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1. For the HCP crystal structure, show that the ideal c/a ratio is 1.633. We are asked to show that the ideal c/a ratio for HCP is 1.633. A sketch of one third of an HCP unit cell is shown below.

a

c M

L J a K

Consider the tetrahedron labeled as JKLM, which is reconstructed as

M

J

L H

K

The atom at point M is midway between the top and bottom faces of the unit cell __ that is MH = c/2. And, since atoms at points J, K, and M, all touch one another, __ __ JM = JK = 2R = a where R is the atomic radius. Furthermore, from triangle JHM,

1

633 2 . which is an equilateral triangle.__ __ __ (JM )2 = (JH )2 + (MH )2. we can determine the JH length by consideration of triangle JKL. solving for c/a c a = 8 3 = 1. and __ a JH = 3 __ Substituting this value for JH in the above expression yields 2 c2 ⎛ a ⎞ 2 ⎛c⎞ 2 a a2 = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜2⎟ = 3 + 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ and. L J a/2 30 H K a/2 3 cos 30° = JH = 2 . or __ ⎛c⎞ 2 a2 = (JH )2 + ⎜2⎟ ⎝ ⎠ __ Now.

Again.2. to the unit cell volume. VS. The base area can be calculated as follows. The base area is equal to six times the area of the equilateral triangle. OAB = 0. the APF is the ratio of the total sphere volume. OAB. This problem calls for a demonstration that the APF for HCP is 0.74. c. A a c F a 60° B a C O a P 60° E D A B O The area of equilateral triangle.74. For HCP. Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0. the unit cell volume is the product of the base area times the cell height.5 × AB × OP = ½ × AB × AO Sin60° 3 2 = ½ × a × a Sin60° = a 4 3 . and thus ⎛4πR3⎞ VS = 6⎜ 3 ⎟ = 8πR3 ⎝ ⎠ Now. The following figure shows an HCP unit cell and the basal plane. VC. there are the equivalent of six spheres per unit cell.

615 × 2 × 6 3 × R3 = 1.878R 3 3. This problem asks that we calculate the unit cell volume. VC. as can be seen from the figure of the basal plane. the base area = 6R2 3 Now.615a. Thus.26R The unit cell volume can now be calculated as: VC = c × base area = 3. VC = c × base area. APF = VS 8πR 3 = = 0.63a = 3.63 a Thus. Therefore.615 × 2 × 6 3 × (1. c.63 x 10-2 nm3 4 . Compute the volume of the unit cell for Re.615.63 x 10-23 cm3 = 8. the relation between the unit cell height. Rhenium has an HCP crystal structure. 4 2 Further. VC = c × 6R2 3 In this problem. given above. a = 2R.137 nm.878R 3 Thus.37 x 10-8 cm)3 = 8. an atomic radius of 0. the area of the basal plane = 6 × 3 2 3 3 2 a = a.26R × 10. and the base area has been calculated in Problem 2 above as 6R2 3 . a. c = 1. Now.392R 2 = 33. Therefore VC = 1. and a = 2R. is given as: c = 1.74 VC 33. and a c/a ratio of 1. for Re which has an HCP crystal structure. c = 1. and the basal plane edge length.Thus. using the result of Problem 1.

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