1300 Math Formulas

ISBN 9949107741

Copyright©2004A.Svirin.AllRightsReserved.
i

Thispageisintentionallyleftblank.


ii
Preface
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iii
Contents

1 NUMBERSETS
1.1 SetIdentities1
1.2 SetsofNumbers5
1.3 BasicIdentities7
1.4 ComplexNumbers8

2 AIGEBRA
2.1 FactoringFormulas12
2.2 ProductFormulas13
2.3 Powers14
2.4 Roots15
2.3 Iogarithms16
2.6 Equations18
2.7 Inequalities19
2.8 CompoundInterestFormulas22

3 GEOMETRY
3.1 RightTriangle24
3.2 IsoscelesTriangle27
3.3 EquilateralTriangle28
3.4 ScaleneTriangle29
3.3 Square33
3.6 Rectangle34
3.7 Parallelogram35
3.8 Rhombus36
3.9 Trapezoid37
3.10 IsoscelesTrapezoid38
3.11 IsoscelesTrapezoidwithInscribedCircle40
3.12 TrapezoidwithInscribedCircle41

iv
3.13 Kite42
3.14 CyclicQuadrilateral43
3.13 TangentialQuadrilateral45
3.16 GeneralQuadrilateral46
3.17 RegularHexagon47
3.18 RegularPolygon48
3.19 Circle50
3.20 SectorofaCircle53
3.21 SegmentofaCircle54
3.22 Cube55
3.23 RectangularParallelepiped56
3.24 Prism57
3.23 RegularTetrahedron58
3.26 RegularPyramid59
3.27 FrustumofaRegularPyramid61
3.28 RectangularRightWedge62
3.29 PlatonicSolids63
3.30 RightCircularCylinder66
3.31 RightCircularCylinderwithanObliquePlaneFace68
3.32 RightCircularCone69
3.33 FrustumofaRightCircularCone70
3.34 Sphere72
3.33 SphericalCap72
3.36 SphericalSector73
3.37 SphericalSegment74
3.38 SphericalWedge75
3.39 Ellipsoid76
3.40 CircularTorus78

4 TRIGONOMETRY
4.1 RadianandDegreeMeasuresofAngles80
4.2 DefinitionsandGraphsofTrigonometricFunctions81
4.3 SignsofTrigonometricFunctions86
4.4 TrigonometricFunctionsofCommonAngles87
4.3 MostImportantFormulas88

v
4.6 ReductionFormulas89
4.7 PeriodicityofTrigonometricFunctions90
4.8 RelationsbetweenTrigonometricFunctions90
4.9 AdditionandSubtractionFormulas91
4.10 DoubleAngleFormulas92
4.11 MultipleAngleFormulas93
4.12 HalfAngleFormulas94
4.13 HalfAngleTangentIdentities94
4.14 TransformingofTrigonometricExpressionstoProduct95
4.13 TransformingofTrigonometricExpressionstoSum97
4.16 PowersofTrigonometricFunctions98
4.17 GraphsofInverseTrigonometricFunctions99
4.18 PrincipalValuesofInverseTrigonometricFunctions102
4.19 RelationsbetweenInverseTrigonometricFunctions103
4.20 TrigonometricEquations106
4.21 RelationstoHyperbolicFunctions106

5 MATRICESANDDETERMINANTS
3.1 Determinants107
3.2 PropertiesofDeterminants109
3.3 Matrices110
3.4 OperationswithMatrices111
3.3 SystemsofIinearEquations114

6 VECTORS
6.1 VectorCoordinates118
6.2 VectorAddition120
6.3 VectorSubtraction122
6.4 ScalingVectors122
6.3 ScalarProduct123
6.6 VectorProduct125
6.7 TripleProduct127

7 ANAIYTICGEOMETRY
7.1 One-DimensionalCoordinateSystem130

vi
7.2 Two-DimensionalCoordinateSystem131
7.3 StraightIineinPlane139
7.4 Circle149
7.3 Ellipse152
7.6 Hyperbola154
7.7 Parabola158
7.8 Three-DimensionalCoordinateSystem161
7.9 Plane165
7.10 StraightIineinSpace175
7.11 QuadricSurfaces180
7.12 Sphere189

8 DIFFERENTIAICAICUIUS
8.1 FunctionsandTheirGraphs191
8.2 IimitsofFunctions208
8.3 DefinitionandPropertiesoftheDerivative209
8.4 TableofDerivatives211
8.3 HigherOrderDerivatives215
8.6 ApplicationsofDerivative217
8.7 Differential221
8.8 MultivariableFunctions222
8.9 DifferentialOperators225

9 INTEGRAICAICUIUS
9.1 IndefiniteIntegral227
9.2 IntegralsofRationalFunctions228
9.3 IntegralsofIrrationalFunctions231
9.4 IntegralsofTrigonometricFunctions237
9.3 IntegralsofHyperbolicFunctions241
9.6 IntegralsofExponentialandIogarithmicFunctions242
9.7 ReductionFormulas243
9.8 DefiniteIntegral247
9.9 ImproperIntegral253
9.10 DoubleIntegral257
9.11 TripleIntegral269

vii
9.12 IineIntegral275
9.13 SurfaceIntegral285

10 DIFFERENTIAIEQUATIONS
10.1 FirstOrderOrdinaryDifferentialEquations295
10.2 SecondOrderOrdinaryDifferentialEquations298
10.3 SomePartialDifferentialEquations302

11 SERIES
11.1 ArithmeticSeries304
11.2 GeometricSeries305
11.3 SomeFiniteSeries305
11.4 InfiniteSeries307
11.3 PropertiesofConvergentSeries307
11.6 ConvergenceTests308
11.7 AlternatingSeries310
11.8 PowerSeries311
11.9 DifferentiationandIntegrationofPowerSeries312
11.10 TaylorandMaclaurinSeries313
11.11 PowerSeriesExpansionsforSomeFunctions314
11.12 BinomialSeries316
11.13 FourierSeries316

12 PROBABIIITY
12.1 PermutationsandCombinations318
12.2 ProbabilityFormulas319

viii

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1
Chapt er 1
Number Sets

1.1 Set Identities

Sets:A,B,C
Universalset:I
Complement: A

Propersubset: B A⊂
Emptyset: ∅
Unionofsets: B A∪
Intersectionofsets: B A∩
Differenceofsets: B \ A

1. I A⊂

2. A A⊂

3. B A = if B A⊂ and A B⊂ .

4. EmptySet
A ⊂ ∅

5. UnionofSets
{ } B x or A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
2

Figure 1.

6. Commutativity
A B B A ∪ = ∪

7. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪

8. IntersectionofSets
{ } B x and A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =

Figure 2.

9. Commutativity
A B B A ∩ = ∩

10. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
3
11. Distributivity
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∪ ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪ ,
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∩ ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ .

12. Idempotency
A A A = ∩ ,
A A A = ∪

13. Domination
∅ = ∅ ∩ A ,
I I A = ∪

14. Identity
A A = ∅ ∪ ,
A I A = ∩

15. Complement
{ } A x | I x A ∉ ∈ = ′

16. ComplementofIntersectionandUnion
I A A =

∪ ,
∅ = ′ ∩A A

17. DeMorgan∞sIaws
( ) B A B A ′ ∩ ′ =

∪ ,
( ) B A B A



=

18. DifferenceofSets
{ } A x and B x | x A \ B C ∉ ∈ = =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
4

Figure 3.

19. ( ) B A \ B A \ B ∩ =

20. A B A \ B ′ ∩ =

21. ∅ = A \ A

22. A B \ A = if ∅ = ∩B A .

Figure 4.

23. ( ) ( ) ( ) C B \ C A C B \ A ∩ ∩ = ∩

24. A \ I A = ′

25. CartesianProduct
( ) { } B y and A x | y , x B A C ∈ ∈ = × =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
5
1.2 Sets of Numbers

Naturalnumbers:N
Wholenumbers:
0
N
Integers:Z
Positiveintegers:
+
Z
Negativeintegers:

Z
Rationalnumbers:Q
Realnumbers:R
Complexnumbers:C

26. NaturalNumbers
Countingnumbers: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N= .

27. WholeNumbers
Countingnumbersandzero: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 N
0
= .

28. Integers
Wholenumbersandtheiroppositesandzero:
{ } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N Z = =
+
,
{ } 1 , 2 , 3 , Z − − − =

K ,
{ } { } K K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , Z 0 Z Z − − − = ∪ ∪ =
+ −
.

29. RationalNumbers
Repeatingorterminatingdecimals:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
≠ ∈ ∈ = = 0 b and Z b and Z a and
b
a
x | x Q .

30. IrrationalNumbers
Nonrepeatingandnonterminatingdecimals.

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
6
31. RealNumbers
Unionofrationalandirrationalnumbers:R.

32. ComplexNumbers
{ } R y and R x | iy x C ∈ ∈ + = ,
whereiistheimaginaryunit.

33. C R Q Z N ⊂ ⊂ ⊂ ⊂

Figure 5.

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
7
1.3 Basic Identities

Realnumbers:a,b,c

34. AdditiveIdentity
a 0 a = +

35. AdditiveInverse
( ) 0 a a = − +

36. CommutativeofAddition
a b b a + = +

37. AssociativeofAddition
( ) ( ) c b a c b a + + = + +

38. DefinitionofSubtraction
( ) b a b a − + = −

39. MultiplicativeIdentity
a 1 a = ⋅

40. MultiplicativeInverse
1
a
1
a = ⋅ , 0 a ≠

41. MultiplicationTimes0
0 0 a = ⋅

42. CommutativeofMultiplication
a b b a ⋅ = ⋅

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
8
43. AssociativeofMultiplication
( ) ( ) c b a c b a ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

44. DistributiveIaw
( ) ac ab c b a + = +

45. DefinitionofDivision
b
1
a
b
a
⋅ =

1.4 Complex Numbers

Naturalnumber:n
Imaginaryunit:i
Complexnumber:z
Realpart:a,c
Imaginarypart:bi,di
Modulusofacomplexnumber:r,
1
r ,
2
r
Argumentofacomplexnumber: ϕ,
1
ϕ ,
2
ϕ

i i
1
= i i
3
= i i
1 n 4
=
+

1 i
2
− = 1 i
6
− = 1 i
2 n 4
− =
+

i i
3
− = i i
7
− = i i
3 n 4
− =
+

46.
1 i
4
= 1 i
8
= 1 i
n 4
=

47. bi a z + =

48. ComplexPlane

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
9

Figure 6.

49. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a + + + = + + +

50. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a − + − = + − +

51. ( )( ) ( ) ( )i bc ad bd ac di c bi a + + − = + +

52. i
d c
ad bc
d c
bd ac
di c
bi a
2 2 2 2

+

+
+
+
=
+
+

53. ConjugateComplexNumbers
bi a bi a
_______
− = +

54. ϕ = cos r a , ϕ = sin r b

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
10

Figure 7.

55. PolarPresentationofComplexNumbers
( ) ϕ + ϕ = + sin i cos r bi a

56. ModulusandArgumentofaComplexNumber
If bi a + isacomplexnumber,then
2 2
b a r + = (modulus),
a
b
arctan = ϕ (argument).

57. ProductinPolarRepresentation
( ) ( )
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
sin i cos r sin i cos r z z ϕ + ϕ ⋅ ϕ + ϕ = ⋅
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1 2 1
sin i cos r r ϕ + ϕ + ϕ + ϕ =

58. ConjugateNumbersinPolarRepresentation
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − = ϕ + ϕ sin i cos r sin i cos r
_ __________ __________

59. InverseofaComplexNumberinPolarRepresentation
( )
( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − =
ϕ + ϕ
sin i cos
r
1
sin i cos r
1

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
11
60. QuotientinPolarRepresentation
( )
( )
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1
2
1
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
1
sin i cos
r
r
sin i cos r
sin i cos r
z
z
ϕ − ϕ + ϕ − ϕ =
ϕ + ϕ
ϕ + ϕ
=

61. PowerofaComplexNumber
( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ = n sin i n cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n

62. Formula°DeMoivre≤
( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ n sin i n cos sin i cos
n

63. NthRootofaComplexNumber
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π + ϕ
+
π + ϕ
= ϕ + ϕ =
n
k 2
sin i
n
k 2
cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n
,
where
1 n , , 2 , 1 , 0 k − = K .

64. Euler∞sFormula
x sin i x cos e
ix
+ =

12
Chapt er 2
Algebra

2.1 Factoring Formulas

Realnumbers:a,b,c
Naturalnumber:n

65. ( )( ) b a b a b a
2 2
− + = −

66. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + + − = −

67. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + − + = +

68. ( )( ) ( )( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + − = + − = −

69. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 3 3
b ab b a b a a b a b a + + + + − = −

70. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 3 3
b ab b a b a a b a b a + − + − + = +

71. Ifnisodd,then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ − − + − + = + K .

72. Ifniseven,then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ + + + + − = − K ,
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
13
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
− + − + − + = + K .

2.2 Product Formulas
Realnumbers:a,b,c
Wholenumbers:n,k

73. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + − = −

74. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + + = +

75. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a − + − = −

76. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a + + + = +

77. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + − + − = −

78. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + + + + = +

79. BinomialFormula
( ) , b C ab C b a C b a C a C b a
n
n
n 1 n
1 n
n 2 2 n
2
n 1 n
1
n n
0
n
n
+ + + + + = +


− −
K
where
( )! k n ! k
! n
C
k
n

= arethebinomialcoefficients.

80. ( ) bc 2 ac 2 ab 2 c b a c b a
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = + +

81. ( ) + + + + + + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
v u c b a v u c b a K K
( ) uv bv bu bc av au ac ab 2 + + + + + + + + + + + K K K
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
14
2.3 Powers

Bases(positiverealnumbers):a,b
Powers(rationalnumbers):n,m

82.
n m n m
a a a
+
=

83.
n m
n
m
a
a
a

=

84. ( )
m m
m
b a ab =

85.
m
m
m
b
a
b
a
=
|
.
|

\
|

86. ( )
mn
n
m
a a =

87. 1 a
0
= , 0 a ≠

88. 1 a
1
=

89.
m
m
a
1
a =

90.
n m
n
m
a a =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
15
2.4 Roots

Bases:a,b
Powers(rationalnumbers):n,m
0 b , a ≥ forevenroots( k 2 n = , N k∈ )

91.
n n n
b a ab =

92.
nm n m
m n
b a b a =

93.
n
n
n
b
a
b
a
= , 0 b ≠

94.
nm
n
m
nm n
nm m
m
n
b
a
b
a
b
a
= = , 0 b ≠ .

95. ( )
n mp
p
n m
a a =

96. ( ) a a
n
n
=

97.
np
mp n m
a a =

98.
n
m
n m
a a =

99.
mn m n
a a =

100. ( )
n m
m
n
a a =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
16
101.
a
a
a
1
n 1 n
n

= , 0 a ≠ .

102.
2
b a a
2
b a a
b a
2 2
− −
±
− +
= ±

103.
b a
b a
b a
1

=
±
m

2.5 Logarithms

Positiverealnumbers:x,y,a,c,k
Naturalnumber:n

104. DefinitionofIogarithm
x log y
a
= ifandonlyif
y
a x = , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

105. 0 1 log
a
=

106. 1 a log
a
=

107.
¹
´
¦
< ∞ +
> ∞ −
=
1 a if
1 a if
0 log
a

108. ( ) y log x log xy log
a a a
+ =

109. y log x log
y
x
log
a a a
− =
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
17
110. ( ) x log n x log
a
n
a
=

111. x log
n
1
x log
a
n
a
=

112. c log x log
a log
x log
x log
a c
c
c
a
⋅ = = , 0 c > , 1 c ≠ .

113.
a log
1
c log
c
a
=

114.
x log
a
a x =

115. IogarithmtoBase10
x log x log
10
=

116. NaturalIogarithm
x ln x log
e
= ,
where K 718281828 . 2
k
1
1 lim e
k
k
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
∞ →

117. x ln 434294 . 0 x ln
10 ln
1
x log = =

118. x log 302383 . 2 x log
e log
1
x ln = =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
18
2.6 Equations

Realnumbers:a,b,c,p,q,u,v
Solutions:
1
x ,
2
x ,
1
y ,
2
y ,
3
y

119. IinearEquationinOneVariable
0 b ax = + ,
a
b
x − = .

120. QuadraticEquation
0 c bx ax
2
= + + ,
a 2
ac 4 b b
x
2
2 , 1
− ± −
= .

121. Discriminant
ac 4 b D
2
− =

122. Viete∞sFormulas
If 0 q px x
2
= + + ,then
¹
´
¦
=
− = +
q x x
p x x
2 1
2 1
.

123. 0 bx ax
2
= + , 0 x
1
= ,
a
b
x
2
− = .

124. 0 c ax
2
= + ,
a
c
x
2 , 1
− ± = .

125. CubicEquation.Cardano∞sFormula.
0 q py y
3
= + + ,
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
19
v u y
1
+ = , ( ) ( ) i v u
2
3
v u
2
1
y
3 , 2
+ ± + − = ,
where
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
u
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ − = ,
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
v
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
− − = .

2.7 Inequalities
Variables:x,y,z
Realnumbers:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
a , , a , a , a
d , c , b , a
K
,m,n
Determinants:D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D

126. Inequalities,IntervalNotationsandGraphs

Inequality IntervalNotation Graph
b x a ≤ ≤ | | b , a

b x a ≤ < ( | b , a

b x a < ≤ | ) b , a

b x a < < ( ) b , a

b x ≤ < ∞ − ,
b x ≤
( | b , ∞ −

b x < < ∞ − ,
b x <
( ) b , ∞ −

∞ < ≤ x a ,
a x ≥
| ) ∞ , a

∞ < < x a ,
a x >
( ) ∞ , a

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
20
127. If b a > ,then a b < .

128. If b a > ,then 0 b a > − or 0 a b < − .

129. If b a > ,then c b c a + > + .

130. If b a > ,then c b c a − > − .

131. If b a > and d c > ,then d b c a + > + .

132. If b a > and d c > ,then c b d a − > − .

133. If b a > and 0 m > ,then mb ma > .

134. If b a > and 0 m > ,then
m
b
m
a
> .

135. If b a > and 0 m< ,then mb ma < .

136. If b a > and 0 m< ,then
m
b
m
a
< .

137. If b a 0 < < and 0 n > ,then
n n
b a < .

138. If b a 0 < < and 0 n < ,then
n n
b a > .

139. If b a 0 < < ,then
n n
b a < .

140.
2
b a
ab
+
≤ ,
where 0 a > , 0 b > ;anequalityisvalidonlyif b a = .

141. 2
a
1
a ≥ + ,where 0 a > ;anequalitytakesplaceonlyat 1 a = .
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
21
142.
n
a a a
a a a
n 2 1
n
n 2 1
+ + +

K
K ,where 0 a , , a , a
n 2 1
> K .

143. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a > ,then
a
b
x − > .

144. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a < ,then
a
b
x − < .

145. 0 c bx ax
2
> + +

0 a > 0 a <

0 D>

1
x x < ,
2
x x >

2 1
x x x < <

0 D=

x x
1
< ,
1
x x >

∅ ∈ x

0 D<

∞ < < ∞ − x

∅ ∈ x

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
22
146. b a b a + ≤ +

147. If a x < ,then a x a < < − ,where 0 a > .

148. If a x > ,then a x − < and a x > ,where 0 a > .

149. If a x
2
< ,then a x < ,where 0 a > .

150. If a x
2
> ,then a x > ,where 0 a > .

151. If
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
> ,then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

> ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.

152.
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
< ,then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

< ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.

2.8 Compound Interest Formulas

Futurevalue:A
Initialdeposit:C
Annualrateofinterest:r
Numberofyearsinvested:t
Numberoftimescompoundedperyear:n

153. GeneralCompoundInterestFormula
nt
n
r
1 C A
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
23
154. SimplifiedCompoundInterestFormula
If interest is compounded once per year, then the previous
formulasimplifiesto:
( )
t
r 1 C A + = .

155. ContinuousCompoundInterest
Ifinterestiscompoundedcontinually( ∞ → n ),then
rt
Ce A = .

24
Chapt er 3
Geometry

3.1 Right Triangle

Iegsofarighttriangle:a,b
Hypotenuse:c
Altitude:h
Medians:
a
m ,
b
m ,
c
m
Angles: α, β
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Area:S

Figure 8.

156. ° = β + α 90

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
25
157. β = = α cos
c
a
sin

158. β = = α sin
c
b
cos

159. β = = α cot
b
a
tan

160. β = = α tan
a
b
cot

161. β = = α ec cos
b
c
sec

162. β = = α sec
a
c
ec cos

163. PythagoreanTheorem
2 2 2
c b a = +

164. fc a
2
= , gc b
2
= ,
where f and c are projections of the legs a and b, respec-
tively,ontothehypotenusec.

Figure 9.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
26
165. fg h
2
= ,
wherehisthealtitudefromtherightangle.

166.
4
a
b m
2
2 2
a
− = ,
4
b
a m
2
2 2
b
− = ,
where
a
m and
b
m arethemedianstothelegsaandb.

Figure 10.

167.
2
c
m
c
= ,
where
c
m isthemediantothehypotenusec.

168.
c
m
2
c
R = =

169.
c b a
ab
2
c b a
r
+ +
=
− +
=

170. ch ab =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
27
171.
2
ch
2
ab
S = =

3.2 Isosceles Triangle

Base:a
Iegs:b
Baseangle: β
Vertexangle: α
Altitudetothebase:h
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 11.

172.
2
90
α
− ° = β

173.
4
a
b h
2
2 2
− =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
28
174. b 2 a I + =

175. α = = sin
2
b
2
ah
S
2

3.3 Equilateral Triangle

Sideofaequilateraltriangle:a
Altitude:h
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 12.

176.
2
3 a
h =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
29
177.
3
3 a
h
3
2
R = =

178.
2
R
6
3 a
h
3
1
r = = =

179. a 3 I =

180.
4
3 a
2
ah
S
2
= =

3.4 Scalene Triangle
(Atrianglewithnotwosidesequal)

Sidesofatriangle:a,b,c
Semiperimeter:
2
c b a
p
+ +
=
Anglesofatriangle: γ β α , ,
Altitudestothesidesa,b,c:
c b a
h , h , h
Medianstothesidesa,b,c:
c b a
m , m , m
Bisectorsoftheangles γ β α , , :
c b a
t , t , t
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
30

Figure 13.

181. ° = γ + β + α 180

182. c b a > + ,
a c b > + ,
b c a > + .

183. c b a < − ,
a c b < − ,
b c a < − .

184. Midline
2
a
q = , a || q .

Figure 14.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
31
185. IawofCosines
α − + = cos bc 2 c b a
2 2 2
,
β − + = cos ac 2 c a b
2 2 2
,
γ − + = cos ab 2 b a c
2 2 2
.

186. IawofSines
R 2
sin
c
sin
b
sin
a
=
γ
=
β
=
α
,
whereRistheradiusofthecircumscribedcircle.

187.
S 4
abc
h 2
ab
h 2
ac
h 2
bc
sin 2
c
sin 2
b
sin 2
a
R
c b a
= = = =
γ
=
β
=
α
=

188.
( )( )( )
p
c p b p a p
r
2
− − −
= ,
c b a
h
1
h
1
h
1
r
1
+ + = .

