail. If this principle key-stone." which is now in force. but this power and when the rebellion broke of the the vaunted fast village system North-Western Provinces was degenerating into pure Ryotwar. a man's holding was too small to enable him to pay the Government demand and support his family. The great families of the country. There was. and the independent states which heretofore for the had afforded the means of honourable provision sons and cadets of the yeomanry. which is the But under a system of law is termed in '' Butwarrah. The on which the whole responsibility. sibility our revenue system a mass of confusion. to be sure. body fell into the hands of in the money-lenders. the Collector to refuse to divide an estate was out.

within twelve years from date of issue. and having to pass through thousands of villagers bearing off the plunder of those they had attacked. Long before the rebellion. other respects. The result was that the gentry had disappeared. and so deeply impressed me. up in satisfaction of them their which they became themselves the purSociety in the North-Western Provinces thus had become in late years thoroughly disorganized.Reflections on the Rebellion. 323 These decrees were until the fitting opportunity presented itself. in The assessments were far too heavy in nearly every district under settlement. it is true. The ancient proprietary body remained. and could not have been imposed. depressing in the extreme. but in the position of tenants on their hereditary estates. and the mass of the agricultural body were in the most extreme and hopeless poverty. that great I always regarded some convulsion of society as fully realized the extent extremely probable. carefully kept . their state of increasing destitution had I attracted my notice. smarting under a sense of degradation. or were in very reduced circumstances. and holding intact their ancient feudal power over their old retainers. 21 — and 2 for . who were willing and ready to co-operate with them in any attempt to recover - their lost position. when their holders sold debtors' lands. I saw what that plunder consisted of. had not the attachment of an agricultural people to their hereditary lands been so great that they preferred agreeing to pay any amount of revenue for them rather than desert or be ousted from them. But never I of their poverty and wretchedness until when traversing the country as a fugitive. Again the tendency of our land revenue system was. of chasers.

them The action of our Resumption laws. A late proposal of the Government to admit to the rights of permanent occupancy tenants who could establish the fact of occupancy for certain them.324 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the abolition of Zemindary endeavour and to Talookdaree rights. and their the constant weaken and diminish influence. position. we make some attempt redress the grievances of our rural population. had complain of in their position. it what the people evidently thought lives to steal. and well calculated The bitter antipathy to our to induce them to revolt. our safest and most politic be to acknowledge that Government cannot. to much revenue system which existed in their minds was clearly manifested by their systematic destruction of all the Govern- ment revenue and other records. the left. but also in the subordinate offices in each district. have real peace or a secure hold on the unless country. not only in the sudder. as continuous fixed periods. pro- body who were they were also in a very predisposing depressed and discontented to rebellion. my opinion. but we to shall never. W. In course my humble will opinion. Provinces. and to retrieve the errors of the past. had thoroughly alarmed it appeared to them little less than a confiscation of their rights as proprietors. I am free to confess that both higher and lower classes forming the agricultural body in the N. . worth risking their heads of the As prietary regards the Zemindars. had caused them great dissatisfaction. We may in put down armed rebellion.

But in India this the bond of union was formerly existence strengthened by rules universal that of very ancient rates and records. We from destruction landlord's it is necessary to interfere to limit the entirely inde- demands. society in the tenant by mutual that we had been showed and thus agreement.Reflections on the Rebellion. exercise fulfil the duties of private proprietors. and to make the one pendent of the other. other. and to his advantage by his customers and for Government to interfere between the two. to a certain extent. This has always appeared to me an erroneous course to adopt. body can and does deal with and relaxes or presses as proprietor. During the righted itself. rebellion. W. In the case of Governis ment acting impossible. is. and work through have acted upon the principle. 325 the with credit to functions or itself or justice to its subjects. and that to save the latter them. prescribed well-known in ordinary times. that there is a necessary antagonism between landlord and tenant in India. Provinces the proprietor and necessary for the protection of one against the other. and to restore as far as possible to their natural position of in- fluence and authority the landed gentry. this is individual cases its demands. or supplies aid as circumstances require. is to put in a position of antagonism two parties naturally dependent on each . proprietary A among its tenantry. very deal well and fairly The dealer in land everywhere much in the position of every it is other dealer in any other commodity. practically was interference that Government in wrong considering their natural relative positions —resumed the two classes — the N. and society . in our revenue administration. and eftectual relief in seasons of difficulty.

only the civil courts were swept away. which no man can master. dealt with as a machine. was the complicated and unsatisfactory conwhich caused the This will cases under litigation for the past ten years. is and its no doubt that our civil result of courts were cumbrous. the result being sooner or later a dead-lock. and of the intriguing and corrupt character of our native It officials. to these references The were issued in the form of constructions of law and circular orders. that it has grown up gradually under the advancing exigencies and complications of society to what it is now. from a very small and simple beginning. These have multiplied as years passed on. —There to our judicial system. the a very complicated system of law and procedure. whereas the truth is. and which leads to endless . the district authorities referred structions to the Superior Courts. until all is now an unwieldy mass of complication. Now. uncertainty. replies and Sudder Nizamut and Dewanny Adawlut. the Boards of Revenue. and expensive. and confusion. be seen by a reference to the when it will be found that the majority of disputes arise from causes immeIt appears to be the idea diately connected with the land. dilatory. with effect reference upon the people.326 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. that if all would civil it is seems to be the impression that our and criminal code was imposed on the country just as be well It at present. But these courts were not the immediate cause of the misery of the people. dition of our land revenue arrangements resort to the courts. As cases arose unprovided for under the original for definite inregulations. having the force of law. and the Punjaub Code introduced in supersession of our Regulations.

say every three years. and this the duty of the is Legislative Council." drawn up by the Hon. rules The if were after annexation applied to the Punjaub. having the force of law. would form a good basis for the proposed My suggestion was adopted. that code was. Elliot from the Assam code. Frontier. and it they are compared with the Punjaub code as stands. in the N. it was considered desirable to have some code of laws framed for the administration of that province and the British cis-Sutlej states.thisiln Doab was annexed. I was at this time Under- Secretary to the Government of and India. Sir Henry Elliot. that the "Assam code. as may be seen by a reference to the it . with the Governor- General Lord Hardinge.Rejiectiofis on the Rebellion. Robertson. Lord Hardinge. The error has been ducing all these emendations and additions to the laws into one simple is intelligible code. A copy of these origi- nal rules must be forthcoming in the India Office. will be seen how that code is growing into a extended and complicated system of laws. gested to his lordship. Frontier. when Political Agent for the SouthEastem code. and the rules for the states administration of justice in the cis-Sutlej and Jul- lundhur Doab were drawn up by Sir H. and were put in force under the order of the Governor-General. T. The very same The origin of thing happening in the case of the Punjaub code which 1846. W. and I sug- to the then Chief Secretary. comparatively In the very same manner has our complicated system grown out of circumstances. when the Jullundhur has occurred in that of the older Provinces. C. at present and if a return be called for of the different circular orders issued from time to time in the Punjaub. 327 in not re- appeals and ruinous delays.

