1 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

DESIGN AND MAINTAINANCE OF STORAGE TANKS FOR HSD
MAIN PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by: MUHAMMED SHAFEEQUE PRASOON KUMAR K.P MUHAMMED JAWAD ABINRAJ P.K SHADIL N.K GUIDE: Mr.BALAGOPAL Sr. Engineer Maintenance Department BPCL KOCHI

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AWH ENGINEERING COLLEGE KUTTIKKATOOR, CALICUT, KERALA 2013

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

2 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all we would like to thank God the Almighty for the divine grace bestowed on us to complete this project successfully on time. We express our sincere thanks to Prof. JUSTIN DICOTTU (Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, AWH ENGG. COLLEGE) for giving us this opportunity to present this project and for the facilities offered to us throughout this endeavor. The main motivation and driving force behind this project is our external guide Mr.BALAGOPAL (Sr. Engineer E&C Department of Department of BPCL). We are unboundedly grateful to him for the timely corrections and scholarly guidance, which made us confident enough to come out successfully. We also thank Mr. SARUN (Asst. Engg. E&C Department of BPCL) for his support and guidance throughout the completion of our project. We extend our hearty thanks to our internal guide Sir. JITHU

PAUL(Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, AWH ENGG. COLLEGE) for his enterprising attitude and support that made our project fruitful. We express our sincere thanks to all the faculty members of the Mechanical Engineering Department for their co-operation.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

3 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

ABSTRACT
Petroleum storage tank is an indispensable part of petroleum refining industries. They are used for intermediate and final product storage in process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals. They are used for mixing, blending, precipitation and setting process or as chemical reactor vessels. Storage tanks are different types such as cone roof, floating roof, floating cum cone roof and spherical vessels . For storing motor spirit/ High Speed Diesel (HSD) we use floating roof tanks. As safety has the prime importance in a refinery different fire fighting equipments are designed and installed. Along with this thorough inspection procedures and maintenance are necessary to ensure better safety. All the petroleum refineries are mainly concentrating on the storing of various products because of efficient storage and better safety, the designing of storage tank is highly important.

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

Conclusion…………………………………. College Calicut Dept. 12 5. References……………………………………68 AWH Engg. Material Specifications for Storage Tank…… 20 6. 4 3. 67 10. 22 7. Parts of Storage Tanks……………………….. 63 9. . 55 8.. Design of Storage Tank……………………. Inspection of Storage Tank…………………. Company Profile……………………………… 1 2.. Testing of Storage Tank……………………. of Mechanical Engg. Types of Storage Tanks……………………….4 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD CONTENTS 1. 5 4. Introduction to Storage Tanks………………...

USA. of Mechanical Engg. is a major infrastructure facility to accelerate the future growth of Kochi Refinery. The product portfolio of the 190. With the prestigious Crude Oil receipt facilities consisting of the Single Point Mooring (SPM) and the associated shore tank farm in place since December 2007. presently having a crude oil refining capacity of 9. rail. High Speed Diesel. the refinery is equipped to receive crude oil in Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). Fuel products of this fuel based refinery includes Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Kerosene. Naphtha. This. Poly Iso Butene and Sulphur. Motor Spirit. thereby. ships and through pipelines. Today it is a frontline entity as a unit of the Fortune 500 company. Propylene. This facility helps Kochi refinery in reducing the freight charges to a great extent. The refinery has successfully implemented the Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSAS) 18001:2007 in the year 2009. The refinery has facilities to evacuate products to the consuming centers through road. is one of the two Refineries of BPCL.5 Million Metric Tones per Annum (MMTPA). All the major industries in the area are connected to the refinery for product receipt.000 barrels per day. Aviation Turbine Fuel. a unit of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). The BPCL installation at AWH Engg. the refinery was originally established as a joint venture in collaboration with Phillips Petroleum Corporation. College Calicut Dept. Toluene. Formerly known as Cochin Refineries Limited and later renamed as Kochi Refineries Limited. over and above increasing flexibility in crude oil selection. Special Boiling Point Spirit.000 barrels per day refinery today includes petrochemical feedstock and specialty products in addition to its range of quality fuels. BPCL. Specialty products for the domestic markets include Benzene. Fuel Oils and Asphalt. It is an ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System (QMS) accredited company and has also obtained the ISO 17025 (Testing Methods in Quality Control) certification from NABL (National Accreditation Board for testing & Calibration of Laboratories). located at Ambalmugal near the city of Kochi in Kerala.5 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD COMPANY PROFILE Kochi Refinery. embarked on its journey in 1966 with a capacity of 50. The refinery has implemented world class technology and systems for operations and enterprise resource planning. Kochi Refinery. .

Several awareness programs have been successfully conducted to this effect with the results for all to see. Moreover. and adhering to international standards in safety practices. the capacity expansion to 9. the judicious storage. Petronet CCK. Since then the refinery. the Fuel Oil has been benchmarked in the Singapore and Dubai Fuel Oil markets. The entry into the international petroleum business stream began with its first parcel of Fuel Oil exported in January 2001. Of the two-part Capacity Expansion cum Modernization Project (Phase–II). AWH Engg. a joint venture company of BPCL looks after the 300 km long pipeline that connects the refinery to various consumption points in Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore and Karur.5 MMTPA has been successfully completed and refinery modernization slated for completion in August 2010 would equip the refinery to produce auto-fuels conforming to Euro-III and partly Euro-IV specifications. . by virtue of superior product quality and customer service. spreading across over thousand two hundred acres has been so constructed as to blend naturally with it. The refinery‟s foray into direct marketing began since 1993 through marketing of its aromatic products . Upcoming expansions and developments would also adhere to this philosophy of blending with nature. to which the refinery is connected by pipelines. The recent achievement of 24 million accident free man-hours stands testimony to the fact that the prime focus of Kochi Refinery is on safety in everything we do. The refinery has a unique bond with its environment which is evident in the green blanket so carefully nourished right around it. of Mechanical Engg. has earned the reputation as a reliable player in the international trade. Year after year the refinery has been bagging accolades for its commitment to the environment.Benzene and Toluene. From training to retraining. College Calicut Dept. is the major product distribution centre of the refinery. both. for the all round care for the environment. the most happening city in Kerala that is rightly called God‟s own country. Kochi Refinery has taken it as a mission to make safe living and working a natural mantra of its employees.6 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Irumpsanam. The refinery has been blessed with a fine topography and the entire complex. Kochi Refinery is situated in Kochi. The most recent addition to the refinery architecture is the rainwater harvesting pond and eco-park that has been converted to a must-see spot with sprawling landscaped lawns and thatched canopies for conferences and get-togethers. offsite and onsite. contract workers. use and reuse of water. customers and the general public. the efficiency in managing solid wastes and effluents and the care taken to keep the atmosphere clean.

Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) and an Aromatics Block consisting of a Naphtha Splitter Unit (NSU). AWH Engg.7 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD As a socially responsible corporate citizen. Crude oil is transported in ships from the point of origin to Kochi and is received through a Single Point Mooring (SPM) facility. added vigor and sustained commitment to its social. apart from maintaining its world class standards in operational excellence. Process Kochi Refinery presently has a crude oil processing capacity of 9. Apart from the Crude Distillation Units. particularly. is capable of handling Very large Crude Carriers (VLCC) with crude oil carrying capacities upto 3. major processing facilities in the refinery include a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unit. College Calicut Dept. the singular objective of Kochi Refinery is to uphold the BPCL vision of energizing lives by continued excellence in all round performance with new ideas. This is since the programs like universal health insurance. The refinery currently processes about 30% of Indigenous and 70% Imported crude oils. located approximately 20 kms off the shore of Puthuvypeen. scholarship to SC/ST students and medical camps for poor have helped the poor villagers in the refinery vicinity to save money over their medical expenses and educational expenses of children. the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and people below the poverty line in important sectors like health. Crude oil from SPM is received in offshore tanks in Puthuvypeen and is then pumped to the refinery. . Various people intensive small-scheme community development programs have brought new life for many.5 MMTPA (Million Tons per Annum) in its two Crude Distillation units (CDU-1 and CDU2). the community welfare initiatives of the refinery concentrate on developing the weaker sections of society. Naphtha Hydro Desulphurization (NDHS). cultural. Catalytic Reformer Unit (CRU) and Aromatics Recovery Unit (ARU). Kochi SPM. poor students in government schools or differently abled children! Thus. organizational and natural environment. of Mechanical Engg. Most of the programs falling under the categories of medical and educational assistance turned out to be poverty alleviation measures also. Diesel Hydro Desulphurization (DHDS) unit. be it poor villagers in need of medical treatment. Kerosene Hydro Desulphurization (KHDS) unit. education. housing and women empowerment.0 Lakh Tons.

high aromatic naphtha. of Mechanical Engg. They can also be used as process equipment in non-ferrous plants where open top tanks are used for mixing. aviation turbine fuel. high speed diesel. CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Petroleum products are classified on the basis of their Flash Points. light diesel oil. gasoline. and jet propulsion -5. precipitation and setting process or as chemical reactor vessels. Petroleum products are classified according to their flash pints as follows: Class A Petroleum Liquids which have flash point below 23 degree C-crude (Bombay High). College Calicut Dept. Tanks are classified according to their construction. blending. .8 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD INTRODUCTION TO STORAGE TANKS Petroleum storage tank are an indispensable part of petroleum refining industries. They are used for intermediate and final product storage in process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals. and the construction is on the basis of the product which is to be stored in them. AWH Engg. naphtha. FLASH POINT “Flash Point” of any petroleum liquids the minimum temperature at which the liquid yields vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and gives a momentary flash on application of a smell pilot flame under specified conditions of test. Class B Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 23degree and above but below 65 degree Csuperior kerosene oil . low aromatic naphtha.