189.
( )( )
bc
c p b p
2
sin
− −
=
α
,
( )
bc
a p p
2
cos

=
α
,
( )( )
( ) a p p
c p b p
2
tan

− −
=
α
.

190. ( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
a
2
h
a
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
b
2
h
b
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
c
2
h
c
− − − = .
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
32
191. β = γ = sin c sin b h
a
,
α = γ = sin c sin a h
b
,
α = β = sin b sin a h
c
.

192.
4
a
2
c b
m
2 2 2
2
a

+
= ,
4
b
2
c a
m
2 2 2
2
b

+
= ,
4
c
2
b a
m
2 2 2
2
c

+
= .

Figure 15.

193.
a
m
3
2
AM= ,
b
m
3
2
BM= ,
c
m
3
2
CM= (Fig.13).

194.
( )
( )
2
2
a
c b
a p bcp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
b
c a
b p acp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
c
b a
c p abp 4
t
+

= .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
33
195.
2
ch
2
bh
2
ah
S
c b a
= = = ,
2
sin bc
2
sin ac
2
sin ab
S
α
=
β
=
γ
= ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p S − − − = (Heron∞sFormula),
pr S = ,
R 4
abc
S = ,
γ β α = sin sin sin R 2 S
2
,
2
tan
2
tan
2
tan p S
2
γ β α
= .

3.5 Square
Sideofasquare:a
Diagonal:d
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 16.
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
34
196. 2 a d =

197.
2
2 a
2
d
R = =

198.
2
a
r =

199. a 4 I =

200.
2
a S =

3.6 Rectangle

Sidesofarectangle:a,b
Diagonal:d
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 17.

201.
2 2
b a d + =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
35
202.
2
d
R =

203. ( ) b a 2 I + =

204. ab S =

3.7 Parallelogram

Sidesofaparallelogram:a,b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutiveangles: β α,
Anglebetweenthediagonals: ϕ
Altitude:h
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 18.

205. ° = β + α 180

206. ( )
2 2 2
2
2
1
b a 2 d d + = +

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
36
207. β = α = sin b sin b h

208. ( ) b a 2 I + =

209. α = = sin ab ah S ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.

3.8 Rhombus

Sideofarhombus:a
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutiveangles: β α,
Altitude:H
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 19.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
37
210. ° = β + α 180

211.
2 2
2
2
1
a 4 d d = +

212.
a 2
d d
sin a h
2 1
= α =

213.
2
sin a
a 4
d d
2
h
r
2 1
α
= = =

214. a 4 I =

215. α = = sin a ah S
2
,
2 1
d d
2
1
S = .

3.9 Trapezoid

Basesofatrapezoid:a,b
Midline:q
Altitude:h
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
38

Figure 20.

216.
2
b a
q
+
=

217. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=

3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid

Basesofatrapezoid:a,b
Ieg:c
Midline:q
Altitude:h
Diagonal:d
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
39

Figure 21.

218.
2
b a
q
+
=

219.
2
c ab d + =

220. ( )
2 2
a b
4
1
c h − − =

221.
( )( ) b a c 2 b a c 2
c ab c
R
2
− + + −
+
=

222. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
40
3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with
Inscribed Circle

Basesofatrapezoid:a,b
Ieg:c
Midline:q
Altitude:h
Diagonal:d
Radiusofinscribedcircle:R
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:r
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 22.

223. c 2 b a = +

224. c
2
b a
q =
+
=

225.
2 2 2
c h d + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
41
226.
2
ab
2
h
r = =

227.
a
b
6
b
a
8
b a
c h
h 2
c
ab
c
1
2
c
r 4
cd
h 2
cd
R
2 2
2
+ +
+
= + = + = = =

228. ( ) c 4 b a 2 I = + =

229.
( )
2
Ir
ch qh
2
ab b a
h
2
b a
S = = =
+
= ⋅
+
=

3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle

Basesofatrapezoid:a,b
Iateralsides:c,d
Midline:q
Altitude:h
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Anglebetweenthediagonals: ϕ
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Perimeter:I
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
42

Figure 23.

230. d c b a + = +

231.
2
d c
2
b a
q
+
=
+
=

232. ( ) ( ) d c 2 b a 2 I + = + =

233. qh h
2
d c
h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
= ⋅
+
= ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.

3.13 Kite

Sidesofakite:a,b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angles: γ β α , ,
Perimeter:I
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
43

Figure 24.

234. ° = γ + β + α 360 2

235. ( ) b a 2 I + =

236.
2
d d
S
2 1
=

3.14 Cyclic Quadrilateral
Sidesofaquadrilateral:a,b,c,d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Anglebetweenthediagonals: ϕ
Internalangles: δ γ β α , , ,
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Perimeter:I
Semiperimeter:p
Area:S
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
44

Figure 25.

237. ° = δ + β = γ + α 180

238. Ptolemy∞sTheorem
2 1
d d bd ac = +

239. d c b a I + + + =

240.
( )( )( )
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p
cd ab bc ad bd ac
4
1
R
− − − −
+ + +
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

241. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
,
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p S − − − − = ,
where
2
I
p = .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
45
3.15 Tangential Quadrilateral

Sidesofaquadrilateral:a,b,c,d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Anglebetweenthediagonals: ϕ
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Perimeter:I
Semiperimeter:p
Area:S

Figure 26.

242. d b c a + = +

243. ( ) ( ) d b 2 c a 2 d c b a I + = + = + + + =

244.
( ) ( )
p 2
p b a b a d d
r
2 2 2
2
2
1
− + − −
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
46
245. ϕ = = sin d d
2
1
pr S
2 1

3.16 General Quadrilateral

Sidesofaquadrilateral:a,b,c,d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Anglebetweenthediagonals: ϕ
Internalangles: δ γ β α , , ,
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 27.

246. ° = δ + γ + β + α 360

247. d c b a I + + + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
47
248. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1

3.17 Regular Hexagon

Side:a
Internalangle: α
Slantheight:m
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Perimeter:I
Semiperimeter:p
Area:S

Figure 28.

249. ° = α 120

250.
2
3 a
m r = =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
48
251. a R =

252. a 6 I =

253.
2
3 3 a
pr S
2
= = ,
where
2
I
p = .

3.18 Regular Polygon

Side:a
Numberofsides:n
Internalangle: α
Slantheight:m
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Perimeter:I
Semiperimeter:p
Area:S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
49

Figure 29.

254. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n

255. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n

256.
n
sin 2
a
R
π
=

257.
4
a
R
n
tan 2
a
m r
2
2
− =
π
= =

258. na I =

259.
n
2
sin
2
nR
S
2
π
= ,
4
a
R p pr S
2
2
− = = ,
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
50
where
2
I
p = .

3.19 Circle

Radius:R
Diameter:d
Chord:a
Secantsegments:e,f
Tangentsegment:g
Centralangle: α
Inscribedangle: β
Perimeter:I
Area:S

260.
2
sin R 2 a
α
=

Figure 30.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
51
261.
2 1 2 1
b b a a =

Figure 31.

262.
1 1
ff ee =

Figure 32.

263.
1
2
ff g =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
52

Figure 33.

264.
2
α
= β

Figure 34.

265. d R 2 I π = π =

266.
2
IR
4
d
R S
2
2
=
π
= π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
53
3.20 Sector of a Circle

Radiusofacircle:R
Arclength:s
Centralangle(inradians):x
Centralangle(indegrees): α
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 35.

267. Rx s =

268.
°
α π
=
180
R
s

269. R 2 s I + =

270.
°
α π
= = =
360
R
2
x R
2
Rs
S
2 2

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
54
3.21 Segment of a Circle

Radiusofacircle:R
Arclength:s
Chord:a
Centralangle(inradians):x
Centralangle(indegrees): α
Heightofthesegment:h
Perimeter:I
Area:S

Figure 36.

271.
2
h hR 2 2 a − =

272.
2 2
a R 4
2
1
R h − − = , R h <

273. a s I + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
55
274. ( ) | | ( ) x sin x
2
R
sin
180 2
R
h R a sR
2
1
S
2 2
− =
|
.
|

\
|
α −
°
απ
= − − = ,
ha
3
2
S ≈ .

3.22 Cube

Edge:a
Diagonal:d
Radiusofinscribedsphere:r
Radiusofcircumscribedsphere:r
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 37.

275. 3 a d =

276.
2
a
r =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
56
277.
2
3 a
R =

278.
2
a 6 S =

279.
3
a V =

3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped

Edges:a,b,c
Diagonal:d
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 38.

280.
2 2 2
c b a d + + =

281. ( ) bc ac ab 2 S + + =

282. abc V =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
57
3.24 Prism

Iateraledge:l
Height:h
Iateralarea:
I
S
Areaofbase:
B
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 39.

283.
B I
S 2 S S + = .

284. IateralAreaofaRightPrism
( )l a a a a S
n 3 2 1 I
+ + + + = K

285. IateralAreaofanObliquePrism
pl S
I
= ,
wherepistheperimeterofthecrosssection.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
58
286. h S V
B
=

287. Cavalieri'sPrinciple
Given two solids included between parallel planes. If every
planecrosssectionparalleltothegivenplaneshasthesame
areainbothsolids,thenthevolumesofthesolidsareequal.

3.25 Regular Tetrahedron

Trianglesidelength:a
Height:h
Areaofbase:
B
S
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 40.

288. a
3
2
h =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
59
289.
4
a 3
S
2
B
=

290.
2
a 3 S =

291.
2 6
a
h S
3
1
V
3
B
= = .

3.26 Regular Pyramid

Sideofbase:a
Iateraledge:b
Height:h
Slantheight:m
Numberofsides:n
Semiperimeterofbase:p
Radiusofinscribedsphereofbase:r
Areaofbase:
B
S
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
60

Figure 41.

292.
4
a
b m
2
2
− =

293.
n
sin 2
a
n
sin b 4
h
2 2 2
π

π
=

294. pm a b 4 na
4
1
nam
2
1
S
2 2
I
= − = =

295. pr S
B
=

296.
I B
S S S + =

297. prh
3
1
h S
3
1
V
B
= =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
61
3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid

Baseandtopsidelengths:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
n 3 2 1
b , , b , b , b
a , , a , a , a
K
K

Height:h
Slantheight:m
Areaofbases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Perimeterofbases:
1
P ,
2
P
Scalefactor:k
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 42.

298. k
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
n
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
= = = = = = K

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
62
299.
2
1
2
k
S
S
=

300.
( )
2
P P m
S
2 1
I
+
=

301.
2 1 I
S S S S + + =

302. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

303. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
a
b
a
b
1
3
hS
V + + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge

Sidesofbase:a,b
Topedge:c
Height:h
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Areaofbase:
B
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
63

Figure 43.

304. ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
I
c a h b b h 4 c a
2
1
S − + + + + =

305. ab S
B
=

306.
I B
S S S + =

307. ( ) c a 2
6
bh
V + =

3.29 Platonic Solids

Edge:a
Radiusofinscribedcircle:r
Radiusofcircumscribedcircle:R
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
64
308. FivePlatonicSolids
The platonic solids are convex polyhedra with equivalent
facescomposedofcongruentconvexregularpolygons.

Solid Number
ofVertices
Number
ofEdges
Number
ofFaces
Section
Tetrahedron 4 6 4 3.23
Cube 8 12 6 3.22
Octahedron 6 12 8 3.27
Icosahedron 12 30 20 3.27
Dodecahedron 20 30 12 3.27

Octahedron

Figure 44.

309.
6
6 a
r =

310.
2
2 a
R =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
65
311. 3 a 2 S
2
=

312.
3
2 a
V
3
=

Icosahedron

Figure 45.

313.
( )
12
3 3 3 a
r
+
=

314. ( ) 3 3 2
4
a
R + =

315. 3 a 3 S
2
=

316.
( )
12
3 3 a 3
V
3
+
=

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
66
Dodecahedron

Figure 46.

317.
( )
2
3 11 23 10 a
r
+
=

318.
( )
4
3 1 3 a
R
+
=

319. ( ) 3 2 3 3 a 3 S
2
+ =

320.
( )
4
3 7 13 a
V
3
+
=

3.30 Right Circular Cylinder

Radiusofbase:R
Diameterofbase:d
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
67
Height:H
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Areaofbase:
B
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 47.

321. RH 2 S
I
π =

322. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
H d R H R 2 S 2 S S
B I

323. H R H S V
2
B
π = =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
68
3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with
an Oblique Plane Face

Radiusofbase:R
Thegreatestheightofaside:
1
h
Theshortestheightofaside:
2
h
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Areaofplaneendfaces:
B
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 48.

324. ( )
2 1 I
h h R S + π =

325.
2
2 1
2 2
B
2
h h
R R R S
|
.
|

\
|

+ π + π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
69
326.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|

+ + + + π = + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 B I
2
h h
R R h h R S S S

327. ( )
2 1
2
h h
2
R
V +
π
=

3.32 Right Circular Cone
Radiusofbase:R
Diameterofbase:d
Height:H
Slantheight:m
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Areaofbase:
B
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 49.
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
70
328.
2 2
R m H − =

329.
2
md
Rm S
I
π
= π =

330.
2
B
R S π =

331. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
m d
2
1
R m R S S S
B I

332. H R
3
1
H S
3
1
V
2
B
π = =

3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone

Radiusofbases:R,r
Height:H
Slantheight:m
Scalefactor:k
Areaofbases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateralsurfacearea:
I
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
71

Figure 50.

333. ( )
2 2
r R m H − − =

334. k
r
R
=

335.
2
2
2
1
2
k
r
R
S
S
= =

336. ( ) r R m S
I
+ π =

337. ( ) | | r R m r R S S S S
2 2
I 2 1
+ + + π = + + =

338. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

339. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
r
R
r
R
1
3
hS
V + + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
72
3.34 Sphere

Radius:R
Diameter:d
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

Figure 51.

340.
2
R 4 S π =

341. SR
3
1
d
6
1
H R
3
4
V
3 3
= π = π =

3.35 Spherical Cap
Radiusofsphere:R
Radiusofbase:r
Height:h
Areaofplaneface:
B
S
Areaofsphericalcap:
C
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
73

Figure 52.

342.
h 2
h r
R
2 2
+
=

343.
2
B
r S π =

344. ( )
2 2
C
r h S + π =

345. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
C B
r Rh 2 r 2 h S S S + π = + π = + =

346. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
h r 3 h
6
h R 3 h
6
V +
π
= −
π
=

3.36 Spherical Sector

Radiusofsphere:R
Radiusofbaseofsphericalcap:r
Height:h
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
74

Figure 53.

347. ( ) r h 2 R S + π =

348. h R
3
2
V
2
π =

Note: The given formulas are correct both for °open≤ and
°closed≤sphericalsector.

3.37 Spherical Segment

Radiusofsphere:R
Radiusofbases:
1
r ,
2
r
Height:h
Areaofsphericalsurface:
S
S
Areaofplaneendfaces:
1
S ,
2
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
75

Figure 54.

349. Rh 2 S
S
π =

350. ( )
2
2
2
1 2 1 S
r r Rh 2 S S S S + + π = + + =

351. ( )
2 2
2
2
1
h r 3 r 3 h
6
1
V + + π =

3.38 Spherical Wedge

Radius:R
Dihedralangleindegrees:x
Dihedralangleinradians: α
Areaofsphericallune:
I
S
Totalsurfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
76

Figure 55.

352. x R 2
90
R
S
2
2
I
= α
π
=

353. x R 2 R
90
R
R S
2 2
2
2
+ π = α
π
+ π =

354. x R
3
2
270
R
V
3
3
= α
π
=

3.39 Ellipsoid

Semi-axes:a,b,c
Volume:V
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
77

Figure 56.

355. abc
3
4
V π =

Prolate Spheroid

Semi-axes:a,b,b( b a > )
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

356.
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
e
e arcsin a
b b 2 S ,
where
a
b a
e
2 2

= .

357. a b
3
4
V
2
π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
78
Oblate Spheroid

Semi-axes:a,b,b( b a < )
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

358.
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
a / be
a
be
arcsinh a
b b 2 S ,
where
b
a b
e
2 2

= .

359. a b
3
4
V
2
π =

3.40 Circular Torus

Majorradius:R
Minorradius:r
Surfacearea:S
Volume:V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
79

Picture 57.

360. Rr 4 S
2
π =

361.
2 2
Rr 2 V π =

80
Chapt er 4
Trigonometry

Angles: α, β
Realnumbers(coordinatesofapoint):x,y
Wholenumber:k

4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles

362. " 43 ' 17 37
180
rad 1 ° ≈
π
°
=

363. rad 017433 . 0 rad
180
1 ≈
π
= °

364. rad 000291 . 0 rad
60 180
' 1 ≈

π
=

365. rad 000003 . 0 rad
3600 180
" 1 ≈

π
=

366.

Angle
(degrees)
0 30 43 60 90 180 270 360
Angle
(radians)
0
6
π

4
π

3
π

2
π
π
2

π 2

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
81
4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric
Functions

Figure 58.

367.
r
y
sin = α

368.
r
x
cos = α

369.
x
y
tan = α

370.
y
x
cot = α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
82
371.
x
r
sec = α

372.
y
r
cosec = α

373. SineFunction
x sin y = , 1 x sin 1 ≤ ≤ − .

Figure 59.

374. CosineFunction
x cos y = , 1 x cos 1 ≤ ≤ − .
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
83

Figure 60.

375. TangentFunction
x tan y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ , . x tan ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ −

Figure 61.

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
84
376. CotangentFunction
x cot y = , π ≠ k x , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x cot .

Figure 62.

377. SecantFunction
x sec y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
85

Figure 63.

378. CosecantFunction
x ec cos y = , π ≠ k x .

Figure 64.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
86
4.3. Signs of Trigonometric Functions

379.

Quadrant
Sin
α
Cos
α
Tan
α
Cot
α
Sec
α
Cosec
α
I + + + + + +
II + +
III + +
IV + +

380.

Figure 65.

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
87
4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common
Angles
381.
° α
rad α α sin
α cos α tan α cot α sec α cosec
0 0 0 1 0

1

30
6
π

2
1

2
3

3
1

3
3
2

2
43
4
π

2
2

2
2

1 1
2 2
60
3
π

2
3

2
1

3
3
1

2
3
2

90
2
π
1 0

0

1
120
3


2
3

2
1

3 −
3
1

2 −
3
2

180 π 0
1 −
0
∞ 1 − ∞
270
2


1 −
0

0
∞ 1 −
360 π 2 0 1 0

1

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
88
382.
° α
rad α α sin
α cos α tan α cot
13
12
π

4
2 6 −

4
2 6 +
3 2− 3 2+
18
10
π

4
1 3 −

4
3 2 10 +
3
3 2 3−
3 2 3+
36
3
π

4
3 2 10 −
4
1 3 +

1 3
3 2 10
+

3 2 10
1 3

+

34
10


4
1 3 +

4
3 2 10 −
3 2 10
1 3

+
1 3
3 2 10
+

72
3


4
3 2 10 +
4
1 3 −
3 2 3+
3
3 2 3−

73
12


4
2 6 +

4
2 6 −
3 2+ 3 2−

4.5 Most Important Formulas

383. 1 cos sin
2 2
= α + α

384. 1 tan sec
2 2
= α − α

385. 1 cot csc
2 2
= α − α

386.
α
α
= α
cos
sin
tan
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
89
387.
α
α
= α
sin
cos
cot

388. 1 cot tan = α ⋅ α

389.
α
= α
cos
1
sec

390.
α
= α
sin
1
cosec

4.6 Reduction Formulas

391.

β β sin β cos β tan β cot
α −
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α − ° 90
α + cos
α + sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 90
α + cos
α −sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 180
α + sin
α −cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 180
α −sin
α −cos α + tan α + cot
α − ° 270
α −cos
α −sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 270
α −cos
α + sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 360
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 360
α + sin
α + cos α + tan α + cot

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
90
4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions

392. ( ) α = π ± α sin n 2 sin ,period π 2 or ° 360 .

393. ( ) α = π ± α cos n 2 cos ,period π 2 or ° 360 .

394. ( ) α = π ± α tan n tan ,period πor ° 180 .

395. ( ) α = π ± α cot n cot ,period πor ° 180 .

4.8 Relations between Trigonometric
Functions

396. ( ) 1
4 2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
cos 1 sin
2 2

|
.
|

\
|
π

α
= α − ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2
α
+
α
=

397. ( ) 1
2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
sin 1 cos
2 2

α
= α + ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 1
2
2
α
+
α

=

398.
α
α −
=
α +
α
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 sin
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2 sin
1 sec
cos
sin
tan
2

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
91

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
+
α
=
α +
α −
± =

399.
α −
α
=
α
α +
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 cos 1
2 sin
2 sin
2 cos 1
1 csc
sin
cos
cot
2

2
tan 2
2
tan 1
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
α

=
α −
α +
± =

400.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
tan 1
cos
1
sec
2
2
2
α

α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α

401.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot 1
sin
1
csc
2
2
α
α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α

4.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas

402. ( ) α β + β α = β + α cos sin cos sin sin

403. ( ) α β − β α = − α cos sin cos sin y sin

404. ( ) β α − β α = β + α sin sin cos cos cos

405. ( ) β α + β α = β − α sin sin cos cos cos
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
92
406. ( )
β α −
β + α
= β + α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

407. ( )
β α +
β − α
= β − α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

408. ( )
β + α
β α −
= β + α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot

409. ( )
β − α
β α +
= β − α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot

4.10 Double Angle Formulas

410. α ⋅ α = α cos sin 2 2 sin

411. 1 cos 2 sin 2 1 sin cos 2 cos
2 2 2 2
− α = α − = α − α = α

412.
α − α
=
α −
α
= α
tan cot
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan
2

413.
2
tan cot
cot 2
1 cot
2 cot
2
α − α
=
α
− α
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
93
4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas

414. α − α ⋅ α = α − α = α
3 2 3
sin sin cos 3 sin 4 sin 3 3 sin

415. α ⋅ α − α ⋅ α = α cos sin 8 cos sin 4 4 sin
3

416. α + α − α = α
3 3
sin 16 sin 20 sin 3 3 sin

417. α ⋅ α − α = α − α = α
2 3 3
sin cos 3 cos cos 3 cos 4 3 cos

418. 1 cos 8 cos 8 4 cos
2 4
+ α − α = α

419. α + α − α = α cos 3 cos 20 cos 16 3 cos
3 3

420.
α −
α − α
= α
2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3
3 tan

421.
α + α −
α − α
= α
4 2
3
tan tan 6 1
tan 4 tan 4
4 tan

422.
α + α −
α + α − α
= α
4 2
3 3
tan 3 tan 10 1
tan 3 tan 10 tan
3 tan

423.
1 cot 3
cot 3 cot
3 cot
2
3
− α
α − α
= α

424.
α − α
α + α −
= α
3
4 2
tan 4 tan 4
tan tan 6 1
4 cot

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
94
425.
α + α − α
α + α −
= α
tan 3 tan 10 tan
tan 3 tan 10 1
3 cot
3 3
4 2

4.12 Half Angle Formulas

426.
2
cos 1
2
sin
α −
± =
α

427.
2
cos 1
2
cos
α +
± =
α

428. α − α =
α
α −
=
α +
α
=
α +
α −
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
tan

429. α + α =
α
α +
=
α −
α
=
α −
α +
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
cot

4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities

430.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
sin
2
α
+
α
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
95
431.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
cos
2
2
α
+
α

= α

432.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
tan
2
α

α
= α

433.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot
2
α
α

= α

4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Product

434.
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β + α

435.
2
sin
2
cos 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β − α

436.
2
cos
2
cos 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
= β + α

437.
2
sin
2
sin 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
− = β − α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
96
438.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
= β + α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

439.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β − α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

440.
( )
β ⋅ α
α + β
= β + α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

441.
( )
β ⋅ α
α − β
= β − α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

442.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α + α
4
sin 2
4
cos 2 sin cos

443.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α − α
4
cos 2
4
sin 2 sin cos

444.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β + α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

445.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
− = β − α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

446.
2
cos 2 cos 1
2
α
= α +

447.
2
sin 2 cos 1
2
α
= α −

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
97
448.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α +
2 4
cos 2 sin 1
2

449.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α −
2 4
sin 2 sin 1
2

4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Sum

450.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
sin sin
β + α − β − α
= β ⋅ α

451.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
cos cos
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

452.
( ) ( )
2
sin sin
cos sin
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

453.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
cot cot
tan tan
tan tan

454.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan tan
cot cot
cot cot

455.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan cot
cot tan
cot tan

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
98
4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions

456.
2
2 cos 1
sin
2
α −
= α

457.
4
3 sin sin 3
sin
3
α − α
= α

458.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
sin
4
+ α − α
= α

459.
16
3 sin 3 sin 3 sin 10
sin
3
α + α − α
= α

460.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 13 10
sin
6
α − α + α −
= α

461.
2
2 cos 1
cos
2
α +
= α

462.
4
3 cos cos 3
cos
3
α + α
= α

463.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
cos
4
+ α + α
= α

464.
16
3 cos 3 sin 3 cos 10
cos
3
α + α + α
= α

465.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 13 10
cos
6
α + α + α +
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
99
4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions

466. InverseSineFunction
x arcsin y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − ,
2
x arcsin
2
π
≤ ≤
π
− .

Figure 66.