In short. . and the substitution of a Commissioner to exercise all fiscal to and judicial control within the district I which he is attached. and I am con- Punjaub code. and of the courts in which these laws are administered . and totally unprejudiced and unbiassed. to their consideration a mind free from who would all bring preconceived notions as to the merits of cases or guilt of parties. that a digest. would be found totally unadapted for the various and complicated wants of an old fident that the society. P.* cessible form. not. which has been under British jurisdiction for is more and than eighty years. that the final disposal of cases should be vested in a separate and distinct authority. and a Civil and Session Judge under the N. but. I have had an opportunity of working both systems.328 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. while well suited for a people but recently come under our rule. As a district officer under the Punjaub Government. of these. What is called for. in a simple and ac- be made by the Legislative form of and that the Council. that the thief- * This has been effected since this oi the Civil was written by the promulgation and Criminal Procedure Code. procedure should be simpliwill be gained by the abolition of No ultimate good fied. most of which were proposed original simple regulations. in my opinion. have been too long a collector it and magistrate not to feel that is highly desirable for the interests of justice. and drafted by Jonathan Duncan. Government. when Governor-General's Agent for the Province of Benares (the original drafts in his handwriting are in the Agent's office there now). a rude and general sweeping away of all existing laws forms of procedure. and by comparing them with our present voluminous system of laws. should the office of Judge. W.

to our system I believe that of police. you make over and above other. will. and a scourge to the people. and the other 1. and he will generally * Since this was written a new and. to double or quadruple his pay as a member of the force. " What do as their real source of emolument. as well as the police. or any amount of salary any Government could afford to give him. It is notorious that our police look to their illicit gains. unscrupulous. No false always the question they put to each shame attaches to such gains. and not to their wages. and its bearing upon our police as a body in the North. who alone are trustworthy. and none ever . remain of the is " and unprincipled. it is to be hoped. and the humblest poHceman in India can never be so entirely divested of all power. or give still but they will oppressive." gets five rupees a month.West Provinces were most corrupt. remain the same corrupt. them any organization we please .* Power and poverty can never go together. We may dress the police as we fancy. as not to be in a position.Reflections on the Rebellio7t. and I do not see how any police we can embody will cease to be so. I now come the people. .? " is as long as the people themselves. 329 or be entrusted with the final disposing of his case. A common police. catcher should not be the thief-trier. " Burkaccording to native estimation. and untmstworthy body.100 rupees a month.' head police The nominal monthly officers of salary Delhi and Benares. undauze. improved system of police has been introduced. or so closely watched by the European executive officers. Kotwals'. by intimidation or abuse of his powers in some way or other. the monthly value of the appointment is in the one case 700. 100 rupees.

I believe that the of the police are inseparable from the position our Government holds as a foreign conquering power in the and the corrupt materials we have to make use of country. regarded by with were he entrusted is no Zemindar. otherwise they trouble about the case.330 Reminisce7ices of a Bengal Civilian. his first course will be to get will certainly a handsome present from one or two of the wealthiest people around. who would fail to exercise them with more regard justice. they are Certain I with them respect and attachment. whose oppressions and exactions form one of the chief grounds of dissatisfaction with our Government. a burglary or a murder profit. a policeman's beat . From the several causes which I have above traced. referring those of a serious nature to the more European Government officers. to the interest of the people. and the cause of than our police. and that is by entrusting the great land- holders with police jurisdiction within their estates. for sensitive Rajpoots will gladly submit to any amount of oppression rather than have the humiliation and disgrace of refuting false charges of having made away evils with their female offspring. instead and powers. this quadruple source of sum. police am. . the * This system has been introduced since this was written. for crime is to these gentry a vakiable occurs in For instance. and the power of deciding petty cases. I see but one way of doing away with as our instruments. are tyrants as no such we have been in the habit of considering them. that there that.* The events of the past two years may teach us the lesson that the landed gentry. of being hated by the people. this fearful evil. the natural heads of society. be brought into Infanticide inquiries afford a rich harvest to the police.

to act as a counterpoise to our native army. 331 minds of the were in a very rural classes in the North-Western Provinces this fact inflammable condition. had been lulled into a state of dangerous security. " under the very erroneous impression that our only other danger was from without." I have already said that our Calcutta false rulers. a powerful result was West Provinces. and the denuded Bengal and the Northan extent unprecedented at any former period. had it not been for the totally unprotected state of the country. to body of European troops. to the originators of the revolt. seeing through the medium surrounding them that they at the Presi- dency. had frontier. It was under this view that the cost of the regular army serving in the Punjaub was made a charge on the general revenues of India. the security of the centre and southern parts was effectually provided for. by their presence in those remote of the empire.Reflections on the Rebellion. army to mutiny. would have proved futile. and those which had formerly been considered as no more than sufficient to garrison our old provinces. on the part of these conspirators. or the people to rebel. and was well known of it. and portions that. of what constitutes our only safeguard. who took advantage " and sent among them the " chupatties as a signal to alert be on the But and prepare them for action. . While our empire has been within the past fifteen years greatly extended. been removed on towards our North-West and into " the Punjaub. our European force has not been proportionately increased. in order to hold that province. by which I mean " the scarcity all the efforts to lead the of European troops on the line of the Ganges. and to overawe our native subjects.