Excluded Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 93 degree C and above liquefied gases including LPG do not fall under this classification but from separate category. They are vertical cylindrical vessels having a conical top and made of welded steel plates and used mainly for storing less volatile products. 2. 3. asphalt. CONE ROOF TANKS FIXED ROOF TANK CONE ROOF VENT SHELL BOTTOM PLATE FOUNDATION BPCL Kochi Refinery 9 March 2009 13 The cone roof tanks have fixed and are in a sense closed vessels. plant fuel. College Calicut Dept. seal oil. CLASSIFICATIONOF STORAGE TANKS 1.9 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Class C Petroleum Liquids that have flash point of 65 degree C and above but below 93 degree Cfurnace oil. of Mechanical Engg. . low sulphur heavy stock. Tanks meant for storing products like AWH Engg. Cone roof tanks Floating roof tanks Floating cum cone roof tanks Spherical vessels 1. 4.

There are 43 cone roof tanks in BPCL at present. As long as the pontoons do not leak the roof will not sink. Depending on the service the cone roof tanks will have the following accessories. FLOATING ROOF TANKS Floating roof tanks are intended for storing products having high vapor pressure like HSD and gasoline. vacuum gas oil etc. at high temperature is fully insulated externally. . Foam type neoprene seal off the clearance between the rim of the roof and the tank shell these tanks. Normally roofs are kept on low legs.10 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD asphalt. the roof has to be put on high legs toprovide space for people to work inside. The roof is supported when it is not afloat by a number of adjustable legs with low and high position. College Calicut Dept. They have a movable roof that floats on the surface of the tank contents. This is done by providing hoses or pipes with swivel joints from the AWH Engg. of Mechanical Engg. Roofs are pontoon type having enclosed air chambers. When a tank is to be taken out of service for cleaning or repairs. Pump out vents in the roof permit the escape of air when an empty or near-empty tank is filled and the roof is afloat. Roof drains are provided to drain water that is collected on the roof during rains. Thus the vapor space is kept constant and minimum.

In certain case the roof is also provided with an emergency drain having water seal. In cases the rainwater does not flow freely through the roof drain it can get into the tank through the emergency drain. College Calicut Dept. Access to the floating roof is by an inside stairway. The following are the accessories provided on floating roof tanks:  Man ways to go inside the shell and over the roof  Gauging datum plate  Gauge hatch with cover and reference mark  Dial thermometer  Mixing devices  Water draw  Roof drain  Inlet pipe header with jet nozzle and outlet  Gas fired burners with steam heating coil for heating the product  Outside stairway  Inside stairway AWH Engg.11 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD roof t0 the outside of the tank shell near the bottom. There are 71 floating roof tanks in BPCL at present. A non-return valve on the hose/pipe at the roof end and a gate valve at the bottom prevent escape of oil from the tank in case the hose develops leak. one end if which is hinged at the gauge‟s platform at the top of the outside stairway and the other end is free to move on rollers on a runway fixed to the roof as the roof moves up and down to maintain the shape of the tank when it is subjected to wind loads the tank is reinforced with stiffening rings called wind girders. . of Mechanical Engg.

.12 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD FLOATING ROOF TANK PONTOON SHELL ROOF DECK SUPPORT LEG BOTTOM PLATE FOUNDATION BPCL Kochi Refinery 9 March 2009 19 AWH Engg. of Mechanical Engg. College Calicut Dept.

of Mechanical Engg. So they are stored in floating cum cone roof tanks. These tanks prevent product from contamination and are used to store class A and class B products. There are 13 floating cum cone roof tanks in BPCL at present FLOATING CUM FIXED ROOF TANK CONE ROOF ROOF DECK SUPPORT LEG SHELL BOTTOM PLATE 9-Mar-09 FOUNDATION 13 AWH Engg. Products like benzene and toluene are carcinogenic and should be prevented from escaping into the atmosphere. .13 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD FLOATING CUM CONE ROOF TANKS They have fixed cone roof in addition to a floating roof and they are intended for storing toxic products having high vapor pressure. College Calicut Dept.

 Excluded petroleum shall be stored in a separate dike enclosure and shall not be stored along with class A. However. all safety stipulations applicable for class A and/or class B respectively shall apply. B or C petroleum. tanks having capacity 50000 cum and above shall be laid in single row. Inter-distances for tanks/offsite facilities The following stipulations shall apply for the inter-distances for above ground tanks storing petroleum: Inter distance for storage tanks AWH Engg. of Mechanical Engg. However. College Calicut Dept. .14 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Grouping of Tanks  Grouping of petroleum products for storage shall be based on product classification. Class A and/or class B petroleum can be stored in the same type of tanks. Class C petroleum should be stored separate enclosure. where class C petroleum is stored in a common dyke along with class A and/or class B petroleum.  Tanks shall be arranged in maximum 2 rows so that each tank is approachable form the road surrounding the enclosure.

No Item FRT CRT (ClassA&B Petroleum) Class Petroleum (D+d)/6 1. All tanks with (D+d)/4 (D+d)/4 diameter upto 50m 2. . of Mechanical Engg.15 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Sl. College Calicut Dept. All tanks with (D+d)/4 (D+d)/3 (D+d)/4 diameter exceeding 50m AWH Engg.

These plates are lap welded to each other. The bottom plates develop deep isolated pits which eventually puncture and bottom starts leaking. annular plates shall have a radial width that provides at least 600mm between the inside of the shell. Annular plates should be capable of withstanding the weight of the shell plates and the appurtenance. College Calicut Dept.16 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD PARTS OF STORAGE TANK BOTTOM PLATES AND ANNULAR PLATES Bottom plates are those plates which are laid at the bottom of the tank. A neat excavation shall be made to conform to the shape of the draw off sump. . of Mechanical Engg. The sump shall be put in place. All bottom plates have a nominal thickness of 6mm excluding of corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser. The projecting out portion of the annular plates is prone to corrosion at the edges due to accumulation of water between the foundation and the annular plates. Annular plates are those plates on which the shell plates rest. any lap welded joint in the remainder of the bottom shall have at least a 36mm projection outside from the shell.5) 11th edition 2007. Bacterial corrosion of the bottom plates is generally observed in crude and HSD tanks having high sulphur content. Bottom plates get corroded rapidly if the fluid is having sea water content (crude petroleum). According to API 650 (3. and the foundation shall be compacted around the sump after placement and the sump shall be welded to the bottom. So here also appropriate corrosion allowance should be given. Draw off sump is provided in order to collect the AWH Engg. DRAW OFF SUMP A draw off sump is provided at the bottom of the tank such that a shell‟s inclination is given to the bottom plates towards the sump. Sump shall be placed in foundation before bottom placement. So the proper corrosion allowance should be provided.

3. Shell plates generally get corroded internally where liquid-vapor is maintained. SHELL Shell is the major portion of the tank which is exposed to the atmosphere. AWH Engg.17 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD water particles in the oil. 1. . College Calicut Dept. 2. Internal corrosion in the vapor space is not commonly caused by hydrogen sulphide vapor. This type of corrosion may range from negligible to severe depending on upon the atmospheric condition of the locality. SHELL MANHOLE One manhole is provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course for the entry of humans into the tank for maintenance or other purposes. yield and suction nozzles. These nozzles are also fixed at the bottom shell course. WATER DRAIN AND ROOF DRAIN Nozzles for water draw off and roof drain are provided in storage tanks. intermediate or unfinished products into the tank. water vapor-oxygen giving pitting type corrosion. SHELL OPENINGS The important shell openings are shell man hole. The sump and nozzle are connected by means of an internal pipe. This nozzle is designed according to the velocity of yielding and need for agitation. The major problem that may arise is corrosion. A draw off nozzle is provided on the shell plate to remove the water collected in the draw off sump. Yield nozzle is provided fro receiving finished. Atmospheric corrosion can occur on all external parts of the tank. The water drains are fixed at 120 degree apart on the bottom shell course. of Mechanical Engg. water drain and rain drain. YIELD & SUCTION NOZZLES Three yield nozzles and one suction nozzle are provided for the tank.