467. InverseCosineFunction
x arccos y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − , π ≤ ≤ x arccos 0 .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
100

Figure 67.

468. InverseTangentFunction
x arctan y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x ,
2
x arctan
2
π
< <
π
− .

Figure 68.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
101
469. InverseCotangentFunction
x cot arc y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x , π < < x cot arc 0 .


Figure 69.

470. InverseSecantFunction
( | | ) . ,
2 2
, 0 x sec arc , , 1 1 , x , x arcsec y
(
¸
(

\
|
π
π

|
.
|

¸

π
∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =

Figure 70.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
102
471. InverseCosecantFunction
( | | ) .
2
, 0 0 ,
2
x csc arc , , 1 1 , x , x arccsc y
(
¸
(

\
|
π

|
.
|

¸

π
− ∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =

Figure 71.

4.18 Principal Values of Inverse
Trigonometric Functions
472.

x

0
2
1

2
2

2
3
1
x arcsin ° 0 ° 30 ° 43 ° 60 ° 90
x arccos ° 90 ° 60 ° 43 ° 30 ° 0
x

2
1

2
2

2
3
− 1 −

x arcsin
° −30

° −43 ° −60
° −90

x arccos
° 120

° 133 ° 130
° 180

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
103
473.

x

0
3
3
1
3
3
3
− 1 − 3 −
x arctan ° 0 ° 30 ° 43 ° 60 ° −30
° −43

° −60
x cot arc ° 90 ° 60 ° 43 ° 30 ° 120
° 133

° 130

4.19 Relations between Inverse
Trigonometric Functions

474. ( ) x arcsin x arcsin − = −

475. x arccos
2
x arcsin −
π
=

476.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

477.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − − = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

478.
2
x 1
x
arctan x arcsin

= ,
1 x
2
<
.

479.
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

480. π −

=
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2
, 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

481. ( ) x arccos x arccos − π = −
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
104
482. x arcsin
2
x arccos −
π
=

483.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

484.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − − π = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

485.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

486.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

+ π = , 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

487.
2
x 1
x
cot arc x arccos

= ,
1 x 1 ≤ ≤ −
.

488. ( ) x arctan x arctan − = −

489. x cot arc
2
x arctan −
π
=

490.
2
x 1
x
arcsin x arctan
+
=

491.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
= , 0 x ≥ .

492.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
− = , 0 x ≤ .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
105
493.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
= , 0 x > .

494.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
− = , 0 x < .

495.
x
1
cot arc x arctan = , 0 x > .

496. π − =
x
1
cot arc x arctan , 0 x < .

497. ( ) x cot arc x cot arc − π = −

498. x arctan
2
x cot arc −
π
=

499.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
= , 0 x > .

500.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
− π = , 0 x < .

501.
2
x 1
x
arccos x cot arc
+
=

502.
x
1
arctan x cot arc = , 0 x > .

503.
x
1
arctan x cot arc + π = , 0 x < .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
106
4.20 Trigonometric Equations

Wholenumber:n

504. a x sin = , ( ) n a arcsin 1 x
n
π + − =

505. a x cos = , n 2 a arccos x π + ± =

506. a x tan = , n a arctan x π + =

507. a x cot = , n a cot arc x π + =

4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions

Imaginaryunit:i

508. ( ) x sinh i ix sin =

509. ( ) x tanh i ix tan =

510. ( ) x coth i ix cot − =

511. ( ) x sech ix sec =

512. ( ) x csch i ix csc − =

107
Chapt er 5
Matrices and Determinants

Matrices:A,B,C
Elementsofamatrix:
i
a ,
i
b ,
ij
a ,
ij
b ,
ij
c
Determinantofamatrix: A det
Minorofanelement
ij
a :
ij
M
Cofactorofanelement
ij
a :
ij
C
Transposeofamatrix:
T
A , A
-

Adjointofamatrix: A adj
Traceofamatrix: A tr
Inverseofamatrix:
1
A

Realnumber:k
Realvariables:
i
x
Naturalnumbers:m,n

5.1 Determinants

513. SecondOrderDeterminant
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
A det − = =

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
108
514. ThirdOrderDeterminant
− + + = =
32 21 13 31 23 12 33 22 11
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a a a a a a a
a a a
a a a
a a a
A det
31 22 13 33 21 12 32 23 11
a a a a a a a a a − − −

515. SarrusRule(ArrowRule)

Figure 72.

516. N-thOrderDeterminant
nn nj 2 n 1 n
in ij 2 i 1 i
n 2 j 2 22 21
n 1 j 1 12 11
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
A det
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K
=

517. Minor
Theminor
ij
M associatedwiththeelement
ij
a ofn-thorder
matrix A is the ( ) 1 n− -th order determinant derived from
thematrixAbydeletionofitsi-throwandj-thcolumn.

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
109
518. Cofactor
( )
ij
j i
ij
M 1 C
+
− =

519. IaplaceExpansionofn-thOrderDeterminant
Iaplaceexpansionbyelementsofthei-throw

=
=
n
1 j
ij ij
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 i K = .
Iaplaceexpansionbyelementsofthej-thcolumn

=
=
n
1 i
ij ij
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 j K = .

5.2 Properties of Determinants

520. Thevalueofadeterminantremainsunchangedifrowsare
changedtocolumnsandcolumnstorows.

2 2
1 1
2 1
2 1
b a
b a
b b
a a
=

521. Iftworows(ortwocolumns)areinterchanged,thesignof
thedeterminantischanged.
1 1
2 2
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
b a
b a
− =

522. Iftworows(ortwocolumns)areidentical,thevalueofthe
determinantiszero.
0
a a
a a
2 2
1 1
=

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
110
523. Iftheelementsofanyrow(orcolumn)aremultipliedby
acommonfactor,thedeterminantismultipliedbythat
factor.
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
k
b a
kb ka
=

524. Iftheelementsofanyrow(orcolumn)areincreased(or
decreased)byequalmultiplesofthecorrespondingelements
ofanyotherrow(orcolumn),thevalueofthedeterminant
isunchanged.
2 2
1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
b a
b a
b kb a
b kb a
=
+
+

5.3 Matrices

525. Definition
An n m× matrixAisarectangulararrayofelements(num-
bersorfunctions)withmrowsandncolumns.
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K

526. Squarematrixisamatrixoforder n n× .

527. Asquarematrix | |
ij
a issymmetricif
ji ij
a a = ,i.e.itis
symmetricabouttheleadingdiagonal.

528. Asquarematrix | |
ij
a isskew-symmetricif
ji ij
a a − = .

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
111
529. Diagonalmatrixisasquarematrixwithallelementszero
exceptthoseontheleadingdiagonal.

530. Unitmatrixisadiagonalmatrixinwhichtheelementson
theleadingdiagonalareallunity.Theunitmatrixis
denotedbyI.

531. Anullmatrixisonewhoseelementsareallzero.

5.4 Operations with Matrices

532. TwomatricesAandBareequalif,andonlyif,theyareboth
ofthesameshape n m× andcorrespondingelementsare
equal.

533. TwomatricesAandBcanbeadded(orsubtracted)of,and
onlyif,theyhavethesameshape n m× .If
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
112
then
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= +
mn mn 2 m 2 m 1 m 1 m
n 2 n 2 22 22 21 21
n 1 n 1 12 12 11 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
B A
K
M M M
K
K
.

534. Ifkisascalar,and | |
ij
a A = isamatrix,then
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka kA
K
M M M
K
K
.

535. MultiplicationofTwoMatrices
Two matrices can be multiplied together only when the
number of columns in the first is equal to the number of
rowsinthesecond.

If
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
nk 2 n 1 n
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
ij
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
113
then
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mk 2 m 1 m
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
c c b
c c c
c c c
C AB
K
M M M
K
K
,
where

= λ
λ λ
= + + + =
n
1
j i nj in j 2 2 i j 1 1 i ij
b a b a b a b a c K
( m , , 2 , 1 i K = ; k , , 2 , 1 j K = ).

Thusif
| |
(
¸
(

¸

= =
23 22 21
13 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a A , | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
3
2
1
i
b
b
b
b B ,
then
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


(
¸
(

¸

=
3 23 2 22 1 21
3 13 2 12 1 11
3
2
1
23 22 21
13 12 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b
b
b
a a a
a a a
AB .

536. TransposeofaMatrix
Iftherowsandcolumnsofamatrixareinterchanged,then
thenewmatrixiscalledthetransposeoftheoriginalmatrix.
If A is the original matrix, its transpose is denoted
T
A or
A
-
.

537. ThematrixAisorthogonalif I AA
T
= .

538. IfthematrixproductABisdefined,then
( )
T T T
A B AB = .

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
114
539. AdjointofMatrix
If A is a square n n× matrix, its adjoint, denoted by A adj ,
isthetransposeofthematrixofcofactors
ij
C ofA:
| |
T
ij
C A adj = .

540. TraceofaMatrix
If A is a square n n× matrix, its trace, denoted by A tr , is
definedtobethesumofthetermsontheleadingdiagonal:
nn 22 11
a a a A tr + + + = K .

541. InverseofaMatrix
IfAisasquare n n× matrixwithanonsingulardeterminant
A det ,thenitsinverse
1
A

isgivenby
A det
A adj
A
1
=

.

542. IfthematrixproductABisdefined,then
( )
1 1 1
A B AB
− − −
= .

543. IfAisasquare n n× matrix,theeigenvectorsXsatisfy
theequation
X AX λ = ,
whiletheeigenvalues λsatisfythecharacteristicequation
0 I A = λ − .

5.5 Systems of Linear Equations

Variables:x,y,z,
1
x , K , x
2

Realnumbers: K , a , a , b , a , a , a
12 11 1 3 2 1

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
115
Determinants:D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D
Matrices:A,B,X

544.
¹
´
¦
= +
= +
2 2 2
1 1 1
d y b x a
d y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= (Cramer∞srule),
where
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
x
b d b d
b d
b d
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
y
d a d a
d a
d a
D − = = .

545. If 0 D≠ ,thenthesystemhasasinglesolution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ ), then the system has no
solution.
If 0 D D D
y x
= = = , then the system has infinitely many
solutions.

546.
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= + +
= + +
= + +
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= (Cramer∞srule),

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
116
where
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
D= ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
x
c b d
c b d
c b d
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
y
c d a
c d a
c d a
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
z
d b a
d b a
d b a
D = .

547. If 0 D≠ ,thenthesystemhasasinglesolution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ or 0 D
z
≠ ),thenthesystem
hasnosolution.
If 0 D D D D
z y x
= = = = , then the system has infinitely
manysolutions.

548. MatrixFormofaSystemofnIinearEquationsin
nUnknowns
Thesetoflinearequations
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
n n nn 2 2 n 1 1 n
2 n n 2 2 22 1 21
1 n n 1 2 12 1 11
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
K
K K K K K K K K K K K K
K
K

canbewritteninmatrixform
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
n
2
1
n
2
1
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
b
b
b
x
x
x
a a a
a a a
a a a
M M
K
M M M
K
K
,
i.e.
B X A = ⋅ ,
CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
117
where
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
K
M M M
K
K
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
x
x
x
X
M
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
b
b
b
B
M
.

549. SolutionofaSetofIinearEquations n n×
B A X
1
⋅ =

,
where
1
A

istheinverseofA.

118
Chapt er 6
Vectors

Vectors: u
r
, v
r
, w
r
, r
r
,

AB,.
Vectorlength: u
r
, v
r
,.
Unitvectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Nullvector: 0
r

Coordinatesofvector u
r
:
1 1 1
Z , Y , X
Coordinatesofvector v
r
:
2 2 2
Z , Y , X
Scalars: λ, µ
Directioncosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Anglebetweentwovectors: θ

6.1 Vector Coordinates

550. UnitVectors
( ) 0 , 0 , 1 i =
r
,
( ) 0 , 1 , 0 j =
r
,
( ) 1 , 0 , 0 k =
r
,
1 k j i = = =
r r r
.

551. ( ) ( ) ( ) k z z j y y i x x AB r
0 1 0 1 0 1
r r r
r
− + − + − = =

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
119

Figure 73.

552. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 1
2
0 1
2
0 1
z z y y x x AB r − + − + − = =

r

553. If r AB
r
=

,then r BA
r
− =

.

Figure 74.

554. α = cos r X
r
,
β = cos r Y
r
,
γ = cos r Z
r
.
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
120

Figure 75.

555. If ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
Z , Y , X r Z , Y , X r
r r
= ,then
1
X X = ,
1
Y Y = ,
1
Z Z = .

6.2 Vector Addition

556. v u w
r r r
+ =

Figure 76.
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
121

Figure 77.

557.
n 3 2 1
u u u u w
r
K
r r r r
+ + + + =

Figure 78.

558. CommutativeIaw
u v v u
r r r r
+ = +

559. AssociativeIaw
( ) ( ) w v u w v u
r r r r r r
+ + = + +

560. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u + + + = +
r r

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
122
6.3 Vector Subtraction

561. v u w
r r r
− = if u w v
r r r
= + .

Figure 79.

Figure 80.

562. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
− + = −

563. ( ) 0 , 0 , 0 0 u u = = −
r
r r

564. 0 0 =
r

565. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u − − − = −
r r
,

6.4 Scaling Vectors

566. u w
r r
λ =
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
123

Figure 81.

567. u w
r r
⋅ λ =

568. ( ) Z , Y , X u λ λ λ = λ
r

569. λ = λ u u
r r

570. ( ) u u u
r r r
µ + λ = µ + λ

571. ( ) ( ) ( )u u u
r r r
λµ = λ µ = µ λ

572. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
λ + λ = + λ

6.5 Scalar Product

573. ScalarProductofVectors u
r
and v
r

θ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ cos v u v u
r r r r
,
where θ istheanglebetweenvectors u
r
and v
r
.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
124

Figure 82.

574. ScalarProductinCoordinateForm
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
,then
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z Y Y X X v u + + = ⋅
r r
.

575. AngleBetweenTwoVectors
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
,then
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Y X Z Y X
Z Z Y Y X X
cos
+ + + +
+ +
= θ .

576. CommutativeProperty
u v v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅

577. AssociativeProperty
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
⋅ λµ = µ ⋅ λ

578. DistributiveProperty
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
⋅ + ⋅ = + ⋅

579. 0 v u = ⋅
r r
if u
r
, v
r
areorthogonal(
2
π
= θ ).

580. 0 v u > ⋅
r r
if
2
0
π
< θ < .

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
125
581. 0 v u < ⋅
r r
if π < θ <
π
2
.

582. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ ≤ ⋅

583. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅ if u
r
, v
r
areparallel( 0 = θ ).

584. If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
,then
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
Z Y X u u u u + + = = = ⋅
r r r r
.

585. 1 k k j j i i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r

586. 0 i k k j j i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r

6.6 Vector Product

587. VectorProductofVectors u
r
and v
r

w v u
r r r
= × ,where
• θ ⋅ ⋅ = sin v u w
r r r
,where
2
0
π
≤ θ ≤ ;
• u w
r r
⊥ and v w
r r
⊥ ;
• Vectors u
r
, v
r
, w
r
formaright-handedscrew.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
126

Figure 83.

588.
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
k j i
v u w
r r r
r r r
= × =

589.
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = × =
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
Y X
Y X
,
Z X
Z X
,
Z Y
Z Y
v u w
r r r

590. θ ⋅ ⋅ = × = sin v u v u S
r r r r
(Fig.83)

591. AngleBetweenTwoVectors(Fig.83)
v u
v u
sin
r r
r r

×
= θ

592. NoncommutativeProperty
( ) u v v u
r r r r
× − = ×

593. AssociativeProperty
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
× λµ = µ × λ

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
127
594. DistributiveProperty
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
× + × = + ×

595. 0 v u
r
r r
= × if u
r
and v
r
areparallel( 0 = θ ).

596. 0 k k j j i i
r
r r r r r r
= × = × = ×

597. k j i
r r r
= × , i k j
r r r
= × , j i k
r r r
= ×

6.7 Triple Product

598. ScalarTripleProduct
| | ( ) ( ) ( ) v u w u w v w v u w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r
× ⋅ = × ⋅ = × ⋅ =

599. | | | | | | | | | | | | v w u u v w w u v u w v v u w w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
− = − = − = = =

600. ( ) | | w v u k w v u k
r r r r r r
= × ⋅

601. ScalarTripleProductinCoordinateForm
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
Z Y X
w v u = × ⋅
r r r
,
where
( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, ( )
3 3 3
Z , Y , X w =
r
.

602. VolumeofParallelepiped
( ) w v u V
r r r
× ⋅ =

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
128

Figure 84.

603. VolumeofPyramid
( ) w v u
6
1
V
r r r
× ⋅ =

Figure 85.

604. If ( ) 0 w v u = × ⋅
r r r
,thenthevectors u
r
, v
r
,and w
r
arelinearly
dependent,so v u w
r r r
µ + λ = forsomescalars λand µ.

605. If ( ) 0 w v u ≠ × ⋅
r r r
,thenthevectors u
r
, v
r
,and w
r
arelinearly
independent.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
129
606. VectorTripleProduct
( ) ( ) ( )w v u v w u w v u
r r r r r r r r r
⋅ − ⋅ = × ×

130

Chapt er 7
Analytic Geometry




7.1 One-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
1
x ,
2
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
2
y
Real number: λ
Distance between two points: d


607. Distance Between Two Points
2 1 1 2
x x x x AB d − = − = =



Figure 86.

608. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .



Figure 87.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
131

609. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .



7.2 Two-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
1
x ,
2
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
2
y
Polar coordinates: ϕ , r
Real number: λ
Positive real numbers: a, b, c,
Distance between two points: d
Area: S


610. Distance Between Two Points
( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
y y x x AB d − + − = =



Figure 88.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
132

611. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
y y
y
2 1
0
,
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .



Figure 89.


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
133



Figure 90.

612. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
y y
y
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .

613. Centroid (Intersection of Medians) of a Triangle
3
x x x
x
3 2 1
0
+ +
= ,
3
y y y
y
3 2 1
0
+ +
= ,
where ( )
1 1
y , x A , ( )
2 2
y , x B , and ( )
3 3
y , x C are vertices of
the triangle ABC.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
134



Figure 91.

614. Incenter (Intersection of Angle Bisectors) of a Triangle
c b a
cx bx ax
x
3 2 1
0
+ +
+ +
= ,
c b a
cy by ay
y
3 2 1
0
+ +
+ +
= ,
where BC a = , CA b = , AB c = .



Figure 92.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
135

615. Circumcenter (Intersection of the Side Perpendicular
Bisectors) of a Triangle
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1 y y x
1 y y x
1 y y x
x
3 3
2 2
1 1
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
+
+
+
= ,
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1 y x x
1 y x x
1 y x x
y
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3
2
3 3
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
0
+
+
+
=



Figure 93.







CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
136

616. Orthocenter (Intersection of Altitudes) of a Triangle
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x x y
1 y x x y
1 y x x y
x
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 2 1 3
2
2 1 3 2
2
1 3 2 1
0
+
+
+
= ,
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 x y y x
1 x y y x
1 x y y x
y
3 3
2 2
1 1
3 2 1
2
3
2 1 3
2
2
1 3 2
2
1
0
+
+
+
=



Figure 94.

617. Area of a Triangle
( ) ( )
1 3 1 3
1 2 1 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
y y x x
y y x x
2
1
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1
S
− −
− −
± = ± =



CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
137

618. Area of a Quadrilateral
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) | + + − + + − ± =
3 2 3 2 2 1 2 1
y y x x y y x x
2
1
S
( )( ) ( )( )|
1 4 1 4 4 3 4 3
y y x x y y x x + − + + − +



Figure 95.

Note: In formulas 617, 618 we choose the sign (+) or (-) so
that to get a positive answer for area.

619. Distance Between Two Points in Polar Coordinates
( )
1 2 2 1
2
2
2
1
cos r r 2 r r AB d ϕ − ϕ − + = =

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
138



Figure 96.

620. Converting Rectangular Coordinates to Polar Coordinates
ϕ = cos r x , ϕ = sin r y .



Figure 97.

621. Converting Polar Coordinates to Rectangular Coordinates
2 2
y x r + = ,
x
y
tan = ϕ .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
139

7.3 Straight Line in Plane

Point coordinates: X, Y, x,
0
x ,
1
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
1
a ,
2
a , .
Real numbers: k, a, b, p, t, A, B, C,
1
A ,
2
A , .
Angles: α, β
Angle between two lines: ϕ
Normal vector: n
r

Position vectors: r
r
, a
r
, b
r



622. General Equation of a Straight Iine
0 C By Ax = + +

623. Normal Vector to a Straight Iine
The vector ( ) B , A n
r
is normal to the line 0 C By Ax = + + .



Figure 98.

624. Explicit Equation of a Straight Iine (Slope-Intercept Form)
b kx y + = .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
140

The gradient of the line is α = tan k .



Figure 99.

625. Gradient of a Iine
1 2
1 2
x x
y y
tan k


= α =



Figure 100.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
141

626. Equation of a Iine Given a Point and the Gradient
( )
0 0
x x k y y − + = ,
where k is the gradient, ( )
0 0
y , x P is a point on the line.



Figure 101.

627. Equation of a Iine That Passes Through Two Points
1 2
1
1 2
1
x x
x x
y y
y y


=



or
0
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2 2
1 1
= .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
142



Figure 102.

628. Intercept Form
1
b
y
a
x
= +



Figure 103.


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
143

629. Normal Form
0 p sin y cos x = − β + β



Figure 104.

