ON

COMPILED BY:

Rajib Ranjan A2706006104

Amity School of Hospitality

INDEX
• GUIDE CERTIFICATE • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • OBJECTIVE • METHODOLOGY • LIMITATION • INTRODUCTION • ABOUT AWADH CUISINE • CULINARY TERMS • MUTTON • FISH • VEGETABLE FARE • PULSES • RICE • BREADS • SWEET DISHES • CURD DISHES • USE OF HERB & SPICES IN AWADA CUISINE

• CONCLUSION • SUGGESTION • BIBLOGRAPHY
• QUESTIONNAIRE

GUIDE’S CERTIFICATE
I have the pleasure to certify that __________________ a has pursed his research present STUDY is the

student of ______________________ , my supervision and guidance . The is being

work and prepared the project “AWADH CUISINE ” under result of this own research to the best of my knowledge. This submitted to Amity School of Hospitality for the Partial fulfillment of the requirements of the four year fulltime degree in hotel Management.

Guides Signature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Project Sir. I sincerely acknowledge the contribution of the suggestions given by Mr. Pranshu Chomplay without which his project could never became a ratify. Last but not least I acknowledge all my friends who gave me suggestion and full support by heart.

AWADH CUISINE

is a successful out come

of my hard work with the help and guidance of my respectable

OBJECTIVES
1. To find the Overview of Awadh. 2. To find the Cuisine of Awadh. 3. To find the Food of Awadh. 4. To find the Dishes of Awadh. 5. To find the Dining of Awadh. 6. To find the Receipes of Awadh. 7. To find the Food Style of Awadh. 8. To find the Food Equipment of Awadh.

METHODOLOGY
1.Desk research, which includes: books, Internet, magazines and journals. 2.Through personal and telephonic interviews. 3.Through correspondence with export managers, owners of vineyards and eminent people in the industry by means of e-mail and paper mail. 4. By attending shows, seminars, lectures, talks, forums, etc.

LIMITATIONS
1. Non-availability of appropriate books regarding the subject. 2. Contradictory statements regarding Awadh food in different books. 3. Lack of opportunities to solve queries regarding Awadh Food. 4. Since the subject of Awadh food is a very new one, gaining knowledge from the people concerned was very difficult as few experts are available in this field. 5. Trying to gain access to these experts to interview them was another problem.

INTRODUCTION
Food occupies the highest position in most cultures and religions. A most unique example of spiritualism manifested in a physical form… the evidence of the bounties of God and human motivation for existence. 'Pahile Taam Badahu Kalaam' 'First food then communication,' is the evidence of its supreme position, Considerable spirituality revolves around food, which is blessed and elevated to the position of' Nemat' - the special creations of God for His most special creation, the human being, this opens a different dimension to the subject of food…. What. How much, which meal is blessed, when. ,Where and how - and how much and most importantly when to negate food fasting, dieting, etc.

From the finer layers of all this is born the culture of food. The evolution of the 'Zaiqa', the taste,.. And it pervades the entire milieu, from festivities to celebrations, from intimate 'nashishts' to public 'mahfils', The aroma rises from smoke filled kitchens to elaborate 'dastarkhwans' where words and images are as cleverly woven, as condiments and herbs,.. where the same m~at tells a different story through its varied 'Zaiqa', Yet, food is an intimate feeling of loving care and warmth of human relationships. It is the most regular and the most consistent form of reinforcing tenderness. Food in Awadh had evolved to become a total experience of an occasion - fragrant, visually appealing and almost magical.. and truly such is the scope of this book - extremely detailed, well researched and evocative of the ambience of a bygone era. It brings to life a number of recipes and techniques that had gone into oblivion; and with it a new interest in this rich Form of cuisine; it opens an enormous future for the refined international palate, the art of cooking and above all the promotion of Lucknow - because there is no substitute for enjoying this fare other than in its own milieu. It ranges from simple to the rich, exotic to the earthy, and for the gourmet opens up a vast canvas to create and balance a wide range of

menus to suit every possible taste to leave an everlasting impression...

ABOUT AWADH CUISINE

It was 137 years ago that the last of the kings of Avadh walked on the sarzameen (land) of their beloved Lucknow. While these monarchs sat on the throne of Avadh, there was nothing that they left untouched, thankfully, for their touch was like the proverbial magic wand. It could raise the most mundane of activities into the realm of art and to

unattained heights of excellence. Little wonder that even bawarchis became master creator of culinary delights. Powerful courts all over India vyed with each other to wean away a cook who had either worked or was trained in Lucknow. To belong to Lucknow was the highest qualification a cook could hold. The ruler of Avadh engaged in peaceful pursuits since the battle of Buxar, and laid the foundation of a culture which dazzled the world. Under their patronage developed a cuisine which did not remain the prerogative of royalty alone. Recipes traveled from the royal kitchens of the nobilities and from there, to the kichens of ordinary people. All the while, research and innovation proceeded unabated in the bawarchi khanas of the royalty and aristocracy where money was no constraint, neither was time. In the mid 18th century, in the personal bawarchi khana of Nawab Shuja-Ud-Daula, Rs. 60,000 was spent per month or Rs. 7.2 lakhs per year on the preparation of dishes. The dishes which adorned his dastarkhwan did not come from the kitchen alone but from five other bawarchikhanas, including that of his mother Nawab Begum and his wife Bahu Begum. These ladies separately spent Rs. 9,000 per

every month on the preparation of food. The staggering salaries of the hierarchy of cooks and other kitchen staff came from a separate budget. However, high salaries were not the only reason for the excellent performance of the cooks. They were given total freedom to pursue their work their own way. Examples of cooks laying down conditions of employment before crowned heads, and the latter meekly accepting them, would only be found in Lucknow. And in Lucknow alone would you find cooks strutting off in a huff if the king did not sit down for a meal when told to do so by the cook because the food was hot. A tale is told of a cook employed only to prepare mash ki dal (arhar ki dal) on a monthly salary of Rs. 500. The dal was not cooked daily but once in a while, and the king was condition bound to sit down at the dastarkhwan when he cook announced that dal was ready. The king once delayed, so the cook left. Before leaving, he emptied the contents of the dish at a place where stood a stalk of a dead tree. In a few days, leaves started sprouting from the stalk and before long, the tree turned a healthy green colour (source: Abdul Sharar’s The last phase of an Oriental Culture). The story may appear like an exaggeration but the fact remains that the