000 men of all arms for Bengal and the N. our chief magazines. It surely.) as it —" that little has been con- temptuously termed to pletely crippled me during the rebellion —were com- by the late war with Russia. able to maintain our position in India. or that they should have been joined by the people of the country already predisposed to rebellion. and that no more European troops than those already in the country could be furnished for India. had that in the been so denuded of troops as year immediately preceding the rebellion. and bringing them to bear on the districts. but were under the impression that the resources of England insignificant island." (chota su Tdpii. all it and them from mutinous was alone by withdrawing considerable numbers of that province. At no since Bengal and the North-West Provinces came under vast tract of country British rule. can be the no matter of country thus surprise. that we have been period. therefore. Both army and people not only saw that there was no sufficient force of British soldiers in the country. among other reasons.^S^ Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. under . But the measure of pushing forward our available British troops into the Punjaub has been a source of weakness. losses in the in This exaggerated idea of our Crimea had taken deep hold of the native mind. Provinces. instead of strength. should have broken out into open mutiny. whereas the province which alone derived advantage from their presence should have borne the cost. and having and most of under their own control all our treasuries. that the native army. of the levy. force available for The total Euro- maintenance of tranquillity pean was in 1857 not above 5. seeing the denuded of European troops. consequence. W.

W. such as the ability of local officers. Patriotic tary. in aid of the Fund. that this view as erroneous as it is dangerous. to any other cause. and associations. W. and in support of our Government. because the impression seems to be gaining ground. in salient positions.) and was believed by them to be collected for the purpose of enabling the Queen to hire foreign sol- diers to fight the Russians. the stock of English soldiers It is having been completely expended in the war. Provinces. and elsewhere. can be alone secured by the presence. and to ascribe it. The stability of our empire in the Punjaub.Reflections on the Rebellion. of diifering nations of India in language. from the speaking. and. out detracting from their great merits. is wilfully to discard the solemn lesson which late events have read to us — . whose wise administration in preceding years had secured the goodwill of the people. to the paucity of European troops in Bengal and the N." (chunda Russ. in imposing strength. withis order. has been. instructions of the 333 Agra Government. country. from a reference to what has occurred in the Punjaub. and enlisted them in the maintenance of I believe. under Prosaved which vidence. of contributions from each collectorate in the N. that the safety of that province to the ability and courage of its is mainly owing selected officers. generally an army. It was the presence of such a force in the Punjaub that province. be drawn Provinces that the early success of the revolt is primarily to It is of vital importance that attention should to this fact. The people termed it Russian cess. customs. or the popularity of our Government. but really These contributions were nominally voluncompulsory^ as all who know natives must the levy the " be aware. be ascribed.

less fortunate But the civilians in the than their brethren in the Punjaub.335 men. until the mass of the turbulent spirits among the Sikhs had been organized into armed bodies. the presence. if it no outbreak would have taken North. and coercing and overawing the country. and arresting all suspicious characters. left Had even a moiety only of the force after reinforcements available in the Punjaub. and let loose on Delhi and our old provinces.334 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and had to struggle with the most hopeless and unexampled difficulties. were totally unsupported. number it is alive to tell the tale. the early part of 1857. is left the miracle being that any one of their Situated as they were. 1857. use of by all there was present in all the Punjaub in March. to Delhi. the wise precaution adopted in that province of isolating each Doab by seizing the ferries and bridges. than 13. had. at no But exacdy similar .West Provinces. a total European force of arms of not resolutely less This force was ably and made the authorities in the province in disarming the sepoy regiments. and the reason that they so remained was because they were overawed by great distance. succeeded there admirably. or. had been sent been dis- posed in proper positions in the North-Western Provinces in place. While Bengal and the North-Western Provinces were denuded in the manner already shown. it would have been crushed on the moment. no wonder that they were unable to carry out the precautionary measures Punjaub. because the police remained staunch to their duty. of European troops. of our that British bayonets are the only real foundation power in India. marched out of the country. which proved so eminently successful in the For instance.

tion caused have seen the greatest consterna- by the wildest and most improbable rumours of the approach of Europeans. and classes of not to be imagined by those I who have not witnessed their panics. and might have terminated disastrously for me. they ment. and prevent the Rohilcund from the Doab. but because they saw their European officers measures to seize the ferries tide of rebelHon passing into totally unsupported. 335 on the Ganges. that unless I pacified them they would murder me. the sepoys of the treasury guard and others crowding into court in a very excited and threatening manner. had crossed the Ganges. "that a report had reached the sepoys that a hundred camels laden with beer chests.Reflections on the Rebellion. and were close to Budaon." I harangued the men show them the absurdity of their not listen. One of the officers of the court whispered to me in great alarm. The dread all of the European natives. and decamp. of these ridiculous panics was nearly costing me my of May. had seize the treasure and endeavoured to . I was one day Towards the middle sitting in open court. would It was an anxious mobut fears. and saved the province from falling into the hands of rebels. Moradabad. in Budaon. failed. 1857. and that this news had so alarmed them. in each of which two Euro- pean soldiers were concealed. One life. of the adopted by Bijnore. because the police turned rebels. and why did they do so. is soldiers entertained by sepoys. when there suddenly occurred a great commotion. for there was not a single European soldier in that large and populous province ? Had there been only 250 maintained the British bayonets at Bareilly they fidelity would have of the police. and magistrates Budaon.

I only mention as showing the dread the natives have of British in soldiers. when this will cease to be the case. It implies. as there is not a European soldier between this and Dinapore^ This may seem but a to trifling incident. an abandonment of the national cause. who a few days later his men in burning and plundering Budaon. quietly observed to me. and Christian settlements scattered about the country would be as towers of strength for many years to come. Those who have. officer not the native commissioned come to my aid.33^ Remmiscettces of a Bengal Civilian. As . of caste. best safe- guard is in the evangelization of the country its although Christianity does not denationalize. according to their views. had opportunities of seeing undisguised native feeling. fear or self-interest. This individual. Our for. and drawn headed off the men. I cannot myself conceive any future period in our government of that country. for they must be loyal so long as the mass of the They could people remain either idolators or Mahomedans. and the young men (juwans) are easily excited. but I have assured them they need not fear. either from We are and ever must be regarded as and conquerors. . in all foreign invaders probability. and honour. and the in India fatal error committed imagining that our power has been of late years maintained by any other sentiment than that of fear. and the more the people become enlightened and civilized the more earnest will. " There is a very bad air (bud howah) about now. religion. like myself. are aware that a stigma attaches among them to remaining faithful to our Government. be their efforts to get rid of us. not desire any other than a Christian dynasty in India. spread would be gradual. although it it was serious enough me at the time.