2. As a result of daily ambient heating and cooling processes. some of the air vapour mixture is expelled from the tank. single deck pontoon type or double deck pontoon type. larger vapour space will become saturated with product vapour. resulting in the evaporative emissions. FLOATING ROOF Floating roof are installed in oil storage tanks primarily to reduce evaporation & handling losses. Emissions during holding are generated by the vapour space breathing process. Floating roof reduces filling loss Normal tank filling and send out operations also affect the vapour space of a fixedroof tank when product is removed from the tank air is drawn to the vapour space. WHY USE FLOATING ROOF? 1. evaporative breathing losses will increase due to the AWH Engg. During the product cooling air is drawn into the product space that helps to dilute the concentration. . to decrease corrosion and to reduce fire hazards. During the daily heating process.18 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD WIND GIRDER Wind girder or stiffening rings are provided on storage tanks to prevent the buckling of tanks against wind loads. College Calicut Dept. During holding periods. Floating roofs may be of pan type. when no liquid is added or removed the vapour space will come to the equilibrium based on product temperature and vapour pressure. the air-vapour mixture in the vapour space expands and contracts. During the holding period before the next tank filling operation. the air in the new. of Mechanical Engg. Unless the tank is completely emptied. Wind girders are usually constructed as walkways to facilitate the inspection and repair of storage tanks. Floating roof tank reduces breathing loss When a volatile product is stored in a freely ventilated fixed roof tank the concentration of volatile vapour in the vapour space will vary depending on the tank operation conditions. This initiates further evaporation that continues until the space again reaches equilibrium.

7. The roof floating on the liquid with specific gravity not exceeding 0. The codes stipulate that the minimum pontoon volume shall be sufficient to keep. if the single deck and two pontoon compartments are punctured and the primary roof drain in considered inoperative. The buoyancy of the roof is supplied by the pontoons which cover approximately 25% of the total area. vertical leg supports are provided for holding the roof about I or 2m above the bottom. a flexible seal is installed between the roof and the shell. clearance for tank cleaning and repair. . It has been shown that the addition of a welded floating roof to an open roof tank can produce the evaporative emissions by more than 98%. extending both AWH Engg. the floating roof. Safety Crude and refined petroleum products are volatile in nature and will readily evaporative at normal storage and handling conditions producing vapour that are combustible over a range of concentrations with air. To enable the free movement of the roof up and down in the shell I the normal floating condition. of Mechanical Engg. roof legs are provided to hold the flatling roof at a predetermined distance above the tank bottom when the tank is emptied. Properly designed. the greater the number of legs required. ROOF LEGS To prevent damage to the fittings located beneath the flouting roof. When product is added to tank the increasing liquid volume displaces the air-vapour mixture through the tank vent. 3. The larger the diameter of the tank. College Calicut Dept. floating roof seals and floating roof deck fittings can control the quantity and release of product emissions to the environment. The sleeve is welded to the floating roof. To prevent the roof from bottoming and failing access pipes etc located in the tank bottom and also to [provide under roof access for cleaning and inspection. Roof legs generally consist an adjustable pipe leg that passes through a slight larger diameter vertical pipe sleeve.19 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD increased volume of the vapour space. resulting in significant evaporative emissions than any other tank operation in a fixed-roof tank.

3. 5. ROOF OPENINGS Various roof openings generally [provided are 1. of Mechanical Engg. Deck manhole pontoon manhole roof drain opening opening for bleeder vent opening for gauging Deck Manhole A manhole is provided on the deck which facilities the inspection and checking by allowing the worker inside the tank. 2. 4. . College Calicut Dept. AWH Engg.20 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD above and below it. Steel pins passed through the holes in the sleeve and leg to permit height adjustment.

21 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Pontoon Manhole A manhole is provided on each compartment of the pontoon for checking and inspection. Opening for Gauging An opening of about 15 inch dia. AWH Engg. . In joined type the drain pipes are connected using swivel joints. is made on the pontoons for the installment of gauge pipes. ROOF DRAIN Roof drains are made such that minimum size drain shall be capable of preventing roof from accumulating a water level greater than design at the maximum rain fall rate. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg. A check valve shall be provided near the roof end on the drain pipe to prevent backflow stored product if leakage occurs. Roof drain shall be made of flexible hose or may be joined type. when the roof is floating at minimum operating legal. It also facilitates the repair work of the pontoon.

College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg. AWH Engg. . Sealing system should exert sufficient sealing pressure in all directions to prevent any evaporation losses and the arrangement should touch the product during the operation.22 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD SEAL The space between the outer rim of roof and shell should be sealed by an approved sealing device and sealing material should be resistant top the stored product and durable against friction due to roof of movement.

23 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Foam seals have excellent flexibility and recovery from compression and at the same time permit the roof movement up and down freely with the level of tank contents. AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGING Automatic Tank Gauging (ATG) is carried to obtain information about the total volume or weight of the product in the tank. This information is obtained from four parameter ie, liquid level, tank capacity tale, average temperature and relative density of individual tank. ADVANTAGES OF TANK GAUGING 1. 2. 3. Accurate and better inventory control reduction of work load tank level is displayed at the tank site and at the central monitoring unit for prompt attention 4. Accurate level measurements even under turbulent product condition

COOLING SYSTEM Storage tanks are equipped with water cooking system to bring down the temperature of the tank shell& protect them from damage when a fire hazard occurs to a neighboring tank. The system consists of rings fitted through which water is sprayed to the tank shell at a particular pressure. FOAM SYSTEM Foam for fire fighting purposes is an aggregate of air filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions and is higher in density than the lightest flammable liquid. It is principally used to form a coherent floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquids lighter than water and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel.The foam generally used in modern tanks is AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam). It is a synthetic film forming concentrate and is based on fluorinated surfactants plus foam stabilizers and is diluted with water to a 3% to

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

24 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

6% solution. The foam formed acts as a barrier to exclude air or O2 and to develop an aqueous film on the fuel surface capable of suppressing the evolution of fuel vapour. The foam produced with AFFF concentrate is dry chemically compatible and thus is suitable for combined use with dry chemicals. MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR STORAGE TANKS The materials used in the construction of storage vessels are usually metals, alloys, clad-metals, or materials with linings that are suitable for containing the fluid. Where no appreciable corrosion problem exists the cheapest and most easily fabricated construction materials is usually hot rolled mild (low carbon) steel plate. Low carbon steels are rather soft and ductile and are easily rolled and formed into the various shapes used in fabrication vessels. These steels are also easily welded to give joints of uniform strength relatively free from localized stresses. The ultimate tensile strength is usually between 380 Mpa and 450 Mpa and the carbon content between 0.15% and 0.25%. The material generally used for manufacturing storage tanks in India is IS2062 grade A. it is low carbon, hot rolled steel with the following specifications.

Carbon (max) Manganese (max) Sulphur (max) Phosphorous (max) Silicon (max)

0.23% 1.50% 0.050% 0.050% 0.40%

It has a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 410.6 Mpa and an yield strength of 247.6Mpa.The pipe material used for making roof legs is AI 06 grade B. the chen” composition is given below:

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

25 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD

Carbon (max) Manganese (max) Sulphur (max) Phosphorous (max) Silicon (max)

0.03% 1.06% 0.048% 0.058% 0.1%

The minimum tensile strength is 414Mpa and the minimum yield strength is 241 Mpa.

PROCEDURE
 Assume the values of Height of tank (H) and the diameter of tank (D)  Divide the height into number of courses  Find out the maximum allowable design stress and the maximum allowable hydrostatic stress for each course  Also find out the volume of shell course  Then find out the total volume of the shell  Find out the total cost of shell plate in that case  Repeat the procedure in 2 or 3 cases  Design the wind girder based on API standards  Location of wind girders based on API standards  Data of shell openings based on API standards  Data of man hole based on API standards  Data of Bolts based on API standards  Data of floating roof based on API standards  Data of Pontoon based on API standards  Data of Rolling ladders and spiral stairways based on API standards

AWH Engg. College Calicut

Dept. of Mechanical Engg.

. The topmost shell course is laid first. Its flash point is of 23 – 65o C. of Mechanical Engg.  Tank Selection High speed diesel (HSD) highly volatile product. The next shell course is laid and so on. College Calicut Dept. Then the whole course is lifted with the aid of hydraulic jack. A slope of 1:100 is maintained towards the shell from the core of the tank. In case of a roof type tank.26 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD FOUNDATION BITUMEN CARPETING Sieved river sand is mixed with 8-10 % by volume of bitumen (80/100grade) and is laid on the site and consolidation. tamping etc are done. Welding is performed to join the rolled plates. The metal plates used for making the shell course need to be rolled depending on the required curvature. So it comes under class B of petroleum products and has to be stored in an internal floating roof tank. Vertical welding is performed to join metal in a same course and horizontal to join adjacent shell courses. LAYING OF SHELL COURSE The laying of shell course from top to bottom. rolling. the roof may be erected on top most shell course in the beginning as later installing of roof at such great height may be difficult.  Height and diameter AWH Engg. The welding procedure and methods performed are mentioned as below: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF STORAGE TANKS The design and construction of tanks is based on API 650 (11th edition 2007) standards Deign and construction of storage tank number 350 for storing High speed diesel (HSD).