ingredients that went into the preparation of the royal dishes were very nutritious. It was unwritten law that the master would sanction whatever quantity of ingredients the cook demanded. No questions were asked nor doubts expressed. Another popular story goes that king Ghazi-ud-din Haider slapped his vazir Agha Meer for reducing the quantity of ghee used by the cook in preparing parathas. The king was no fool. He said that even if the cook pilfered some ghee, so what? The parathas he made were excellent, while ”you rob the whole monarchy and think nothing of it.” It was not royalty alone who pampered their cooks. The nobility, aristocracy and people of lesser means too maintained well stocked and well staffed kitchens from where were turned out the most exotic of dishes. Begums and ordinary housewives too preserved in their kitchens and acquired an excellence that could match the skills of a professional bawarchi.

Lazeez Lauki Broadly, there are three categories of cooks in Lucknow. The bawarchis cook food in large quantities. The rakabdars cook in small gourmet quantities. Rakabdars also specialize in the garnishing and presentation of dishes. The nanfus make a variety of roti, chapattis, naans, sheermals, kulchas and taftans. Normally, one cook does not prepare the entire meal. There are specialists for different dishes and also a variety of helpers like the degbos who wash the utensils, the masalchis who grind the masala and the mehris who carry the khwan (tray) to be spread on the dastarkhwan. The wealthy always had their kitchens supervised by was this officer’s seal on the khwan that guaranteed quality control. an officer called daroga-e-bawarchi khana or mohtamim. It

The Lucknow dastarkhwan would not be complete unless it had the following dishes. Qorma (braised meat in thick gravy), salan (a gravy dish of meat or vegetable), qeema (minced meat), kababs (pounded meat fried or roasted over a charcoal fire), bhujia (cooked vegetables), dal, pasinda (fried slivers of very tender meat, usually kid, in gravy) Rice is cooked with meat in the form in the form of a pulao, chulao (fried rice) or served plain. There would also be a variety of rotis. Deserts comprise gullati (rice pudding), kheer (milk sweetened and boiled with whole rice to a thick consistency), sheer brunj, (a rich, sweet rice dish boiled in milk), muzaffar (vermicelli fried in ghee and garnished with saffron). The Lucknowi’s menu changes with the seasons and with the festival which mark the month. The severity of winters is fought with rich food. Paye (trotters) are cooked overnight over a slow fire and the shorba (thick gravy) eaten with naans. Turnips are also cooked overnight with meat koftas and kidneys and had for lunch. This dish is called shab degh and a very popular in Lucknow. The former Taluqdar of Jehangirabad would serve it to his friends on several occasions during winter.

Zamin Doz Machchli Birds like patridge and quail are had from the advent of winter since they are heat giving meats. Fish is relished from the advent of winter till spring. It is avoided in the rainy season. Lucknowis prefer river fish particularly rahu (carp), for fish bones are the last thing they would like to struggle with for this reason, fish kababs (cooked in mustard oil) are preferred. Peas are the most sought after vegetable in Lucknow. People never tire of eating peas. One can spot peas in salan, qeema, pulao or just fried plain. Sawan (spring) is celebrated with pakwan (crisp snacks), phulkis (besan pakoras in salan), puri-kababs and birahis (paratha stuffed with mashed dal) khandoi (steamed balls of dal in a salan), laute paute (gram flour pancakes, rolled and sliced and served in a salan) and colocasia-leaf cutlets served with salan add variety. Raw mangoes cooked in

semolina and jaggery or sugar, makes a delicious dessert called curamba, in summer. These dishes come from the rural Hindu population of Lucknow. Activity in the kitchen increases with the approach of festivals. During Ramzan, the month of fasting, the cooks and the ladies of the house are busy throughout the day preparing the iftari (the meal eaten at the end of the day’s fast), not only for the family but for the friends and the poor. Id is celebrated with varieties of siwaiyan (vermicelli) – Muzzaffar is a favouritein Lucknow. Shab-e-barat is looked forward to for its halwas particularly of semolina and gram flour. Khichra or haleem , a del;icious mixture of dals wheat and meat, cooked together, is had during Muharram, since it signifies a sad state of mind. There are dishes which appear and disappear from the Lucknow dastarkhwan with the season and there are those which are a permanent feature, like the qorma, the chapatti and the roomali roti. The test of a good chapatti is that you should be able to see the sky through it. The dough should be very loose and is left in a lagan (deep broad vessel) filled with water for half an hour before the chapattis are made.

Sheermals were invented by mamdoo bawarchi more than one and a half century ago. They are saffron covered parathas made from a dough of flour mixed with milk and ghee and baked in iron tandoors. No other city produces sheermals like Lucknow does and the festive dastarkhwan is not complete without it. Saffron is used to flavour sweets too. Utensils are made either of iron or copper. Meat kababs are cooked in a mahi tawa (large, round shallow pan), using a kafgir which is a flat, long handled ladle for turning kababs and parathas. Bone china plates and dishes were used in Lucknow since the time of Nawabs. Water was normally sipped from copper or silver kato ras and not glasses. The seating arrangement, while eating was always on the floor where beautifully embroidered dastarkhwans were spread on dares and chandnis (white sheets). Sometimes this arrangement was made on a takht or low, wide wooden table.

