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Study of Governing Equations applicable in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer; introduction, features and application of commercial and open source tools for CFD/FEM Analysis

AIM

To study of governing equations applicable in fluid flow and heat transfer; introduction, features and applications of commercial and open source tools for CFD/FEM analysis.

GOVERNING EQUATIONS USED

**The equation of continuity for an incompressible fluid
**

∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z

Navier–Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates

Reynolds Equation

Umax = (3/2) Uavg

Free Stream Velocity

Laminar Boundary Layer Thickness

Heat Equation

Fin Equation

h = m2kt/2 INTRODUCTION, FEATURES AND APPLICATION OF COMMERCIAL AND OPEN SOURCE TOOLS FOR CFD/FEM ANALYSIS GAMBIT

The GAMBIT software package is designed to help analysts and designers build and mesh models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other scientific applications. GAMBIT receives user input primarily by means of its graphical user interface (GUI). The GAMBIT GUI makes the basic steps of building and meshing a model simple and intuitive, yet it is versatile enough to accommodate a wide range of modelling applications. The following sections of this chapter outline the contents of the GAMBIT documentation suite and describe the format and font conventions that are used throughout the GAMBIT documentation. Format Conventions The GAMBIT documentation suite employs two standard format types. • Graphic format • Layout format

The graphic format defines the types of symbols that are used to represent control elements and command buttons on the GAMBIT graphical user interface (GUI). The layout format defines the structure of the documentation with respect to the description of GAMBIT specification forms. Graphic Format The GAMBIT GUI employs two types of components for user interaction. • Control elements • Toolpad command buttons Control elements allow you to perform operations such as executing actions and operations, choosing from among a given set of options, and inputting alphanumeric data. Toolpad command buttons allow you to perform operations such as opening specification forms and controlling GUI display characteristics for example, the overall layout of the graphics window or the orientation of the model. The following sections describe the appearance and use of the components listed above as well as the graphic format that is used throughout the GAMBIT documentation to represent each type of component. Boundary Conditions • • Any solution of a set of PDE’s requires a set of boundary conditions for closure From a physical perspective you need to specify boundary conditions such an an inlet flow. However boundary conditions are required at all boundaries that surround the flow domain For example a wall boundary condition specifies by zero velocity at the wall by default. If you are solving mass or heat transfer then you need to specify the boundary conditions for these variables either as a flux or boundary concentration Fluent by default assumes a wall boundary condition unless you specify otherwise

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Boundary Condition Types • • • Flow inlet and outlet boundaries Wall and repeating boundaries Internal cell zones

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Internal face boundaries Define -> Boundary Conditions – Set boundary conditions – Change the type of boundary condition

Flow inlet and outlet boundaries • These specify boundaries conditions across which there is a flow 1. Velocity inlet 2. Mass flow inlet 3. Pressure inlet 4. Pressure outlet 5. Outflow 6. Pressure far-field 7. Inlet vent, outlet vent, Intake fan, exhaust fan

Other Boundary Conditions; • • Other Boundary conditions are axis, interrior and interface boundary conditions You can also specify the fluid type and whether the domain is fluid or solid via the bc panel

Features of Gambit: • Interactive, cross-platform graphical interface. All Gambit features are available through the use of a graphical interface, which runs under multiple operating systems: Windows, various flavors of Un*x (including Linux), and Mac OS X. The interface offers flexible methods for creating extensive and strategic games. It offers an interface for running algorithms to compute Nash equilibria, and for visualizing the resulting profiles on the game tree or table, as well as an interactive tool for analyzing the dominance structure of actions or strategies in the game. The interface is useful for the advanced researcher, but is intended to be accessible for students taking a first course in game theory as well. Command-line tools for computing equilibria. More advanced applications often require extensive computing time and/or the ability to script computations. All algorithms in Gambit are packaged as individual, command-line programs, whose operation and output are configurable.

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Extensibility and interoperability. The Gambit tools read and write file formats which are textual and documented, making them portable across systems and able to interact with external tools. It is therefore straightforward to extend the capabilities of Gambit by, for example, implementing a new method for computing equilibrium, re implementing an existing one more efficiently, or creating tools to programmatically create, manipulate, and transform games, or for econometric analysis on games.