and hatred. Nations professing such opposing creeds can never amalgamate never associate together manner any permanent any objects whatever. dislike. and we wish If any of your nation ever come back shall kill again to Hindustan." Much said the natives of India heartily co- operating with us in measures for the general civilization and improvement of the people and country. But those who expect such co-operation appear to me to keep out of view the wide and insurmountable barrier which interposes between Christianity and false religion. be this : that our presence in India as a Christian and a civilized power must. them on board quite their ships and send them saying. from the nature of the case.Reflections on the Rebellion. with all he could on the way. and that physical 22 . among nations who for ages have lived in the darkness of heathenism. to pick up Cawnpore. but that he had erred in cruelly killing women and children. tempting to throw off the power of the British. Each is running in its own separate gauge the one broad. Calcutta. and for —never co-operate — — in cordial or they can no more combine together than light can with What we have to bear in mind appears to me to darkness. produce disturbance. The pre" that he had been clearly right in atvailing sentiment was. 337 an illustration of native feeling. is enough of you. with evident feelings of respect. I may state that the night the tidings of the Cawnpore massacre reached us in our asylum Kussowrah." they said. " He " to have marched all the Europeans at ought. we have had we of to see you no more. there put off. the Thakoors eagerly dis" cussed the conduct of the Nana. the Peshwah. the other narrow . you all. in Oude." as they at termed him.

security best and our consulted. . and ready at all times for immediate of all In my opinion 50. ment of But in doing this. to encouragement possible on the part of the secular governall measures for the religious and physical improveIndia. as well as the evangelization of the this. must so far impress itself later serious on the latter. that a nation professing if brought into colHsion with one sunk under idolatry. as well as the security of our power.338 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. the to be safe. positions. by a wise and straightall forward course of policy. in light. calculated.000 European soldiers arms would prove sufficient for the end in view. we desire is Our course is not backward but onward and our safety Our duty will be best performed. we must do even more than and retire altogether. giving not only free course. even did it. as to commotion. produce sooner or that we can neither retard physical nor religious improvement. to produce convul- much compromised by the one as the other. that the safety of our fellow-countrymen in India. most direct efforts to evangelize the country. as regards security. but ment. we gain nothing by If we are failing to uphold and countenance Christianity. pro- army be organized and disposed of on a system which suggests itself to my mind as safe and practicable. for there is something so essentially elevait. as the and moral improvement are equally sion. more light. we must ever bear in mind. if carried out. and. can alone be maintained by the presence of a powerful and numerous soldiers in army of British commanding service. would not only afford vided that the native new . ting in the nature of Christianity. we must be prepared to keep all stationary Our safety is as — physical improvement country. and which. The truth is. In short.

Goorkah. which they Native regiments isolated in stood as well as Europeans. In none — — 22 — 2 . army British an integral portion of the army. but altered. Australia. the scale of fixed at rates abroad. and even The climate of nearly the colonies would be favourable to the natives of India. Mauritius. service Straits Java. their turn of British and take and Colonial duty with the European This proposal is no more portion of her Majesty's forces. than an extension of the system already in operation. the of Malacca. and the voyages be always performed in steam transports. the Isle of France.Reflections on the Rebellion. Persia. if the system were wisely and discreetly introduced. and to China. materially tend to the strengthening of our empire generally. the Sikh. in the Mediterranean in Great Britain. not even in Britain would they be exposed to such vicissitudes of climate as in Affghanistan. There is no reason why. forming come immediately under should no longer remain local. tions. 339 a substantial guarantee for the fidelity of our native army in but India. be available for the general defence of the empire. and a proportion of their wives allowed to accompany them. New Zealand. the native but. fully take their turn of and Hindustani regiments should not cheerduty at the Cape. the West staall Indies. and that the country has the Crown. if pay and allowances being which would prove an inducement for serving frequent furloughs were granted to the men. Regi- ments without composed of hesitation on natives foreign have ere to now proceeded Egypt. &c. It is with much diffidence that I enter upon a subject purely now that it appears to me that the circumstances of India have so materially military.

situated. they would spare our European portion of the force. as they would then be Native regiments. These would never compromise the safety of their brethren on foreign service by mutinying in their absence. and opinion of who know natives and how to ' manage them. well officered and in our colonies. nearly as good and brave troops of 18. with views enlarged and minds more or less enlightened by contact with other countries and nations. The fact men of our native army being thus continually on foreign service would act as a substantial guarantee for the fidelity of their brothers relations forming the and army serving in India. weakening the strongfor the spread of holds of error. could scarcely fail to exercise a salutary influence over the masses of their own countrymen.000 and India would thus become a powerful auxiliary to England.340 Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. and thus paving the Christianity through the length way and breadth of the land.000 or 20. and allow of the garrisons being our colonies could not considerably reduced. This scheme. and the constant round of duty would effectually bar the possibility of combination for united action against the Government. . it is to be hoped. I would earnestly suggest that the feasibility of carrying out this for the consideration proposal be submitted some of our ablest officers. fail to be loyal . removing their prejudices. The return at stated in- tervals of large bodies of its inhabitants from foreign service. would also. while directly calculated to maintain our power in India. prove highly beneficial to that country itself. by taking the greater part of the regular duty. would prove as our British soldiers.

who would send his children I 5. and for persisting in concealed here and in doing such service to Europeans who were other places in Rohilcund. sat down to eat my food." but to promise compliance with his request. and that if I was eating my I had just at that time house to drink water at his. Colonel C. utmost of my power he told me to leave out the words. and would do what he would bid me. which I told him he could forward to his agent. who on meeting me embraced it. tion agreed to give him a hoondee on Calcutta for 5. he told me that if I would place God my between him and me. be it what it might. ing the station who was then command- Almorah dinner at of Bareilly (owing to Brigadier Sibald's absence at on inspection duty). I gave him my word and honour that I would do so. utmost of my power. would cost me send them to England . I left and went at once to Colonel Troup. he had three children at Nynee Tal for whom he was much concerned.000 rupees. I found him in great anxiety and perturbation of mind. I at once without hesitamight consider as lost. sent a horseman to me with a request that he desired me to come immediately. but on hearing such an earnest message. he would I told him that I would do what I could to the then tell me the cause. NARRATIVE OF RAJAH BYJENATH MISR'S SUFFERINGS DURING THE REBELLION. I DESIRE to place on record a narrative of the sufferings and inlot to suffer during the rebellion of 1857. He then told me that should he be killed or die. "to the . dignities which it fell to for refusing to submit to. he said. him what made him look so sad . and desired me to their passage money. as they most needed during that dreadful calamity. Troup. On the 14th of May. I asked me. or tender allegiance to the rebel govern- my my ment . which .000 rupees.APPENDIX.