CULINARY TERMS
DHUNGAR This is a quick smoke procedure used to flavour a meat dish, daIs or even raita. The smoke very effectively permeates every grain of the ingredients and imparts a subtle aroma, which enhances the quality of the dish. The procedure may be carried out either at the intermediate or the final stage of cooking. This is a common technique employed while making kababs. The method is as follows. In a shallow utensil or a lagan in which the meat or mince has been marinated, a small bay is made in the center and a katori or onion skin or even a betel leaf (depending on the dish) is placed. In it a piece of live coal is placed and hot ghee, sometimes mixed with aromatic

herbs or spices, is poured over it and covered immediately with a lid to prevent the smoke from escaping. The lid is not removed till about 15 minutes, so as to allow the smoke to work on the ingredients inside. The coal is then removed from the utensil and the meat put through further cooking processes. DUM DENA This is a frequently method used in Awadh cooking. 'Dum' literally means 'breath' and the process involves placing the semi-cooked ingredients in a pot or deg, sealing the utensil with flour dough and applying very slow charcoal fire from top, by placing some live charcoal on the lid, and some below. The Persian influence is most evident in this method though in Awadh it has acquired its own distinct character. The magic of dum' is the excellent aroma, flavor and texture which results from slow cooking. This method is followed for a number of delicacies such as the Shabdeg, Pulao and Biryani. Any dish cooked by this method is 'Dum Pukht' or 'Dum Bakht'. GALAVAT Refers to the use of softening agents such as papain (from raw papaya) or kalmi shora to tenderise meat.

BAGHAR This is a method of tern pering a dish with hot oil / ghee and spices. It may be done either at the beginning of the cooking as in curries, or at the end as for (pulses). In the former, the fat is heated in a vessel to a smoking point and after reducing the flame, spices are added to it. When they begin to crackle. the same process is carried out in a ladle which is immersed in the cooked dish and immediately covered with a lid, so that the essence and the aroma of the spices, drawn out by the hot ghee are retained in the dish giving it their flavour. GILE HIKMAT

Talking of Persian influence on Awadh cuisine one cannot ignore this in teresting method adopted for cooking. 'Gil' in Persian is earth or mud and 'Hikmat' implies the procedure of the Hakims. This method is generally followed to prepare 'Kushtas' which are the ash-like residue of substances which cannot be consumed in their natural form as they are toxic, for instance gems or metals. But when adopted for cooking purposes the method is as follows. The meat or vegetable to be cooked is generally taken whole and stuffed with nuts and spices, It is then wrapped in a banana leaf or cloth and covered completely with clay or 'Multani Mitti' (Fuller's Earth) so as to seal it. It is thereafter buried about 4-6 inches deep.

Aslow fire is then placed on top for 6-8 hours after which the food is dug out and is ready to be served! LOAB This is a term which refers to the final stage in cooking when the oil used during cooking, rises to the surface. giving the dish a finished appearance, This occurs mostly when slow cooking of gravy dishes is involved.

MOIN It is the shortening of dough. In this process fat is rubbed into the flour and made into a dough for kachoris or pooris orparathas. This makes the final product crisp, flaky and crumbly. ITTR (Perfumes) The use of perfumes play an important role in Awadh cuisine they are used to enhance the aroma of the dish and make it delicate. Most commonly they are made from musk deer, hunting of which is now banned worldwide.

Yakhni cuts (Mutton)

The cuts for Yakhni are generally bony pieces with flesh on them. These cuts are usually taken from the joints and the ribs of the animal. The basic purpose of mea t in preparing Yakhni is to derive the juice and flavour and hence the shape of the meat does not count much. Chandi warq This is the process in which small pieces of silver are placed. between two sheets of paper and then patted continuously with a hammer till it becomes papery thin. These are used in decorating the dishes before presentations, e.g. Chandi kaliya, Moti pulao. Zamin doz This is a style of cooking in which a hole is dug in the ground and the ingredients are placed and covered with mud. Then burning charcoal is placed over it. The cooking process takes about 6 hours. Bhagona Or the patili is generally of brass with a lid. It is used when a great deal of 'bhunna' or saute is required. or even for boiling and simmering. It is also used for preparingYakhni or Salan, Korma or Kaliya.

Deg/Degchi This is a pear-shaped pot with a lid of either brass, copper or aluminium. The shape of this utensil is ideally suited for the 'd:Jm' method and is used for cooking Pulaa, Biryani, Nehari or Shab Deg. Kadhai is a deep, cancave utensil made afbrass, iron or aluminium and is used far deep frying paoris and the like. Lagan is a round and shallow copper utensil with a slightly concave bottom. Used for cooking whole or big cuts of meat or poultry especially when heat is applied from both the top and bottom.

Lobe ka tandoor It is an iron tandoor. as distinct from the clay tandoor more common in Delhi. It is a kind of dome-shaped iron oven used for making most breads such as the Sheermal. Taftan, Bakarkhani etc. Mahi tawa is the Awadh version of the griddle shaped like a big round, flat bottomed tray with raised edges. used for cooking kababs. Also used for dishes where heat is applied from both ends. when covered. SEENI

is a big thali (round tray) usually used as a lid for the lagan or mahi tawa when heat is to be applied from the top. Live charcoal is placed on it and the heat is transmitted through it to the food. Thus the indirect heat has the desired effect of browning and cooking the ingredients. All the copper and brass utensils are almost always used after 'kalai' or tin plating the insides.