Limitations of Gambit Gambit is for finite games only. Because of the mathematical structure of finite games, it is possible to write many general- purpose routines for analyzing these games. Thus, Gambit can be used in a wide variety of applications of game theory. However, games that are not finite, that is, games in which players may choose from a continuum of actions, or in which players may have a continuum of types, do not admit the same general-purpose methods. Gambit is for non -cooperative game theory only. Gambit focuses on the branch of game theory in which the rules of the game are written down explicitly, and in which players choose their actions independently. Gambit's analytical tools center primarily around Nash equilibrium, and related concepts of bounded rationality such as quantal response equilibrium. Gambit does not at this time provide any representations of, or methods for, analyzing games written in cooperative form. (It should be noted that some problems in cooperative game theory do not suffer from the computational complexity that the Nash equilibrium problem does, and thus cooperative concepts could be an interesting future direction of development.) Analyzing large games may become infeasible surprisingly quickly. While the specific formal complexity classes of computing Nash equilibrium and related concepts are still an area of active research, it is clear that, in the typical case, the amount of time required to compute equilibrium increases rapidly in the size of the game. In other words, it is quite easy to write down games which will take Gambit an unacceptably long amount time to compute the equilibrium of. There are two ways to deal with this problem in practice. One way is to better identify good heuristic approaches for guiding the equilibrium computation process. Another way is to take advantage of known features of the game to guide the process. Both of these approaches are now becoming areas of active interest. While it will certainly not be possible to analyze every game that one would like to, it is hoped that Gambit will both contribute to these two areas of research, as well as make the resulting methods available to both students and practitioners.

FLUENT

FLUENT is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software produced by Fluent Inc., which has been a subsidiary of ANSYS, Inc.,. Since FLUENT has been very popular in industry and academia, there is a good chance that you will encounter and use it. FLUENT’s numerical solver is based on the finite volume method (FVM) and handles structured and unstructured

grids, different numerical flux functions, grid adaptation, parallel execution, several turbulence models, multiphase models, etc. ANSYS also markets other CFD products. Many features of FLUENT are addressed and trained: • Select a turbulence model. • Define fluid properties. • Define boundary conditions. • Solve the problem with different numerical methods. • Use grid adaptation. • Analyze the solution using different post processing techniques. Convergence • • • • • • • Convergence is not the same as accuracy. The solution is accurate if it matches experimental data (which you obviously need to make the judgement) Thus there are qualitative and quantitative aspects to convergence. Fluent keeps track of the residuals throughout the iteration. The default value of these is 1.0e-3.(except for enthalpy - 1.0e-6 and species transport 1.0e-5) You should plot these. Solve-> Monitors -> Residuals -> Plot The residual plots show when the residuals have reached a specified tolerance They can show which equations are having convergence problems, though this is sometimes difficult and there are other ways finding this out - see multigrid verbose The residuals measure the imbalance on conservation equations

Application of Fluent Fluent software contains the broad physical modeling capabilities needed to model flow, turbulence, heat transfer, and reactions for industrial applications ranging from air flow over an aircraft wing to combustion in a furnace, from bubble columns to oil platforms, from blood flow to semiconductor manufacturing, and from clean room design to wastewater treatment plants. Special models that give the software the ability to model in-cylinder combustion, aeroacoustics, turbomachinery, and multiphase systems have served to broaden its reach.

OPEN FOAM

Open FOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) release of version 2.1.0 of the Open FOAM is a open-source toolbox for solving anything from complex fluid flows involving

chemical reactions, turbulence and heat transfer, to solid dynamics and electromagnetic. The structure of Open FOAM is an environment, where it is relative easy to formulate systems of partial differential equations and solve them for a discritized field of operation is

Solver Capabilities • • • • • • • Compressible and Incompressible flows Multiphase flows, such as bubble flow, cavitations, VOF, Euler and mixing. Combustion and Chemical Reaction flows Buoyancy-driven flows, with consideration of buoyant force for both compressible and incompressible flows Conjugate heat transfer, including radiation Particle methods (DEM, DSMC, MD) Other (Solid dynamics, electromagnetics)

System The system folder contains three files for setting various system specific properties. ControlDict Contains the most basic setup for the case such as, start time, end time, write interval and iteration step. The values in this file can be updated while solving. Constant The folder has two files where the physical properties of the fluid/species and the turbulence model are set. Transport Properties In this file the physical properties for the fluid are set. For a steady-state incompressible solver only the kinematic viscosity of the fluid is needed as input.