— own I affairs. and at Delhi on the nth. and any members of my family survive. I at proceed to once promised pay their debts. a great deal. After making the colonel's mind easy about that I carried my him that in the name of God I had two or which I also expected compliance. troops pointed out to him that at Meerut there were some European who could drive the rebels into Delhi. but subordinate officials who had small incomes. Williams. ist. to — . Colonel Troup immediately intimated to all my readiness to serve them. and that many more would be sacrificed. Commissioner of Meerut.. Judge of Jounpore. irrespective of their rank or previous acquaintance with me. Esq. colonel told me that should he live he would first see my children provided for. and then his own. I became much alarmed. in the event of his England being killed. and had to their servants' in arrears. therefore it was necessary by way of policy to appear kind to the native troops. colonel then took out a letter from his box. I would leave word with them that I have left behind me three fathers to provide for them viz. and who might be wages indebted to the bazaar people. Esq. The rich might meet with no opposition to take their families to Nynee Tal. but that there was a difficulty in sending all the ladies and children to Nynee Tal. and that if they were in danger I should not escape the calamity. Colonel C. and children. and attachment to them. and that the mutiny would spread all over India. giving an account of the mutiny of the sepoys at Meerut on the loth The ladies of May. were supplied by me who applied to me for money to go to Nynee Tal. The colonel told me that he would attend to the first part of my request the next day . and thus keep them from breaking out . with the amount they asked for. Thus we made our minds easy about our his children. and told the colonel that all natives knew also on extensive banking business with Europeans. That should I and my sons be killed. but that in Bareilly there was not one European soldier . On hearing such sad news. Troup. and to point them out their duty to their sovereign.. and as I concerned for his made me ask Colonel Troup. This conversation surprised me die. and from that day all Christians. were killed. in the meantime to send away immediately all ladies and children to Nynee Tal.342 to Appendix. and read it to me. why he was so much children. and so were able . I then told three requests to make. and to defray their travelling expenses to Nynee Tal. and why he thought he would be killed or was up to this time quite ignorant of what had happened. in which many European gentlemen. would find it difficult to the Hills with their families from want of funds.. and The Astell. and thus save the station and prevent further loss of life . F.

don't send my much concerned on The is asking why I hearing this news I am Commissioner of Bareilly has On I not as yet informed me of the departure of the ladies and children. Gunga Purshad. one for Mrs. three palanquins at once to — to do at such a time?" My son's Budaon with bearers. at that time. Gunga Purshad. Eld wards and her infant daughter. W. and take my advice. then collector of Budaon.Rajah Dyjenath Misr's Narrative. I got up at once to which others of their attend to the message. and the third for myself. Bareilly for who writes that all the ladies and children left about thirteen or fourteen days ago." I was much alarmed at receipt of such intelligence. 500 rupees belonging to me there. and a H in dee one from my son. Edwards has become much contained the following: alarmed on receiving the Commissioner's letter. therefore. has just told that by your advice all the gentlemen and ladies of Bareilly. My agent at Nynee Tal had. "Your son. Edwards informing him that I had laid three daks from Budaon to Bareilly. and that if he did not Edwards and her child and himself would surely perish at Budaon. and not to act on the Commissioner's trust me. Edwards. from Budaon and from Bareilly Nynee Tal. and strongly urged him to send off Mrs. as disturbances have already comin the district. and saw that this was a matter of much risk and dil^culty. and the villagers might attack and kill them on way. Edwards. and begged of him to gallop off as fast to Bareilly. to save Mrs. Mrs. with their children. which was brought by a horseman. I gave the horseman ten rupees. to and laid relays of men and sent off a note to Mr. I received an English letter from Mr. their account. have been sent to Nynee Tal. He recommends me Nynee Tal. do what you can for him at this crisis. then Tuhsildar of Budaon. to leave Bareilly in time. Edwards and her daughter immediately on receipt of my note. . write therefore to ask your advice as to what I am to do. You are my father. what would you advise me "Mr. Edwards wrote to me. About the 26th or 27th of May. Edwards. 343 and thus saved their lives from the cruel deaths countrymen suffered in Bareilly a few days later. I wrote to him that should any Christians apply to him in my name for money to give them at once what they required. me Mr. and from Bareilly to Nynee Tal . 1 5. and supplied numbers. not to send my menced their letter wife and daughter to Nynee Tal. but I was still resolved to use all my efforts I sent off. and he wife and child there also. and my agent carried out my instructions fully. one for her daughter and nurse. and your friendship to Mr. just before the morning gun fired. letter. and for the sake of your fatherly love to me." In the post- script he wrote: — "I have just received a letter from the Commissioner.