(Also the economic condition is maintained).38< 1. it also depends on the judgment of the designer.2m <1. Cone penetration resistance (CPR) was calculated by determining the number of blows required to attain a 300mm penetration by a test cone.58m Height of the tank = 14.5 Height of tank (H) Diameter of tank (D) Height and diameter mostly depends upon the space available on the site. BOTTOM PREPARATION Cone penetration test To assess the soil bearing capacity of soil at locations under the bottom plate penetration test was conducted by IIT Madras.58 = 0. . AWH Engg.2/36.27 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD For fixing the height and diameter of the tank.76057 ≈14000 KL Here. Design Capacity of the tank Diameter of the tank = 36.5 Volume of tank = = = =14915. of Mechanical Engg. H/D ratio = 14. By studying the H/D ratio of the existing tanks in BPCL. the criterion to be maintained as per API 650 is that ratio of the total height of the tank to the internal diameter must be less than 1. College Calicut Dept.5 So it is possible according to API650. distance between two consecutive tanks etc.

58 dia). tamping etc are done.2. DESIGN DATA  Design code: API 650 (11th edition June 2007)  Internal diameter : 36.85  Design specific gravity:0.5mm for roof plates  Design pressure : atmospheric pressure  Material specification : IS 2062 grade A (As per API 650 Table 2. Bitumen Carpeting Sieved river sand is mixed with 8-10% by volume of bitumen (80/100grade) and is laid on the site and consolidation.85  Corrosion allowance: 1. It was tested and certified OK for the construction of the above mentioned tank. of Mechanical Engg. rolling. A slope of 1:100 is maintained towards the shell from the core of the tank. Soil testing The test sample of soil is collected from various positions of tank bottom and is sent to IIT Madras.28 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD The cone penetration resistance is found to vary between 20 and 40 which indicates that the maximum settlement to be less than 10mm which is permitted for large diameters (present tank being of 36. College Calicut Dept.5) AWH Engg.2& CI2.2m  Product stored: High Speed Diesel (HSD)  Specific gravity of product : 0. .6mm for annular and bottom plate : 3mm for shell plates : 1.58m  Height: 14.

(Since the thickness of steel plates available in market are sizes 8. III. So annular bottom plate designing is done after the shell designing.5m. College Calicut Dept.  Wind speed : 100 mph (max) or 160. I. So the bottom plate thickness = 6+1. DESIGN OF BOTTOM PLATES According to API 650 standards. . 8m. the shell thickness from the tank of diameter in the range of 36m-60m should not be less than 8mm. Bottom plates of sufficient size shall be ordered so that when trimmed at least a 25mm width will project beyond the outside edge of the wed attaching the bottom to the shell plate. The course contains a number of vertical joints of length equal to plate width. 2.93 km/h  Maximum rainfall intensity: 57mm in one hour or 254 mm in 24 hours.5m. bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6mm exclusively of any corrosion allowance. According to API 650. AWH Engg. the shell thickness should not be less than 6mm). (For tank diameter less than 36m. A number of courses are welded together horizontally to form the total height of the tank.6 = 7. 2m. 12mm etc. II.10.6Mpa) and tensile strength (59428 psi or 410.6mm So the thickness of bottom plate is selected as from API 650. bottom plate preparation involves shot blasting and bituminized painting.6 Mpa). DESIGN OF ANNUAL BOTTOM PLATES Radial width of annular plates depends upon the shell course thickness. etc. 10m and of width 1. The commonly available size of plates in markets are of length 6m.29 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD IS 2062 is the metal plate readily available in Indian markets and also it has got an acceptable value of yield strength (36236 psi or 247. of Mechanical Engg. Plates of same width have been welded together to form a course of equal diameter. DESIGN OF SHELL PLATES Tank is made of plates.

2.6.7MPa) According to API 650 thickness of tanks less than 60m in diameter is calculated using 1-foot method.MPa& 185. The maximum allowable hydrostatic test stress S t (API 650Cl. Yield strength of selected material (IS 2062) = 247.2. (Sd) Sd = 2/3* yield strength Sd = 2/3* 247.2 St = 3/7* 410. The maximum allowable product design stress Sd (API 650Cl. of Mechanical Engg. . So here 1-foot method is used. shall be either three-fourth the yield strength or three-seventh the tensile strength whichever is less.30 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD The shell thickness is calculated taking into account the material specification and allowable stresses.6. the thickness is found out using variable design point method.7MPa Or St =3/7* tensile strength API 650 cl 5.6.24 MPa So design stress is taken as 165 MPa (the maximum of 165MPa & 164.2. shall be either two-third the yield strength or two-fifth the tensile strength whichever is less.1). College Calicut Dept.24MPa) Maximum allowable hydrostatic stress.6 = 165MPa Sd = 2/5* tensile strength Sd = 2/5* 410.6 = 164.5. 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.1 St = 3/4* yield strength St = ¾* 247.97MPa ≈ 176MPa So hydrostatic stress is taken as 176MPa (the minimum of 175. (St) API 650 cl 5. and if the diameter is above 60m.6 = 185.2.6= 175.5.6MPa (Mega PascalNewton/mm2) Tensile strength of selected material = 410.6MPa Maximum allowable design stress.2).6.3m (1ft) above the bottom of each shell course. In this method we find out the design shell AWH Engg.

College Calicut Dept.2m.2m to 6 courses 3.3)* G)/Sd + CA tt = 4.3)/St td – design shell thickness in mm tt – hydrostatic shell thickness in mm D – nominal tank diameter in m = 36. we have divided it into numbersof courses considering the economic condition. AWH Engg. of courses and course widths. G – Design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored = 0. From the above formula shell thickness is calculated. 2 &1. 3. of Mechanical Engg. .Corrosion allowance in mm = 3mm Sd – Allowable design stress = 165MPa St – Allowable hydrostatic stress = 176MPa Since the height of the tank is 14. 16. 20.58m H = height from the bottom of course under consideration to the top of the shell = 14. 10. 14.2m. Where. 2. 12.9D* (H-0. CASE 1 We divide the total height 14. We select a number of random cases with varying no. 3.9D* (H-0. td =(4.2m respectively. 25 mm.85 CA. It is to be noted that standard thickness available in the market are 8.31 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD thickness (td) and hydrostatic test shell thickness (tt) and the maximum of the two values is taken. values of thickness obtained by calculation are rounded off to the nearest size of metal plate available in the market.

016 = 5.2m D = nominal tank diameter in meters = 36.3)x0.58m td= (4.58*(14.9*36.2m (total height – 1st course height) D = 36.2-0. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16mm = 0.58* (14.1mm +3 AWH Engg.3) 176 = 11.85)/165+ 3 = 15.2-3= 11.016m Width of the shell course (W) = 3m Volume of shell course = *D*W*t = x36. In this case max value is15. of Mechanical Engg.516m3 2nd Course H = 14.9D* (H-0.2-0.9*36.58x(11.9D* (H-0.3)*G)/Sd+CA tt = 4.3)/St td = (4.58m Design shell thickness Hydrostatic shell thickness td = (4.064 mm tt = 4.9x36.58x3x0.58x(11. .85 165 = 13.8348mm tt = 4.9x 36.2 – 0. = 14.3*G)/Sd + CA = 4.3)/St = 4. College Calicut Dept.3)/176 = 14.9D* (H-0.156mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.8348mm.2-0.9D* (H-0.3)* 0.32 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Shell thickness 1st Course H = height from the bottom of the course under consideration to the top of the shell.

