TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING

TANVIR AHMAD KHAN NIAZI

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Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication.

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Switching
The

equipments and techniques for enabling any station in a communications system to be connected with any other station..
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Switching Switching is an essential component of telephone, telegraph, data-processing, and other technologies Switching may be performed by electronic,optical, or electromechanical devices.
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Telecomm Components
 

Subscriber  Devices attached to network Local Loop  Subscriber loop  Connection to network Exchange  Switching centers  End offices Trunks  Branches between exchanges  Multiplexed

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Switching
 Any

subscriber line can request a connection to any other line or trunk.  The “Switching Network” must allow for these connections to be established and removed.

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General Principles of Switching
 Mass

communication: communication from few to many, requires:
one way communication path

 Point-to-point

communication: from one communicator to another, requires:
Both-way communications and rapid reconfiguration of transmission path
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Point to point lines

If we could have point to point lines between all senders and all receivers, then we would not need switching.
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Imagine point to point lines between all pairs of people:
# of people 2 3 10 100 1000 # of lines 1 3 45 4950 0.5 million = n(n-1)/2
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In general, for n people, # of lines

Need for Switching

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.
 Lines

or wires from everybody's house go into the switch  When a call is placed, the switch creates a temporary link between these lines.

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Switch
Amir Mubashir Asif

Zia

Umar •

Abid Khalid

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TYPICAL CONNECTIVITY OF A SUBSCRIBER

Subscriber Office

D P

D C

MDF

TELEPHONE EXCHANGE

OUTSIDE PLANT/COPPER NETWORK

INSIDE PLANT/CENTRAL OFFICE
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Telephony Equipment
Telephone Set PABX
 

Advanced features and call routing Tens to hundreds of telephone handsets

Central Office (CO) or Exchange

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CO Stages in Equipment
 Manual

switching: All telephone lines terminate in a jack, patch cord used to connect parties  Automatic switching:

Electromechanical
 

step-by-step switching (Strowger switch) cross-bar switching (common control)

Computer-controlled switching
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Basic Call Progress – On Hook

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Basic Call Progress – Off Hook

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Basic Call Progress -- Dialing

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Basic Call Progress -Switching

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Basic Call Process -- Ringing

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Basic Call Process -- Talking

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Analog Signaling– Supervisory Signaling
 Loop
 

Start

Almost All Telephones Current Flow Sensed

 Ground

Start

Momentary Ring Lead

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Loop Start

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Normal Signal Flow

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Switching Systems

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.
To get attention of the operator was a small hand- cranked AC generator or “magneto” at subscriber end  Produced about 90 V ac, at 20 Hz frequency.

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Classification of switching system

S w it c h in g S y s t e m m anual E le c t o m e c h a n ic a l A u t o m a t ic E le c t r o ic ( S t o r e d p r o g r a m c o n t r o l) C ro s s b a r S p a c e d iv is io n s w it c h in g T im e d iv is io n s w it c h in g D ig it a l S p a c e s w it c h T im e s w it c h A n a lo g
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S tro w g e r o r s te p -b y -s te p

C o m b in a t io n s w it c h

Strowger Switch
A

step by step (SXS) system performing switching in two dimensions (horizontal and vertical)  Switching action is a direct result of the dial pulses generated by the rotary telephone set.  Example a 10,000 lines SXS central office switch.

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Strowger Switch Operation
 

When a caller goes off-hook, current is detected in the sub. Loop and preselector switch become active. The preselector switch advances to a level that seizes an idle line and sends a dial tone to the subscriber. In step by step, the talk path is established as digits are dialed. Say party now dials 5831. When 5 is dialed, the resulting electrical pulses causes the electromechanical relay of a selector switch to step in the vertical direction to a level equal to 5.

 

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Strowger Switch Operation
 The

wiper then advances step by step, in the horizontal direction, until it seizes an idle line available on the next selector switch.  An 8 is dialed, and the procedure is repeated.  The connection is further advanced to final destination.