by the blessing of God. On there. I at once went to him. had remained sioner. but he said there was no time. to which place I would see her and her safety. killed some Christian women and children. Mr. and from there two post as magistrate. I met Mrs. Edwards then desired me to return home . exercising the utmost cruelty imaginable. the 31st of May. 1857. but my guard would see her safe to the foot of the hills. Some Europeans. waiting for me . bearing interest. as Mr. so I told the sowar to make no delay. In the evening meet them. he said he had not. arrived safe at Nynee Tal. fortunately. and when I had arrived two stages on the Budaon road with my 50 armed men. and would accompany her myself with this escort to Nynee Tal. I told him to do so. as he could. the Commissioner. Edwards and daughter. I made my faithful promise to the Com- missioner that should he or I be killed. Alexander. gave all his earnings. which he did mutinying. tained : by one Peer Ally Jemadar. and told me that it conand desired me to save it by some means or other. in a disturbed state at the moment. the sepoys at Bareilly broke out in open mutiny. No sooner had I returned to Bareilly than I found Mr. as I had written to Mr. Alexander the Commissioner's chuprassy. and then returned to Bareilly and Mrs. in spite of warnings.344 Appendix. lace was the only article I feared might be lost. I asked him to open the box and to show me the valuables it a valuable pearl necklace. Edwards in the note that I would meet Mrs. They were alone. with 50 armed men (good marksmen). and their lives were saved. this I told her I would do. but not the Government I asked the Commissioner if he had taken down the numbers notes. and set fire to all the houses in the cantonment and station. and all Europeans they could In find. which was given to his wife by contained her father on her wedding day . which they did. I urged him to make his mind easy and leave all in the hands of Providence . the city. of the Government notes. daughter in I set off to . . he told me that the Commissioner wanted me immediately. Mrs. as the native troops were on the point of I told him to send the box to my palanquin. the town rabble set up the standard of rebellion. me a box. stages on the Nynee Tal road. Edwards and her daughter in their palanquins. Edwards on the Budaon road in the evening. I wnuld pay him 200 rupees for the animal. and that should his horse die under him. I then took leave of the Commis- and brought the box home with me. the box would be sent to some one of his family in England. which was not. killed some of their officers. also Government promissory notes to a I told the Commissioner that the necklarge amount. Edwards remained at his I escorted them into Bareilly. who.

On the third day Bukht Khan renewed his demand. The same a pensioner of the British Government. who were ordered to keep watch with drawn swords all round house day and night. and attended to all their requirements. yet I could I had served so of Five days after the mutiny. I prayed inwardly to the Almighty to protect me and mine from the cruelties and insults threatened by the rebels . for although I knew well that these tyrants had killed helpless innocent children. that my two daughters and my three daughters-in-law were to be seized and brought before me stark naked. and that if my efforts to aid the British out. my their lives. One of his first acts was to surround my house with a guard of thirty Khan Buhadur Khan. hour the British forces re-occupied Bareilly. Nynee Tal in safety. Khan Buhadur Khan and other rebels note ordered me to be seized and made over to Bukht Khan (formerly soubadar of the Artillery stationed at Bareilly). and detained to me prisoner for four days. they would not spare me and desert my a moment the British cause. and proclaimed himself Nawab of Bareilly. under a burning sun. disgrace on the other. and not allow me to rest for a moment. for the sentence was not enforced. and before execution of the sentence. which was contrary to human nature. after that to bring them back to the scene of my intended execution. These guards were kept over my house for twelve months. but at night I bore up better under this cruel punishment.Raiah Byjenath Misr's Narrative. then in that state to march them through the rebel camp. and I to witness their order that and nakedness. and by the merciful interposition of Divine Providence my life was spared. The next . hearing such a sentence. to the . and my daughters On all from disgraceful exposure. He then ordered me to give up him the English. to custom and religion. on my refusal. when they fled for This strict surveillance was owing to the rebel government being under the impression that I was in correspondence with the This. up sepoys. and my sufferings were very Thus great. whom God preserved. with death on one side. I felt it to be a sad trial. and. for three days and nights I did not know what rest was. which children. usurped the supreme authority. then my He ordered his sepoys to make me walk up and down day and night. escaped to 345 day. nor allow any of us to go out of the house. was English. This notorious rebel took me to his camp. In the daytime. commander of the rebel forces. true women and were found not long. This guard were so strict and insulting that they would not respect any person. indeed. lacs of rupees which I had in bank belonging to the I told him I had nothing belonging to them. passed an I should be blown from a gun .

could swear to what I ** Ganges water. " What have you to say ? " I told him. ' ' ments to tell the colonel to give it to Mrs. rebel leaders present. I trusted. " The the lives of my family. it grieved me very much to think answer for to God and taking a false oath under the circumstances of pressure in which I was placed might. story about Mr. asked me if I . the Commissioner's coniidential jemadar. what I had stctod was faithfully true. was prepared to do so they immediately brought some . afterwards seized us. do what you like with us. and released me and my sons. day Bukht Khan marched with his force towards Delhi. Sobharam. he then asked me where I would go next. who had ioined the rebels. desired me to take that box to Colonel Troup. of me Mr. and the box was saved and made over. .000 rupees from me. or will you listen to what I have to say ? Nawab said. after the occupation of Bareilly.000 rupees let us go. and which I placed there with my own hands . care. as I was helpless. Colonel Clarkson. " I said to Khan Buhadur Khan. I thought. They then sent for Peer Ally. to Mr. Khan Buhadur Khan and the other rebel leaders ordered me They then demanded again to be seized and brought before them. AlexI gave that box to Colonel Troup. be I was sworn in the usual form. and after forcibly taking from us 3. Alexander's box. On to seeing this. " I went to pay my respects to the Commissioner. and let me go. and which contained all his earnings. Alexander. but word and honour to Mr. Four days after this. by his order. This is all I know about the box now my life and sioner's message. at Futehgunge Scarcely had I returned to Bareilly from his camp. and was then employed by Khan Buhadur Khan on fifty rupees a month. " the lives of my sons are at your disposal. who would take it with her to Nynee Tal. and after taking money from us then. as we were retiring. He repeated these acts several times. my in taking a false oath . "That black box which the Commissioner gave me to put in your palky. and would give it to Mrs. and was made to say that pardoned. when Khan Buhadur Khan and other rebels of note ordered me and my sons to be seized. which I have before said he left to my " Which box ? " I replied. I had already pledged Alexander to save his box at any risk. with the Commisander there. and only released us on paying 400 rupees. and with his compli. rebel. and when taking leave he I said to Colonel Troup's .34^ Appendix. and encamped here he took 28. Peer Ally came and said. Sobharam and Syfoolah Khan. on his own account. what I should have replied I " I had stated according to the oaths of my religion. Alexander's box. I then prayed to God to forgive Khan Buhadur Khan believed this plausible me. you are to give that box up to the Will you take my life and Nawab.