630. Point Direction Form
Y
y y
X
x x
1 1

=

,
where ( ) Y , X is the direction of the line and ( )
1 1 1
y , x P lies
on the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
144



Figure 105.

631. Vertical Iine
a x =

632. Horizontal Iine
b y =

633. Vector Equation of a Straight Iine
b t a r
r
r r
+ = ,
where
O is the origin of the coordinates,
X is any variable point on the line,
a
r
is the position vector of a known point A on the line ,
b
r
is a known vector of direction, parallel to the line,
t is a parameter,

= OX r
r
is the position vector of any point X on the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
145



Figure 106.

634. Straight Iine in Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
+ =
+ =
2 2
1 1
tb a y
tb a x
,
where
( ) y , x are the coordinates of any unknown point on the line,
( )
2 1
a , a are the coordinates of a known point on the line,
( )
2 1
b , b are the coordinates of a vector parallel to the line,
t is a parameter.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
146


Figure 107.

635. Distance From a Point To a Iine
The distance from the point ( ) b , a P to the line
0 C By Ax = + + is
2 2
B A
C Bb Aa
d
+
+ +
= .



Figure 108.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
147

636. Parallel Iines
Two lines
1 1
b x k y + = and
2 2
b x k y + = are parallel if
2 1
k k = .
Two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + are
parallel if
2
1
2
1
B
B
A
A
= .



Figure 109.

637. Perpendicular Iines
Two lines
1 1
b x k y + = and
2 2
b x k y + = are perpendicular if
1
2
k
1
k − = or, equivalently, 1 k k
2 1
− = .
Two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + are
perpendicular if
0 B B A A
2 1 2 1
= + .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
148



Figure 110.

638. Angle Between Two Iines
2 1
1 2
k k 1
k k
tan
+

= ϕ ,
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1
B A B A
B B A A
cos
+ ⋅ +
+
= ϕ .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
149



Figure 111.

639. Intersection of Two Iines
If two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + inter-
sect, the intersection point has coordinates
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
0
B A B A
B C B C
x

+ −
= ,
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
0
B A B A
C A C A
y

+ −
= .



7.4 Circle

Radius: R
Center of circle: ( ) b , a
Point coordinates: x, y,
1
x ,
1
y , .
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
150

640. Equation of a Circle Centered at the Origin (Standard
Form)
2 2 2
R y x = +


Figure 112.

641. Equation of a Circle Centered at Any Point ( ) b , a
( ) ( )
2
2 2
R b y a x = − + −

Figure 113.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
151

642. Three Point Form
0
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
3 3
2
3
2
3
2 2
2
2
2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2 2
=
+
+
+
+




Figure 114.

643. Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sin R y
t cos R x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .

644. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Ay Ax
2 2
= + + + + (A nonzero, AF 4 E D
2 2
> + ).
The center of the circle has coordinates ( ) b , a , where
A 2
D
a − = ,
A 2
E
b − = .
The radius of the circle is
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
152

A 2
AF 4 E D
R
2 2
− +
= .



7.5 Ellipse

Semimajor axis: a
Semiminor axis: b
Foci: ( ) 0 , c F
1
− , ( ) 0 , c F
2

Distance between the foci: 2c
Eccentricity: e
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t
Perimeter: I
Area: S


645. Equation of an Ellipse (Standard Form)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +


Figure 115.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
153

646. a 2 r r
2 1
= + ,
where
1
r ,
2
r are distances from any point ( ) y , x P on
the ellipse to the two foci.



Figure 116.

647.
2 2 2
c b a + =

648. Eccentricity
1
a
c
e < =

649. Equations of Directrices
c
a
e
a
x
2
± = ± =

650. Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sin b y
t cos a x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
154

651. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
< − .

652. General Form with Axes Parallel to the Coordinate Axes
0 F Ey Dx Cy Ax
2 2
= + + + + ,
where 0 AC > .

653. Circumference
( ) e aE 4 I = ,
where the function E is the complete elliptic integral of
the second kind.

654. Approximate Formulas of the Circumference
( ) ( ) ab b a 3 . 1 I − + π = ,
( )
2 2
b a 2 I + π = .

655. ab S π =



7.6 Hyperbola

Transverse axis: a
Conjugate axis: b
Foci: ( ) 0 , c F
1
− , ( ) 0 , c F
2

Distance between the foci: 2c
Eccentricity: e
Asymptotes: s, t
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t, k



CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
155

656. Equation of a Hyperbola (Standard Form)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −



Figure 117.

657. a 2 r r
2 1
= − ,
where
1
r ,
2
r are distances from any point ( ) y , x P on
the hyperbola to the two foci.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
156



Figure 118.

658. Equations of Asymptotes
x
a
b
y ± =

659.
2 2 2
b a c + =

660. Eccentricity
1
a
c
e > =

661. Equations of Directrices
c
a
e
a
x
2
± = ± =



CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
157

662. Parametric Equations of the Right Branch of a Hyperbola
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sinh b y
t cosh a x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .

663. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
> − .

664. General Form with Axes Parallel to the Coordinate Axes
0 F Ey Dx Cy Ax
2 2
= + + + + ,
where 0 AC< .

665. Asymptotic Form
4
e
xy
2
= ,
or
x
k
y = , where
4
e
k
2
= .
In this case , the asymptotes have equations 0 x = and
0 y = .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
158



Figure 119.



7.7 Parabola

Focal parameter: p
Focus: F
Vertex: ( )
0 0
y , x M
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, p, a, b, c


666. Equation of a Parabola (Standard Form)
px 2 y
2
=

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
159



Figure 120.

Equation of the directrix
2
p
x − = ,
Coordinates of the focus
|
.
|

\
|
0 ,
2
p
F ,
Coordinates of the vertex
( ) 0 , 0 M .

667. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
= − .

668.
2
ax y = ,
a 2
1
p = .
Equation of the directrix
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
160

2
p
y − = ,
Coordinates of the focus
|
.
|

\
|
2
p
, 0 F ,
Coordinates of the vertex
( ) 0 , 0 M .



Figure 121.

669. General Form, Axis Parallel to the y-axis
0 F Ey Dx Ax
2
= + + + (A, E nonzero),
c bx ax y
2
+ + = ,
a 2
1
p = .
Equation of the directrix
2
p
y y
0
− = ,
Coordinates of the focus
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
161

|
.
|

\
|
+
2
p
y , x F
0 0
,
Coordinates of the vertex
a 2
b
x
0
− = ,
a 4
b ac 4
c bx ax y
2
0
2
0 0

= + + = .



Figure 122.



7.8 Three-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
0
y ,
0
z ,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Real number: λ
Distance between two points: d
Area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
162

670. Distance Between Two Points
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
z z y y x x AB d − + − + − = =



Figure 123.

671. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
y y
y
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
z z
z
2 1
0
,
where
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
163



Figure 124.



Figure 125.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
164

672. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
y y
y
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
z z
z
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .

673. Area of a Triangle
The area of a triangle with vertices ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P ,
( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P , and ( )
3 3 3 3
z , y , x P is given by
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 x z
1 x z
1 x z
1 z y
1 z y
1 z y
2
1
S + + = .

674. Volume of a Tetrahedron
The volume of a tetrahedron with vertices ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P ,
( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P , ( )
3 3 3 3
z , y , x P , and ( )
4 4 4 4
z , y , x P is given by
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
6
1
V
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
± = ,
or
4 3 4 3 4 3
4 2 4 2 4 2
4 1 4 1 4 1
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
6
1
V
− − −
− − −
− − −
± = .
Note: We choose the sign (+) or (-) so that to get a positive
answer for volume.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
165



Figure 126.



7.9 Plane

Point coordinates: x, y, z,
0
x ,
0
y ,
0
z ,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Real numbers: A, B, C, D,
1
A ,
2
A , a, b, c,
1
a ,
2
a , λ, p, t, .
Normal vectors: n
r
,
1
n
r
,
2
n
r

Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Distance from point to plane: d


675. General Equation of a Plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + +


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
166

676. Normal Vector to a Plane
The vector ( ) C , B , A n
r
is normal to the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + .



Figure 127.

677. Particular Cases of the Equation of a Plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + +

If 0 A = , the plane is parallel to the x-axis.
If 0 B = , the plane is parallel to the y-axis.
If 0 C = , the plane is parallel to the z-axis.
If 0 D= , the plane lies on the origin.

If 0 B A = = , the plane is parallel to the xy-plane.
If 0 C B = = , the plane is parallel to the yz-plane.
If 0 C A = = , the plane is parallel to the xz-plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
167

678. Point Direction Form
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 z z C y y B x x A
0 0 0
= − + − + − ,
where the point ( )
0 0 0
z , y , x P lies in the plane, and the vec-
tor ( ) C , B , A is normal to the plane.



Figure 128.

679. Intercept Form
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
= + +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
168



Figure 129.

680. Three Point Form
0
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
3 2 3 2 3 2
3 1 3 1 3 1
3 3 3
=
− − −
− − −
− − −
,
or
0
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
169



Figure 130.

681. Normal Form
0 p cos z cos y cos x = − γ + β + α ,
where p is the perpendicular distance from the origin to
the plane , and α cos , β cos , γ cos are the direction cosines
of any line normal to the plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
170



Figure 131.

682. Parametric Form
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
t c s c z z
t b s b y y
t a s a x x
2 1 1
2 1 1
2 1 1
,
where ( ) z , y , x are the coordinates of any unknown point on
the line , the point ( )
1 1 1
z , y , x P lies in the plane, the vectors
( )
1 1 1
c , b , a and ( )
2 2 2
c , b , a are parallel to the plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
171



Figure 132.

683. Dihedral Angle Between Two Planes
If the planes are given by
0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + ,
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + ,
then the dihedral angle between them is
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
C B A C B A
C C B B A A
n n
n n
cos
+ + ⋅ + +
+ +
=


= ϕ
r r
r r
.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
172



Figure 133.

684. Parallel Planes
Two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + are parallel if
2
1
2
1
2
1
C
C
B
B
A
A
= = .

685. Perpendicular Planes
Two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + are perpendicular if
0 C C B B A A
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + + .

686. Equation of a Plane Through ( )
1 1 1
z , y , x P and Parallel To
the Vectors ( )
1 1 1
c , b , a and ( )
2 2 2
c , b , a (Fig.132)
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
173

0
c b a
c b a
z z y y x x
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
=
− − −


687. Equation of a Plane Through ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P and ( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P ,
and Parallel To the Vector ( ) c , b , a
0
c b a
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 1
= − − −
− − −




Figure 134.

688. Distance From a Point To a Plane
The distance from the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P to the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + is
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
174

2 2 2
1 1 1
C B A
D Cz By Ax
d
+ +
+ + +
= .



Figure 135.

689. Intersection of Two Planes
If two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + intersect, the intersection straight
line is given by
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ =
+ =
+ =
ct z z
bt y y
at x x
1
1
1
,
or
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

,
where
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
175

2 2
1 1
C B
C B
a = ,
2 2
1 1
A C
A C
b = ,
2 2
1 1
B A
B A
c = ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
B D
B D
c
C D
C D
b
x
+ +

= ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
C D
C D
a
A D
A D
c
y
+ +

= ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
A D
A D
b
B D
B D
a
z
+ +

= .



7.10 Straight Line in Space

Point coordinates: x, y, z,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, a, b, c,
1
a ,
2
a , t, .
Direction vectors of a line: s
r
,
1
s
r
,
2
s
r

Normal vector to a plane: n
r

Angle between two lines: ϕ

690. Point Direction Form of the Equation of a Iine
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

,
where the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P lies on the line, and ( ) c , b , a is
the direction vector of the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
176



Figure 136.

691. Two Point Form
1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
z z
z z
y y
y y
x x
x x


=


=





Figure 137.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
177

692. Parametric Form
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
γ + =
β + =
α + =
cos t z z
cos t y y
cos t x x
1
1
1
,
where the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P lies on the straight line,
α cos , β cos , γ cos are the direction cosines of the direction
vector of the line, the parameter t is any real number.



Figure 138.

693. Angle Between Two Straight Iines
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
c b a c b a
c c b b a a
s s
s s
cos
+ + ⋅ + +
+ +
=


= ϕ
r r
r r


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
178



Figure 139.

694. Parallel Iines
Two lines are parallel if
2 1
s || s
r r
,
or
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
= = .

695. Perpendicular Iines
Two lines are parallel if
0 s s
2 1
= ⋅
r r
,
or
0 c c b b a a
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + + .

696. Intersection of Two Iines
Two lines
1
1
1
1
1
1
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x −
=

=

and
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
179

2
2
2
2
2
2
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x −
=

=

intersect if
0
c b a
c b a
z z y y x x
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
=
− − −
.

697. Parallel Iine and Plane
The straight line
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

and the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + are parallel if
0 s n = ⋅
r r
,
or
0 Cc Bb Aa = + + .



Figure 140.


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
180

698. Perpendicular Iine and Plane
The straight line
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

and the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + are perpendicular if
s || n
r r
,
or
c
C
b
B
a
A
= = .



Figure 141.


7.11 Quadric Surfaces

Point coordinates of the quadric surfaces: x, y, z
Real numbers: A, B, C, a, b, c,
3 2 1
k , k , k , .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
181

699. General Quadratic Equation
0 D Rz 2 Qy 2 Px 2 Hxy 2 Gzx 2 Fyz 2 Cz By Ax
2 2 2
= + + + + + + + + +

700. Classification of Quadric Surfaces

Case Rank(e) Rank(E)

k signs Type of Surface
1 3 4
0 <
Same Real Ellipsoid
2 3 4
0 >
Same Imaginary Ellipsoid
3 3 4
0 >
Different Hyperboloid of 1 Sheet
4 3 4
0 <
Different Hyperboloid of 2 Sheets
3 3 3 Different Real Quadric Cone
6 3 3 Same Imaginary Quadric Cone
7 2 4
0 <
Same Elliptic Paraboloid
8 2 4
0 >
Different Hyperbolic Paraboloid
9 2 3 Same Real Elliptic Cylinder
10 2 3 Same Imaginary Elliptic Cylinder
11 2 3 Different Hyperbolic Cylinder
12 2 2 Different Real Intersecting Planes
13 2 2 Same Imaginary Intersecting Planes
14 1 3 Parabolic Cylinder
13 1 2 Real Parallel Planes
16 1 2 Imaginary Parallel Planes
17 1 1 Coincident Planes

Here
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
C F G
F B H
G H A
e ,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D R Q P
R C F G
Q F B H
P Q H A
E , ( ) E det = ∆ ,
3 2 1
k , k , k are the roots of the equation,
0
x C F G
F x B H
G H x A
=



.


CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
182

701. Real Ellipsoid (Case 1)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + +



Figure 142.

702. Imaginary Ellipsoid (Case 2)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
− = + +

703. Hyperboloid of 1 Sheet (Case 3)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= − +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
183



Figure 143.

704. Hyperboloid of 2 Sheets (Case 4)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
− = − +



Figure 144.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
184

705. Real Quadric Cone (Case 3)
0
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= − +



Figure 145.

706. Imaginary Quadric Cone (Case 6)
0
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + +

707. Elliptic Paraboloid (Case 7)
0 z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= − +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
185


Figure 146.

708. Hyperbolic Paraboloid (Case 8)
0 z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= − −

Figure 147.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
186

709. Real Elliptic Cylinder (Case 9)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +



Figure 148.

710. Imaginary Elliptic Cylinder (Case 10)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
− = +

711. Hyperbolic Cylinder (Case 11)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
187



Figure 149.

712. Real Intersecting Planes (Case 12)
0
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −

713. Imaginary Intersecting Planes (Case 13)
0
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +

714. Parabolic Cylinder (Case 14)
0 y
a
x
2
2
= −

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
188



Figure 150.

715. Real Parallel Planes (Case 13)
1
a
x
2
2
=

716. Imaginary Parallel Planes (Case 16)
1
a
x
2
2
− =

717. Coincident Planes (Case 17)
0 x
2
=





CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
189

7.12 Sphere

Radius of a sphere: R
Point coordinates: x, y, z,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Center of a sphere: ( ) c , b , a
Real numbers: A, D, E, F, M


718. Equation of a Sphere Centered at the Origin (Standard
Form)
2 2 2 2
R z y x = + +



Figure 151.

719. Equation of a Circle Centered at Any Point ( ) c , b , a
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
R c z b y a x = − + − + −

720. Diameter Form
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0 z z z z y y y y x x x x
2 1 2 1 2 1
= − − + − − + − − ,
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
190

where
( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P , ( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P are the ends of a diameter.

721. Four Point Form
0
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x z y x
4 4 4
2
4
2
4
2
4
3 3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
=
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +


722. General Form
0 M Fz Ey Dx Az Ay Ax
2 2 2
= + + + + + + (A is nonzero).
The center of the sphere has coordinates ( ) c , b , a , where
A 2
D
a − = ,
A 2
E
b − = ,
A 2
F
c − = .
The radius of the sphere is
A 2
M A 4 F E D
R
2 2 2 2
− + +
= .


191

Chapt er 8
Differential Calculus




Functions: f, g, y, u, v
Argument (independent variable): x
Real numbers: a, b, c, d
Natural number: n
Angle: α
Inverse function:
1
f




8.1 Functions and Their Graphs

723. Even Function
( ) ( ) x f x f = −

724. Odd Function
( ) ( ) x f x f − = −

725. Periodic Function
( ) ( ) x f nT x f = +

726. Inverse Function
( ) x f y = is any function, ( ) y g x = or ( ) x f y
1 −
= is its inverse
function.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
192



Figure 152.

727. Composite Function
( ) u f y = , ( ) x g u = , ( ) ( ) x g f y = is a composite function.

728. Iinear Function
b ax y + = , R x∈ , α = tan a is the slope of the line, b is
the y-intercept.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
193



Figure 153.

729. Quadratic Function
2
x y = , R x∈ .



Figure 154.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
194

730. c bx ax y
2
+ + = , R x∈ .



Figure 155.

731. Cubic Function
3
x y = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
195



Figure 156.

732. d cx bx ax y
2 3
+ + + = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
196



Figure 157.

733. Power Function
n
x y = , N n∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
197


Figure 158.


Figure 159.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
198

734. Square Root Function
x y = , | ) ∞ ∈ , 0 x .


Figure 160.

735. Exponential Functions
x
a y = , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ ,
x
e y = if e a = , K 6 7182818284 . 2 e =



Figure 161.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
199

736. Iogarithmic Functions
x log y
a
= , ( ) ∞ ∈ , 0 x , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ ,
x ln y = if e a = , 0 x > .



Figure 162.

737. Hyperbolic Sine Function
x sinh y = ,
2
e e
x sinh
x x −

= , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
200



Figure 163.

738. Hyperbolic Cosine Function
x h cos y = ,
2
e e
x h cos
x x −
+
= , R x∈ .


Figure 164.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
201

739. Hyperbolic Tangent Function
x tanh y = ,
x x
x x
e e
e e
x cosh
x sinh
x tanh y


+

= = = , R x∈ .



Figure 165.

740. Hyperbolic Cotangent Function
x h cot y = ,
x x
x x
e e
e e
x sinh
x cosh
x h cot y



+
= = = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
202



Figure 166.

741. Hyperbolic Secant Function
x h sec y = ,
x x
e e
2
x cosh
1
x h sec y

+
= = = , R x∈ .

Figure 167.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
203

742. Hyperbolic Cosecant Function
x csch y = ,
x x
e e
2
x sinh
1
x csch y


= = = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .



Figure 168.

743. Inverse Hyperbolic Sine Function
x arcsinh y = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
204



Figure 169.

744. Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine Function
x arccosh y = , | ) ∞ ∈ , 1 x .



Figure 170.

745. Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent Function
x arctanh y = , ( ) 1 , 1 x − ∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
205



Figure 171.

746. Inverse Hyperbolic Cotangent Function
x arccoth y = , ( ) ( ) ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ , 1 1 , x .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
206



Figure 172.

747. Inverse Hyperbolic Secant Function
x arcsech y = , ( | 1 , 0 x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
207


Figure 173.

748. Inverse Hyperbolic Cosecant Function
x arccsch y = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .

Figure 174.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
208

8.2 Limits of Functions

Functions: ( ) x f , ( ) x g
Argument: x
Real constants: a, k


749. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
+ = +

750. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
− = −

751. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
⋅ = ⋅

752.
( )
( )
( )
( ) x g lim
x f lim
x g
x f
lim
a x
a x
a x



= , if ( ) 0 x g lim
a x


.

753. ( ) | | ( ) x f lim k x kf lim
a x a x → →
=

754. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x g lim f x g f lim
a x a x → →
=

755. ( ) ( ) a f x f lim
a x
=

, if the function ( ) x f is continuous at a x = .

756. 1
x
x sin
lim
0 x
=



757. 1
x
x tan
lim
0 x
=



758. 1
x
x sin
lim
1
0 x
=



CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
209

759. 1
x
x tan
lim
1
0 x
=




760.
( )
1
x
x 1 ln
lim
0 x
=
+



761. e
x
1
1 lim
x
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
∞ →


762.
k
x
x
e
x
k
1 lim =
|
.
|

\
|
+
∞ →


763. 1 a lim
x
0 x
=





8.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative

Functions: f, g, y, u, v
Independent variable: x
Real constant: k
Angle: α


764. ( )
( ) ( )
dx
dy
x
y
lim
x
x f x x f
lim x y
0 x 0 x
=


=

− ∆ +
=

→ ∆ → ∆


CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
210



Figure 175.

765. α = tan
dx
dy


766.
( )
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
v u d
+ =
+


767.
( )
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
v u d
− =



768.
( )
dx
du
k
dx
ku d
=

769. Product Rule
( )
dx
dv
u v
dx
du
dx
v u d
⋅ + ⋅ =




CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
211

770. Quotient Rule
2
v
dx
dv
u v
dx
du
v
u
dx
d
⋅ − ⋅
=
|
.
|

\
|


771. Chain Rule
( ) ( ) x g f y = , ( ) x g u = ,
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
⋅ = .

772. Derivative of Inverse Function
dy
dx
1
dx
dy
= ,
where ( ) y x is the inverse function of ( ) x y .

773. Reciprocal Rule
2
y
dx
dy
y
1
dx
d
− =
|
|
.
|

\
|


774. Iogarithmic Differentiation
( ) x f y = , ( ) x f ln y ln = ,
( ) ( ) | | x f ln
dx
d
x f
dx
dy
⋅ = .


8.4 Table of Derivatives

Independent variable: x
Real constants: C, a, b, c
Natural number: n
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
212

775. ( ) 0 C
dx
d
=

776. ( ) 1 x
dx
d
=

777. ( ) a b ax
dx
d
= +

778. ( ) b ax c bx ax
dx
d
2
+ = + +

779. ( )
1 n n
nx x
dx
d

=

780. ( )
1 n
n
x
n
x
dx
d
+

− =

781.
2
x
1
x
1
dx
d
− =
|
.
|

\
|


782. ( )
x 2
1
x
dx
d
=

783. ( )
n 1 n
n
x n
1
x
dx
d

=

784. ( )
x
1
x ln
dx
d
=

785. ( )
a ln x
1
x log
dx
d
a
= , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
213

786. ( ) a ln a a
dx
d
x x
= , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

787. ( )
x x
e e
dx
d
=

788. ( ) x cos x sin
dx
d
=

789. ( ) x sin x cos
dx
d
− =

790. ( ) x sec
x cos
1
x tan
dx
d
2
2
= =

791. ( ) x csc
x sin
1
x cot
dx
d
2
2
− = − =

792. ( ) x sec x tan x sec
dx
d
⋅ =

793. ( ) x csc x cot x csc
dx
d
⋅ − =

794. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arcsin
dx
d

=

795. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arccos
dx
d

− =

796. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arctan
dx
d
+
=

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
214

797. ( )
2
x 1
1
x cot arc
dx
d
+
− =

798. ( )
1 x x
1
x sec arc
dx
d
2

=

799. ( )
1 x x
1
x csc arc
dx
d
2

− =

800. ( ) x cosh x sinh
dx
d
=

801. ( ) x sinh x cosh
dx
d
=

802. ( ) x sech
x cosh
1
x tanh
dx
d
2
2
= =

803. ( ) x csch
x sinh
1
x coth
dx
d
2
2
− = − =

804. ( ) x tanh x sech x sech
dx
d
⋅ − =

805. ( ) x coth x csch x csch
dx
d
⋅ − =

806. ( )
1 x
1
x arcsinh
dx
d
2
+
=

807. ( )
1 x
1
x arccosh
dx
d
2

=
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
215

808. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arctanh
dx
d

= , 1 x < .