58m td = (4.9D* (H-0.3)/St = 4.137m3 4th Course H = 8. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 12mm = 0.045mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.3)*G)/Sd + CA = 4. W = 3m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  x 36.9x36.2-0. W = 3m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x 36. In this case max value is 13. In this case max value is 10.58x(8.3) 176 = 8.012 V = 4.9x36.2m D = 36.9D* (H-0.447mm tt = 4.2-0.2 -3 = 8.2-0.29mm tt = 4.58x(8.2-2 = 6.33 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Design condition is select max of td andtt .014 V = 4.2m D = 36.3) x 0.008 mm AWH Engg.85 165 = 10.9x36.3) 176 =6. of Mechanical Engg.58x(6.826m3 3rd Course H = 11.014m Width of shell course. +3 +3 .2-0.58x3x0.9D* (H-0.29mm. College Calicut Dept.3)/st = 4.58m td =( 4.58x(6.3) x 0.064mm.012m Width of shell course.85 165 = 8.3)*G)/Sd + CA= 4. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14mm = 0.58x3x0.9x36.9D* (H-0.

of Mechanical Engg. W = 2m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = 1.58x(3 -0.2 -2 = 4.58M td = (4.2m D = 36.13 = x36.8387m3 6th Course H = 4.58x(4.3)x 0.2-1. College Calicut Dept.9x36.010 = 2.010m Width of the shell course.3)x 0.2-0.3) 176 = 3.3)/St = 4.601mm. W = 2m Volume of the shell V = *D*W*t = x36.749 mm AWH Engg.9D* (H-0. In this case max value is 6.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4. .493mm tt = 4.58x(3 -0. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10mm = 0.58x2x0.008 = 1.2 = 3m D = 36.85 165 = 6.3)/St = 4.3) 176 +3 +3 = 2.9x36.601mm tt = 4.298m3 5th Course H = 6.008m Width of shell course.In this case max value is 8.85 165 = 5.58x2x0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.9D* (H -0.2-0.34 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Design condition is to select max of tdortt.447mm.9D* (H-0.58m td = (4.9D* (H -0. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8mm = 0.9x36.97mm Design condition is to select max oftd ortt.9x36.58x(4.

016 mm Width of shell course. 2.2 m respectively.2 -0.9x36.8274m3 CASE 2 We divide the total height 14.5.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.58m td = (4.35 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Design condition is to select max of td ortt. of Mechanical Engg. In this case max value is15.156 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 6mm Therefore. 1st course H = 14.9x36.0.3)/St = 4. 3.58x4x0.85 165 +3 = 15. College Calicut Dept.2x0.006 0. W = 4m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.9D* (H .3)x 0. 2.9D* (H . Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16 mm = 0.354 m3 AWH Engg.006 m Width of the shell course.493mm. From the above formula shell thickness is calculated. In this case max value is 5.5& 2. W = 1.0. . thickness selected.58x(14.58x(14.3) 176 = 14.834 mm.2m Volume of shell course V= = *D*W*t = x36.2 -0.58x1.2m to 5 courses 4.2m D = 36.834 mm tt = 4.016 V = 7. t = 6mm = 0.

W = 4 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.3)/St = 4. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10 mm = 0.3) 176 = 10.2 m D = 36.36 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD 2nd Course H = 14.9x 36.2 -4 = 10.3)/St = 4.0.027 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.14 mm.3)x 0.010 m Width of shell course.58m td = (4. of Mechanical Engg. In this case max value is 9.9D* (H .0.9x 36.014 V = 6.9D* (H .37 mm.58x(7.9x36.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.435 m3 3rd Course H = 10.85 165 = 9.58 x (7.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.3) 176 = 7. w = 3m +3 +3 AWH Engg.2 – 3 = 7.58x(10.082mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.0.37 mm tt = 4. College Calicut Dept.2 -0.58m td = (4.2m D = 36. .3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4. In this case max value is 12.9x36.0.9D* (H .85 165 = 12.9D* (H . Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14 mm = 0.3)x 0.58x4x0.58 x (10.14mm tt = 4.014 mm Width of shell course.

7 -0.010 V = 3.58 m td = (4.58 x (2.9D* (H .5 = 4.9x36.0.7m D = 36.2 -0.37 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.85 165 = 7.0.447 m3 4th Course H = 7.2 – 2.7 -2.0. College Calicut Dept.008 Width of shell course.9x 36.58 x (4.58x(4.298 m3 +3 5th Course H = 4.0628 mm tt = 4.3)x 0.2 m D = 36.935 mm +3 AWH Engg.3)/St = 4.5x0.58x(2.5 = 2. Thickness selected (as per market size) t =8 mm = 0.3)x 0. of Mechanical Engg.2 -0.0.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.564 mm tt = 4.58x2.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.7 -0.0628 mm.008 V = 2.85 165 = 4. .9x 36.58x3x0.3) 176 = 1.58 m td = (4. W = 2. In this case max value is 7.9D* (H .5 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.9D* (H .9x36.3)/St = 4.9D* (H .48mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt.3) 176 = 4.

125.016 m Width of shell course.58x2.9x36.9D* (H .2m D = 36.790 are respectively.58 m td = (4. of Mechanical Engg. W = 2m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.9D* (H .58x2x0.156 mm Design condition is to select maxof td ortt. Shell thickness 1st Course H = 14.425. 2.38 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Design condition is to select max of tdortt.016 V= 3.85 165 = 15.5 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36. In this case max value is 15. W = 2.8348 mm.58 x (14. .006 m Width of shell course.2 -0. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 6 mm = 0.425. College Calicut Dept.425.8348 mm tt = 4. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 16mm = 0.2 -0.2 to 7 courses of 2.9x36.3) 176 = 14.7237 m3 Case 3 We divide the total height 14.006 V= 1.677 m3 +3 AWH Engg. In this case max value is 4. 2.0.58x(14. 0.564 mm.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.0. 2.3)/St = 4. 2. 2.5x0.3)x 0.

119 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt.9304 m3 AWH Engg. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 14mm = 0.98 mm tt = 4.014 V = 3.3) 176 = 9.85 165 = 12.3)x 0.0.58 m td = (4. of Mechanical Engg.9D* (H . College Calicut Dept.3) 176 = 12.3)x 0.39 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD 2nd Course H = 14. +3 +3 .9x36.2 m D = 36.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.026 mm tt = 4.3)* G)/Sd+ CA= 4.58 x (10.0.125 = 10.0. W = 2.9x 36.58m td =( 4. In this case max value is 13.012 Width of shell course.3)/St = 4.0.9D* (H . Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 12 mm = 0.9D* (H .9x36.075 -0.58 x2 x 0.2 -0.026 mm.014m Width of shell course.2 -0.85 165 = 13.58x(10.075 -0.2 -2 = 12.3)/St = 4.2– 2.125 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  *36.217 m3 3rd Course H = 12. In this case max value is 12. W = 2 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t = x36.58*2.58 x (12.9x 36.075 m D = 36.012 V = 2.58x(12.9D* (H .955 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.125*0.98 mm.

9x 36.3)x0.425 = 7.9D* (H .547 mm.9x36.65 – 2.425x 0.58 x (7.225 m D = 36.3)/St = 4.65 -0.9x36. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 10 mm = 0.3)/St = 4.3) 176 = 5.0157 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt.9D* (H .65 – 0.425 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  x36.075 – 2.58x (7. In this case max value is 9.65 m D = 36.008 Width of shell course.0. W = 2.0.425 = 5. W = 2.9D* (H .786 mm. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.786 m3 5th Course H = 7.0.547 mm tt = 4.58 m td = (4.40 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD 4th Course H = 10.3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 7.48 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.58 m td = (4.0.425 m +3 AWH Engg.010m Width of shell course.3)* G)/Sd + CA= 4.3) 176 = 7. In this case max value is 7. of Mechanical Engg.58 x2.786 mm tt = 4.85 +3 165 = 9.9D* (H .58 x (5.010 V = 2. College Calicut Dept. .225 -0.

01 m D = 36.3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 5.0. of Mechanical Engg.425x 0.3) 176 = 1.308 mm tt = 4.578 mm tt = 4.9x 36.9D* (H .01 -0.58x2. W = 2.58 m td = (4.8 – 0. Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.0.8 m D = 36. College Calicut Dept.7414 mm Design condition is to select max of td or tt.3) 176 = 2.58 x (2.229 m3 6th Course H = 5.9D* (H .9D* (H .3)* G)/Sd + CA= = 4.425x.008 V = 2. In this case max value is 5.0.3)/St = 4. .308 mm. In this case max value is 4.0.790 = 2.41 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  x36.008 V = 2.008 m Width of shell course.58x2.58 m td = (4.425 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  x36.225 – 2.8 -0.58 x (2.9x36.9D* (H .3)/St = 4.547 mm Design condition is to select max of tdortt.229 m3 7th Course H = 2. ( ) ( ) +3 +3 AWH Engg.425 = 2.578 mm.

58x 0.4431m3 = volume * density = 19.85x 103 = 166.2577 m3 = volume* density = 21.5840 crores Case 3 The total volume shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates AWH Engg. Case 1 The total volumeof shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates = 19.008 m Width of shell course.872ton Material cost per metric ton So over all material cost of the shell plates = Rs35000 = 35000 x 166. College Calicut = 17. .790 m Volume of shell course V = *D*W*t =  x36.008 V =0.2577 x 7. of Mechanical Engg.7944 m3 = volume * density Dept.968ton Material cost per metric ton So overall material cost of the shell plates = Rs35000 = 152.872 = 0.85 x 103 = 152. W = 0.534 crores Case 2 The total volume of shell plate required Total weight of the shell plates = 21.42 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Thickness selected (as per market size) t = 8 mm = 0.790x0.4431 x 7.628 x 35000 = Rs 0.726 m3 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION For selecting the optimum combination we are considering the material cost and fabrication cost for each cases.