MUTTON
The verdant plains of north India abound in cattle population. Traditional farming also encompasses rearing of other animals such as goats, sheep and pigs. Poultry farming is also common.' In and around Lucknow rearing goat and poultry for the table is most prevalent. Religion and tradition have led to the choice of lamb, chicken and fish as the favourite meats. But mutton is the fare that has stimulated the culinary genius of the cooks of Awadh in a way no other meat has. The passion for perfection and style has led the cooks, and even the butchers, to evolve specific preparations, for instance the

pasanda, chop, raan and so on. It is commonplace here to find customers at the butcher's shop patiently waiting for the cuts of their choice. Frozen and pre-cut mutton is almost unthinkable in these parts. For the cook as well as the gourmet, the quality of meat is something that can not be compromised on. The meat of the male goat is preferred as it is believed to have more flavour and marrow in the bones, The age of the animal is also considered while buying meat. If tender meat is required, as for 'Hakeem' then a younger animal is preferred.whereas when flavour gets precedence. then the more mature goat is ordered. Thus the selection of meat is an art espoused by passion and not as mundane as buying Beluga Caviar or Smoked Salmon off a K-mart shelf. It would be pertinent, here to acquaint the reader with the typical mutton cuts used in this region for its cuisine. Roughly following the order of dissection. the various cuts are as follows: The neck portion of the lamb has non-fibrous meat and is therefore suited for cooking a korma. salan. pulao or biryani. The rib cage offers a variety of cuts. The 'chops' are cuts on the backbone and are part of the ribs. Usually a single rib is cut. However, if the goat is young two ribs are combined. Because of the high bone marrow content and the tender

meat which is least fibrous. this cut is used for delicate kormas. kaliyas, pulaos and biryani. Another cut is the pasli ka panja which comprises four to five ribs of the floating end. that is, ribs on the breast side forming the cage, connected with tissues and very tender meat. The flesh outside the rib cage is tender and has a lot of fat attached to it known as the rawaz which is used for cooking purposes and also incorporated in the dough for breads such as Sheermal. When the fat is removed from the flesh the meat still remains streaky. Cut into small pieces, they are called parchas a,nd are specially used for biryani and pulao, If minced, it is called chikna keema which is a high quality mild flavoured mince used for delicate kabab preparation such as the Galavat Kabab. The front legs or agli dast and the hind legs or the raan are the most versatile in terms of the cuts. The trotter or the Paye are essentially the bones. which are used for making the Paya Shorba, a kind of soup which is a popular ingredient of the Nehari in the winter months and also prescribed by the Hakims for convalescing patients. These are

also used for making jelly saffron and sweetened with sugar chilled and served as a dessert. The two central bones of each leg contain a good amount of marrow and are always cut into two halves. The cut obtained is called the nalli and is always in good demand. The meat surrounding the nalli boti consists of several bands of tendons covered with tissues. This elongated piece of flesh tapers down to a band which is connected to the bone joints. This portion is called the kareli or machhli (fish) owing to its silvery and slippery appearance. The cut obtained by cutting across the grain of the muscles is called the kareli boti which is delicious when cooked in Nehari, korma or kaliya. The upper leg portion of the hind leg is the raan. The raan can be cooked while like the Western 'roast' and is called the 'Raan Mussallam', Besides, flat pieces can be obtained from the raan which are called pasanda used for the delectable Pasanda Kababs which can either be skewered or cooled in the lagan, The mince obtained from the raan or the rookha keema is fat free and used for making kababs such as Patili Kababs, Kakori Kababs and Shami Kababs. The rump or the puth is basically a bony structure but contains the liver and kidneys and a lot of fat attached to it called the charbi which is used for cooking purposes, The

fleshy portion is called the puth ka parda and is used whole on skewers for the Parda Kababs or for obtaining mince. The botis or cuts along the backbone are used in salans and Yakhni. The liver and kidneys are cooked separately as a dry preparation and are quite delicious and nutritious.

FISH
The court of the Nawabs of Awadh were not only resplendent with musicians and dancers but also sportsmen like wrestlers and swimmers who performed feats for the noblemen. The authors were able to trace out one of the last vestiges, of that ancient tradition in Nawab Agha of Sheeshmahal. He is the grandson of Nawab Mir Fazle Ali Khan Bahadur who was honoured by the title of 'Mir Machhli' by Nawab Ghazi-ud-din Halder.

and can stay afloat. He is known in Lucknow as 'Mainaz-eFairak' (the ace swimmer). Even now at the age of 70, he can dive from the top of the Husainabad Clock Tower like his illustrious grandfather. Apart from water sports. the water of the Gomti and several ponds in this region offer the best variety of fresh water fish like the Rohu. Sole. Taingan. Pata, Moh.and Mahasher. The biggest fish market in Lucknow is in the Qaiserbagh where you can get the choicest variety offresh water fish. The best time to consume the fish is between September and April. Though mutton is more popular among the people of Awadh, their passion for fish is also remarkable. The wide array of fish recipes requiring different techniques of cooking are ample proof of this. A saying thus goes. "Ask a fish what is its last wish is and it will say - 'to be eaten by an Awadhi'."

KANTA GALI MACHHLI
INGREDIENTS 1 kg Fish 2 kg Curd 1-kg Onion 6 cloves Garlic 1 tsp Garam masala Salt to taste 250 gms Ghee

Y2litre Water 125 gms Mustard oil Cut fish into halves. Place a mahi tawa on fire and pour mustard oil on it. When hot put the fish on it and fry both sides. Meanwhile, keep 112litre hot water ready. When the fish is fried on both sides, immerse it in hot water for 5 minutes and then in cold water. Next, remove the skin of the fish. Finely slice the onions and fry in the ghee to a golden brown. Add chopped ginger, garlic, red chilli powder and garam masala, curd and salt. Stuff some masala in the fish by slitting it lengthways. Place a patili on fire, make a bed of masala in it, place the fish on it, and top with the remaining masala. Cover the patili and seal with dough. Cook on a very slow fire for 6-7 hours. The bones of the fish by now would have been cooked. Serve hot with chapati.

VEGETARIAN FARE
The Gangetic plain, which cradled the erstwhile kingdom of Awadh, has been a great melting pot of diverse religious and cultures. In Awadh, the Hindus and the Muslims have coexisted amicably for years, and sohas their cuisine. Whilethe Muslims favour a eat-based diet, the Hindus have been predominantly, vegetarians. Though these days, owing to centuries of intermingling of cultures.

sherbets, gourds and kulfi whereas in winter the appetite is perked up with Nimona (a green pea and lentil dumpling preparation), gobhi mussallqm and hot kheer. The fertile plains yield a variety of crops and vegetables. Whether homegrown or bought from the local 'sabzi-mandi' (vegetable market), the accent is always on the freshness of the vegetables. Apart from vegetables, milk and milk products are a vital component of the vegetarian diet. Owing to a long tradition of cattle rearing, milk has been a common source of nutrition. Milk products such as balai, khoya, butter, ghee and curds are put to good use in Awadhi cuisine. Lentils or pulses are also an important source of proteins for the vegetarian and almost always feature on the daily vegetarian menu. Rice and wheat breads such as the roti, paratha. puri, kachori are the common accompaniments alongwith relishes such as pickles, chutneys and 'murabbas' (preserves).