. made. but found no Europeans. My son. Gunga Purshad. and his father's suf- ferings in prison. we used to hear of the success of the British in it. they insisted that European ladies were hid amongst I them. . who gave out they were Moguls. large chests. from this small six only. and my banking books. 1858. the his grandson. These poor sufferers." In prison . and from that day shared half his food with them privately. a Darogah with about 200 sepoys forced an entrance into my house. after repeated threats and insults. hearing this. under compulsion. "blessed be the day on which Europeans may again take this complexion. prayer was. who ordered us to be imprisoned. Gunga Purshad would give these brother On the 12th of January. took pity on them. one of them. and give them out of this the Burkundazes would take two pice every day. in search of Europeans. seized me and my son. we were thrown into prison here also we were worried and Our daily bullied by the meanest ruffians under whose charge we were. I Europeans and Christians were entered in these bank-books would have stood a poor chance of my life. and took us to Khan Buhadur Khan. it was in vain to plead before these tyrants that it was against the custom of women to appear uncovered before strangers. 1857. I and my family were on nine occasions thus seized and mulcted of large sums. but punished persons for In this prison with us there were two gentlemen. These men. and sometimes four pice . the English. from want of food sufficient to satisfy hunger. They were the son and grandson of General Martindell. hearing us talk well of many places the rebels would not believe circulating such reports. province. When got our food cooked in jail. let 347 us go. and even pittarahs. after insulting me and my family in this manner. Gunga Purshad. captives as much as he could spare. * I owe to my good luck that no items of the sums which I had sent to the if they had been. said that between them both they received eight pice a day for sub- He sistence . and daughters for European ladies on These cruel and hard-hearted persons. At last. allowance they could not procure sufficient food to satisfy the cravings of hunger. and that it was a gross insult to us . insolently demanded to see my female relatives . . their faces asked my daughters and daughters- in-law to show and hair warned these men not account of their fair to mistake my to these shameless persons. On the 8th of December.Rajah Byjenath Misr's Narrative.* Thus. and after considering well who we were. and said they were ordered to do so by Khan Buhadur Khan they closely examined my three houses. related to my son Gunga Purshad. we . and in every way attended to their wants as far as lay in his power. not content with the search they had .

My son Gunga Purshad at once sent for 30 rupees from his wife. I now felt greatly puzzled how to send on the letter from her husband to Mrs. Edwards was very uneasy in not hearing from Mrs. or sending letters out. I gradually grew bolder. and that she would not be put to any inconvenience from want of it whilst I was alive. My letter informed me that Mr. my appearance would be disfigured by cutting oif my nose . even if promised to be well paid for it. 1 at once sent 400 rupees with my two servants. and gave me the stump of a quill . and . . to help his creatures to provide for the neces- and that what money he might require to keep him comfortable in his misfortunes I was prepared to send him. statement was I made to now began to consider that even Khan Buhadur Khan. and that I had ordered my agent there to supply her with funds whenever she might apply to him for money. cut off his nose and ears and carry him through the city. and had little hopes of surviving the calamity. About fifteen or twenty days after the mutiny. and to trust to God. with a verbal message to Mr. blacken his face. and perhaps to get rid of me they would blow me from a gun . and that they were in great distress from want of everything. who alone could save his life. which he gave these two persons to support themselves with. as the punishment for such acts was severe. The punishment was. I split it and found two letters in it one addressed to myself and the other to Mrs. and asked to be introduced to me. Edwards : . they were both subsequently murdered. Khan Buhadur Khan demanded from me 3. I also sent him news that his wife and daughter were quite well at Nynee Tal. Edwards and myself. that God made money life. and in the evening when he found out who my servants were. with Mr. they would make the poor man sit on a saries of donkey with his face towards the tail. and then left them under the protection of the Almighty . Edwards. these thoughts preyed sorely upon me however . or if I was if a false found out having English letters about me. Ed\vards. and if allowed to live. had taken refuge in a village called Dhurrumpore. five coss from Futtehghur. Edwards. Probyn. belonging to Hurdeo Buksh. so persons would not : — ' ' undertake such tasks. a person crying before him Thus shall be done to all persons who will be found taking letters to the English or with any English letters about them. made a sign to one. and no mercy would be shown to me. Edwards.348 Appendix." Sometimes persons found with English letters were blown from guns. My servant brought him he told me that he was sent by Mr. and Mrs. and persons dreaded to undertake such a service. a person came to my house disguised as a Fakeer. I would be punished as above stated. and that Mr. 200 rupees on giving this sum I and my son were released.

Lieutenant-Governor North-west Provinces. 349 determined to serve the English the best way even to the very instructions in his then called an old servant of mine. When I heard they were much in want of clothing. this I do not know Khan Buhadur Khan. he would not believe me. and had to say for myself I kept silence and made no answer. inviting them to come to Bareilly. and nothing could save us. Colvin. who had son at Nynee Tal. I used to send bread. used to send men disguised as I sent to every one whether known to me or Fakeers to me for money. this was to encourage traders to bring their I goods into town for sale. therefore I might just as well confess de-camp . I can describe them. the threat I feared that me and my The aide-de-camp pressed thought that as we were to be put to death. therefore I thought best to keep silence that he would repeat word for word what I should say. so that if he would be searched naked. so my servants passed themselves off for traders. I could.Rajah Byjenath Misrs utmost. but shudder when I think of One day Khan Buhadur Khan sent his aide-de-camp to me with dreadful threat. I Nai'vative. and to conceal the letter mouth if caught. to me. biscuits and sweetmeats to gentlemen and ladies every fourth day whose place of concealment in Rohilcund was known not. as was accompanied by an oath. and what they had on was dirty and worn out. Edwards. and attending to their requirements contrary to his orders. why should I fear to answer ? I then told the aide-de-camp that he would never tell the Nawab my answer as I would me for a reply. . Leaving this aside. he. then I give it to him. family would not escape from the tyrant. he would not be found out. After this all persons (Europeans). who placed me my sufferings now were very great. late by the to his I also in this manner conveyed two letters sent to me Hon. to the rebel . concealed themselves in Rohilcund. and thus discharged their commission. that as I persisted in my obstinacy in writing to the English. continued to do this for twelve months. Plundering merchants was made a capital crime in those days . and gave him the letter with how to act if he was apprehended. he swore to me I told the aide- to tell Khan Buhadur Khan that were I to deny corresponding with the English. and supplying them with the necessaries of life. Khan Buhadur Khan. and without distinction of rank and colour. swore by his God what that he I would have me and ? my son blown away from guns. how this was reported under severe restrictions hardly express myself or them. and her reply the same servant brought and carried it to Mr. By the blessing of God the letter was safely delivered to Mrs. Mr. Edwards. I sent them yards of cloth and shoes.