064 10.027 4.156 11.0628 4.97 2.564 14.628 0.564 16 14 10 8 6 166.601 5.935 15.2 Case II It (m) Td (mm) Tt (mm) Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.584 Total cost (crores) 4 3 2.008 3.872 0.37 7.48 1.749 Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.447 6.14 9.8348 13.29 8.35000 So over all material cost of the shell plates = 35000 x 139. .37 7. of Mechanical Engg.156 10.493 Tt (mm) 14.601 5.7944 x 7.686ton Material cost per metric ton = Rs.834 12.43 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD = 17.14 9.082 7.834 12.447 6. College Calicut Dept.4889 crores Case I It (m) Td (mm) 3 3 3 2 2 1.5 2.064 10.1 8.0628 4.29 8.85x103 = 139.534 Total cost (crores) AWH Engg.2 15.493 16 14 12 10 8 6 152.5 2.8348 13.045 6.686 = 0.

8348 13.8348 13. College Calicut Dept.546 1.7414 Here we take case 3 because of less material consumption and less total cost comparing than the other cases.026 9.547 5.125 2.4889 Total cost 2 2 2.547 5. . Of the most economic case is shown below AWH Engg.786 7.578 14.578 16 14 12 10 8 8 8 139. of Mechanical Engg.98 12.0157 2.44 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Case III It (m) Td (mm) Tt(mm) Calculated Standard Total thickness thickness weight (mm) (mm) (ton) 15.308 4.026 9.156 12.786 7.48 5.425 2. The shell course fig.955 7.119 9.425 0.308 4.425 2.790 15.98 12.686 0.

425m m Course 6 8mm Course 5 8mm 2.2m Course 3 12mm 2.790m m 2. . of Mechanical Engg.45 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Course 7 8mm 0.125m Course 2 14mm 2m Course 1 16mm 2m AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept.425m 14.425m Course 4 10mm 2.

the minimum annular plate thickness is 6mm.1 of API 650. Radial width of bottom plate Radial width is calculated using 2 methods and the greater value is selected. As per table 3. . College Calicut Dept.46 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD ANNULAR PLATE Annular plates are plates on which the shell rest and connects shell plates with bottom plates. the minimum radial width is the sum of the projection from the outer surface of shell plate.A) = 7. AWH Engg. dimension between the inner surface of the shell plate and lap joint. 1st Method According to API 650.6 mm8 mm Here we provide 10 mm thick annular plate.6 (C. So minimum thickness required = 6 + 1. since annular plate thickness should be greater than bottom plates. for 16 mm 1st shell course thickness. lap of annular and bottom plate and the 1st shell course thickness. of Mechanical Engg.

of Mechanical Engg. College Calicut Dept. Design speed of wind. = 610 mm (min 600) Lap of annular and bottom plate 1st shell course thickness = 65 mm (standard) = 16mm So required minimum radial width = 65 + 610 + 65 + 16 = 756 mm 2nd Method The minimum radial width is also given by the formula 215*tb/ (HG)0. V = 100 mile/hr= 160.2m G – design specific gravity of liquid to be stored = 0.5 tb – thickness of annular plate in mm H – maximum design liquid level in m = 10 mm = 14.93 km/hr AWH Engg.85 So radial width = 215 x10/(14. .5 = 618. So we provide annular plate of radial width 1000 mm (to be on safer side) IV.2 x 0.845mm As per the above 2 methods the greater of required radial width = 756 mm.85)0.47 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Minimum radial width = minimum projection from outer surface of shell plate + minimum dimension between surface of shell plate to lap joint + lap of annular and bottom plate + 1st shell course thickness From API 650 standards. The minimum projection from outer surface of shell plate = 65 mm (min50mm) Minimum dimension between inside surface of shell plate to lap joint. DESIGN OF WIND GIRDER Basic wind speed It is based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds and corresponds to mean heights above ground level in an open terrain.

48 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Section modulus required for primary wind girder.G Ixx = (bd3 / 12 ) + Ah2 AWH Engg. of Mechanical Engg. Z = ( )2 cm3 (API 650 11th edition 2007) t = Shell thickness at the attachment = 8 mm Portion of tank shell to be considered for calculating L = 32 * ts + t = 32 * 8 + 8 = 264 mm Locating the centre of gravity of primary wind girder Centre of gravity (x) = (A1 X1 + A2 X2 + A3X3) / (A1+A2+A3) X= 8 mm = 408 mm 8 mm 6 mm 264 mm 800 mm Moment of inertia about C. . College Calicut Dept.

cl5. . College Calicut Dept. Design calculation of secondary Wind girder Requirement of Second wind Girder Maximum height of the un stiffened shell = H1 = 9.9. X = 408 mm Section modulus of the above „I‟ section (calculated value) Zxx = Ixx / X Zxx = = 8. A3) h = Distance from centre of gravity to centre of various sections (h1.49 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Where.42 * 108 mm4 Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber . of Mechanical Engg. b2. A = Area of the various sections (A1. d2. h2. h3) b = Vertical length of various cross sections (b1.7. calculated value of section modulus (Zxx) should be greater than required section modulus (Z)] Location of Primary Wind Girder The primary wind girder is provided as a walk way at a distance 1067 mm from the top. d3 Ixx = ((b1*d13/12)+A1*h12) + (( b2 * d23/12)+A2*h22)+((b3 * d33/12) +A3*h32) Ixx = ( ) ( ) ( ) = 3. So we take the existing data from the previous design data according to API 650 – 11th edition 2007. b3) d = Horizontal width of various cross sections d1.382 * 103 cm3 > 1658 So design is feasible [as per API 650 requirements. because of there is no maintenance work.1) t = Thickness of top shell course = 5mm 2 AWH Engg.47 x t (r/D)3 * 190 V (According to API 650. Here there is no change in design and location of primary wind girder. A2.

50 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD D = Nominal tank diameter = 36. First.47 *5*(5/36.5 = 5640mm Fourth course tactual=10mm .9.3mm C.58)3* H= 3. .second and third courses Tactual = 8mm . tuniform = 5 mm tactual = Ordered shell course thickness excluding the corrosion allowance in mm for which Wtr is being calculate.A=7mm W=2425mm So Wtr=2425*[(5/7)5]0.58m H = 9.7mm Fifth course [API 650 cl 5.5=1045. Wtr= transformed shell course in mm W = Actual width of each shell course in mm tuniform = Thickness of top shell course in mm excluding the corrosion allowance. College Calicut Dept.7.370 m Transformed shell As per API codes the transformed shell shall be calculated as the change in actual width of each shell course into a transformed width of each shell course having a top shell thickness by the equation. of Mechanical Engg. Wtr = W {(t uniform / t actual)5} Where.A=5mm W=5640mm So Wtr=5640*[(5/5)5]0.3] ( 2 AWH Engg.3mm C.

57/3370 = 2.7. [3. College Calicut Dept.57mm According to API 650 (11th edition 2007.59+183.5 =488. &5.51 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Tactual=12mm . of Mechanical Engg.5 =183.9.48mm Transformed width wtr =5640+1045.9.8mm Sixth course Tactual=14mm .3mm C.The existing wind girder at a height of 3320mm from primary wind girder. if height of transformed shell is greater than maximum unstiffened height.9.H1. No: of secondary wind girders required =height of transformed shell Maximum un stiffened height = 7636. 5.26> 1 Since ratio is greater than one. .57/2=3818mm). the girder should be located at the middle of transformed shell(7636.8+278.1.5 =278.48 = 7636.3]).A=9mm W=2125mm So Wtr=2125*[(5/9)5]0.5.3mm C.9.4 the secondary wind girder shall be provided.3mm C.7+488.A=13mm W=2000mm So Wtr=2000*[(5/13)5]0. AWH Engg.A=11mm W=2000mm So Wtr=2000*[(5/11)5]0.59mm Seventh course Tactual=16mm .7.3. Location of intermediate wind girder As per clause No.3. one number of secondary wind girders is required.3.7.7. an intermediate wind girder is required.

425 m 2. 1.790 m 2.125 m 2m 2m 3818 mm V. .425 m 2.425 m 2. of Mechanical Engg.52 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD The previous wind girder was too small for a walk way (200mm) there for we changed the dimension and constructed a new secondary wind girder of width 600mm. AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. 1067mm 0. SHELL OPENINGS MAN HOLE (SHELL) One -man hole provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course. which made inspection around the tank possible.