809. ( )
1 x
1
x arccoth
dx
d
2

− = , 1 x > .

810. ( )
dx
dv
u ln u
dx
du
vu u
dx
d
v 1 v v
⋅ + ⋅ =





8.5 Higher Order Derivatives

Functions: f, y, u, v
Independent variable: x
Natural number: n


811. Second derivative
( )
2
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
dx
d
dx
dy
f f =
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
.
|

\
|
=

′ = ′ ′

812. Higher-Order derivative
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

= = =
−1 n n
n
n
n
f y
dx
y d
f

813. ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) n n n
v u v u + = +

814. ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) n n n
v u v u − = −

815. Ieibnitz∞s Formulas
( ) v u v u 2 v u uv
′ ′
+
′ ′
+
′ ′
=
′′

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
216

( ) v u v u 3 v u 3 v u uv
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
=
′′′

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) n 2 n 1 n n
n
uv v u
2 1
1 n n
v nu v u uv + +
′ ′


+

+ =
− −
K

816. ( )
( )
( )
n m
n
m
x
! n m
! m
x


=

817. ( )
( )
! n x
n
n
=

818. ( )
( )
( ) ( )
a ln x
! 1 n 1
x log
n
1 n
n
a
− −
=



819. ( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
1 n
n
x
! 1 n 1
x ln
− −
=



820. ( )
( )
a ln a a
n x
n
x
=

821. ( )
( )
x
n
x
e e =

822. ( )
( )
a ln a m a
n mx n
n
mx
=

823. ( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =
2
n
x sin x sin
n


824. ( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =
2
n
x cos x cos
n




CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
217

8.6 Applications of Derivative

Functions: f, g, y
Position of an object: s
Velocity: v
Acceleration: w
Independent variable: x
Time: t
Natural number: n


825. Velocity and Acceleration
( ) t f s = is the position of an object relative to a fixed
coordinate system at a time t,
( ) t f s v

=

= is the instantaneous velocity of the object,
( ) t f s v w ′ ′ = ′ ′ = ′ = is the instantaneous acceleration of
the object.

826. Tangent Iine
( )( )
0 0 0
x x x f y y −

= −

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
218



Figure 176.

827. Normal Iine
( )
( )
0
0
0
x x
x f
1
y y −

− = − (Fig 176)

828. Increasing and Decreasing Functions.
If ( ) 0 x f
0
> ′ , then f(x) is increasing at
0
x . (Fig 177,
1
x x < ,
x x
2
< ),
If ( ) 0 x f
0
< ′ , then f(x) is decreasing at
0
x . (Fig 177,
2 1
x x x < < ),
If ( )
0
x f ′ does not exist or is zero, then the test fails.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
219



Figure 177.

829. Iocal extrema
A function f(x) has a local maximum at
1
x if and only if
there exists some interval containing
1
x such that
( ) ( ) x f x f
1
≥ for all x in the interval (Fig.177).

A function f(x) has a local minimum at
2
x if and only if
there exists some interval containing
2
x such that
( ) ( ) x f x f
2
≤ for all x in the interval (Fig.177).

830. Critical Points
A critical point on f(x) occurs at
0
x if and only if either
( )
0
x f ′ is zero or the derivative doesn∞t exist.

831. First Derivative Test for Iocal Extrema.
If f(x) is increasing ( ( ) 0 x f >

) for all x in some interval
( |
1
x , a and f(x) is decreasing ( ( ) 0 x f < ′
) for all x in some
interval | ) b , x
1
, then f(x) has a local maximum at
1
x
(Fig.177).
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
220

832. If f(x) is decreasing ( ( ) 0 x f <

) for all x in some interval
( |
2
x , a and f(x) is increasing ( ( ) 0 x f > ′ ) for all x in some
interval | ) b , x
2
, then f(x) has a local minimum at
2
x .
(Fig.177).

833. Second Derivative Test for Iocal Extrema.
If ( ) 0 x f
1
=

and ( ) 0 x f
1
<
′ ′
, then f(x) has a local maximum
at
1
x .
If ( ) 0 x f
2
= ′
and ( ) 0 x f
2
> ′ ′
, then f(x) has a local minimum
at
2
x . (Fig.177)

834. Concavity.
f(x) is concave upward at
0
x if and only if ( ) x f ′ is
increasing at
0
x (Fig.177, x x
3
< ).
f(x) is concave downward at
0
x if and only if ( ) x f

is
decreasing at
0
x . (Fig.177,
3
x x < ).

835. Second Derivative Test for Concavity.
If ( ) 0 x f
0
> ′ ′ , then f(x) is concave upward at
0
x .
If ( ) 0 x f
0
< ′ ′ , then f(x) is concave downward at
0
x .
If ( ) x f
′ ′
does not exist or is zero, then the test fails.

836. Inflection Points
If ( )
3
x f ′ exists and ( ) x f
′ ′
changes sign at
3
x x = , then
the point ( ) ( )
3 3
x f , x is an inflection point of the graph of
( ) x f . If ( )
3
x f
′ ′ exists at the inflection point, then ( ) 0 x f
3
=
′ ′
(Fig.177).

837. I∞Hopital∞s Rule
( )
( )
( )
( ) x g
x f
lim
x g
x f
lim
c x c x


=
→ →
if ( ) ( )
¹
´
¦

= =
→ →
0
x g lim x f lim
c x c x
.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
221

8.7 Differential

Functions: f, u, v
Independent variable: x
Derivative of a function: ( ) x y

, ( ) x f


Real constant: C
Differential of function ( ) x f y = : dy
Differential of x: dx
Small change in x: x ∆
Small change in y: y ∆


838. dx y dy

=

839. ( ) ( ) ( ) x x f x f x x f ∆

+ = ∆ +



Figure 178.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
222

840. Small Change in y
( ) ( ) x f x x f y − ∆ + = ∆

841. ( ) dv du v u d + = +

842. ( ) dv du v u d − = −

843. ( ) Cdu Cu d =

844. ( ) udv vdu uv d + =

845.
2
v
udv vdu
v
u
d

=
|
.
|

\
|




8.8 Multivariable Functions

Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x z , ( ) y , x f , ( ) y , x g , ( ) y , x h
Arguments: x, y, t
Small changes in x, y, z, respectively: x ∆ , y ∆ , z ∆ .


846. First Order Partial Derivatives
The partial derivative with respect to x
x
f
x
f
=


(also
x
z
x
z
=


),
The partial derivative with respect to y
y
f
y
f
=


(also
y
z
y
z
=


).


CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
223

847. Second Order Partial Derivatives
xx
2
2
f
x
f
x
f
x
=


=
|
.
|

\
|




,
yy
2
2
f
y
f
y
f
y
=


=
|
|
.
|

\
|




,
xy
2
f
x y
f
x
f
y
=
∂ ∂

=
|
.
|

\
|




,
yx
2
f
y x
f
y
f
x
=
∂ ∂

=
|
|
.
|

\
|




.
If the derivatives are continuous, then
y x
f
x y
f
2 2
∂ ∂

=
∂ ∂

.

848. Chain Rules
If ( ) ( ) ( ) y , x h g y , x f = (g is a function of one variable h), then
( ) ( )
x
h
y , x h g
x
f



=


, ( ) ( )
y
h
y , x h g
y
f



=


.

If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t y , t x f t h = , then ( )
dt
dy
y
f
dt
dx
x
f
t h


+


=

.

If ( ) ( ) ( ) v , u y , v , u x f z = , then
u
y
y
f
u
x
x
f
u
z




+




=


,
v
y
y
f
v
x
x
f
v
z




+




=


.

849. Small Changes
y
y
f
x
x
f
z ∆


+ ∆


≈ ∆


CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
224

850. Iocal Maxima and Minima
( ) y , x f has a local maximum at ( )
0 0
y , x if ( ) ( )
0 0
y , x f y , x f ≤
for all ( ) y , x sufficiently close to ( )
0 0
y , x .

( ) y , x f has a local minimum at ( )
0 0
y , x if ( ) ( )
0 0
y , x f y , x f ≥
for all ( ) y , x sufficiently close to ( )
0 0
y , x .

851. Stationary Points
0
y
f
x
f
=


=


.
Iocal maxima and local minima occur at stationary points.

852. Saddle Point
A stationary point which is neither a local maximum
nor a local minimum

853. Second Derivative Test for Stationary Points
Iet ( )
0 0
y , x be a stationary point ( 0
y
f
x
f
=


=


).
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 0 yy 0 0 yx
0 0 xy 0 0 xx
y , x f y , x f
y , x f y , x f
D= .

If 0 D> , ( ) 0 y , x f
0 0 xx
> , ( )
0 0
y , x is a point of local minima.
If 0 D> , ( ) 0 y , x f
0 0 xx
< , ( )
0 0
y , x is a point of local maxima.
If 0 D< , ( )
0 0
y , x is a saddle point.
If 0 D= , the test fails.

854. Tangent Plane
The equation of the tangent plane to the surface ( ) y , x f z =
at ( )
0 0 0
z , y , x is
( )( ) ( )( )
0 0 0 y 0 0 0 x 0
y y y , x f x x y , x f z z − + − = − .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
225

855. Normal to Surface
The equation of the normal to the surface ( ) y , x f z = at
( )
0 0 0
z , y , x is
( ) ( ) 1
z z
y , x f
y y
y , x f
x x
0
0 0 y
0
0 0 x
0


=

=

.



8.9 Differential Operators

Unit vectors along the coordinate axes: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Scalar functions (scalar fields): ( ) z , y , x f , ( )
n 2 1
x , , x , x u K
Gradient of a scalar field: u grad , u ∇
Directional derivative:
l
f



Vector function (vector field): ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Divergence of a vector field: F div
r
, F
r
⋅ ∇
Curl of a vector field: F curl
r
, F
r
× ∇
Iaplacian operator:
2



856. Gradient of a Scalar Function
|
|
.
|

\
|






= ∇ =
z
f
,
y
f
,
x
f
f f grad ,
|
|
.
|

\
|






= ∇ =
n 2 1
x
u
, ,
x
u
,
x
u
u u grad K .

857. Directional Derivative
γ


+ β


+ α


=


cos
z
f
cos
y
f
cos
x
f
l
f
,
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
226

where the direction is defined by the vector
( ) γ β α cos , cos , cos l
r
, 1 cos cos cos
2 2 2
= γ + β + α .

858. Divergence of a Vector Field
z
R
y
Q
x
P
F F div


+


+


= ⋅ ∇ =
r r


859. Curl of a Vector Field
R Q P
x x x
k j i
F F curl






= × ∇ =
r r r
r r

k
y
P
x
Q
j
x
R
z
P
i
z
Q
y
R
r r r
|
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
|
.
|

\
|





=

860. Iaplacian Operator
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
f
y
f
x
f
f


+


+


= ∇

861. ( ) ( ) 0 F F curl div ≡ × ∇ ⋅ ∇ =
r r


862. ( ) ( ) 0 f f grad curl ≡ ∇ × ∇ =

863. ( ) ( ) f f f grad div
2
∇ = ∇ ⋅ ∇ =

864. ( ) ( ) ( ) F F F F div grad F curl curl
2 2
r r r r r
∇ − ⋅ ∇ ∇ = ∇ − =


227

Chapt er 9
Integral Calculus




Functions: f, g, u, v
Independent variables: x, t, ξ
Indefinite integral of a function: ( )

dx x f , ( )

dx x g , .
Derivative of a function: ( ) x y

, ( ) x f

, ( ) x F

, .
Real constants: C, a, b, c, d, k
Natural numbers: m, n, i, j


9.1 Indefinite Integral

865. ( ) ( ) C x F dx x f + =

if ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

866. ( ) ( ) ( ) x f dx x f =




867. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
= dx x f k dx x kf

868. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ = + dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

869. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− = − dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

870. ( ) ( ) C ax F
a
1
dx ax f + =


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
228

871. ( ) ( ) C b ax F
a
1
dx b ax f + + = +



872. ( ) ( ) ( ) C x f
2
1
dx x f x f
2
+ =




873.
( )
( )
( ) C x f ln dx
x f
x f
+ =




874. Method of Substitution
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
′ = dt t u t u f dx x f if ( ) t u x = .

875. Integration by Parts
∫ ∫
− = vdu uv udv ,
where ( ) x u , ( ) x v are differentiable functions.



9.2 Integrals of Rational Functions

876. C ax adx + =



877. C
2
x
xdx
2
+ =



878. C
3
x
dx x
3
2
+ =



879. C
1 p
x
dx x
1 p
p
+
+
=
+

, 1 p − ≠ .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
229

880. ( )
( )
( )
C
1 n a
b ax
dx b ax
1 n
n
+
+
+
= +
+

, 1 n − ≠ .

881. C x ln
x
dx
+ =



882. C b ax ln
a
1
b ax
dx
+ + =
+



883. C d cx ln
c
ad bc
x
c
a
dx
d cx
b ax
2
+ +

+ =
+
+



884.
( )( )
C
a x
b x
ln
b a
1
b x a x
dx
+
+
+

=
+ +

, b a ≠ .

885. ( ) C bx a ln a bx a
b
1
bx a
xdx
2
+ + − + =
+



886. ( ) ( ) C bx a ln a bx a a 2 bx a
2
1
b
1
bx a
dx x
2 2
3
2
+
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + − + =
+



887.
( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
1
bx a x
dx
+
+
=
+



888.
( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
b
ax
1
bx a x
dx
2 2
+
+
+ − =
+



889.
( )
C
bx a
a
bx a ln
b
1
bx a
xdx
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
+



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
230

890.
( )
C
bx a
a
bx a ln a 2 bx a
b
1
bx a
dx x
2
3 2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
− + − + =
+



891.
( ) ( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
1
bx a a
1
bx a x
dx
2 2
+
+
+
+
=
+



892. C
1 x
1 x
ln
2
1
1 x
dx
2
+
+

=




893. C
x 1
x 1
ln
2
1
x 1
dx
2
+

+
=




894. C
x a
x a
ln
a 2
1
x a
dx
2 2
+

+
=




895. C
a x
a x
ln
a 2
1
a x
dx
2 2
+
+

=




896. C x tan
x 1
dx
1
2
+ =
+




897. C
a
x
tan
a
1
x a
dx
1
2 2
+ =
+




898. ( ) C a x ln
2
1
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ + =
+



899. C
a
b
x arctan
ab
1
bx a
dx
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+

, 0 ab > .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
231

900. C
b
a
x ln
b 2
1
bx a
xdx
2
2
+ + =
+



901.
( )
C
bx a
x
ln
a 2
1
bx a x
dx
2
2
2
+
+
=
+



902. C
bx a
bx a
ln
ab 2
1
x b a
dx
2 2 2
+

+
=




903. C
ac 4 b b ax 2
ac 4 b b ax 2
ln
ac 4 b
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
2
2
+
− + +
− − +

=
+ +

,
0 ac 4 b
2
> − .

904. C
b ac 4
b ax 2
arctan
b ac 4
2
c bx ax
dx
2 2
2
+

+

=
+ +

,
0 ac 4 b
2
< − .



9.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions

905. C b ax
a
2
b ax
dx
+ + =
+



906. ( ) C b ax
a 3
2
dx b ax
2
3
+ + = +



907.
( )
C b ax
a 3
b 2 ax 2
b ax
xdx
2
+ +

=
+



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
232

908.
( )
( ) C b ax
a 13
b 2 ax 3 2
dx b ax x
2
3
2
+ +

= +



909.
( )
C
ac b b ax
ac b b ax
ln
ac b
1
b ax c x
dx
+
− + +
− − +

=
+ +

,
0 ac b > − .

910.
( )
C
b ac
b ax
arctan
b ac
1
b ax c x
dx
+

+

=
+ +

,
0 ac b < − .

911. ( )( ) − + + =
+
+

d cx b ax
c
1
dx
d cx
b ax

( ) ( ) C b ax c d cx a ln
ac c
bc ad
+ + + +

− , 0 a > .

912. ( )( ) − + + =
+
+

d cx b ax
c
1
dx
d cx
b ax

( )
( )
C
b ax c
d cx a
arctan
ac c
bc ad
+
+
+ −
− , ( 0 a < , 0 c > ).

913.
( )
( ) C bx a
b 103
x b 13 abx 12 a 8 2
dx bx a x
3
3
2 2 2
2
+ +
+ −
= +



914.
( )
C bx a
b 13
x b 3 abx 4 a 8 2
bx a
dx x
3
2 2 2 2
+ +
+ −
=
+



915. C
a bx a
a bx a
ln
a
1
bx a x
dx
+
+ +
− +
=
+

, 0 a > .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
233

916. C
a
bx a
arctan
a
2
bx a x
dx
+

+

=
+

, 0 a < .

917. ( )( ) ( ) C
b a
b x
arcsin b a x b x a dx
x b
x a
+
+
+
+ + + − =
+




918. ( )( ) ( ) C
b a
x b
arcsin b a x b x a dx
x b
x a
+
+

+ − − + − =

+



919. C x arcsin x 1 dx
x 1
x 1
2
+ + − − =

+



920.
( )( )
C
a b
a x
arcsin 2
a b a x
dx
+


=
− −



921. + − +

= − +

2 2
cx bx a
c 4
b cx 2
dx cx bx a
C
ac 4 b
b cx 2
arcsin
c 8
ac 4 b
2 3
2
+
+
− −
+

922. ( ) C c bx ax a 2 b ax 2 ln
a
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
+ + + + + =
+ +

,
0 a > .

923. C ac 4 b
a 4
b ax 2
arcsin
a
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
+ −
+
− =
+ +

, 0 a < .

924. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
dx a x
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = +



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
234

925. ( ) C a x
3
1
dx a x x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ + = +



926. ( ) − + + = +

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a x a x 2
8
x
dx a x x
C a x x ln
8
a
2 2
4
+ + + −

927. C a x x ln
x
a x
dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
+ + + +
+
− =
+



928. C a x x ln
a x
dx
2 2
2 2
+ + + =
+



929. C
a x a
x
ln a a x dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2 2
+
+ +
+ + =
+



930. C a x
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ + =
+



931. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
a x
dx x
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ + + − + =
+



932. C
a x a
x
ln
a
1
a x x
dx
2 2 2 2
+
+ +
=
+



933. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
dx a x
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
+ − + − − = −



934. ( ) C a x
3
1
dx a x x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ − = −


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
235

935. C
x
a
arcsin a a x dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
+ + − =




936. C a x x ln
x
a x
dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
+ − + +

− =




937. C a x x ln
a x
dx
2 2
2 2
+ − + =




938. C a x
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ − =




939. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
a x
dx x
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ − + + − =




940. C
x
a
arcsin
a
1
a x x
dx
2 2
+ − =




941.
( )
C
a x
a x
a
1
a x a x
dx
2 2
+
+

=
− +



942.
( )
C
a x
a x
a
1
a x a x
dx
2 2
+

+
− =
− −



943. C
x a
a x
a x x
dx
2
2 2
2 2 2
+

=




944.
( )
C
a x a
x
a x
dx
2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+

− =




CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
236

945. ( ) ( ) + − − − = −

2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2
a x a 3 x 2
8
x
dx a x
C a x x ln
8
a 3
2 2
4
+ − + +

946. C
a
x
arcsin
2
a
x a
2
x
dx x a
2
2 2 2 2
+ + − = −



947. ( ) C x a
3
1
dx x a x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ − − = −



948. ( ) C
a
x
arcsin
8
a
x a a x 2
8
x
dx x a x
4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ + − − = −



949. C
x a a
x
ln a x a dx
x
x a
2 2
2 2
2 2
+
− +
+ − =




950. C
a
x
arcsin
x
x a
dx
x
x a
2 2
2
2 2
+ −

− =




951. C x arcsin
x 1
dx
2
+ =




952. C
a
x
sin
x a
dx
2 2
+ =




953. C x a
x a
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ − − =




954. C
a
x
arcsin
2
a
x a
2
x
x a
dx x
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ + − − =



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
237

955.
( )
C
x a
x a
2
1
x a a x
dx
2 2
+
+

− =
− +



956.
( )
C
x a
x a
2
1
x a a x
dx
2 2
+

+
− =
− −



957.
( )
( )
C
b x a
a bx
arcsin
a b
1
x a b x
dx
2
2 2 2 2
+
+
+

=
− +

, a b > .

958.
( )
, C
bx a x a b a
b x
ln
b a
1
x a b x
dx
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+
+ + − −
+

=
− +


a b < .