KARELA KA DULMA
INGREDIENTS
6 Bitter gourds (karela) 3 Onions 6 Cloves garlic

2 tsp Coriander powder 1 tsp Turmeric powder 1 V2tsp Aniseed 1 tsp Black onion seeds 1 tsp Chironji 5 Cashewnuts 4 tsp Salt 150 gms Ghee or oil Wash the gourds, lightly scrape the skin with a knife, cut off the top and keep aside. Gently scrape out the fish and seeds with a knife with a narrow blade. In Y2litre of water, dissolve 3 tsp. salt and soak the gourds in it for 10 minutes. Meanwhile, grate the onions, extract juice of the garlic and keep aside. Lightly roast the aniseed and black onion seeds on a griddle and pound. Also lightly roast the chronic and cashew nuts and grind to a paste. Now, in a griddle heat a tablespoon of ghee/oil to a smoking point. Reduce the name and sprinkle the garlic juice. Then add the grated onions and saute for 5 minutes. Next add all the dry masalas including mango and turmeric powder. nut paste. salt and saute on a slow name for 5 minutes. Remove and keep. Remove the karelas from brine, and squeeze out water. Invert and keep in a sieve or dry in the sun for 15 minutes. Then fill each gourd with the masala paste, put the cut end on the gourd and stitch with a needle and thread to make it secure. Heat ghee or oil in a kadhai or

frying pan to a smoking point. Reduce the name and carefully place all the gourds in it and cover and cook on a slow FLAME. Cover and cook till all sides are evenly done. Remove with a slotted spoon, draining away excess oil. Serve hot or at room temperature with chapatis. Remove the thread before serving.

GOBHI MUSSALLAM
INGREDI E N T S
1 (medium size) Cauliflower 1 large Onion 1" piece Ginger 1 tbsp Poppy seeds

5 Cashewnuts 1tsp Turmeric powder 1tsp Chilli powder Salt to taste 1 Blade Mace 1 Stick Cinnamon 5 Green cardamoms 5 Cloves 150 gms Curd 100 gms Ghee 250 gms Shelled green peas 1/.1tsp Cumin seeds Wash the whole cauliflower, cut off the main stalk and remove the leaves. Finely slice the onion, fry to a golden brown colour and grind to a paste using some of the curd. Separately grind the ginger, mace, cinnamon, cardamom and cloves. Lightly roast the poppy seeds and cashewnuts on a griddle and grind to a paste. Parboil cauliflower in half litre salted water. Remove. Now in a kadhai. heat the ghee in which the onions were fried and place the cauliflower upside-down first so as to lightly brown it. Turn and cook the stem side for 5 minutes. Remove and place in the curd. Mix all the ground ingredients, chilli and turmeric powder and salt and pour over the cauliflower. In a lagan, place the cauliflower along with the marinade. Pour ghee on the top and sides, saving 1 tbsp for

the peas. Cover and place slow charcoal fire on the lid and also below the lagan. Cook till the masala is dry but moist and the cauliflower is done. Meanwhile. in the kadhai heat a tbsp. of ghee and add the cumin seeds. When they begin to crackle, add the shelled peas. a pinch of salt and cook till tender. When the cauliflower is done. serve on a bed of peas.

PULSES
The Awadh diet is based on meats, vegetables. cereals and legumes. Pulses or 'daIs' are commonly consumed and are relatively cheap, and rich in proteins. A dal is a vital component of the poorman's diet. Even the dastarkhwans of the rich. Full 'ofmeat and sweets, extended to accommodate a wide array of dals. which were prepared with great passion. With their Midas touch, the rakabdars transformed the humblest of dals to the esoteric. Legend has it that a certain

rakabdar of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, specialised in cooking daIs. He would use one 'asharfi' (gold coin) for every 'Baghar'. This practice intrigued the treasurer who suspected some foul play. Hoping to catch the cook red-handed, he appeared in the kitchen one day to enquire about the fate of the gold coins. On being questioned, the cook politely told him t!:Iat there was no need for such suspicion and pointed towards a shelf where all the coins were neatly stacked. But when the amazed officer tried to pick up a coin. It turned to dust in his hands Gone are the Nawabs and the 'asharfis' but the people of this region are still enthusiastic about the various dals. They are particularly passionate about the Arhar ki Oal or Pigeon-pea, which incidentally is a legume which takes the longest time (about 9 months) to mature in the field.

RICE
North Indians pride themselves in growing the world's finest variety of scented rice known as 'Pilaf Rice or Basmati Rice. In the region of Awadh, the cooking of rice attained superlative heights of fineness, both in terms of variety and method of preparation, often considered a symbol of prosperity in these parts. No festive occasion or celebration goes without a rice

preparation. Also, no other region of India can boast of more varieties of Rice, which is appreciated more in Delhi and Hyderabad, is considered to be a poor cuisine of the exalted Pulao. and The former was considered considered an rat affront her on the The sensibilities of the exalted to the. method of cooking colour form, which were crude. Yakhn1'Pulao,'on the other hand, is a beautiful. aesthetic. blend of rich mutton stock, aromatic spices, balai and rice. The delicate flavour and aroma of this pulao is a treat to the senses.

BREADS

Indian breads have a unique character. very different from their Western counterparts in terms of taste and variety. The knowledge of the art of making bread is very basic to any cook. Always prepared fresh and hot for every meal. or at the most. carried over for the next meal, a day bread is not considered.