B Distance from center pipe to shell.4 A) e. (Note: Two is selected according to Tank no: 019KR) Diameter of sump. of Mechanical Engg.5 page 5-18) BOLTS Number of bolts Diameter of bolts = 42 = 22 mm Diameter of bolt hole= 24 mm (API 650 3.3 mm = 3 mm AWH Engg.4 mm Cover plate diameter. . C Thickness of plates in sump Minimum internal pipe thickness Minimum nozzle neck thickness = 1220 mm = 610 mm = 150 mm = 10 mm = 114.3) Man hole diameter. College Calicut Dept. Dm = 914. Dc = 820 mm (API 650 table 3.53 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD It is enough to provide 600 mm manhole. DRAW OFF SUMP Two draw off sumps is provided at the bottom plate in order to store the water content in the product and to remove it. tc = 16 mm Thickness of bolting flange tf = 11 mm (API 650 table 3. Minimum thickness of cover plate. A Depth of sump.

54 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD VI. The cooling water is sprayed onto the tank with the help of nozzles.2m Wind girder from bottom: 13. College Calicut Dept.58m Height of the tank: 14.2 Total surface area = 1556. INPUT DATA Type of tank: floating roof tank Diameter of the tank: 36. Area below primary wind girder (AI)= x36. COOLING WATER SYSTEM DATA Cooling water system is provided to the tank as per OISD codes.58x13.16m2 AWH Engg. . of Mechanical Engg.2m Design code: OISD 116 The cooling water is sprayed on to the tank with the help of nozzles on three set of pipe rings around the shell as per the new design aspects.

5 to 3. the total amount of water required = 1556. Two sets of cooling water rings are provided.50lpm VII.5kg/cm2.16 = 2067.16 m2 Water required = 3 x surface area = 3 x 689. of Mechanical Engg.6 m AWH Engg.58 x 6= 689. . Ring no. diameter of the tank Height of the foam dam =1m = 36. the operating pressure of the nozzle is calculated to be between 1.1 Surface area to be cooled by the water from top ring = Dh D = dia of the tank= 36. one above the primary wind girder. FOAM SYSTEM PROVIDED Foam recommended Foam application rate = AFFF = 12 liters/min/m2 of seal area.16 x 3 = 4668. College Calicut Dept. Area of the shell.58m H = distance between two wind girders = 6 m Surface area =  x 36.48 (1p – liters per minute) Considering the pressure losses in the pipes connecting the ring and the water tank. and the other below the secondary wind girder.58m = 600mm= 0. (As per OISD 116) Foam dam width D.55 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Since OISD specifies that a minimum of 3 liters has to be sprayed per minute per unit.

56 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD VII.3. . pg C-1. College Calicut Dept. support legs etc. rain-drains. FLOATING ROOF The roof and accessories shall be designed and constructed so that the roof is allowed to the float to the maximum designed liquid level and then return to a liquid level that floats the roof well below the top of the tank shell without damage to any part of roof and accessories. Pontoon data No.25 kg Total weight of pontoon=15318.56kg The deck plate shall be provided with a roof manhole. Deck plate data As per the API 650 standards deck plate shall have a minimum thickness of 5 mm (Cl – C.17kg AWH Engg.2.of components(N)= 38+1=39Qty Pontoon bottom plate= 6300x1500x5thk Pontoon material= IS 2062 Gr A Weight of single pontoon= 39. API 650) So the thickness of deck plate selected = 5 mm Dimensions= 6300x1500x5thk Total weight=31527.3. of Mechanical Engg.

57 1000.69 AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg.06m 200 600 600 110 1050 Pad Deckplate 1000.57 1000. .57 3066.58 m Deck Pontoon 3.57 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD 36.

Track slope = 1 : 100 Supporting legs The floating roof shall be provided with support legs. College Calicut Dept. Length of ladder = 17960 mm. The length of support legs shall be adjustable from the top side of the roof. According to API 650 standards the length and attachment shall be designed to support the roof and uniform live load at least 1. . AWH Engg. of Mechanical Engg.58 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Data of Rolling ladder and spiral stairways Rolling ladder rolls over a certain path with the help of wheels which are made of steel and having a brass cap to prevent spark.2 KPa.

all details given in the history card and record shall gone through. The tank is inspected for its roundness. of Mechanical Engg. Inspection shall include:  Study of all technical specifications and the code to which the tank is to be built.59 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD INSPECTION OF STORAGE TANKS INSPECTION PROCEDURES Before commencing the inspection of a tank. the welding carried out.  Checking of proper welding sequence  Evaluating spot radiology of butt welded annular (radial) joints and vacuum box test of the portion of the weld on the bottom plate in which shell is to be erected  Checking of fits ups and noting of curvature and plumb readings before and after welding of the shell courses AWH Engg. local deviations.  Checking the foundation pad and slope  Identification of plate materials  Qualification of welding procedure and welding operator  Checking of painted underside of the bottom plate prior to these being laid  Checking of each batch of electrodes as per specifications and assurance of its use as per suggested methods of their manufactures and codes. proper curvature. . College Calicut Dept. Inspection of tank is needed to be carried out at different staged of its making.

the tank shall be filled with water as follows To maximum design liquid level. H For a tank with a tight roof. . the shell shall be made tested by one of the following methods. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) If water is available for testing shell. AWH Engg. The final weld shall be cleaned to slag and other deposits prior to inspection. Fillet-Welds Fillet welds shall be inspected by visual method of examination. In addition to it can be done by vacuum test tracer gas test. Inspection of Reinforcement –plate welds After fabrication is completed but before the tank is filled with test water. to 50mm above the weld connecting the roof plate or compression plate to top angle or shell To a level lower than specified in sub items i) or ii) when restricted by over flows.60 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Inspection of Welds Butt-Welds Complete penetration and complete fusion are required for joining shell plates to shell plates. Testing of shell After entire tank and roof structure is completed. bottom welds and plates shall be examined visually for any potential defects and leaks. Inspection for quality of welds shall be made using either radiographic methods or ultra sonic method. Visual examination may also be done. of Mechanical Engg. Inspection of Tank bottom Upon completion of welding of tank bottom. the reinforcement plates shall be tested by applying up to 100 kPa gauge pneumatic pressure between the tank shell and the reinforcement plate on each opening using the tell-tale hole specified. College Calicut Dept.

61 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD a. Applying vacuum top either side of joints or applying air pressure as specified in roof test. Testing of Roof It can be done by  Applying internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of roof plates and applying to weld joints a soap solution or other material suitable for detection of leak. Platform and Structures These shall be examined for corroded or broken parts. weld cracks. Free movement and alignment of wheels on rolling ladder shall be checked. Ladder. blisters and film lifting. College Calicut Dept. tank may be tested by painting all of the joints on inside with a highly penetrating oil and carefully examining the outside of joint for leakage. During the visual inspection. b. at water accumulation locations. AWH Engg.  Vacuum testing of weld joints VISUAL INSPECTION Visual external inspection of each tank shall be made once in a year. If sufficient water is not available to fill the tank. pitting etc. Stairways. following shall be checked. Roof Plates Roof plates shall be inspected for defects like pin holes. . of Mechanical Engg. ladder and staircase steps (trends) shall be checked fro wear and corrosion. Protective Coatings Condition of paint shall be checked visually for rust spots. mechanical damage.

Fire Fighting System General condition of fire fighting facilities and sprinkler systems provided on the tank with respect to clogging of spray nozzles. perforation of foam connections. sapling cracking and general deterioration. and integrity by hammer testing. of Mechanical Engg. . flame arrestors and breather valves shall be examined to ensure that the wire mesh and screens are neither torn nor clogged by foreign matter or insects. Frequency and procedure for checking shall be over as per OISD-Std-142 (Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment). sinking.  Slope of tank pad shall be checked to ensure water drainage Anchor bolts Anchor bolts wherever provided shall be checked for tightness. These shall also be checked for thinning/bending.  Proper sealing of opening between tank bottom and the concrete pad shall be checked (no water shall flow under the tank bottom). Rim and bleeder vents for floating roof tanks shall be examined for proper working. Distortion of bolts is an indication of excessive settlement. shall be checked. AWH Engg. College Calicut Dept. Vents and Pressure Relieving Devices All open vents.62 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Tank Pads  Tanks pads shall be visually checked for settlement. tilting. Concrete foundation at anchor bolt shall be checked for cracks. All vents and pressure relieving devices shall be inspected as per the frequency and procedure outlined in OISD-Std-132 (Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices). etc.