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Strowger Switch Operation
 

The final selector is capable of handling last two digits When 3,1 are dialed, the final selector switch is advances vertically to the third level and horizontally to the first position. The called party at 5831 is tested for a busy condition and the ring potential is applied if the party is idle. Once the party answers, the lines are further supervised till the termination of the call.
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Strowger Switch--Example

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Negative Stepper Properties

 

High maintenance cost Slow mechanical operation Slow signaling

Can’t take full advantage of CCS7 and other electronic signaling systems Digital switches use ~1/50th the floor space of steppers; ~1/10th the floor space of crossbar switches.
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Big and bulky

Common Control Switch
 In

common control signaling, the dialed digits are collected and stored until all the digits are dialed.  The digits necessary to determine the talk paths connections within the caller’s central office are handled locally and remaining digits are retransmitted to the next office involved in the call.
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Common Control Switch
 Clear

separation between control and switching network of manual switching reestablished  Control apparatus only used to set up and terminate calls  General principle of common control switches still used in electronic switching today

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Crossbar switch
 

Introduced in 1917 The switches are electromechanically activated and rely on moving parts. The switch contains sets of contact points or crosspoints with three to six individual contacts per set. Magnets cause vertical and horizontal bars to cross each other and make coordinates determined by the numbers dialed. Each switch typically has either 100 or 200 crosspoints.
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Electronic Switching Systems

ESS No. 1:
  

Computer control/stored program control (SPC) Analog Relay switching, using sealed contact reed switches Can handle 10000 to 70000 lines. Capable of handling 1000 to 10,000 lines Attractiveness lies in providing reliable services to smaller communities at an economical cost. Also fully operational at a remote site Up gradation from DTL to RTL increasing the speed and reducing the size of control circuitry,
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ESS No.2
   

Electronic Switching Systems

ESS No.3
  

Bipolar LSI ROMs for micro program control. SPC executed from a unique set of microinstructions stored in ROM Designed for small offices and small cities of 100 to 100 subscribers. First all-electronic exchange with digital technology employed in its computerized control and switching matrix. Over 10,00 trunks can be handled using a combination of TDM and SDM. 38

ESS No. 4:
 

Electronic Switching Systems
 ESS
   

No.5

Most advanced and versatile Capable of serving 100,00 to 1,000 subscribers. Relies heavily on LSI Software technology incorporated to permit rapid addition of new technology with the advancements in hardware. Some facilities:
 Call

forwarding, Call waiting, call within, Speed call, Three way calling, Caller ID etc.
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Origins of digital switching

• Stored Program Control Switches (1970+) i.e. Digital Switches Utilize a CPU for controlling most switching operations
– Few moving parts – More maintenance free and efficient – Allow significant flexibility of service (programs can be stored and executed for each subscriber : » Call blocking » Repeat last call » Reminder calls » Call diversion

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ACCESS

SWITCHING NETWORK

CONTROL

DLU CCG LTG CP S N

SYP

DAS

MB

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

SIGNALLING

POWER SUPPLY

C7/SS7

TYPICAL SWITCH

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A digital exchange (Nortel DMS-100) used by an operator to offer local and long distance services
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ACCESS

SWITCHING NETWORK

CONTROL

DLU CCG LTG CP S N

SYP

DAS

MB

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

SIGNALLING

POWER SUPPLY

C7/SS7

TYPICAL SWITCH

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Switching Technology
 Circuit
    

Switching (CS)

Need a connection establishment between end nodes. Connection is maintained until one of end nodes terminates. Connection is dedicated to the communication between two nodes. Reduces the number and the total length of the links Example : Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN)
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Switching Technology
 Packet
   

Switching (Virtual Circuit and Datagram)
Data are transmitted in short messages called packets. A connection between the two end-nodes is not maintained. A node-to-node link can be dynamically shared by many packets. Example : Public Data Network (PDN) likes X.25, Frame Relay.

 Message

Switching (MS)  Cell Switching (ATM)
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National Telecommunications Network
 Primary

Center (Local Network/Primary Trunk Switching Centers) Center (Trunk network/Regional Tandem Switching Centers) Center (National Tandem Exchanges/Tertiary Trunk Switching Centers)
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 Secondary

 Tertiary

Terminology

North American

British

1 Customers Loop 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Central Office End Office Class 5 Office Inter Office Trunk Junctor Toll Office Toll Network

1 Local Network/Access Network 2 Exchange 3 Local Exchange 5 6 7 8 Junction Trunk Trunk exchange Trunk Network
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Regulations
 Different

countries have used different methods to regulate the telecommunication business. In most countries the telecommunication monopoly has been controlled by state ownership like PTA in Pakistan.

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Standards
International Communications Union (ITU)

The work of ITU is carried out through two main bodies: The ITU Telecommunication Sector (ITU-T) Its duties include the study of technical questions, operating methods and tariffs for telephony, telegraphy and data communications The ITU Radio Communication Sector (ITU-R) It studies all technical and operating questions relating to radio communications including point to point communications, mobile services and broadcasting. Associated with it is the International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB), which regulates the assignment of radio frequencies to prevent interference between different transmissions
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Thanks

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