PolyMesh

This sub-folder has the geometry and boundary condition patches for the mesh. Using a mesh conversion tool will automatically create these _les. A list of these tools can be found in (OpenFOAM 2007, U-86).These folders contain the calculated properties, such as velocity, temperature etc. The 0 folder are used to set the initial boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are set in separate _les, so the velocity boundary conditions are set in a file U with patches corresponding to the boundary-type set in the boundary _le in the polyMesh folder in the controlDict file. Para View Para View is an open-source, multi-platform data analysis and visualization application. Para View users can quickly build visualizations to analyze their data using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data exploration can be done interactively in 3D or programmatically using Para View’s batch processing capabilities. FuentMeshToFoam Fluent writes mesh data to a single file with a .msh extension. The file must be written in ASCII format, which is not the default option in Fluent. It is possible to convert single-stream Fluent meshes, including the 2 dimensional geometries. In OpenFOAM, 2 dimensional geometries are currently treated by defining a mesh in 3 dimensions, where the front and back plane are defined as the empty boundary patch type. When reading a 2 dimensional Fluent mesh, the converter automatically extrudes the mesh in the third direction and adds the empty patch, naming it frontAndBackPlanes. The following features should also be observed.

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The OpenFOAM converter will attempt to capture the Fluent boundary condition definition as much as possible; however, since there is no clear, direct correspondence between the OpenFOAM and Fluent boundary conditions, the user should check the boundary conditions before running a case. Creation of axi-symmetric meshes from a 2 dimensional mesh is currently not supported but can be implemented on request. Multiple material meshes are not permitted. If multiple fluid materials exist, they will be converted into a single OpenFOAM mesh; if a solid region is detected, the converter will attempt to filter it out.

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Fluent allows the user to define a patch which is internal to the mesh, i.e. consists of the faces with cells on both sides. Such patches are not allowed in OpenFOAM and the converter will attempt to filter them out. There is currently no support for embedded interfaces and refinement trees.

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Courant number • •

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This specifies a maximum internal time step the solver may take during the time integration and is not the same as the time step of the simulation The time step of the integration is used to calculate a final time in a numerical integration. A numerical integration will take steps in time ∆ti which are less than ∆ts. The Courant number specifies a maximum value of ∆ti.

Application areas • • • • • • • • • • • • Aerodynamics of aircraft and vehicles: life and drag Hydrodynamics of ships Power plant: combustion in IC engines and gas turbines Turbo machinery: flows inside rotating passages, diffusers etc. Electrical and electronic engineering: cooling of equipment including micro-circuits Chemical process engineering: mixing and separation, polymer moulding External and internal environment of buildings: wind loading and Heating/ventilation Marine engineering: loads on off-shore structures Environmental engineering: distribution of pollutants and effluents Hydrology and oceanography: flows in rivers, estuaries, oceans Meteorology: weather prediction Biomedical engineering: blood flows through arteries and veins

ELMER

Elmer is a computational tool for multiphysical problems. It has been developed in collaboration with Finnish universities, research laboratories and industry. It includes physical

models of fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, electromagnetics and heat transfer. These are described by partial differential equations which Elmer solves by the Finite Element Method (FEM). Elmer comprises of several different parts: The geometry, boundary conditions and physical models are defined in Elmer Front. The resulting problem definition is solved by Elmer Solver. Finally the results are visualized by Elmer Post. Elmer offers a wide range of methods and techniques for the computational modeling of physical phenomena described by partial differential equations. In the following some of the most essential ones are summarized. Physical models in Elmer The Elmer package contains solvers for a variety of mathematical models. The following list summarizes the capabilities of Elmer in specialized fields. • Heat transfer: models for conduction, radiation and phase change • Fluid flow: the Navier-Stokes, Stokes and Reynolds equations, k-" model • Species transport: generic convection-diffusion equation • Elasticity: general elasticity equations, dimensionally reduced models for plates and shells • Acoustics: the Helmholtz equation • Electromagnetism: electrostatics, magneto statics, induction • Micro fluidics: slip conditions, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation • Levelset method: Eulerian free boundary problems • Quantum Mechanics: density functional theory (Kohn-Sham)

Numerical methods in Elmer For approximation and linear system solution Elmer offers a great number of possibilities. The following list summarizes some of the most essential ones. • All basic element shapes in 1D, 2D and 3D with the Lagrange shape functions of degree • Higher degree approximation using p-elements • Time integration schemes for the first and second order equations • Solution methods for Eigen value problems