The variety of breads is immense ranging from the humble roti to the naan the poori and paratha. Each of these categories, in turn has several varieties too. In Awadh alone as many as 15b'varietles of bread are known to have been cooked! The dough for one bread differs from the others ill the composition of fat ingredients.

ROOMALI ROTI
Sift the wheat flour and refined flour with salt. Rub in the melted ghee. Slowly add water and make a soft dough. Keep it covered with a damp cloth for 30 minutes. The dough should be very elastic. Knead well again. Divide the dough in 6 equal portions. Shape them into round balls. Roll out each ball into small rounds on the floured 'chakla' (wooden disk). Hold this on the back of your palm and circle it/twist it anti-clockwise and swing it, then again catch it on the back of palm of the same hand. Keep repeating until the diameter of the same

becomes about 30 cms. Care should be taken to maintain the round shape and even thickness throughout. These rotis are cooked on the convex side of the griddle, something like an inverted kadhai or wok and takes just about a minute to cook. These rotis are folded into quarters or sixes. INGREDIENTS 150 gms Whole wheat flour 50 gms Refined flour Salt to taste 10 ml Melted ghee Cold water for kneading

TAFTAN
INGREDIENTS 450 gms Flour 25 gms Yeast 2 tbsp Curd 3 tsp Sugar 2 tsp Salt. 2 Eggs 150. ml Milk 25 gms Ghee 25 gms Oil

1 tbsp Kalonji Warm milk. sprinkle yeast and sugar keep aside till it starts to froth. Sift flour with salt. Make a bay paste in the centre. Pour the fermented yeast mixture. curd. eggs (beaten) and oil. Knead the dough to a smooth and elastic consistency. Place in a greased bowl and keep in a warm place for 6-8 hours. Punch the dough and make medium-sized round balls of equal size. Brush with oil and again keep aside for another 20 minutes. Roll out each with a rolling pin so that it is broad at one end and very narrow at the other. Then pull the narrow end gently so as to give it the shape of a tear drop. Brush with ghee. sprinkle kalonji. and bake in a hot tandoor. basting with milk and ghee. Serve hot.

DAL KACHORI
INGREDIENTS FOR DOUGH 450 gms Flour 50 gms Sooji 25 gms Ghee/Mustard oil 1 tbsp Salt Cold water to knead FOR FILLING

200 gms Urad dal 5 gms Fennel seeds A pinch asafoetida 1 tbsp Garam Masala 10 gms Red Chilli Powder Salt to taste 5 gms Cumin powder 25 gms Ghee/oil FOR FRYING 250 gms Ghee or oil Soak urad dal overnight and grind to a coarse paste Coarsely pound the fennel seeds. Add asafetida. garam masala. chilli powder. salt. cumin powder and fennel seeds powder. Cook in a kadhai with ghee till it leaves the sides and becomes dry. Keep aside and cool. Prepare hard dough with flour and sooji using cold water. Cover with a damp cloth and keep aside for 30 minutes. Then make walnut sized balls from the dough for rolling. Flatten the dough on the palms and stuff a little filling. Seal and roll to the size of 5-7 cm in diameter and deep fry in ghee turning once. Strain after the kachori puffs up and becomes golden brown in colour. Serve hot with vegetables or mango pickle. Dal Kachori is a festive bread. almost always incorporated in a vegetarian menu in north India. Stuffed with urad dal it is

eaten as a snack as well as a meal. served with vegetables or raita.

KULCHA
INGREDIENTS 450 gms Flour 50 gms Yogurt 15 gms Ghee 1 tbsp Sugar 150 ml Milk 15 gms Yeast 1 tbsp Salt

Sprinkle yeast. sugar and salt in warm milk and leave it to froth for 20 minutes. Sift flour, make a bay in the center. Add the fermented mixture, melted ghee and make a dough with yogurt. Cover with a damp cloth and leave it to rise for 3-4 hours. Divide into equal rounds and bake it in a hot tandoor basting with milk. Serve hot.

SWEET DISHES
The degree of finesse of a cuisine can be judged by a look at its sweets and desserts. The rich, extravagant and highly decorated sweets of Lucknow reflect its past glories. The contribution of both the Hindu halwai and Muslim rakabdar have resulted in a confluence of expertise in the making of an exquisite varieties of sweets. The Barfi, Peda, Jalebi, Balai ke Tukre, Shahi Tukre, Halwa, Kheer Sewain are just a few varieties to illustrate the

Each of these has several varieties too. These sweets mostly milk based with a liberal.

SEWAIN KA MUZAFFAR
INGREDIENTS 400 gm Roasted vermicelli/Sewain 400 gm Sugar 150 gm Ghee 400 ml Milk ½ tsp Saffron FOR GARNISH 200 gm Khoya

10 gm Pistachio nuts 30 gm Almonds 50 gm Cashewnuts 3-4 Silver foil Soak saffron in little milk and grind. Cut nuts into 'hawaiyan I slivered'. Mash and 'fry khoya for few minutes until light brown. Heat ghee at moderate Harne in a shallow pan. Fry sewai on slow fire till light brown. Add milk. Stir quickly to blend. Cook for 2-3 minutes. Add sugar. mix well and cover. Cook gently until sugar which turns into syrup is absorbed and sewai are dry. Add half of the khoya and mix well. Arrange into serving dish and garnish with remaining khoya, nuts and silver leaf (warq) on top.

HALWA-E- BADAAM
INGREDIENTS 500 gms Almonds 250 gms Poppy seeds 4 litre Milk 500 gms Khoya 750 gms Sugar 750 gms Ghee 1/1tsp Saffron 10 Green cardamoms 2 Silver leafs

Soak the almonds in 1 litre water overnight. Soak the poppy seeds in a cup of milk mixed with a cup of water for 1 hour. Mash khoya to fine crumbs and keep aside. Pound the cardamom to a fine powder. Peel and grind the almonds to a fine paste. Drain all the liquid from the poppy seeds by passing them through a fine sieve and grind to a paste. Blend the almonds and poppy seeds paste in the milk to form a smooth mixture. pour in a thick kadhai and cook on slow flame. preferably wood or charcoal fire. Stirring constantly. When the mixture begins to thicken. add the sugar and saffron dissolved in warm milk and stir till the sugar dissolves. When the mAA halwa leaves the sides of the kadhai and turns to a golden pink colour, remove in a bowl or a tray. It tastes best when had hot.