959. C
x a
x a
x a x
dx
2
2 2
2 2 2
+

− =




960. ( ) ( ) C
a
x
arcsin
8
a 3
x a x 2 a 3
8
x
dx x a
4
2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+ + − − = −



961.
( )
C
x a a
x
x a
dx
2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+

=






9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

962. C x cos xdx sin + − =



963. C x sin xdx cos + =


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
238

964. C x 2 sin
4
1
2
x
dx x sin
2
+ − =



965. C x 2 sin
4
1
2
x
dx x cos
2
+ + =



966. C x cos
4
3
x 3 cos
12
1
C x cos x cos
3
1
dx x sin
3 3
+ − = + − =



967. C x sin
4
3
x 3 sin
12
1
C x sin
3
1
x sin dx x cos
3 3
+ + = + − =



968. C
2
x
tan ln dx x csc
x sin
dx
+ = =
∫ ∫


969. C
4 2
x
tan ln dx x sec
x cos
dx
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ = =
∫ ∫


970. C x cot dx x csc
x sin
dx
2
2
+ − = =
∫ ∫


971. C x tan dx x sec
x cos
dx
2
2
+ = =
∫ ∫


972. C
2
x
tan ln
2
1
x sin 2
x cos
dx x csc
x sin
dx
2
3
3
+ + − = =
∫ ∫


973. C
4 2
x
tan ln
2
1
x cos 2
x sin
dx x sec
x cos
dx
2
3
3
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ + = =
∫ ∫


974. C x 2 cos
4
1
dx x cos x sin + − =


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
239

975. C x sin
3
1
dx x cos x sin
3 2
+ =



976. C x cos
3
1
dx x cos x sin
3 2
+ − =



977. C x 4 sin
32
1
8
x
dx x cos x sin
2 2
+ − =



978. C x cos ln xdx tan + − =



979. C x sec C
x cos
1
dx
x cos
x sin
2
+ = + =



980. C x sin
4 2
x
tan ln dx
x cos
x sin
2
+ −
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =



981. C x x tan dx x tan
2
+ − =



982. C x sin ln xdx cot + =



983. C x csc C
x sin
1
dx
x sin
x cos
2
+ − = + − =



984. C x cos
2
x
tan ln dx
x sin
x cos
2
+ + =



985. C x x cot dx x cot
2
+ − − =



986. C x tan ln
x sin x cos
dx
+ =


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
240

987. C
4 2
x
tan ln
x sin
1
x cos x sin
dx
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ + − =



988. C
2
x
tan ln
x cos
1
x cos x sin
dx
2
+ + =



989. C x cot x tan
x cos x sin
dx
2 2
+ − =



990.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m sin
n m 2
x n m sin
dx nx sin mx sin +


+
+
+
− =

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

991.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m cos
n m 2
x n m cos
dx nx cos mx sin +



+
+
− =

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

992.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m sin
n m 2
x n m sin
dx nx cos mx cos +


+
+
+
=

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

993. C x sec xdx tan x sec + =



994. C x csc xdx cot x csc + − =



995. C
1 n
x cos
dx x cos x sin
1 n
n
+
+
− =
+



996. C
1 n
x sin
dx x cos x sin
1 n
n
+
+
=
+



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
241

997. C x 1 x arcsin x dx x arcsin
2
+ − + =



998. C x 1 x arccos x dx x arccos
2
+ − − =



999. ( ) C 1 x ln
2
1
x arctan x dx x arctan
2
+ + − =



1000. ( ) C 1 x ln
2
1
x cot arc x dx x cot arc
2
+ + + =





9.5 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions

1001. C x cosh xdx sinh + =



1002. C x sinh xdx cosh + =



1003. C x cosh ln dx x tanh + =



1004. C x sinh ln dx x coth + =



1005. C x tanh xdx sech
2
+ =



1006. C x coth xdx csch
2
+ − =



1007. C x sech xdx tanh x sech + − =



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
242

1008. C x csch xdx coth x csch + − =





9.6 Integrals of Exponential and Logarithmic
Functions

1009. C e dx e
x x
+ =



1010. C
a ln
a
dx a
x
x
+ =



1011. C
a
e
dx e
ax
ax
+ =



1012. ( ) C 1 ax
a
e
dx xe
2
ax
ax
+ − =



1013. C x x ln x dx x ln + − =



1014. C x ln ln
x ln x
dx
+ =



1015.
( )
C
1 n
1
1 n
x ln
x dx x ln x
2
1 n n
+
(
¸
(

¸

+

+
=
+



1016. C e
b a
bx cos b bx sin a
dx bx sin e
ax
2 2
ax
+
+

=



CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
243

1017. C e
b a
bx sin b bx cos a
dx bx cos e
ax
2 2
ax
+
+
+
=





9.7 Reduction Formulas

1018.
∫ ∫

− = dx e x
m
n
e x
m
1
dx e x
mx 1 n mx n mx n


1019.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

+

− = dx
x
e
1 n
m
x 1 n
e
dx
x
e
1 n
mx
1 n
mx
n
mx
, 1 n ≠ .

1020.
∫ ∫
− −

− = xdx sinh
n
1 n
x cosh x sinh
n
1
xdx sinh
2 n 1 n n


1021.
( )
∫ ∫ − −




− =
x sinh
dx
1 n
2 n
x sinh 1 n
x cosh
x sinh
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1022.
∫ ∫
− −

+ = xdx cosh
n
1 n
x cosh x cosh x sinh
n
1
xdx cosh
2 n 1 n n


1023.
( )
∫ ∫ − −


+

− =
x cosh
dx
1 n
2 n
x cosh 1 n
x sinh
x cosh
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1024.
m n
x cosh x sinh
xdx cosh x sinh
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
− +




+

+ xdx cosh x sinh
m n
1 m
2 m n


1025.
m n
x cosh x sinh
xdx cosh x sinh
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
+ −


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
244



+

− xdx cosh x sinh
m n
1 n
m 2 n


1026.
∫ ∫
− −
+

− = xdx tanh x tanh
1 n
1
xdx tanh
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1027.
∫ ∫
− −
+

− = xdx coth x coth
1 n
1
xdx coth
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1028.
∫ ∫




+

= xdx sech
1 n
2 n
1 n
x tanh x sech
xdx sech
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1029.
∫ ∫
− −

+ − = xdx sin
n
1 n
x cos x sin
n
1
xdx sin
2 n 1 n n


1030.
( )
∫ ∫ − −


+

− =
x sin
dx
1 n
2 n
x sin 1 n
x cos
x sin
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1031.
∫ ∫
− −

+ = xdx cos
n
1 n
x cos x sin
n
1
xdx cos
2 n 1 n n


1032.
( )
∫ ∫ − −


+

=
x cos
dx
1 n
2 n
x cos 1 n
x sin
x cos
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1033.
m n
x cos x sin
xdx cos x sin
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
− +




+

+ xdx cos x sin
m n
1 m
2 m n


1034.
m n
x cos x sin
xdx cos x sin
1 m 1 n
m n
+
− =
+ −


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
245



+

+ xdx cos x sin
m n
1 n
m 2 n


1035.
∫ ∫
− −


= xdx tan x tan
1 n
1
xdx tan
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1036.
∫ ∫
− −


− = xdx cot x cot
1 n
1
xdx cot
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1037.
∫ ∫




+

= xdx sec
1 n
2 n
1 n
x tan x sec
xdx sec
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1038.
∫ ∫




+

− = xdx csc
1 n
2 n
1 n
x cot x csc
xdx csc
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1039.
∫ ∫

+
+

+
= xdx ln x
1 n
m
1 n
x ln x
xdx ln x
1 m n
m 1 n
m n


1040.
( )
∫ ∫



+

− = dx
x
x ln
1 n
m
x 1 n
x ln
dx
x
x ln
n
1 m
1 n
m
n
m
, 1 n ≠ .

1041.
∫ ∫

− = xdx ln n x ln x xdx ln
1 n n n


1042.
∫ ∫

− = xdx cosh x n x cosh x xdx sinh x
1 n n n


1043.
∫ ∫

− = xdx sinh x n x sinh x xdx cosh x
1 n n n


1044.
∫ ∫

+ − = xdx cos x n x cos x xdx sin x
1 n n n


1045.
∫ ∫

− = xdx sin x n x sin x xdx cos x
1 n n n

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
246

1046.
∫ ∫

+

+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x sin
1 n
x
xdx sin x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n


1047.
∫ ∫

+
+
+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x cos
1 n
x
xdx cos x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n


1048.
∫ ∫
+ +

+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x tan
1 n
x
xdx tan x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n


1049.
∫ ∫
+
− =
+ b ax
dx
a
b
a
x
b ax
dx x
n n
n


1050.
( ) ( )( )( )
1 n
2 2
n
2
c bx ax ac 4 b 1 n
b ax 2
c bx ax
dx

+ + − −
− −
=
+ +


( )
( )( )
( )
∫ −
+ +
− −


1 n
2
2
c bx ax
dx
ac 4 b 1 n
a 3 n 2 2
, 1 n ≠ .

1051.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
,
a x
dx
a 1 n 2
3 n 2
a x a 1 n 2
x
a x
dx
1 n
2 2
2 1 n
2 2 2
n
2 2
∫ ∫ − −
+


+
+ −
=
+
1 n ≠ .

1052.
( ) ( ) ( )
1 n
2 2 2
n
2 2
a x a 1 n 2
x
a x
dx

− −
− =



( )
( )
∫ −




1 n
2 2
2
a x
dx
a 1 n 2
3 n 2
, 1 n ≠ .





CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
247

9.8 Definite Integral

Definite integral of a function: ( )

b
a
dx x f , ( )

b
a
dx x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )

=
∆ ξ
n
1 i
i i
x f
Small changes:
i
x ∆
Antiderivatives: ( ) x F , ( ) x G
Iimits of integrations: a, b, c, d


1053. ( ) ( )


=
→ ∆
∞ →
∆ ξ =
n
1 i
i i
0 x max
n
b
a
x f lim dx x f
i
,
where
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
i i 1 i
x x ≤ ξ ≤

.



Figure 179.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
248

1054. a b dx 1
b
a
− =



1055. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
=
b
a
b
a
dx x f k dx x kf

1056. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ = +
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

1057. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− = −
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

1058. ( ) 0 dx x f
a
a
=



1059. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
− =
a
b
b
a
dx x f dx x f

1060. ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ =
b
c
c
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f for b c a < < .

1061. ( ) 0 dx x f
b
a


if ( ) 0 x f ≥ on | | b , a .

1062. ( ) 0 dx x f
b
a


if ( ) 0 x f ≤ on | | b , a .




CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
249

1063. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a F b F x F dx x f
b
a
b
a
− = =

if ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

1064. Method of Substitution
If ( ) t g x = , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫

=
d
c
b
a
dt t g t g f dx x f ,
where
( ) a g c
1 −
= , ( ) b g d
1 −
= .

1065. Integration by Parts
( )
∫ ∫
− =
b
a
b
a
b
a
vdu uv udv

1066. Trapezoidal Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ +

=



=
1 n
1 i
i n 0
b
a
x f 2 x f x f
n 2
a b
dx x f

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
250



Figure 180.

1067. Simpson∞s Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | + + + +

=

3 2 1 0
b
a
x f 4 x f 2 x f 4 x f
n 3
a b
dx x f
( ) ( ) ( )|
n 1 n 4
x f x f 4 x f 2 + + + +

K ,
where
i
n
a b
a x
i

+ = , n , , 2 , 1 , 0 i K = .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
251



Figure 181.

1068. Area Under a Curve
( ) ( ) ( ) a F b F dx x f S
b
a
− = =

,
where ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
252



Figure 182.

1069. Area Between Two Curves
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a G a F b G b F dx x g x f S
b
a
+ − − = − =

,
where ( ) ( ) x f x F =

, ( ) ( ) x g x G =

.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
253



Figure 183.



9.9 Improper Integral

1070. The definite integral ( )

b
a
dx x f is called an improper integral
if
• a or b is infinite,
• ( ) x f has one or more points of discontinuity
in the interval | | b , a .

1071. If ( ) x f is a continuous function on | ) ∞ , a , then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
∞ →

=
n
a
n
a
dx x f lim dx x f .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
254



Figure 184.

1072. If ( ) x f is a continuous function on ( | b , ∞ − , then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
∞ − →
∞ −
=
b
n
n
b
dx x f lim dx x f .



Figure 185.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
255

Note : The improper integrals in 1071, 1072 are convergent
if the limits exist and are finite; otherwise the integrals are
divergent.

1073. ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
+ =
c
c
dx x f dx x f dx x f



Figure 186.

If for some real number c, both of the integrals in the right
side are convergent, then the integral ( )


∞ −
dx x f is also
convergent; otherwise it is divergent.

1074. Comparison Theorems
Iet ( ) x f and ( ) x g be continuous functions on the closed
interval | ) ∞ , a . Suppose that ( ) ( ) x f x g 0 ≤ ≤ for all x in
| ) ∞ , a .
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
256

• If ( )


a
dx x f is convergent, then ( )


a
dx x g is also
convergent,
• If ( )


a
dx x g is divergent, then ( )


a
dx x f is also divergent.

1075. Absolute Convergence

If ( )


a
dx x f is convergent, then the integral ( )


a
dx x f is abso-
lutely convergent.

1076. Discontinuous Integrand
Iet ( ) x f be a function which is continuous on the interval
| ) b , a but is discontinuous at b x = . Then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
ε −
+ → ε
=
b
a
0
b
a
dx x f lim dx x f



Figure 187.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
257

1077. Iet ( ) x f be a continuous function for all real numbers x in
the interval | | b , a except for some point c in ( ) b , a . Then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
δ +
+ → δ
ε −
+ → ε
+ =
b
c
0
c
a
0
b
a
dx x f lim dx x f lim dx x f .



Figure 188.



9.10 Double Integral

Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x f , ( ) v , u f , .
Double integrals: ( )
∫∫
R
dxdy y , x f , ( )
∫∫
R
dxdy y , x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )
∑∑
= =
∆ ∆
m
1 i
n
1 j
j i j i
y x v , u f
Small changes:
i
x ∆ ,
j
y ∆
Regions of integration: R, S
Polar coordinates: r , θ
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
258

Area: A
Surface area: S
Volume of a solid: V
Mass of a lamina: m
Density: ( ) y , x ρ
First moments:
x
M ,
y
M
Moments of inertia:
x
I ,
y
I ,
0
I
Charge of a plate: Q
Charge density: ( ) y , x σ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y
Average of a function: µ

1078. Definition of Double Integral
The double integral over a rectangle | | | | d , c b , a × is defined
to be
( )
| | | |
( )
∑∑
∫∫
= =
→ ∆
→ ∆
×
∆ ∆ =
m
1 i
n
1 j
j i j i
0 y max
0 x max
d , c b , a
y x v , u f lim dA y , x f
j
i
,
where ( )
j i
v , u is some point in the rectangle
( ) ( )
j 1 j i 1 i
y , y x , x
− −
× , and
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
1 j j j
y y y

− = ∆ .


Figure 189.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
259

The double integral over a general region R is
( ) ( )
| | | |
∫∫ ∫∫
×
=
d , c b , a R
dA y , x g dA y , x f ,
where rectangle | | | | d , c b , a × contains R,
( ) ( ) y , x f y , x g = if ( ) y , x f is in R and ( ) 0 y , x g = otherwise.



Figure 190.

1079. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
+ = +
R R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f dA y , x g y , x f

1080. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
− = −
R R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f dA y , x g y , x f

1081. ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
=
R R
dA y , x f k dA y , x kf ,
where k is a constant.

1082. If ( ) ( ) y , x g y , x f ≤ on R, then ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫

R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f .

1083. If ( ) 0 y , x f ≥ on R and R S ⊂ , then
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
260

( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫

R S
dA y , x f dA y , x f .



Figure 191.

1084. If ( ) 0 y , x f ≥ on R and R and S are non-overlapping
regions, then ( ) ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
+ =
∪ S R S R
dA y , x f dA y , x f dA y , x f .
Here S R∪ is the union of the regions R and S.



Figure 192.


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
261

1085. Iterated Integrals and Fubini∞s Theorem
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
=
b
a
x q
x p R
dydx y , x f dA y , x f
for a region of type I,
( ) ( ) ( ) { } x q y x p , b x a | y , x R ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = .



Figure 193.

( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
=
d
c
y v
y u R
dxdy y , x f dA y , x f
for a region of type II,
( ) ( ) ( ) { } d y c , y v x y u | y , x R ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
262



Figure 194.

1086. Double Integrals over Rectangular Regions

If R is the rectangular region | | | | d , c b , a × , then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
b
a
b
a
d
c R
dy dx y , x f dx dy y , x f dxdy y , x f .

In the special case where the integrand ( ) y , x f can be writ-
ten as ( ) ( ) y h x g we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
∫ ∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
d
c
b
a R R
dy y h dx x g dxdy y h x g dxdy y , x f .

1087. Change of Variables
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
dudv
v , u
y , x
v , u y , v , u x f dxdy y , x f
S R


=
∫∫ ∫∫
,
where
( )
( )
0
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
x
v , u
y , x









=


is the jacobian of the trans-
formations ( ) ( ) v , u y , x → , and S is the pullback of R which
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
263

can be computed by ( ) v , u x x = , ( ) v , u y y = into the defini-
tion of R.

1088. Polar Coordinates
θ = cos r x , θ = sin r y .



Figure 195.

1089. Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

The Differential dxdy for Polar Coordinates is
( )
( )
θ = θ
θ ∂

= rdrd drd
, r
y , x
dxdy .

Iet the region R is determined as follows:
( ) ( ) θ ≤ ≤ θ ≤ h r g 0 , β ≤ θ ≤ α , where π ≤ α − β 2 .
Then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ
θ
θ θ θ =
h
g R
rdrd sin r , cos r f dxdy y , x f .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
264



Figure 196.

If the region R is the polar rectangle given by
b r a 0 ≤ ≤ ≤ , β ≤ θ ≤ α , where π ≤ α − β 2 ,
then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ θ θ =
b
a R
rdrd sin r , cos r f dxdy y , x f .



Figure 197.


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
265

1090. Area of a Region
( )
( )
∫ ∫
=
b
a
x f
x g
dydx A (for a type I region).



Figure 198.

( )
( )
∫ ∫
=
d
c
y q
y p
dxdy A (for a type II region).



Figure 199.


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
266

1091. Volume of a Solid
( )
∫∫
=
R
dA y , x f V .



Figure 200.

If R is a type I region bounded by a x = , b x = , ( ) x h y = ,
( ) x g y = , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
= =
b
a
x g
x h R
dydx y , x f dA y , x f V .

If R is a type II region bounded by c y = , d y = , ( ) y q x = ,
( ) y p x = , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
= =
d
c
y q
y p R
dxdy y , x f dA y , x f V .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
267

If ( ) ( ) y , x g y , x f ≥ over a region R, then the volume of
the solid between ( ) y , x f z
1
= and ( ) y , x g z
2
= over R is
given by
( ) ( ) | |
∫∫
− =
R
dA y , x g y , x f V .

1092. Area and Volume in Polar Coordinates
If S is a region in the xy-plane bounded by α = θ , β = θ ,
( ) θ = h r , ( ) θ = g r ,
then
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ
θ
θ = =
g
h S
rdrd dA A ,
( )
∫∫
θ θ =
S
rdrd , r f V .



Figure 201.

1093. Surface Area
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 S
R
2
2
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|


+
|
.
|

\
|


+ =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
268

1094. Mass of a Iamina
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
dA y , x m ,
where the lamina occupies a region R and its density at
a point (x,y) is ( ) y , x ρ .

1095. Moments
The moment of the lamina about the x-axis is given by for-
mula
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
x
dA y , x y M .

The moment of the lamina about the y-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
y
dA y , x x M .

The moment of inertia about the x-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
2
x
dA y , x y I .

The moment of inertia about the y-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
2
y
dA y , x x I .

The polar moment of inertia is
( ) ( )
∫∫
ρ + =
R
2 2
0
dA y , x y x I .

1096. Center of Mass
( )
( )
( )
∫∫
∫∫
∫∫
ρ
ρ
= ρ = =
R
R
R
y
dA y , x
dA y , x x
dA y , x x
m
1
m
M
x ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
269

( )
( )
( )
∫∫
∫∫
∫∫
ρ
ρ
= ρ = =
R
R
R
x
dA y , x
dA y , x y
dA y , x y
m
1
m
M
y .

1097. Charge of a Plate
( )
∫∫
σ =
R
dA y , x Q ,
where electrical charge is distributed over a region R and its
charge density at a point (x,y) is ( ) y , x σ .

1098. Average of a Function
( )
∫∫
= µ
R
dA y , x f
S
1
,
where
∫∫
=
R
dA S .



9.11 Triple Integral

Functions of three variables: ( ) z , y , x f , ( ) z , y , x g , .
Triple integrals: ( )
∫∫∫
G
dV z , y , x f , ( )
∫∫∫
G
dV z , y , x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )
∑∑∑
= = =
∆ ∆ ∆
m
1 i
n
1 j
p
1 k
k j i k j i
z y x w , v , u f
Small changes:
i
x ∆ ,
j
y ∆ ,
k
z ∆
Iimits of integration: a, b, c, d, r, s
Regions of integration: G, T, S
Cylindrical coordinates: r , θ , z
Spherical coordinates: r , θ , ϕ
Volume of a solid: V
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
270

Mass of a solid: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x µ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
xy
I ,
yz
I ,
xz
I ,
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I ,
0
I


1099. Definition of Triple Integral
The triple integral over a parallelepiped | | | | | | s , r d , c b , a × ×
is defined to be
( )
| | | | | |
( ) , z y x w , v , u f lim dV z , y , x f
m
1 i
n
1 j
p
1 k
k j i k j i
0 z max
0 y max
0 x max
s , r d , c b , a
k
j
i
∑∑∑
∫∫∫
= = =
→ ∆
→ ∆
→ ∆
× ×
∆ ∆ ∆ =
where ( )
k j i
w , v , u is some point in the parallelepiped
( ) ( ) ( )
k 1 k j 1 j i 1 i
z , z y , y x , x
− − −
× × , and
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
1 j j j
y y y

− = ∆ ,
1 k k k
z z z

− = ∆ .

1100. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
+ = +
G G G
dV z , y , x g dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x g z , y , x f

1101. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
− = −
G G G
dV z , y , x g dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x g z , y , x f

1102. ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
=
G G
dV z , y , x f k dV z , y , x kf ,
where k is a constant.

1103. If ( ) 0 z , y , x f ≥ and G and T are nonoverlapping basic
regions, then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
+ =
∪ T G T G
dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x f .
Here T G∪ is the union of the regions G and T.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
271

1104. Evaluation of Triple Integrals by Repeated Integrals
If the solid G is the set of points ( ) z , y , x such that
( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , R y , x
2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ∈ , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
dxdy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
R
y , x
y , x G
2
1
∫∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
χ
χ
,
where R is projection of G onto the xy-plane.

If the solid G is the set of points ( ) z , y , x such that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , x y x , b x a
2 1 2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ϕ ≤ ≤ ϕ ≤ ≤ , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
dx dy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
b
a
x
x
y , x
y , x G
2
1
2
1
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ϕ
ϕ
χ
χ


1105. Triple Integrals over Parallelepiped
If G is a parallelepiped | | | | | | s , r d , c b , a × × , then
( ) ( ) dx dy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
b
a
d
c
s
r G
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
= .

In the special case where the integrand ( ) z , y , x f can be
written as ( ) ( ) ( ) z k y h x g we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
s
r
d
c
b
a G
dz z k dy y h dx x g dxdydz z , y , x f .

1106. Change of Variables
( ) =
∫∫∫
G
dxdydz z , y , x f
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
, dxdydz
w , v , u
z , y , x
w , v , u z , w , v , u y , w , v , u x f
S
∫∫∫


=
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
272

where
( )
( )
0
w
z
v
z
u
z
w
y
v
y
u
y
w
x
v
x
u
x
w , v , u
z , y , x



















=


is the jacobian of
the transformations ( ) ( ) w , v , u z , y , x → , and S is the pull-
back of G which can be computed by ( ) w , v , u x x = ,
( ) w , v , u y y =
( ) w , v , u z z = into the definition of G.

1107. Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates
The differential dxdydz for cylindrical coordinates is
( )
( )
dz rdrd dz drd
z , , r
z , y , x
dxdydz θ = θ
θ ∂

= .

Iet the solid G is determined as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , R y , x
2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ∈ ,
where R is projection of G onto the xy-plane. Then
( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
θ θ θ =
S G
dz rdrd z , sin r , cos r f dxdydz z , y , x f
( )
( )
( )
( )
θ
(
(
¸
(

¸

θ θ =
∫∫ ∫
θ
θ θ χ
θ θ χ
rdrd dz z , sin r , cos r f
, r R
sin r , cos r
sin r , cos r
2
1
.
Here S is the pullback of G in cylindrical coordinates.