• Direct linear system solvers (Lapack & Umfpack) • Iterative Krylov subspace solvers for linear systems • Multigrid solvers (GMG and AMG) for some basic equations • ILU preconditioning of linear systems • Parallelization of iterative methods • The discontinuous Galerkin method • Stabilized finite element formulations, including the methods of residual free bubbles and SUPG • Adaptivity, particularly in 2D, BEM solvers (without multi pole acceleration) Application areas Heat Transfer In heat transfer Elmer includes convective, diffusive and radiative heat transfer. • Temperature distribution of a heat exchanger • Heat radiation in an axisymmetric closure Solid mechanics In solid mechanics Elmer includes general elasticity and reduced dimensional models, i.e. plates and shells. Orthotropic materials, damping and other complications may be accounted for. • Deflection of an elastic beam • Eigen modes of a supported structure • Deflection of an elastic shell Fluid mechanics In fluid mechanics Elmer includes Navier-Stokes equations for compressible and incompressible (low Mach number) flows. Stabilization is achieved by SUPG or residual free bubbles. Turbulence models include Spalart-Almaras, k-epsilon, (SST) k-omega, and v^2-f. For FSI-problems an ALE formulation is available also many different kinds of free surface models (Lagrangian and Eulerian) may be used. There is also a dimensionally reduced flow model, i.e. the Reynolds equation. • Flow in a driven cavity (2D) • Flow in a driven cavity (3D) • Flow past backward facing step (2D) • Flow past backward facing step (3D) • Compressible flow - Von Karman Vortices • Kelvin-Helmholtz instability-A LES Model

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Free surface between two non-mixing liquids Thermo capillary convection Water heating examples(axisymmetric) A transient coupled flow and heat simulation in 2D Transient gas flow due to moving boundary Free surface flow with flux Falling 2D drop resolved with the level-set method

Earth Science • Glaciological (ice sheets, glaciers) problems Electromagnetics Electromagnetics mainly includes special cases of the Maxwell's equations that may be expressed in terms of scalar or vector potentials. • Magnetic field induced by a current driven magnet • Induction heating of an axisymmetric crucible • Computation of capacitance • Electrostatic force in 3D Acoustics Acoustics includes Helmholtz equation with the possibility of convection and damping. Also dissipative acoustics in terms of linearized time-harmonic Navier-Stokes equations have been modeled with Elmer. • Acoustic scattering • A simple wave equation • The Doppler effect • Acoustic losses in a tube Quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics includes an all-electron version of the Kohn-Sham equations. • Electron structure of the hydrogen atom • Electron structure of the carbon monoxide molecule • Electron structure of the Fullerine C60 molecule Coupled problems Generally, most physical models in Elmer may be coupled with one-another. Therefore there is no point of summarizing the capabilities in coupled problems. • Vibro acoustics

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Sound waves in closed cavity A simple fluid-structure-interaction example Fluid-structure-interaction by artificial compressibility Fluid-structure-interaction in hemodynamics Electrostatic-thermal coupling Sedimentation of rigid bodies Electro kinetic flow in case of thick EDL

Czochralski crystal growth The growth of mono-crystalline silicon by the Czochralski method was one of the initial applications of Elmer and it still provides plenty of challenges. • Global Heat Transfer in Czochralski crystal growth • Silicon melt flow in Czochralski crystal growth • Adaptive mesh refinement in crystal growth • Argon Gas Flow in Crystal Growth • Magnetic Czochralski crystal growth Simulation of micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) components MEMS provides a nice field of multiphysical simulation. Elmer has been used to solve most coupling types in steady state, transient and time-harmonic systems. • Capacitive accelerometer (3D) • Prestressed microphone membrane (2D) Optical fiber manufacturing Fiber manufacturing provides also many interesting cases, particularly in the area of free surface problems. • Heat transfer in MCVD of synthethic glass tubes • Drawing of optical fiber • Coating of optical fiber Nozzle flow This example has been provided by an Elmer user who use the simulations to optimize the nozzle geometries. • Nozzle flow Linear algebra

After the equations are discretized the problem is reduced to the solution of linear equations. The main iterative method are Krylow subspace methods and multilevel methods which show different scaling with problem size. • Conjugate gradients • Geometric Multigrid

**RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
**

Thus the study of governing equations applicable in fluid flow and heat transfer and introduction, features and applications of commercial and open source tools for CFD/FEM analysis were made.

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