SHEER BRANJ
Boil milk, add washed rice and cook gently till tender. Add half of the sugar. Do not stir until it boils again. Stir and cook gently for few minutes. Add mashed khoya little by little mixing well to avoid lump formation. Add half of the kewra jal. and remaining sugar. Mix and keep on adding remaining kewra jal. Keep stirring. Cook until thickened and it sticks to the spoon. Pour melted ghee mixing well. Grind malai. with cashewnut paste and mitha ittr. Add to sheerbranj. Add

elaichi powder. Cool to room temperature. Serve garnished with cream and hawaiyan (slivers) of pista and almonds. INGREDIENTS 3 litres Milk 60 gms Basmati Rice 400 gms Sugar 200 gms Khoya 100 gms Ghee 60 gms Cashewnut paste 200 gms Balai (Malai) 200 gms Cream 60 gms Pista + Almonds Few drops mitha ittr 1% cup Kewra jal ¼ tsp Elaichi powder

SHAKRAMBA
Wash and peel the mangoes and cut long slices of it Remove the seeds. Heat the ghee and saute the mango slices for 5 minutes on a medium flame. Remove with a slotted spoon and keep. In the same ghee add the cloves and cardamoms and roast the sooji flour for 10 minutes on a slow flame. Then add milk and stir constantly to prevent lump formation. Cook for 10 minutes. In a separate vessel make sugar syrup with the

sugar and a cup of water. When the sugar dissolves boil the mango slices in it for 5 minutes. Then add the mango slices with the syrup to the sooji and milk mixture. Blend well. Cool and serve at lunch or breakfast. INGREDIENTS 1 litre Milk 3 tbsp Sooji (Semolina) 2 Cloves 4 Green cardamoms 30 ml Ghee

CURD DISHES
Curd or natural yoghurt has been part of the Indian diet since time immemorial. Its cooling and digestive properties are well known. Used as a marinade. a cooling agent, salad dressing. beverage or dessert. it has a wide array of possibilities. In Indian cuisine its use in 'curries and raitas' is well- known. Raita is served as a side dish with meats and vegetables. the main purpose being to tone down the effect of the hot spices.

BOORANI
INGREDIENTS 250 gm Curd Salt to taste ½ tsp Pepper Sieve the curd through muslin cloth or a fine sieve. Add salt and pepper and blend well. Serve in a bowl along with a korma and pulao dish.

KHEERA KA RAITA
I N G R E DIE N T S 250 gms Curd 1 medium Cucumber 1 tbsp Cumin Salt to taste Chilli powder to taste (optional) ½ tsp Black salt

Roast the cumin seeds on a griddle till they turn light brown. Dry grind finely. The black salt. which is usually sold in crystal form should also be ground to a powder. Nowwhisk the curd and keep. Peel and grate the cucumber and mix in the curd. Add the cumin. black salt. Ordinary salt and chilli powder. Blend well and serve cold in a bowl along with curries and rice.

FALON KA RAITA
INGREDIENTS 500 gms Curd 100 gms Snakegourd 1 Apple 3 Pineapple rings Salt to taste

Tie the curd in a muslin cloth and hang for 1hour to allow the water to drip off. Then sieve and keep aside. Peel the gourd. remove the pith and seeds and cut into small cubes. Boil in half cup water till tender but not too soft. Drain and keep aside. Peel and cube the apple. Also cube the pineapple. Now mix all the 3 ingredients in curd with a little salt. Blend and serve in a bowl.

USE OF HERBS & SPICES IN AWADHI KITCHEN

Herbs and spice

Herbs are leaves of small shrubs and can be used dried or fresh to impart flavors and zest to any dish. Examples of commonly used herbs are rosemary, parsley, thyme, basil, sage, dill, oregano and celery leaves. Spices are derived from the fruit, seed, root and bark of tropical plants and trees. Whole spices can be added at the start of the cooking so that the flavor is imparted into the dish. Seed herbs can be lightly toasted to bring out their best flavor. Herbs and spices are sometimes tied in a muslin bag and placed in the saucepan during the cooking process. The advantage is that the whole spices won't come in the way while chewing and swallowing. Herb spice blend powders can be blended at home. A pinch in your dishes - and you will have everyone asking for more helpings! A fragrant herb spice blend of cinnamon, anise, fennel, pepper and cloves can be powdered and stored. Ginger - inhibits nausea and vomiting caused by travel sickness and morning sickness. Ginger speeds the body metabolic rate. This spice combines well in curries and soups. Its antiseptic properties have been known to cure colds, sore throats and other ailments. You can use fresh,

dried or powdered ginger.

Cinnamon - Used often as an antidote for stomach upsets and diarrhea. This spice is also known to be a metabolic booster. A pinch of cinnamon can perk up your hot cocoa and breathe life into your steamed puddings, custard and pears. Nutmeg - The flavor of this spice is strong and is used in small amounts. Use it in spinach and white sauce. Nutmeg finds pride of place in Christmas delicacies such as eggnog and cakes. Mace - This spice is the outer shell of the nutmeg fruit and has a milder flavor. Powdered mace is used in cakes, doughnuts and soups. Garlic - The distinctive taste of garlic goes well with other herbs and seasonings. Garlic is known to decrease blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Regular consumption of garlic aids digestion and prevents flatulence. Anise - This spice has its origin in the Mediterranean region and is hailed as a digestive aid. It adds flavor to cakes,