1108. Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates
The Differential dxdydz for Spherical Coordinates is
( )
( )
ϕ θ θ = ϕ θ
ϕ θ ∂

= d drd sin r d drd
, , r
z , y , x
dxdydz
2


( ) =
∫∫∫
G
dxdydz z , y , x f
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
273

( )
∫∫∫
ϕ θ θ θ ϕ θ ϕ θ =
S
2
d drd sin r cos r , sin sin r , cos sin r f ,
where the solid S is the pullback of G in spherical coordi-
nates. The angle θ ranges from 0 to π 2 , the angle ϕ
ranges from 0 to π.



Figure 202.

1109. Volume of a Solid
∫∫∫
=
G
dxdydz V

1110. Volume in Cylindrical Coordinates
( )
dz rdrd V
z , , r S
∫∫∫
θ
θ =

1111. Volume in Spherical Coordinates
( )
ϕ θ θ =
∫∫∫
ϕ θ
d drd sin r V
, , r S
2


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
274

1112. Mass of a Solid
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
dV z , y , x m ,
where the solid occupies a region G and its density at
a point ( ) z , y , x is ( ) z , y , x µ .

1113. Center of Mass of a Solid
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
yz
dV z , y , x x M ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
xz
dV z , y , x y M ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
xy
dV z , y , x z M
are the first moments about the coordinate planes 0 x = ,
0 y = , 0 z = , respectively, ( ) z , y , x µ is the density function.

1114. Moments of Inertia about the xy-plane (or 0 z = ), yz-plane
( 0 x = ), and xz-plane ( 0 y = )
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
xy
dV z , y , x z I ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
yz
dV z , y , x x I ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
xz
dV z , y , x y I .

1115. Moments of Inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
xz xy x
dV z , y , x y z I I I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
yz xy y
dV z , y , x x z I I I ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
275

( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
yz xz z
dV z , y , x x y I I I .

1116. Polar Moment of Inertia
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + + = + + =
G
2 2 2
xz yz xy 0
dV z , y , x z y x I I I I


9.12 Line Integral

Scalar functions: ( ) z , y , x F , ( ) y , x F , ( ) x f
Scalar potential: ( ) z , y , x u
Curves: C,
1
C ,
2
C
Iimits of integrations: a, b, α, β
Parameters: t, s
Polar coordinates: r , θ
Vector field: ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Position vector: ( ) s r
r

Unit vectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r
, τ
r

Area of region: S
Iength of a curve: I
Mass of a wire: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x ρ , ( ) y , x ρ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I
Volume of a solid: V
Work: W
Magnetic field: B
r

Current: I
Electromotive force: ε
Magnetic flux: ψ
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
276

1117. Iine Integral of a Scalar Function
Iet a curve C be given by the vector function ( ) s r r
r r
= ,
S s 0 ≤ ≤ , and a scalar function F is defined over the curve C.
Then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
= =
C C
S
0
Fds ds z , y , x F ds s r F
r
,
where ds is the arc length differential.

1118.
∫ ∫ ∫
+ =

2 1 2 1
C C C C
ds F ds F ds F



Figure 203.

1119. If the smooth curve C is parametrized by ( ) t r r
r r
= ,
β ≤ ≤ α t , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
β
α

+

+

= dt t z t y t x t z , t y , t x F ds z , y , x F
2 2 2
C
.

1120. If C is a smooth curve in the xy-plane given by the equation
( ) x f y = , b x a ≤ ≤ , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫

+ =
b
a
2
C
dx x f 1 x f , x F ds y , x F .

1121. Iine Integral of Scalar Function in Polar Coordinates
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
277

( ) ( )
∫ ∫
β
α
θ
|
.
|

\
|
θ
+ θ θ = d
d
dr
r sin r , cos r F ds y , x F
2
2
C
,
where the curve C is defined by the polar function ) ( r θ .

1122. Iine Integral of Vector Field
Iet a curve C be defined by the vector function ( ) s r r
r r
= ,
S s 0 ≤ ≤ . Then
( ) γ β α = τ = cos , cos , cos
ds
r d r
r

is the unit vector of the tangent line to this curve.



Figure 204.

Iet a vector field ( ) R , Q , P F
r
is defined over the curve C.
Then the line integral of the vector field F
r
along the curve
C is
( )
∫ ∫
γ + β + α = + +
S
0 C
ds cos R cos Q cos P Rdz Qdy Pdx .


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
278

1123. Properties of Iine Integrals of Vector Fields
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
⋅ − = ⋅
− C C
r d F r d F
r
r
r
r
,
where -C denote the curve with the opposite orientation.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅

2 1 2 1
C C C C C
r d F r d F r d F r d F
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
,
where C is the union of the curves
1
C and
2
C .

1124. If the curve C is parameterized by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t z , t y , t x t r =
r
,
β ≤ ≤ α t , then
= + +

C
Rdz Qdy Pdx
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = dt
dt
dz
t z , t y , t x R
dt
dy
t z , t y , t x Q
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x P

1125. If C lies in the xy-plane and given by the equation ( ) x f y = ,
then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
b
a C
dx
dx
df
x f , x Q x f , x P Qdy Pdx .

1126. Green∞s Theorem
∫ ∫∫
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|





C R
Qdy Pdx dxdy
y
P
x
Q
,
where ( ) ( )j y , x Q i y , x P F
r r r
+ = is a continuous vector func-
tion with continuous first partial derivatives
y
P


,
x
Q


in a
some domain R, which is bounded by a closed, piecewise
smooth curve C.


CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
279

1127. Area of a Region R Bounded by the Curve C
∫ ∫∫
− = =
C R
ydx xdy
2
1
dxdy S

1128. Path Independence of Iine Integrals
The line integral of a vector function k R j Q i P F
r r r r
+ + = is
said to be path independent, if and only if P, Q, and R are
continuous in a domain D, and if there exists some scalar
function ( ) z , y , x u u = (a scalar potential) in D such that
u grad F =
r
, or P
x
u
=


, Q
y
u
=


, R
z
u
=


.
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) A u B u Rdz Qdy Pdx r d r F
C C
− = + + = ⋅
∫ ∫
r r
r
.

1129. Test for a Conservative Field
A vector field of the form u grad F =
r
is called a conservative
field. The line integral of a vector function k R j Q i P F
r r r r
+ + =
is path independent if and only if
0
R Q P
z y x
k j i
F curl
r
r r r
r
=






= .

If the line integral is taken in xy-plane so that
( ) ( ) A u B u Qdy Pdx
C
− = +

,
then the test for determining if a vector field is conservative
can be written in the form
x
Q
y
P


=


.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
280

1130. Iength of a Curve
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= = = dt
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
dt t
dt
r d
ds I
2 2 2
C
r
,
where C ia a piecewise smooth curve described by the posi-
tion vector ( ) t r
r
, β ≤ ≤ α t .

If the curve C is two-dimensional, then
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= = = dt
dt
dy
dt
dx
dt t
dt
r d
ds I
2 2
C
r
.

If the curve C is the graph of a function ( ) x f y = in the xy-
plane ( ) b x a ≤ ≤ , then

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
a
2
dx
dx
dy
1 I .

1131. Iength of a Curve in Polar Coordinates

β
α
θ +
|
.
|

\
|
θ
= d r
d
dr
I
2
2
,
where the curve C is given by the equation ( ) θ = r r ,
β ≤ θ ≤ α in polar coordinates.

1132. Mass of a Wire
( )

ρ =
C
ds z , y , x m ,
where ( ) z , y , x ρ is the mass per unit length of the wire.

If C is a curve parametrized by the vector function
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t z , t y , t x t r =
r
, then the mass can be computed by
the formula
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
281

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
ρ = dt
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x m
2 2 2
.

If C is a curve in xy-plane, then the mass of the wire is given
by
( )

ρ =
C
ds y , x m ,
or
( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
ρ = dt
dt
dy
dt
dx
t y , t x m
2 2
(in parametric form).

1133. Center of Mass of a Wire
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )

ρ =
C
yz
ds z , y , x x M ,
( )

ρ =
C
xz
ds z , y , x y M ,
( )

ρ =
C
xy
ds z , y , x z M .

1134. Moments of Inertia
The moments of inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
are given by the formulas
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
x
ds z , y , x z y I ,
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
y
ds z , y , x z x I ,
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
z
ds z , y , x y x I .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
282

1135. Area of a Region Bounded by a Closed Curve
∫ ∫ ∫
− = − = =
C C C
ydx xdy
2
1
ydx xdy S .



Figure 205.

If the closed curve C is given in parametric form
( ) ( ) ( ) t y , t x t r =
r
, then the area can be calculated by the for-
mula
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
− = − = = dt
dt
dx
t y
dt
dy
t x
2
1
dt
dt
dx
t y dt
dt
dy
t x S .

1136. Volume of a Solid Formed by Rotating a Closed Curve
about the x-axis
∫ ∫ ∫
+
π
− = π − = π − =
C
2
C C
2
dx y xydy 2
2
xydy 2 dx y V

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
283



Figure 206.

1137. Work
Work done by a force F
r
on an object moving along a curve
C is given by the line integral

⋅ =
C
r d F W
r
r
,
where F
r
is the vector force field acting on the object, r d
r
is
the unit tangent vector.


Figure 207.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
284

If the object is moved along a curve C in the xy-plane, then
∫ ∫
+ = ⋅ =
C C
Qdy Pdx r d F W
r
r
,

If a path C is specified by a parameter t (t often means
time), the formula for calculating work becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , dt
dt
dz
t z , t y , t x R
dt
dy
t z , t y , t x Q
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x P W

β
α
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
where t goes from α to β .

If a vector field F
r
is conservative and ( ) z , y , x u is a scalar
potential of the field, then the work on an object moving
from A to B can be found by the formula
( ) ( ) A u B u W − = .

1138. Ampere∞s Iaw
I r d B
0
C
µ = ⋅

r
r
.
The line integral of a magnetic field B
r
around a closed path
C is equal to the total current I flowing through the area
bounded by the path.


Figure 208.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
285

1139. Faraday∞s Iaw
dt
d
r d E
C
ψ
− = ⋅ = ε

r
r


The electromotive force (emf) ε induced around a closed
loop C is equal to the rate of the change of magnetic flux ψ
passing through the loop.



Figure 209.



9.13 Surface Integral

Scalar functions: ( ) z , y , x f , ( ) y , x z
Position vectors: ( ) v , u r
r
, ( ) z , y , x r
r

Unit vectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Surface: S
Vector field: ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Divergence of a vector field: F F div
r r
⋅ ∇ =
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
286

Curl of a vector field: F F curl
r r
× ∇ =
Vector element of a surface: S d
r

Normal to surface: n
r

Surface area: A
Mass of a surface: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x µ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
xy
I ,
yz
I ,
xz
I ,
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I
Volume of a solid: V
Force: F
r

Gravitational constant: G
Fluid velocity: ( ) r v
r r

Fluid density: ρ
Pressure: ( ) r p
r

Mass flux, electric flux: Φ
Surface charge: Q
Charge density: ( ) y , x σ
Magnitude of the electric field: E
r



1140. Surface Integral of a Scalar Function
Iet a surface S be given by the position vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )k v , u z j v , u y i v , u x v , u r
r r r
r
+ + = ,
where ( ) v , u ranges over some domain ( ) v , u D of the uv-
plane.
The surface integral of a scalar function ( ) z , y , x f over
the surface S is defined as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫ ∫∫


×


=
v , u D S
dudv
v
r
u
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x f dS z , y , x f
r r
,
where the partial derivatives
u
r


r
and
v
r


r
are given by
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
287

( ) ( ) ( )k v , u
u
z
j v , u
u
y
i v , u
u
x
u
r
r r r
r


+


+


=


,
( ) ( ) ( )k v , u
v
z
j v , u
v
y
i v , u
v
x
v
r
r r r
r


+


+


=



and
v
r
u
r


×


r r
is the cross product.

1141. If the surface S is given by the equation ( ) y , x z z = where
( ) y , x z is a differentiable function in the domain ( ) y , x D ,
then
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫ ∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|


+
|
.
|

\
|


+ =
y , x D
2
2
S
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 y , x z , y , x f dS z , y , x f .

1142. Surface Integral of the Vector Field F
r
over the Surface S
• If S is oriented outward, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫
(
¸
(

¸



×


⋅ =
v , u D
dudv
v
r
u
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x F
r r
r
.

• If S is oriented inward, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫
(
¸
(

¸



×


⋅ =
v , u D
dudv
u
r
v
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x F
r r
r
.

dS n S d
r
r
= is called the vector element of the surface. Dot
means the scalar product of the appropriate vectors.
The partial derivatives
u
r


r
and
v
r


r
are given by
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
288

( ) ( ) ( ) k v , u
u
z
j v , u
u
y
i v , u
u
x
u
r
r r r
r



+ ⋅


+ ⋅


=


,
( ) ( ) ( ) k v , u
v
z
j v , u
v
y
i v , u
v
x
v
r
r r r
r



+ ⋅


+ ⋅


=


.

1143. If the surface S is given by the equation ( ) y , x z z = , where
( ) y , x z is a differentiable function in the domain ( ) y , x D ,
then
• If S is oriented upward, i.e. the k-th component of the
normal vector is positive, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( )
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|
+





− ⋅ =
y , x D
dxdy k j
y
z
i
x
z
z , y , x F
r r r r
,

• If S is oriented downward, i.e. the k-th component of the
normal vector is negative, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( )
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|



+


⋅ =
y , x D
dxdy k j
y
z
i
x
z
z , y , x F
r r r r
.

1144. ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
+ + = ⋅
S S
Rdxdy Qdzdx Pdydz dS n F
r
r

( )
∫∫
γ + β + α =
S
dS cos R cos Q cos P ,
where ( ) z , y , x P , ( ) z , y , x Q , ( ) z , y , x R are the components of
the vector field F
r
.
α cos , β cos , γ cos are the angles between the outer unit
normal vector n
r
and the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis, respect-
ively.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
289

1145. If the surface S is given in parametric form by the vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) v , u z , v , u y , v , u x r
r
, then the latter formula can be
written as
( )
( )
, dudv
v
z
v
y
v
x
u
z
u
y
u
x
R Q P
Rdxdy Qdzdx Pdydz dS n F
v , u D S S
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫












= + + = ⋅
r
r
where ( ) v , u ranges over some domain ( ) v , u D of the uv-
plane.

1146. Divergence Theorem
( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ ∇ = ⋅
G S
dV F S d F
r r r
,
where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z , y , x R , z , y , x Q , z , y , x P z , y , x F =
r

is a vector field whose components P, Q, and R have
continuous partial derivatives,
z
R
y
Q
x
P
F


+


+


= ⋅ ∇
r

is the divergence of F
r
, also denoted F div
r
. The symbol
∫∫
indicates that the surface integral is taken over a closed
surface.

1147. Divergence Theorem in Coordinate Form
∫∫∫ ∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|


+


+


= + +
G S
dxdydz
z
R
y
Q
x
P
Rdxdy Qdxdz Pdydz .

1148. Stoke∞s Theorem
( )
∫∫ ∫
⋅ × ∇ = ⋅
S C
S d F r d F
r r
r
r
,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
290

where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z , y , x R , z , y , x Q , z , y , x P z , y , x F =
r

is a vector field whose components P, Q, and R have
continuous partial derivatives,
k
y
P
x
Q
j
x
R
z
P
i
z
Q
y
R
R Q P
x x x
k j i
F
r r r
r r r
r
|
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
|
.
|

\
|





=






= × ∇
is the curl of F
r
, also denoted F curl
r
.
The symbol

indicates that the line integral is taken over
a closed curve.

1149. Stoke∞s Theorem in Coordinate Form

+ +
C
Rdz Qdy Pdx
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
.
|

\
|





+
|
|
.
|

\
|





=
S
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
dzdx
x
R
z
P
dydz
z
Q
y
R

1150. Surface Area
∫∫
=
S
dS A

1151. If the surface S is parameterized by the vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )k v , u z j v , u y i v , u x v , u r
r r r
r
+ + = ,
then the surface area is
( )
∫∫


×


=
v , u D
dudv
v
r
u
r
A
r r
,
where ( ) v , u D is the domain where the surface ( ) v , u r
r
is
defined.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
291

1152. If S is given explicitly by the function ( ) y , x z , then the sur-
face area is
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|


+
|
.
|

\
|


+ =
y , x D
2
2
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 A ,
where ( ) y , x D is the projection of the surface S onto the xy-
plane.

1153. Mass of a Surface
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
dS z , y , x m ,
where ( ) z , y , x µ is the mass per unit area (density func-
tion).

1154. Center of Mass of a Shell
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
yz
dS z , y , x x M ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
xz
dS z , y , x y M ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
xy
dS z , y , x z M
are the first moments about the coordinate planes 0 x = ,
0 y = , 0 z = , respectively. ( ) z , y , x µ is the density function.

1155. Moments of Inertia about the xy-plane (or 0 z = ), yz-plane
( 0 x = ), and xz-plane ( 0 y = )
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
xy
dS z , y , x z I ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
yz
dS z , y , x x I ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
292

( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
xz
dS z , y , x y I .

1156. Moments of Inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
x
dS z , y , x z y I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
y
dS z , y , x z x I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
z
dS z , y , x y x I .

1157. Volume of a Solid Bounded by a Closed Surface
∫∫
+ + =
S
zdxdy ydxdz xdydz
3
1
V

1158. Gravitational Force
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
3
dS
r
r
z , y , x Gm F
r
r
,
where m is a mass at a point
0 0 0
z , y , x outside the surface,
0 0 0
z z , y y , x x r − − − =
r
,
( ) z , y , x µ is the density function,
and G is gravitational constant.

1159. Pressure Force
( )
∫∫
=
S
S d r p F
r
r
r
,
where the pressure ( ) r p
r
acts on the surface S given by
the position vector r
r
.

1160. Fluid Flux (across the surface S)
( )
∫∫
⋅ = Φ
S
S d r v
r
r r
,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
293

where ( ) r v
r r
is the fluid velocity.

1161. Mass Flux (across the surface S)
( )
∫∫
⋅ ρ = Φ
S
S d r v
r
r r
,
where v F
r
r
ρ = is the vector field, ρ is the fluid density.

1162. Surface Charge
( )
∫∫
σ =
S
dS y , x Q ,
where ( ) y , x σ is the surface charge density.

1163. Gauss∞ Iaw
The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional
to the charge Q enclosed by the surface
0 S
Q
S d E
ε
= ⋅ = Φ
∫∫
r r
,
where
Φ is the electric flux,
E
r
is the magnitude of the electric field strength,
m
F
10 83 , 8
12
0

× = ε is permittivity of free space.


294

Chapt er 10
Differential Equations




Functions of one variable: y, p, q, u, g, h, G, H, r, z
Arguments (independent variables): x, y
Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x f , ( ) y , x M , ( ) y , x N
First order derivative: y

, u′
, y& ,
dt
dy
, .
Second order derivatives: y
′ ′
, y& & ,
2
2
dt
I d
, .
Partial derivatives:
t
u


,
2
2
x
u


, .
Natural number: n
Particular solutions:
1
y ,
p
y
Real numbers: k, t, C,
1
C ,
2
C , p, q, α, β
Roots of the characteristic equations:
1
λ ,
2
λ
Time: t
Temperature: T, S
Population function: ( ) t P
Mass of an object: m
Stiffness of a spring: k
Displacement of the mass from equilibrium: y
Amplitude of the displacement: A
Frequency: ω
Damping coefficient: γ
Phase angle of the displacement: δ
Angular displacement: θ
Pendulum length: I
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
295

Acceleration of gravity: g
Current: I
Resistance: R
Inductance: I
Capacitance: C


10.1 First Order Ordinary Differential
Equations

1164. Iinear Equations
( ) ( ) x q y x p
dx
dy
= + .

The general solution is
( ) ( )
( ) x u
C dx x q x u
y
+
=

,
where
( ) ( ) ( )

= dx x p exp x u .

1165. Separable Equations
( ) ( ) ( ) y h x g y , x f
dx
dy
= =

The general solution is given by
( )
( ) C dx x g
y h
dy
+ =
∫ ∫
,
or
( ) ( ) C x G y H + = .



CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
296

1166. Homogeneous Equations
The differential equation ( ) y , x f
dx
dy
= is homogeneous, if
the function ( ) y , x f is homogeneous, that is
( ) ( ) y , x f ty , tx f = .

The substitution
x
y
z = (then zx y = ) leads to the separable
equation
( ) z , 1 f z
dx
dz
x = + .

1167. Bernoulli Equation
( ) ( )
n
y x q y x p
dx
dy
= + .

The substitution
n 1
y z

= leads to the linear equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x q n 1 z x p n 1
dx
dz
− = − + .

1168. Riccati Equation
( ) ( ) ( )
2
y x r y x q x p
dx
dy
+ + =

If a particular solution
1
y is known, then the general solu-
tion can be obtained with the help of substitution
1
y y
1
z

= , which leads to the first order linear equation
( ) ( ) | | ( ) x r z x r y 2 x q
dx
dz
1
− + − = .



CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
297

1169. Exact and Nonexact Equations
The equation
( ) ( ) 0 dy y , x N dx y , x M = +
is called exact if
x
N
y
M


=


,
and nonexact otherwise.

The general solution is
( ) ( ) C dy y , x N dx y , x M = +
∫ ∫
.

1170. Radioactive Decay
ky
dt
dy
− = ,
where ( ) t y is the amount of radioactive element at time t, k
is the rate of decay.

The solution is
( )
kt
0
e y t y

= , where ( ) 0 y y
0
= is the initial amount.

1171. Newton∞s Iaw of Cooling
( ) S T k
dt
dT
− − = ,
where ( ) t T is the temperature of an object at time t, S is the
temperature of the surrounding environment, k is a posi-
tive constant.

The solution is
( ) ( )
kt
0
e S T S t T

− + = ,
where ( ) 0 T T
0
= is the initial temperature of the object at
time 0 t = .


CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
298

1172. Population Dynamics (Iogistic Model)
|
.
|

\
|
− =
M
P
1 kP
dt
dP
,
where ( ) t P is population at time t, k is a positive constant,
M is a limiting size for the population.

The solution of the differential equation is
( )
( )
kt
0 0
0
e P M P
MP
t P

− +
= , where ( ) 0 P P
0
= is the initial popu-
lation at time 0 t = .



10.2 Second Order Ordinary Differential
Equations

1173. Homogeneous Iinear Equations with Constant Coefficients
0 qy y p y = + ′ + ′ ′
.
The characteristic equation is
0 q p
2
= + λ + λ .

If
1
λ and
2
λ are distinct real roots of the characteristic
equation, then the general solution is
x
2
x
1
2 1
e C e C y
λ λ
+ = , where
1
C and
2
C are integration constants.

If
2
p
2 1
− = λ = λ , then the general solution is
( )
x
2
p
2 1
e x C C y

+ = .

If
1
λ and
2
λ are complex numbers:
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
299

i
1
β + α = λ , i
2
β − α = λ , where
2
p
− = α ,
2
p q 4
2

= β ,
then the general solution is
( ) x sin C x cos C e y
2 1
x
β + β =
α
.

1174. Inhomogeneous Iinear Equations with Constant
Coefficients
( ) x f qy y p y = +

+
′ ′
.

The general solution is given by
h p
y y y + = , where
p
y is a particular solution of the inhomogeneous equation
and
h
y is the general solution of the associated homogene-
ous equation (see the previous topic 1173).