2. On nozzle of size 50 mm NB above. Accessories and Pipe Connection All nozzles shall be visually inspected for corrosion/distortion. in welded seams. College Calicut Dept. at the weld connections of AWH Engg.Tank Shell The tank shell be visually examined for external corrosion. of Mechanical Engg. seepage. . The water proof sealing of the insulation shall be examined every year. bulging and deviation from the vertical. the insulation and weather proof sealing shall be visually inspected for damage. Tank fittings. Valves and fittings shall be checked for tightness and free operations. EXTERNAL INSPECTION The detailed external inspection of the tank shall be carried out as per the frequency mentioned. minimum 4 readings should be taken. The following shall be inspected/checked during external inspection. Cracks mostly occur at the welded connections of nozzles to the tank. Leaks The tank shall be inspected fro any obvious leakage of the product. 1. The resistance of grounding connections shall be checked annually before monsoon. besides the visual inspection. cracks.63 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Insulation If a tank is insulated. since the entry of moisture will greatly reduce the insulating properties and may also result in serious undetected corrosion of the tank plates underneath the insulation. Grounding Connections Grounding connections shall be visually checked for corrosion at the points where they enter earth and at the connections to the tank. Thickness measurements shall be taken with ultrasonic thickness meter.

3 to 4 readings should be taken on each plate diagonally. and top positions of the plate must be covered. the following shall also be thoroughly checked. the drawings of seals shall be studied so that operation and possible damages are well understood. Floating roof seals Before making a regular inspection of floating roof seals. of Mechanical Engg. middle. College Calicut Dept. indications/marks of seepage and corrosion  Roof and emergency drain Drain shall be checked for breakages and blockages on the check valve fitted on to the roof drain inlet end.  All the plates of first and second course of the shell should be thickness  On the first course. during visual inspection. .64 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD brackets or other attachments to the tank and the fillet welds of the shell to bottom plate.  Paint condition  Depressions  Pontoon boxes and buoys from leakages. One reading shall be near the lower weld joint and the other at approachable height. The following minimum requirement for the thickness survey is recommended in all tanks.  On the second course. the bottom. 3. Tank Roofs Floating Roofs On a floating roof. Emergency drains shall be checked for water level oil spillage on roof deck. two readings should be taken on each plate. AWH Engg.

Earthing of the ladder c. Hinge bolts at the top of ladder and its rollers b. Lateral movement. Tank Shell Entire tank shell shall be visually scanned for signs of corrosion. freed of gases and cleaned out. pitting.65 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Floating roof seals shall be visually inspected every year. INTERNAL INSPECTION Prior to internal inspection. Projecting out portion of bottom plates The projecting out portion of the bottom plates (annular plates) shall be visually examined for any corrosion/thinking ultrasonically gauged. counter-balance. The floating roof seals shall be inspected from the underside. a. cracking etc. the tank must be emptied of liquid. pantographs and shoes are susceptible to mechanical damage. service condition and history shall be guiding AWH Engg. hanfers. in addition to mechanical wear and atmospheric or vapour space corrosion. 5. Electrical continuity between the floating roof and tank shell. eroded or broken parts and deteriorated sealing materials. All seals shall be inspected visually for corroded. of Mechanical Engg. Thickness survey of the pontoon boxes and check shall be carried out. Exposed mechanical parts such as springs. . Roof and Structural Members Floating Roof The underside and internal of floating roof shall be inspected for corrosion and deterioration. Any suspected pontoon/buoy compartment shall be checked with air and suds. bowing and shifting. II. College Calicut Dept. rotation and titling of roof d. Before commencing the internal inspection. an external inspection of the tank shall be done as specified earlier. The legs and sleeved of floating roof shall be checked for deterioration. Finding of external inspection. The rubber seal have fairly close contact with tank shell plates.

To carry out a positive inspection and accurate check. However. organic and inorganic coatings. Corrosion on the underside of flat bottom tanks resting on soil or on pads cannot be checked from outside. rubber. From ultrasonic thickness instrument are also indications of underside corrosion. it shall be visually inspected to obtain the first indication of the condition of the bottom. All weld joints shall be examined carefully. IV. Depressions in the bottom and in the areas around or under the roof supports and pipe coil supports shall be checked closely. pitting. Drain sumps shall be carefully checked for crack. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Water draw-off Water draw off subjected to internal and external corrosion as well as cracking. V. it is recommended to cut out representative sections of coupons (at least 30mm in least dimension) of bottom plate. if the walls are alternately wet and dry or the concepts are corrosive chemicals. corrosion and weld cracks. AWH Engg. . that is in proper position and it does not have holes or cracks in the rubber lining as evidenced by bulging.66 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD factors for such observations. Linings When the inside surface of a tank are lined with corrosion resistant material such as sheet lead. leak in the weld. etc. the entire can be attacked. The weld joints shall be thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected for cracks or defects by magnifying glass wherever joints of shell and annular ring and inspected for any leakage. and measured in particular when corrosion at the underside of the tank bottom plates has been suspected. or concrete inspection shall be made to ensure that the lining is in good condition. They shall be visually inspected and hammer tested along with thickness survey as feasible. The tank bottom plates shall be visually inspected for pitting. Bottom plate under dip hatch shall be checked for dents. Tank Bottom After the tank has cleaned of its sludge. III. The vapour space and liquid level line are likely areas of corrosion.

of Mechanical Engg. swivel joints or flexible hose drains that keep the water from contaminating the contents. Removing excess penetrant from the surface 5. Roof drains Roof drains on the floating roof can be designed in many ways. Dye penetrant testing Advantages i. Surface penetration and pre cleaning 2. Applying a visible or fluorescent liquid penetrant to surface 3. They can be simple open drain pipes. Wait for the penetrant to enter surface breaking discontinuities 4. . Applying a developer to the examination surface 6. Proper functioning of the roof drains shall be ensured otherwise this may lead to sinking or over turning of the floating roof. Dye-penetrating testing It is used for detecting discontinuities open to the surface Basic process 1.67 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Hardness testing of the rubber lining shall be carried out while inspecting the tank internally. ii. Easy to apply and cheap Interpretation easier Can be used for any metal Disadvantages i. Interpretation of indication 7. TESTING METHODS 1. Can detect only surface discontinuities AWH Engg. VI. College Calicut Dept. iii.

volumetric NDT. Can be used for surface and sub surface discontinuities up to 5mm Interpretation easy Disadvantages i. Can be used for only ferrous metals Residual magnetism is a problem Power requirement Ultra sonic Testing Ultrasonic waves are sound waves with frequency above the audible range ie. 2. AWH Engg. 3.68 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD 2. above 20000 Hz. iii. of Mechanical Engg. 7. 3. . Magnetic Particle Testing Used to detect surface and sub surface discontinuities Basic process 1. Magnetic field is induced in the specimen The discontinuities lying in a direction transverse to the field will cause a leakage flux to develop around it. 4. ii. ii. Magnetizing yoke Florescent iron powder Black light source Both AC and DC current can be used for producing magnetic field permanent magnets are also used for the same Advantages i. 6. 5. College Calicut Dept. Fine magnetic powder if sprinkled on this will adhere to in the vicinity of leakage flux. This method is used to detect all types of defects ie.

 Radiation is absorbed as it passes through the material  The absorption depends on the amount. Any change of medium reflects the waves due to change in acoustic impedance 3. annular plate joints) Used to detect all kinds of defects Basic process  It is a volumetric examination using X-ray radiation or nuclear radiation that penetrates through the specimen and produces an image on the film. The amplitude and distance in the CRT will give an indication on the type and position of the defect 4. Defects of material are change of acoustic impudence 4.  The image depends on the amount on the amount of transmitted rays that strike the film  Radiographic source can be either X-ray tubes or Gamma radiation source X-ray gives better quality of image  Gamma ray sources contain radioactive isotopes of Iridium 192 or Cobalt 60 Advantages    Any kind of defects can be detected Gives a permanent record Defect location and positioning is more accurate no. Radiographic test (Applicable only at shell. The reflected waves are detected using cathode ray tubes 5. of the AWH Engg.69 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Basic process 1. of Mechanical Engg. . density and atomic material  A discontinuity causes a condition of less material of lesser density. College Calicut Dept. Ultrasonic waves propagated through the material 2.

. AWH Engg.processing time of film . of Mechanical Engg. College Calicut Dept.70 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD Disadvantages  Radiation safety is an area of concern especially in case of gamma ray sources  The operators are likely to be exposed to radioactive radiation and needs constant monitoring  The test results will take some time.

2m of plate of IS-2062A was used.58 m to height of 14. The designing was done according to the full design specification as required by the industry using American Petroleum Institute (API 650-11th edition. The inspection of tank was also studied at different stages of its construction. of Mechanical Engg. The given parameters were to design and store HSD in a tank of diameter 36. After the designing was completed the design was checked with the existing parameters. College Calicut Dept. The tank was designed to store 14000 KI. . 2007) design data. AWH Engg.71 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD CONCLUSION Introducing a floating type roof for the storage would mean increased safety level.

5. College Calicut Dept. of Mechanical Engg. 2. OIL INDUSTRIES SAFETY DIRECTORATE (OISD)116. 4. 2007. Guide to Storage Tank and Equipments API 653 – 2009 (Only for repair) AWH Engg. . AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) 650. Text Book of “Introduction to Storage Tank “.72 Design & Maintenance of storage tank for HSD REFFERENCES 1. 11TH EDITION. 3.

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