breads, cookies and liquors. Cayenne pepper - This important ingredient in many Mexican dishes has fat burning abilities and can boost metabolism. It is obtained from fruited varieties of capsicum. Very small amounts are used in salad dressings. Mustard - This spice is a stimulant and is effective against respiratory complaints. Allspice - Though allspice suggests a mixture of spices, it is derived from the Jamaican bayberry. It is used whole in vegetable and meat dishes. It is ground and added to cookies, puddings and gravies. Turmeric - Extracted from the root of the Curcuma long plant, turmeric is an essential ingredient of curries and other Asian dishes. It is a powerful antioxidant and helps protect against cancer. Sesame seeds - The crunchy nutty flavor of sesame seeds adds texture to salads and sautéed vegetable dishes. These seeds are used in breadsticks, crackers and rolls. The oil derived from the sesame seeds is rich in polyunsaturated

fatty acids and is a good choice for salad dressings and cooking. Mint - A decoction of this herb is known to give relief from headache, nausea, indigestion and cold. Peppermint is used to flavor tea, salads, stews and sweets. Coriander - This spice with a mild and distinctive taste is another essential ingredient of most Indian curries. Cloves - Popularly known as the 'flower spice', cloves have been used as anesthetics for dental ailments for centuries. The rich flavor of cloves is used in cakes and pies. Using too much can result in a bitter flavor. Saffron - The rich and distinct flavor of saffron comes from the dried flower bloom. It is used in rice dishes and cakes. Very little is needed to flavor and color your dishes. Caraway - These spice seeds have a spicy aroma that lends flavor to soups, breads and baked fruit. Cardamom - The unique flavor of cardamom is delicate and sweet but powerful. From coffee to deserts, curries to meat

loaves, cardamom finds it way into many recipes. Pepper - Peppercorns are found in black and white color. They are used in meat and vegetable dishes. Fennel - This spice is used widely in Indian and Egyptian cooking. Its mild flavor is used in Italian sausages too. Cumin - The strong spicy taste of cumin seeds can be used whole or ground to a fine powder. Use it in soups and meats and pickles. Herbs Fresh herbs can be preserved by cutting a bit of their stems and refrigerating them after submerging the stems in a jar of water. Snip fresh herbs just at the time of adding them to your dishes. Fresh herbs can substitute dried herbs in any recipe, but remember to double the quantity prescribed. Fresh herbs are usually added at the end of cooking lest they lose their flavor and color. Fresh herbs must possess good color and no brown spots. Dried herbs must be stored in airtight containers away from sunlight and heat. Dampness causes loss of quality. Never

store herbs and spices near the stove as the heat will shorted their life. Whole spices and herbs keep longer than ground spices. Leaf herbs keep longer than grounded ones. Besides grinding the spices as needed assures greater freshness. Never season more than a dish in a meal with the same herb. Do not use too many strong-flavored herbs in the same dish. A herb is used to flavor a dish not overpower it. Certain herbs have a special affinity for certain foods. Combine a strong herb like rosemary, basil or sage with milder ones like chives, parsley or chives. Indian recipes sometimes call for nearly a dozen spices in a single curry. But as a rule, other regional recipes do not use more than 3 herbs or spices in a dish. Basil - The strong flavor of basil leaves goes well with tomato-based sauces and garlic. Basil is said to stimulate the appetite and relieve kidney and diarrhea problems. Thyme - This herb is used for everyday cooking and goes well with heavy dishes like clam chowder, stews, roast chicken and pork. Thyme is known to have disinfectant properties and is used as a mouthwash. It must be used in

small quantities on account of its sharp flavor. Lemon thyme has a milder flavor and has a lemony tang. Oregano - Oregano lends pizzas their characteristic flavor. This herb has a pungent odor and flavor. Bay leaves - This herb is a common ingredient in soups, meat and vegetable dishes and stews. Other than its strong aroma and spicy flavor, bay leaves are a good remedy for earaches. Cilantro - This herb is the young coriander plant and finds its way into most Asian, Mexican and Middle Eastern dishes. Rosemary - This herb has a reputation as a memory booster and is a symbol of friendship and fidelity. Medicinal properties of rosemary include increased blood flow and expansion of tissues.

CONCLUSION
One of the old & richest cuisine of India has now become limited in small region. They has been great attempt at bringing back the glory of the past. There are no famous chefs except chef qureshi who really done the great work for the Cuisine of Awadh.

SUGGESTIONS
We have to introduce the Cuisine of Nawabs to different kind of people and region in more effective way for example Dumpukht is doing for all over the country. As well as in this age of experimentation fusion of cuisines is attracts lots of people for example last year Hotel Niko Metropolitan fused Awadhi the Japinese cuisine and people really appreciated the concept.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
 INTERNET www.google.com www.ask.com  NEWSPAPER Hindustan Times The Times of India  MAGAZINE First City FHRAI Hotelier

 HOTEL Bristol , Gurgaon, New Delhi

QUESTIONNAIRE
Name:____________________ Age:______________________ Address:__________________ _________________________ Q.1 How often do you dine out ?  Weekly  Fortnightly  Monthly  Seldom go out Q.2 When you dine out which cuisines do you prefer the most ?  Chinese  South Indian  Awadhi  Mughlai

Q.3 How did you come to know about it ?  Friends  Television  Newspaper  Any other Source

Q.4 Which Awadhi delicacy do you prefer the most ?  Shorba  Korma  Biryani  Kebabs  Any Other Q.5 Which of the Awadhi cuisine characterictics do you enjoy the most ?  Spices and Flavour  Richness of Cuisine  Cooking Methods  All the above Q.6 What shortcomings do you feel that Awadhi cuisine has ?  Too rich

 Too Oily  Lenghty Cooking Methods  Unavailibility of authentic Awadhi Cuisine at your place  Any Other Q.7 How you think that any changes in the Awadhi Cuisine will help in the betterment of the same ?  Yes  No

Q.8 How do you rate the Service Standards of Awadhi Cuisine ?  Excellent  Good  Fine  Bad Q.9 How often do you cook Awadhi cuisine at your house ?  Daily  Weekly  Fortnightly  Do not cook

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