If the right side has the form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x sin x P x cos x P e x f
1 1
x
β + β =
α
,
then the particular solution
p
y is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) x sin x R x cos x R e x y
2 1
x k
p
β + β =
α
,
where the polynomials ( ) x R
1
and ( ) x R
2
have to be found
by using the method of undetermined coefficients.
• If i β + α is not a root of the characteristic equation, then
the power 0 k = ,
• If i β + α is a simple root, then 1 k = ,
• If i β + α is a double root, then 2 k = .

1175. Differential Equations with y Missing
( ) y , x f y ′ = ′ ′ .
Set y u

= . Then the new equation satisfied by v is
( ) u , x f u =

,
which is a first order differential equation.
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
300

1176. Differential Equations with x Missing
( ) y , y f y ′ = ′ ′
.
Set y u

= . Since
dy
du
u
dx
dy
dy
du
dx
du
y = = = ′ ′ ,
we have
( ) u , y f
dy
du
u = ,
which is a first order differential equation.

1177. Free Undamped Vibrations
The motion of a Mass on a Spring is described by the equa-
tion
0 ky y m = + & & ,
where
m is the mass of the object,
k is the stiffness of the spring,
y is displacement of the mass from equilibrium.

The general solution is
( ) δ − ω = t cos A y
0
,
where
A is the amplitude of the displacement,
0
ω is the fundamental frequency, the period is
0
2
T
ω
π
= ,
δ is phase angle of the displacement.
This is an example of simple harmonic motion.

1178. Free Damped Vibrations
0 ky y y m = + γ + & & & , where
γ is the damping coefficient.
There are 3 cases for the general solution:

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
301

Case 1. km 4
2
> γ (overdamped)
( )
t t
2 1
Be Ae t y
λ λ
+ = ,
where
m 2
km 4
2
1
− γ − γ −
= λ ,
m 2
km 4
2
2
− γ + γ −
= λ .

Case 2. km 4
2
= γ (critically damped)
( ) ( )
t
e Bt A t y
λ
+ = ,
where
m 2
γ
− = λ .

Case 3. km 4
2
< γ (underdamped)
( ) ( ) δ − ω =
γ

t cos A e t y
t
m 2
, where
2
km 4 γ − = ω .

1179. Simple Pendulum
0
I
g
dt
d
2
2
= θ +
θ
,
where θ is the angular displacement, I is the pendulum
length, g is the acceleration of gravity.

The general solution for small angles θ is
( ) t
I
g
sin t
max
θ = θ , the period is
g
I
2 T π = .

1180. RIC Circuit
( ) ( ) t cos E t V I
C
1
dt
dI
R
dt
I d
I
0
2
2
ω ω = ′ = + + ,
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
302

where I is the current in an RIC circuit with an ac voltage
source ( ) ( ) t sin E t V
0
ω = .

The general solution is
( ) ( ) ϕ − ω + + = t sin A e C e C t I
t r
2
t r
1
2 1
,
where
I 2
C
I 4
R R
r
2
2 , 1
− ± −
= ,
2 2
2
2
0
R
C
1
I
E
A
ω +
|
.
|

\
|
− ω
ω
= ,
|
.
|

\
|
ω

ω
= ϕ
RC
1
R
I
arctan ,
1
C ,
2
C are constants depending on initial conditions.



10.3. Some Partial Differential Equations

1181. The Iaplace Equation
0
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2
=


+



applies to potential energy function ( ) y , x u for a conser-
vative force field in the xy-plane. Partial differential equa-
tions of this type are called elliptic.

1182. The Heat Equation
t
u
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2


=


+



CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
303

applies to the temperature distribution ( ) y , x u in the xy-
plane when heat is allowed to flow from warm areas to cool
ones. The equations of this type are called parabolic.

1183. The Wave Equation
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
u
y
u
x
u


=


+



applies to the displacement ( ) y , x u of vibrating membranes
and other wave functions. The equations of this type are
called hyperbolic.


304

Chapt er 11
Series




11.1 Arithmetic Series

Initial term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a
Difference between successive terms: d
Number of terms in the series: n
Sum of the first n terms:
n
S


1184. ( )d 1 n a d 2 a d a a
1 2 n 1 n n
− + = = + = + =
− −
K

1185.
i 1 n i 1 n 2 n 1
a a a a a a
− + −
+ = = + = + K

1186.
2
a a
a
1 i 1 i
i
+ −
+
=

1187.
( )
n
2
d 1 n a 2
n
2
a a
S
1 n 1
n

− +
= ⋅
+
=





CHAPTER 11. SERIES
305

11.2 Geometric Series

Initial term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a
Common ratio: q
Number of terms in the series: n
Sum of the first n terms:
n
S
Sum to infinity: S


1188.
1 n
1 1 n n
q a qa a


= =

1189.
i 1 n i 1 n 2 n 1
a a a a a a
− + −
⋅ = = ⋅ = ⋅ K

1190.
1 i 1 i i
a a a
+ −
⋅ =

1191.
( )
1 q
1 q a
1 q
a q a
S
n
1 1 n
n


=


=

1192.
q 1
a
S lim S
1
n
n

= =
∞ →

For 1 q < , the sum S converges as ∞ → n .



11.3 Some Finite Series

Number of terms in the series: n


CHAPTER 11. SERIES
306

1193.
( )
2
1 n n
n 3 2 1
+
= + + + + K

1194. ( ) 1 n n n 2 6 4 2 + = + + + + K

1195. ( )
2
n 1 n 2 3 3 1 = − + + + + K

1196. ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
1 n k 2 n
1 n k 2 k 1 k k
− +
= − + + + + + + + K

1197.
( )( )
6
1 n 2 1 n n
n 3 2 1
2 2 2 2
+ +
= + + + + K

1198.
( )
2
3 3 3 3
2
1 n n
n 3 2 1
(
¸
(

¸

+
= + + + + K

1199. ( )
( )
3
1 n 4 n
1 n 2 3 3 1
2
2 2 2 2

= − + + + + K

1200. ( ) ( ) 1 n 2 n 1 n 2 3 3 1
2 2
3
3 3 3
− = − + + + + K

1201. 2
2
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
n
= + + + + + + K K

1202.
( )
1
1 n n
1
4 3
1
3 2
1
2 1
1
= +
+
+ +

+

+

K K

1203.
( )
e
! 1 n
1
! 3
1
! 2
1
! 1
1
1 = +

+ + + + + K K



CHAPTER 11. SERIES
307

11.4 Infinite Series

Sequence: { }
n
a
First term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a


1204. Infinite Series
K K + + + + =


=
n 2 1
1 n
n
a a a a

1205. Nth Partial Sum
n 2 1
n
1 n
n n
a a a a S + + + = =

=
K

1206. Convergence of Infinite Series
I a
1 n
n
=


=
, if I S lim
n
n
=
∞ →


1207. Nth Term Test
• If the series


=1 n
n
a is convergent, then 0 a lim
n
n
=
∞ →
.
• If 0 a lim
n
n

∞ →
, then the series is divergent.



11.5 Properties of Convergent Series

Convergent Series: A a
1 n
n
=


=
, B b
1 n
n
=


=

Real number: c
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
308

1208. ( ) B A b a b a
1 n
n
1 n
n
1 n
n n
+ = + = +
∑ ∑ ∑

=

=

=


1209. cA a c ca
1 n
n
1 n
n
= =
∑ ∑

=

=
.



11.6 Convergence Tests

1210. The Comparison Test
Iet


=1 n
n
a and


=1 n
n
b be series such that
n n
b a 0 ≤ < for all n.
• If


=1 n
n
b is convergent then


=1 n
n
a is also convergent.
• If


=1 n
n
a is divergent then


=1 n
n
b is also divergent.

1211. The Iimit Comparison Test
Iet


=1 n
n
a and


=1 n
n
b be series such that
n
a and
n
b are posi-
tive for all n.
• If ∞ < <
∞ →
n
n
n
b
a
lim 0 then


=1 n
n
a and


=1 n
n
b are either both
convergent or both divergent.
• If 0
b
a
lim
n
n
n
=
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
b convergent implies that


=1 n
n
a is
also convergent.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
309

• If ∞ =
∞ →
n
n
n
b
a
lim then


=1 n
n
b divergent implies that


=1 n
n
a is
also divergent.

1212. p-series
p-series


=1 n
p
n
1
converges for 1 p > and diverges for
1 p 0 ≤ < .

1213. The Integral Test
Iet ( ) x f be a function which is continuous, positive, and
decreasing for all 1 x ≥ . The series
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K K + + + + + =


=
n f 3 f 2 f 1 f n f
1 n

converges if ( )


1
dx x f converges, and diverges if
( ) ∞ →

n
1
dx x f as ∞ → n .

1214. The Ratio Test
Iet


=1 n
n
a be a series with positive terms.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
<
+
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a is convergent.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
>
+
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a is divergent.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
=
+
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a may converge or diverge and
the ratio test is inconclusive; some other tests must be
used.

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
310

1215. The Root Test
Iet


=1 n
n
a be a series with positive terms.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
<
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a is convergent.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
>
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a is divergent.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
=
∞ →
then


=1 n
n
a may converge or diverge, but
no conclusion can be drawn from this test.



11.7 Alternating Series

1216. The Alternating Series Test (Ieibniz∞s Theorem)

Iet { }
n
a be a sequence of positive numbers such that
n 1 n
a a <
+
for all n.
0 a lim
n
n
=
∞ →
.
Then the alternating series ( )


=

1 n
n
n
a 1 and ( )


=


1 n
n
1 n
a 1
both converge.

1217. Absolute Convergence
• A series


=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent if the series


=1 n
n
a is convergent.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
311

• If the series


=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent then it is con-
vergent.

1218. Conditional Convergence
A series


=1 n
n
a is conditionally convergent if the series is
convergent but is not absolutely convergent.



11.8 Power Series

Real numbers: x,
0
x
Power series:


=0 n
n
n
x a , ( )


=

0 n
n
0 n
x x a
Whole number: n
Radius of Convergence: R

1219. Power Series in x
K K + + + + + =


=
n
n
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a x a a x a

1220. Power Series in ( )
0
x x −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K K + − + + − + − + = −


=
n
0 n
2
0 2 0 1 0
0 n
n
0 n
x x a x x a x x a a x x a

1221. Interval of Convergence
The set of those values of x for which the function
( ) ( )


=
− =
0 n
n
0 n
x x a x f is convergent is called the interval of
convergence.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
312

1222. Radius of Convergence
If the interval of convergence is ( ) R x , R x
0 0
+ − for some
0 R≥ , the R is called the radius of convergence. It is given
as
n
n
n
a
1
lim R
∞ →
= or
1 n
n
n
a
a
lim R
+
∞ →
= .



11.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power
Series

Continuous function: ( ) x f
Power series:


=0 n
n
n
x a
Whole number: n
Radius of Convergence: R


1223. Differentiation of Power Series
Iet ( ) K + + + = =


=
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a a x a x f for R x < .
Then, for R x < , ( ) x f is continuous, the derivative ( ) x f ′

exists and
( ) K + + + =

2
2 1 0
x a
dx
d
x a
dx
d
a
dx
d
x f


=

= + + + =
1 n
1 n
n
2
3 2 1
x na x a 3 x a 2 a K .



CHAPTER 11. SERIES
313

1224. Integration of Power Series
Iet ( ) K + + + = =


=
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a a x a x f for R x < .
Then, for R x < , the indefinite integral ( )

dx x f exists and
( ) K + + + =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
dx x a xdx a dx a dx x f
2
2 1 0

C
1 n
x
a
3
x
a
2
x
a x a
0 n
1 n
n
3
2
2
1 0
+
+
= + + + =


=
+
K .



11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series

Whole number: n
Differentiable function: ( ) x f
Remainder term:
n
R


1225. Taylor Series
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
K +

′ ′
+ −

+ =

=


=
! 2
a x a f
a x a f a f
! n
a x
a f x f
2
0 n
n
n

( )
( )( )
n
n n
R
! n
a x a f
+

+ .

1226. The Remainder After n+1 Terms is given by
( )
( )( )
( )! 1 n
a x f
R
1 n 1 n
n
+
− ξ
=
+ +
, x a < ξ < .

1227. Maclaurin Series
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
314

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
n
n n 2
0 n
n
n
R
! n
x 0 f
! 2
x 0 f
x 0 f 0 f
! n
x
0 f x f + + +
′ ′
+

+ = =


=
K




11.11 Power Series Expansions for Some
Functions

Whole number: n
Real number: x


1228. K K + + + + + + =
! n
x
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1 e
n 3 2
x


1229.
( ) ( ) ( )
K K + + + + + + =
! n
a ln x
! 3
a ln x
! 2
a ln x
! 1
a ln x
1 a
n 3 2
x


1230. ( )
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − = +
+
1 n
x 1
4
x
3
x
2
x
x x 1 ln
1 n n 4 3 2
, 1 x 1 ≤ < − .

1231.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =

+
K
7
x
3
x
3
x
x 2
x 1
x 1
ln
7 3 3
, 1 x < .

1232.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+

+
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+

= K
3 3
1 x
1 x
3
1
1 x
1 x
3
1
1 x
1 x
2 x ln , 0 x > .

1233.
( )
( )
K K ±

+ + − + − =
! n 2
x 1
! 6
x
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 x cos
n 2 n 6 4 2


CHAPTER 11. SERIES
315

1234.
( )
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − =
+
! 1 n 2
x 1
! 7
x
! 3
x
! 3
x
x x sin
1 n 2 n 7 3 3


1235. K + + + + + =
2833
x 62
313
x 17
13
x 2
3
x
x x tan
9 7 3 3
,
2
x
π
< .

1236.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + − = K
4723
x 2
943
x 2
43
x
3
x
x
1
x cot
7 3 3
, π < x .

1237.
( )
( )( )
K
K
K
K +
+ ⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
+ +
⋅ ⋅

+

+ =
+
1 n 2 n 2 6 4 2
x 1 n 2 3 3 1
3 4 2
x 3 1
3 2
x
x x arcsin
1 n 2 3 3
,
1 x < .

1238.
( )
( )( )
,
1 n 2 n 2 6 4 2
x 1 n 2 3 3 1
3 4 2
x 3 1
3 2
x
x
2
x arccos
1 n 2 3 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ ⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
+ +
⋅ ⋅

+

+ −
π
=
+
K
K
K
K
1 x < .

1239.
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − =
+
1 n 2
x 1
7
x
3
x
3
x
x x arctan
1 n 2 n 7 3 3
, 1 x ≤ .

1240.
( )
K K + + + + + + =
! n 2
x
! 6
x
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 x cosh
n 2 6 4 2


1241.
( )
K K +
+
+ + + + + =
+
! 1 n 2
x
! 7
x
! 3
x
! 3
x
x x sinh
1 n 2 7 3 3






CHAPTER 11. SERIES
316

11.12 Binomial Series

Whole numbers: n, m
Real number: x
Combinations:
m
n
C


1242. ( )
n m
n
m 2
2
n
1
n
n
x x C x C x C 1 x 1 + + + + + + = + K K

1243.
( ) ( ) | |
! m
1 m n 1 n n
C
m
n
− − −
=
K
, 1 x < .

1244. K + − + − =
+
3 2
x x x 1
x 1
1
, 1 x < .

1245. K + + + + =

3 2
x x x 1
x 1
1
, 1 x < .

1246. K +
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅

+

− + = +
8 6 4 2
x 3 3 1
6 4 2
x 3 1
4 2
x
2
x
1 x 1
4 3 2
, 1 x ≤ .

1247. K +
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
+


− + = +
12 9 6 3
x 8 3 2 1
9 6 3
x 3 2 1
6 3
x 2 1
3
x
1 x 1
4 3 2
3
, 1 x ≤ .



11.13 Fourier Series

Integrable function: ( ) x f
Fourier coefficients:
0
a ,
n
a ,
n
b
Whole number: n
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
317

1248. ( ) ( )


=
+ + =
1 n
n n
0
nx sin b nx cos a
2
a
x f

1249. ( )

π
π −
π
= dx nx cos x f
1
a
n


1250. ( )

π
π −
π
= dx nx sin x f
1
b
n



318

Chapt er 12
Probability
=
=
=
=
12.1 Permutations and Combinations
=
mÉêãìí~íáçåëW=
ã
å
m =
`çãÄáå~íáçåëW=
ã
å
` =
tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW=åI=ã=
=
=
1251. c~Åíçêá~ä=
( )( )å N å O å P O N > å − − ⋅ ⋅ = K =
N > M = =
=
1252. > å m
å
å
= =
=
1253.
( )> ã å
> å
m
ã
å

= =
=
1254. _áåçãá~ä=`çÉÑÑáÅáÉåí=
( )> ã å > ã
> å
ã
å
`
ã
å

=








= =
=
1255.
ã å
å
ã
å
` `

= =
=
1256.
N ã
N å
N ã
å
ã
å
` ` `
+
+
+
= + =
=
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
319

1257.
n
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
2 C C C C = + + + + K

1258. Pascal∞s Triangle

Row 0 1
Row 1 1 1
Row 2 1 2 1
Row 3 1 3 3 1
Row 4 1 4 6 4 1
Row 3 1 3 10 10 3 1
Row 6 1 6 13 20 13 6 1



12.2 Probability Formulas

Events: A, B
Probability: P
Random variables: X, Y, Z
Values of random variables: x, y, z
Expected value of X: µ
Any positive real number: ε
Standard deviation: σ
Variance:
2
σ
Density functions: ( ) x f , ( ) t f


1259. Probability of an Event
( )
n
m
A P = ,
where
m is the number of possible positive outcomes,
n is the total number of possible outcomes.

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
320

1260. Range of Probability Values
( ) 1 A P 0 ≤ ≤

1261. Certain Event
( ) 1 A P =

1262. Impossible Event
( ) 0 A P =

1263. Complement
( ) ( ) A P 1 A P − =

1264. Independent Events
( ) ( ) A P B / A P = ,
( ) ( ) B P A / B P =

1265. Addition Rule for Independent Events
( ) ( ) ( ) B P A P B A P + = ∪

1266. Multiplication Rule for Independent Events
( ) ( ) ( ) B P A P B A P ⋅ = ∩

1267. General Addition Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B A P B P A P B A P ∩ − + = ∪ ,
where
B A∪ is the union of events A and B,
B A∩ is the intersection of events A and B.

1268. Conditional Probability
( )
( )
( ) B P
B A P
B / A P

=

1269. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A / B P A P B / A P B P B A P ⋅ = ⋅ = ∩
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
321

1270. Iaw of Total Probability
( ) ( ) ( )

=
=
m
1 i
i i
B / A P B P A P ,
where
i
B is a sequence of mutually exclusive events.

1271. Bayes∞ Theorem
( )
( ) ( )
( ) A P
B P B / A P
A / B P

=

1272. Bayes∞ Formula
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=


=
m
1 k
i i
i i
i
B / A P B P
B / A P B P
A / B P ,
where
i
B is a set of mutually exclusive events (hypotheses),
A is the final event,
( )
i
B P are the prior probabilities,
( ) A / B P
i
are the posterior probabilities.

1273. Iaw of Iarge Numbers
0
n
S
P
n
→ |
.
|

\
|
ε ≥ µ − as ∞ → n ,
1
n
S
P
n
→ |
.
|

\
|
ε < µ − as ∞ → n ,
where
n
S is the sum of random variables,
n is the number of possible outcomes.

1274. Chebyshev Inequality
( )
( )
2
X V
X P
ε
≤ ε ≥ µ − ,
where ( ) X V is the variance of X.
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
322

1275. Normal Density Function
( )
( )
2
2
2
x
e
2
1
x
σ
µ −

π σ
= ϕ ,
where x is a particular outcome.

1276. Standard Normal Density Function
( )
2
z
2
e
2
1
z

π
= ϕ
Average value 0 = µ , deviation 1 = σ .



Figure 210.

1277. Standard Z Value
σ
µ −
=
X
Z

1278. Cumulative Normal Distribution Function
( )
( )

∞ −
σ
µ −

π σ
=
x
2
t
dt e
2
1
x F
2
2
,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
323

where
x is a particular outcome,
t is a variable of integration.

1279. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
σ
µ − β

|
.
|

\
|
σ
µ − α
= β < < α F F X P ,
where
X is normally distributed random variable,
F is cumulative normal distribution function,
( ) β < < α X P is interval probability.

1280. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
σ
ε
= ε < µ − F 2 X P ,
where
X is normally distributed random variable,
F is cumulative normal distribution function.

1281. Cumulative Distribution Function
( ) ( ) ( )

∞ −
= < =
x
dt t f x X P x F ,
where t is a variable of integration.

1282. Bernoulli Trials Process
np = µ , npq
2
= σ ,
where
n is a sequence of experiments,
p is the probability of success of each experiments,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1283. Binomial Distribution Function
( )
k n k
q p
k
n
q , p , n b

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
324

np = µ , npq
2
= σ ,
( ) ( )
n
x
pe q x f + = ,
where
n is the number of trials of selections,
p is the probability of success,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1284. Geometric Distribution
( ) p q j T P
1 j−
= = ,
p
1
= µ ,
2
2
p
q
= σ ,
where
T is the first successful event is the series,
j is the event number,
p is the probability that any one event is successful,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1285. Poisson Distribution
( )
λ −
λ
≈ = e
! k
k X P
k
, np = λ ,
λ = µ , λ = σ
2
,
where
λ is the rate of occurrence,
k is the number of positive outcomes.

1286. Density Function
( ) ( )

= ≤ ≤
b
a
dx x f b X a P

1287. Continuous Uniform Density
a b
1
f

= ,
2
b a +
= µ ,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
325

where f is the density function.

1288. Exponential Density Function
( )
t
e t f
λ −
λ = , λ = µ ,
2 2
λ = σ
where t is time, λ is the failure rate.

1289. Exponential Distribution Function
( )
t
e 1 t F
λ −
− = ,
where t is time, λ is the failure rate.

1290. Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables
( )

=
= = µ
n
1 i
i i
p x X E ,
where
i
x is a particular outcome,
i
p is its probability.

1291. Expected Value of Continuous Random Variables
( ) ( )


∞ −
= = µ dx x xf X E

1292. Properties of Expectations
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E Y X E + = + ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E Y X E − = − ,
( ) ( ) X cE cX E = ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E XY E ⋅ = ,
where c is a constant.

1293. ( ) ( )
2 2
X V X E µ + = ,
where
( ) X E = µ is the expected value,
( ) X V is the variance.



CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
326

1294. Markov Inequality
( )
( )
k
X E
k X P ≤ > ,
where k is some constant.

1295. Variance of Discrete Random Variables
( ) ( ) | | ( )

=
µ − = µ − = = σ
n
1 i
i
2
i
2
2
p x X E X V ,
where
i
x is a particular outcome,
i
p is its probability.

1296. Variance of Continuous Random Variables
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )


∞ −
µ − = µ − = = σ dx x f x X E X V
2 2 2


1297. Properties of Variance
( ) ( ) ( ) Y V X V Y X V + = + ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y V X V Y X V + = − ,
( ) ( ) X V c X V = + ,
( ) ( ) X V c cX V
2
= ,
where c is a constant.

1298. Standard Deviation
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
X E X V X D µ − = =

1299. Covariance
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) Y X XY E Y Y X X E Y , X cov µ µ − = µ − µ − = ,
where
X is random variable,
( ) X V is the variance of X,
µ is the expected value of X or Y.
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
327


1300. Correlation
( )
( )
( ) ( ) Y V X V
Y , X cov
Y , X = ρ ,
where
( ) X V is the variance of X,
( ) Y V is the variance of Y.






























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