as it were. and not to take service under the rebeh and that I would pay them one-third of their wages monthly to suppoi themselves until order was restored and their masters would return Whoever followed my advice received from me one-third of their pa — came to me for one year. viz. we might have served our Sovereign bettei however. by confidence are with the English are stron . and to furnish them with what th< had come for.350 Appendix. expecting to perish every momen These thoughts preyed upon my mind during my imprisonment. mohurrirs. On being released from prison I embraced for their kind attention to the wants of the English during iny They had no money they carefully attends sold their jewel the: stri imprisonment. bearers. and our hanc and feet were at liberty. we were bound han furnished with arms and foot. and mac threatened us continually. khidmutgars. my writing was of little avail. and in a cage. he could deal with us as he thought bes say whether the aide-de-camp explained all this to Khj Buhadur Khan. and when they and remitted the cash. and when they did come I cou not possibly be able to prevent them. secondly. how would he be able to govern the count he has taken possession of? My life and the lives of my sons we every — cannot I in his hands . but the same day I sent word to my sons' wives th moment I was suffering much in prison. vakeels and baboos. never to stop doing so even if I and my sons were put death. and from the dangers whic This confirmed my trust in Him. ayahs whoevf at this time I advised to remain concealed in villages. and on the re-occupation of Bareilly they obtained thei . viz. Only one thing grieved me much. by beir khansamahs. but I wj comforted by thinking that from prison I was serving the Christiar All Government servants. and private servants of English genth men. God Almighty through his favour preserved me and my fami from perishing by the hands of the rebels. and if Khan Buhadur Khj cannot understand this. howevf they had not come as yet. dhobies. to my request.. Seeing. for until it w the pleasure of the Almighty. my heart strong and more willing and prepared to give my life for tl cause of the English. said in their hearts I to myself. moonsheei to the extent of my power. and the English had made proper arrang ments. that if I an my son had not fallen into the clutches of the rebels. that those : — who First. to have written to the English to come to Bareilly. in the troops to defend themselves . and that now I was quite helplesi but should any gentlemen or ladies send any persons for money. ' and to serve the English as I did. wher they thought themselves safe.. they could not possibly come . as for us. to sho them the same kindness as I did.

Commissioner of Rohilcund. He found his master very sad. the troops mutinied at Bareilly and prisoners broke out of jail : those who belonged to Budaon went straight there. and my son had no horse. In those days my son. and getting across. and if they escaped. Commissioner of Meerut. the Collector. Mr. as no one would obey him. good and well . W. Then my son told Mr. When the mutiny had broken out in other districts. and as he (Mr. and begged him to go away and hide himself wherever he could while there was yet time. travellers were obliged to take refuge in the station ot Budaon to save themselves. and after much danger to himself returned with the money. and nobody went near him except my son. the Tuhsildar. and that they were only two miles from Budaon. Edwards. and the bad of June. Troup. when all authority characters broke out in open to attend Mr. «• Esq. towards the evening he saw that his remaining was no longer of any use.. Gunga Purshad. taking place .Rajah Byjenath Misr's Narrative. F. he could not accompany him . is 35 and those who did not follow my advice were well-known to Captain Gowan. what could he do to avert the calamity ? He urged Mr. Esq. and was besides not a good rider. My son said he could run alongside his master's . Edwards to save his life by making for the Ganges. Williams.. Mr. and R. W. Edwards. On the 31st of May. the villagers in district the Budaon commenced to plunder and kill people . and was of much service to him in every way. saying he would accompany him . Edwards remained at his post all that dreadful day . Esq. but they one and all refused obedience tOj^ their superior officer. Edwards) was quite alone. and arrived on the morning of the all 1st ceased to exist in Budaon. respective appointments. He then sent off my son to bring 100 rupees for his expenses. if not. Edwards. they would lose their lives together. was con- stantly in attendance on Mr. Edwards told my son that he rebellion. who was Tuhsildar there. The fact of this ruined. My son went to the city. Sudder Judge of Agra. if he could make his escape. Edwards on that morning sent for his native officers once at such a crisis. General C. Gunga Purshad. him at just received news that the rebel troops were coming in from Bareilly to plunder the treasure. Edwards told my son that as he was well mounted.. and kill him if they could seize him. kept his authority in force in the city up to the very hour the Bareilly released prisoners and mutinous troops from that place entered Budaon to plunder the treasure and to kill the Europeans. but Mr. There was every chance of an outbreak and abandon the roads. Mr. Alexander. by his resolute and judicious management. Edwards had that in his opinion it was not advisable for him to remain there a single moment longer as the guard of the treasury was just beginning to plunder the chests.

sons. but Mr.] THE END. I could not have maintained. Mr. and the released prisoners and at last ordered and rabble and sepoys were rushing up to Mr. E. Appendix. London : Printed by Smit«. shown determined strictly correct. Edwards just as the jail was broken open. /V . Old Bailey. Edwards' house. his life . I have now finished my narrative. the nephew of Khan Buhadur Khan. could not render more important services to the British Government and our gracious Queen. Elder & Co. My son managed to get back into the city by bye-ways and iields. and he prayed that God might protect them both. when the British troops arrived. My son. the 7th May.. tranquillity in —W. Edwards at the moment mounted his horse and rode off. that I and my were confined by the rebels in a cage. at that time of danger and distress. E. The above statements are Budaon. and seizing a noted rebel.352 horse. was able to do good service by going out with a few swordsmen. and rendered at this time by Gunga Purshad. being as it for the crimes committed during and all I regret is. and remained with me throughout the rebellion until by the mercy of God that blessed day came. 15. and after hiding a few days joined me at Bareilly. as he would certainly lose him to leave him and hide somewhere. ai^c^ released us from our long imprisonment.C. and tsscaped. or three days later. two . Edwards would not hear of this. resolution so long as I did. who was subsequently hanged his uncle's rule in Bareilly. drove out the rebels. and courage. [I brought to the notice of the Government the valuable services Had he not aided me. My son then left Mr. 1858.






Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful