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Subcourse Number MM0151 EDITION A Missile and Munitions United States Army Combined Arms Support Command Fort Lee, Virginia 23801-1809 5 Credit Hours Edition Date: August 1992
SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to provide you with the information required to manage storage operations in the Zone of Interior. Upon completion of this subcourse you will be able to determine personnel and equipment requirements, direct ammunition logistical operations, and plan rewarehousing operations. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest official publications. Unless otherwise stated, the masculine gender of singular pronouns is used to refer to both men and women.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: You will identify procedures for managing ammunition storage operations, to include ammunition storage requirements, magazine area safety, and the storage of specific types of munitions.
CONDITION: You will require only the material contained in this subcourse. STANDARD: To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page
Subcourse Overview............................................................................................................................... ..i Lesson: Ammunition Storage Operations.......................................................................... ....................1 Part A: Ammunition Storage Requirements................................................................ ..............2 Part B: Magazine Storage Area Safety................................................................................ .....8 Part C: Storage of Ammunition........................................................................................ .......16 Practice Exercise............................................................................................ .......................27 Answer Key and Feedback............................................................................. .......................30
LESSON AMMUNITION STORAGE OPERATIONS Critical Task: 03-4010.01-0002 OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn to manage ammunition storage operations. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: Identify procedures for managing ammunition storage operations, including management of personnel, equipment, logistical operations, and safety precautions necessary to store various explosives and ammunition. You will require only the information contained in this subcourse. To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: AR 385-64, DA PAM 75-5, SB 708-4, TM 9-1300-206, FM 9-13, and FM 9-38. INTRODUCTION Conventional ammunition and explosives are products of war-they are manufactured primarily to kill and destroy. Ammunition is the dominant factor in determining the outcome of conventional combat. It is a critical component of fire and maneuver. Munitions have inherent hazards that affect all handling operations from time of manufacture until expended. Knowledge of these hazards dictates that ammunition and explosives must be handled, stored, and shipped in a manner that will afford optimum protection against deterioration, accidental ignition, and detonation. The key to any successful operation is prior planning, especially when conducting ammunition storage operations. Upon the receipt of ammunition from other storage activities, turn-ins from using units, or during rewarehousing operations, you must be able to employ the essential elements of storage operations. Whether you are an ammunition storage officer at a Magazine Storage Area or a distribution depot, you will be required to prepare plans for storage operations. You will have to be familiar with reports and documentation, packaging and palletization, materials handling equipment (MHE), manpower, tools, and supplies in order to accomplish your assigned mission. To begin this lesson, we will refresh your memory by discussing ammunition storage requirements. You have received previous instruction on ammunition storage requirements; here we will tie the different types of storage (magazine and outdoor) procedures together with safety when storing different types of munitions.
CONDITION: STANDARD: REFERENCES:
PART A - AMMUNITION STORAGE REQUIREMENTS 1. Magazine Storage. The storage of Class V supplies requires storage facilities unique to the type of ammunition that will be stored. Explosives and ammunition should be stored in buildings designed, designated, and isolated for that specific purpose. For the remainder of this lesson, we will be concerned with ammunition storage operations, which includes storage structures, safety, and the actual storage of ammunition. a. Earth-Covered Magazines are preferred for the storage of ammunition. Ammunition items stored in these magazines are better protected from outside sources of exposure than in aboveground magazines or outdoor storage. Earth-covered magazines provide temperature stability and are particularly desirable for the storage of propellants and pyrotechnics. Earthcovered magazines are the best and safest type of storage facilities. For that reason, they should be used to store separate loading projectiles and bulk high explosives if space is available. There are three basic types of earth-covered magazines. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1. Types of earth-covered magazines
(1) STANDARD IGLOO magazines are an older design. They are not practical for storage of large missiles and rockets or palletized and containerized ammunition. The door is too small to admit entrance of a standard 40 by 48-inch pallet moved by a forklift. This type of magazine is obsolete and has been, or is being replaced by the newer type magazines. (2) STEEL ARCH magazines have the same inside round walls as the igloo magazine. The inside looks like the inside of a Quonset hut. They have semi-cylindrical metal walls and ceiling, a concrete floor, and a door wide enough to handle pallets. Missile containers can be moved into these magazines. (3) STRADLEY-YURT magazines are built of reinforced concrete with a wide door or double door to accommodate the present day ammunition packaging. Forklifts can easily go in and out with pallets and missile containers. Because of the straight side design of the StradleyYurt, it can be used to store nearly 25 percent more ammunition than standard igloo or steel arch type magazines of similar size. (4) The sizes of earth-covered magazines vary, but some common specifications are listed below. Remember, earth-covered magazines provide the BEST storage for ammunition. • • • Standard Igloo - 26 feet 6 inches wide by 12 feet 9 inches high by 40, 60, or 80 feet in length. Steel Arch - 25 feet wide by 10 feet high by 40 or 64 feet in length. Stradley-Yurt - 20 feet wide by 14 feet high by 40, 60, or 80 feet in length.
b. Aboveground Magazines. (1) Standard magazines (Figure 2) are made with steel and concrete frames and have hollow tile walls filled with sand. They have concrete floors sometimes covered with sparkproof topping. The largest standard magazines are about 51 feet wide by 218 feet long. Standard magazines were originally designed to store fixed and separate loading projectiles. For future use, they should be restricted to storage of classes 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4.
Figure 2. Standard aboveground magazine 3 MM0151
(2) High explosive or black powder magazines (Figure 3) are used to store bulk explosives, such as TNT and black powder. They are about 27 feet wide by 45 feet long and are spaced 800 feet apart. Should one blow up, the next magazine will not be affected. (3) Primer or fuze magazines (Figure 4) are exactly the same as high explosive magazines, that is, the same construction and dimensions. The difference is in the spacing-primer or fuze magazines are spaced 300 to 400 feet apart. Less spacing is required because primers and fuzes contain much less explosives than bulk explosives. (4) Uses: Standard aboveground magazines, today and in the future, will be used to store small arms ammunition, firing devices, and other less explosive or hazardous items. These items will be stored here regardless of the original design ideas.
Figure 3. High explosive/black powder magazine
Figure 4. Primer or fuze magazine
c. Operational Regulations for Magazine Storage. (1) All magazines will have DA Label 85 (Figure 5) posted near or on the door inside of the magazine. These general instructions apply to magazine storage. Study the instructions carefully.
Figure 5. Magazine placard (DA Label 85)
(2) Vegetation around ammunition storage sites must be controlled-usually a 50-foot firebreak is required. (3) Components or loose rounds (not boxed or palletized) should not be stored in the same magazine with properly packaged items. (4) Conveyors, pallet jacks, equipment, tools, empty boxes, and so forth will not be stored in a magazine with ammunition or explosives. (5) Doors and locks on magazines must be kept in good working condition. (6) Magazines will be kept locked at all times except when personnel are working in them. (7) The door(s) of a magazine must be kept open when a crew is working inside. The number of crews must not exceed the number of doors. (8) Ammunition will be placed or stacked in a magazine according to the applicable drawings. (9) The lot number and marking must be placed so that they can be read without moving boxes or climbing stacks. (10) At least 2 inches of dunnage is required under and between boxes for magazine storage. (11) Always stack ammunition from the back to the front, large lots first. (12) When more than one lot is stored, all items of a lot should be stored together. A clear line of separation between lots must be indicated. 2. Outdoor Storage. a. Outdoor storage principles: Outdoor storage in a magazine storage area is neither desirable nor recommended. It is a field expedient method and should be used in emergencies only. When it becomes absolutely necessary to store ammunition and explosives outdoors, the maximum amount of ammunition possible should be covered by rain and fire resistant tarpaulin over a sturdy frame. b. Outdoor storage sites should be level, well-drained, and free of flammable material. At least three inches of dunnage must be used to keep the ammunition and explosives off the ground. Keep the stacks separated to allow free air circulation. An air space of at least 18 inches is needed between the top of the stack and the overhead cover. c. Perform frequent inspections to prevent accumulation of trash and unstable stacks. When stacking munitions, ensure that dunnage awaiting use is located at least 50 feet away from the stacks. Excess dunnage in the immediate work area may become a fire hazard. 3. Determination of Storage Location. When the stock control section receives an advance shipment notice, this information is shared with the storage section for planning purposes. The stock records are checked to determine if the ammunition due-in is similar to ammunition already stored. a. Use of the planograph. At this time, pallet dimensions can be used to plot the planned storage on a planograph. When planning storage, the largest lot is stored in the stack section located in the rear of the magazine, as shown in Figure 6. There must also be space for equipment to turn around.
The materials handling equipment (MHE) aisle is based on the measurements of 4 foot 7 inches, plus the length or width of the pallet, or 40 inches for the forklift with tines, whichever is greater. Most planographs are scale drawings of the magazine's floor space scaled at 5-foot increments, as shown in Figure 6. Planographs may vary, but they will always be scaled so space can be calculated. b. Similar items. If the shipment is similar (has the same national stock number (NSN) and lot numbers as those in storage), it has to be determined if there is adequate space to store it with existing lots. The storage location must be checked, either on planographs or in person. The
Figure 6. Example of a Planograph
necessary pallet dimensions (length, width, and height) are in the DOD Consolidated Ammunition Catalog by NSN. With the dimensions of the pallets and space available, you can calculate the area and cube required to store the shipment. A comparison of area to cube then shows if the ammunition will fit into the space available. If the shipment will not fit, rewarehousing of ammunition among the magazines may be required. c. Different items. When the records show that the same type of ammunition is not stored at the facility, there are several steps to take in selecting a storage site. You must check the compatibility groups, quantity-distance, and the magazine license to ensure that you are within the limits imposed by the Net Explosive Weight. 4. Determination of Personnel and Equipment. a. Now that the ammunition and space requirements are known, the equipment and personnel requirements must be determined. The number of required ammunition handlers is based on factors such as type, quantity, and packing configuration of the ammunition. In any event, there must be at least two persons at any location. One ground guide is required per forklift, and two ground guides per crane. The following conditions must be considered: (1) There must be enough materials handling equipment for the operation, and the equipment must be the correct type (electric forklifts, towing tractors and cranes). (2) On-the-spot maintenance support must be available. Malfunctioning tools and lack of supplies can slow down or stop an operation. Selecting the proper tools and supplies is a critical area in planning operations. The following areas must be considered well in advance: (a) All hand tools must be serviceable, and extras must be available in case of breakdown. There should be one set of cutters and crimpers available for each bander. (b) There must be enough steel strapping, clips, and dunnage to complete palletization. (c) If a crane is being used for shipping palletized projectiles, serviceable slings must be available. (d) There should be personal protective equipment available, such as face shields for banding operations, work gloves, and safety shoes. b. If work must be done at night, prior planning and coordination must be accomplished to ensure that the required resources are available. MHE requirements such as transport vehicles and forklifts must be coordinated with the motor pool section. Requirements must also be met for other types of equipment such as pallet jacks, conveyors, dunnage, banding equipment, and safety equipment for personnel. PART B - MAGAZINE STORAGE AREA SAFETY 1. By now you should have an understanding of ammunition storage structures, selection of storage locations, planographs, and how to determine personnel and equipment requirements. Another item that should be of utmost concern to you is safety. The most important consideration in an ammunition area is safety. Fire prevention and fire fighting are constantly stressed as the most pertinent of all safety precautions and procedures involving explosives and chemical agents. Quantity-distance and compatibility standards will apply at all times, regardless of the mode of storage. MM0151 8
2. Fire Protection. Within an ammunition and explosive storage area, whether permanent or temporary, fire protection and posting of fire symbols is of primary importance. Fires in an ammunition and explosive area can cause catastrophic damage in an extremely short time. a. A fire plan is one of the first things an explosive storage area needs. The fire plan will include the disposition of matches or other flame/spark producing devices. It specifies who can grant authority to carry such devices, and how they will be carried. The plan specifies where smoking areas will be located, when they may be used, and what type of extinguisher must be available at each location. The plan tells what everyone is to do in the event of a fire. The fire plan designates responsibilities of key individuals/alternates and organizations. Their responsibilities are defined, and everyone knows exactly who does the following tasks: (1) Who reports the fire. (2) Who directs orderly evacuation of personnel. (3) Who notifies nearby personnel of impending danger. (4) Who initiates the means of extinguishing or controlling the fire. (5) Who meets and advises fire fighters as to details of the fire. b. Fire prevention in an ammunition storage area is the responsibility of all personnel who work in, or enter the storage area. The storage area must be kept in a condition that will prevent fires from starting, and to prevent fires from entering from other areas. (1) Vegetation-grass, weeds, and undergrowth must be kept under control. By controlling the growth of grass, weeds, and underbrush, the possible spread of fire is limited. Weed killer, mowing, animal grazing, plowing, or cutting are methods used to control vegetation. However, proper supervision of personnel is required when any method is used. (2) Vegetation burning is not permitted within 50 feet of earth-covered magazines, nor within 200 feet of aboveground magazines or storage pads. All structure doors, windows, and ventilators must be closed during burning. (3) Fire breaks will be at least 50' wide, free of flammable material, and maintained around aboveground magazines and storage pads. (4) Dunnage will not be stacked any closer than 50' to magazines-never within the fire breaks. (5) Diesel and gasoline powered vehicles operating closer than 25' to a structure or magazine will be equipped with properly installed spark arresters. (6) Heat producing equipment will not be used without a permit from the quality assurance, safety or fire department. The permit will specify the location, time, duration, purpose, safety precautions, fire-fighting equipment required, and operator's names. c. Firefighting facilities are of immediate importance to personnel within the ASP. Fighting fires in their beginning stages can prevent a major fire or mass detonation of ammunition stocks. Keep in mind that personnel must not be exposed to the hazards of an imminent explosion. Firefighting equipment will vary depending on the permanency of the facility, types of ammunition stored, and availability of firefighting organizations. 9 MM0151
(1) Temporary facilities may be equipped with the following: Water barrels, pails, sand boxes, shovels, water-type extinguishers, back-pack pumps, and other equipment such as fire beaters. (2) Permanent facilities may be provided with: Water-type, 2.5 gallon extinguishers, 4 gallon backpack pumps, multi-purpose dry chemical extinguishers, pumpers or brush trucks, tank trucks, and a fire map. (3) Both types of facilities should have an adequate supply of brooms, gunny sacks, hoses, grass beaters, and where available, plows, graders, and dozers. Two hand extinguishers should be available for immediate use whenever ammunition or explosives are being handled. d. Fire drills involving all personnel available should be held semi-annually. Unannounced fire drills involving motorized emergency vehicles are prohibited. e. Afire alarm should be available to aid in passing the warning and speeding evacuation. The alarm should be both audible and visual, but at least audible. (1) When evidence of a fire is noticed and the alarm has been given, at least one responsible messenger will be sent in the direction from which firefighters are expected to arrive. This individual will give the responding units the location, nature, and extent of the fire. (2) Firefighters will not approach fires involving ammunition or explosives unless they have accurate information concerning the hazards, and a determination is made that they are justified in doing so. 3. Fire Hazard Markings: As a guide to firefighters, ammunition and explosives are divided into four classes. There are four Fire Divisions according to the hazards encountered when fighting fires involving the various types of explosives. The divisions are identified on placards by the numerals 1, 2, 3, and 4. Each placard has a different shape, to aid identification in darkness and at long range. a. Fire symbols normally are posted on buildings or storage sites. They are posted in such a manner as to make them easily visible to approaching firefighters at the maximum distance. Each fire division placard has a distinctive shape in order to be recognized by firefighters approaching a fire. These shapes and sizes are shown in Figure 7. Half-size placards can be used on doors or lockers inside buildings, on motor vehicles, and on railroad cars. (1) In the interest of safety, installation commanders may designate blocks of earth-covered magazines as areas requiring only the placard for the most hazardous materiel present. (2) Removable placards may be used where the class of explosives is subject to change frequently. For buildings of long dimensions, more than one placard per side may be needed. (3) Railroad cars and motor vehicles containing ammunition or explosives destined for off-post transportation must have either fire symbol placards or DOT placards. Once off post, rail cars and vehicles must have DOT placards. Transport vehicles holding small-arms ammunition only do not require DOT placarding, but while on installation, they should be regarded and marked as Fire Division 4 material.
Figure 7. Fire Division symbols b. Fire Divisions are numbered 1 through 4 and are synonymous with Hazard Classes 1.1 through 1.4. The lower the Fire Division number, the greater the hazard. FIRE DIVISION 1: FIRE DIVISION 2: FIRE DIVISION 3: FIRE DIVISION 4: Mass detonation. Examples are: bulk high explosives (TNT, C-4), blasting caps, projectiles, HE, 155mm. Explosion with fragment hazard. Examples are: grenades, WP, hand and rifle; mine, APERS, M16; simulators, M115A2. Mass fire. Examples are: grenades, HC, smoke pots, rocket motors, propellant grains. Moderate fire. Examples are: commercial squibs, cartridge igniter M2, small-arms ammunition.
4. Chemical Hazard Symbols: Chemical Hazard symbols are used in addition to the Fire Division symbols. Their purpose is to alert firefighters of special hazards. Chemical Hazard symbols are posted in addition to Fire Division symbols. They indicate added hazards requiring preparation and precautions in case of fire. See Figure 8, page 12. a. The Chemical Hazard symbols indicate the chemical agent stored in the marked location. They are displayed with the Fire Division symbols. When one of the symbols is displayed, an additional symbol will be displayed that pertains to firefighting only. Figure 9, page 12 lists the chemical agents, protective clothing sets required, and the Chemical Hazard symbol required. 11 MM0151
Figure 8. Chemical Hazard symbols
Figure 9. Chemical agent and fillers contained in ammunition
b. The Chemical Hazard symbols shown in Figure 10 tells the fire-fighters what protective clothing is required. Look closely at Symbol 1, Figure 10. The protective clothing mentioned is indicated by the color of the figure in the center and the color of the outer edge of the symbol. (1) PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SET 1, red figure and rim. Set 1 (Toxicological Agents Protective (TAP) Clothing) is used when fighting fires involving G, VX, H, and L symbols. The following clothing must be worn: • MASK, protective or Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). • SUIT, TAP, M3. • HOOD, TAP, M2. • UNDERGARMENTS. • COVERALLS. • FOOTWEAR, protective. • GLOVES, TAP.
Figure 10. Chemical hazard symbols (firefighting) 13 MM0151
(2) PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SET 2, yellow figure and rim. Set 2 is used when fighting fires involving riot control gases, choking gases or FS/FM smoke symbol. • MASK, protective. • COVERALLS. • GLOVES, rubber. (3) PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SET 3, white figure and rim. Set 3 is used when fighting fires involving white phosphorous and triethyl aluminum (TEA). • MASK, protective. • COVERALLS, flame resistant. • GLOVES, flame resistant. (4) Notes about PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SETS. • If firefighters are equipped with normal heat-resistant bunker suits and SCBA, they do not need Protective Clothing Sets 2 and 3. • Symbol 2, Figure 10 (page 13) requires that firefighters wear a gas mask or SCBA to combat fires in areas so marked. This usually involves incendiary and other readily flammable chemical agents. • Symbol 3, Figure 10 (page 13) means just what it says: "No Water". Use of water on the chemicals so marked could spread the fire or cause an explosion. This usually involves chemicals such as oil based incendiaries, metallic sodium, TEA or aluminum zinc oxide hexachloroethane (HC) smoke. c. See Figure 11 for a classification list of chemical agents that you may be required to store and maintain. Be particularly aware of their compatibility grouping and color coding. 5. Lightning Protection: It is policy to install lightning protection on buildings and structures used for processing, handling, or storing explosives, ammunition, explosive ingredients, and other hazardous materials. a. Approved lightning protection systems are: • Integrally mounted system. • Separately mounted shielding system (mast type). • Separately mounted shielding system (overhead wire type). • Integrally mounted shielding system (mast type).
Figure 11. Storage information and shipping classification for chemical agents
b. Exemptions: (1) In locations where lightning storms occur with an average frequency of less than five per year, lightning protection systems may be omitted from certain specific structures when specifically designated as exceptions. (2) In cases of existing igloo-type magazines without lightning protection, where damage from lightning would not handicap activities essential to the Department of Defense, protective systems need not be erected when specifically exempted by the MACOM, providing metallic ventilators, doors, and reinforcing steel are electrically bonded together and grounded. All future igloo and corbetta type magazines constructed after the publication of TM 9-1300206, Change 10, shall be externally protected. c. Testing. (1) Lightning protection systems will be visually inspected every seven months. (2) Lightning protection systems will be tested for continuity every fourteen months. (3) A record of results from continuity/grounding test will be maintained at the installation. The record will include: (a) Building number, contents and/or use. (b) Date of inspection. (c) Identification of part of system. (d) Resistance (in ohms). (e) Remarks (mechanical condition, nature of soil, etc.). (f) Corrective action taken. PART C - STORAGE OF AMMUNITION 1. Parts A and B provided you with some knowledge of ammunition storage structures and safety. Here, we will discuss the storage of certain types of munitions to familiarize you with some of the hazards involved. As a storage officer, you must ensure that ammunition is stored correctly and that safety precautions are enforced. You must brief your personnel on a continuing basis. Communication is the key to a successful storage operation. 2. The storage (warehousing) of ammunition is the art of using available space, personnel, and equipment to ensure efficient receipt, storage, and issue of ammunition with minimum handling. Our primary emphasis will be in the area of storage or rewarehousing. New storage problems arise constantly and may require changes to storage plans. 3. Storage of Specific Types of Ammunition and Explosives. a. Improved Conventional Munitions (ICM). ICMs may be armed and sensitive to initiation if the cargo is ejected from its container or carrier. All ICM high explosive cartridges and projectiles
should be stored on the perimeter of a storage area. This will minimize contamination of the entire storage area, and expedite explosive ordnance disposal in the event of an incident. Emphasis must be given to blast, unit ejection, and fragment potentials in layout plans, process equipment and operations, storage, disposal and other associated accident prevention considerations. b. Black Powder. Black powder in bulk, saluting, practice-bomb, and smoke-puff charges should be stored in dry magazines. Black powder will never be handled or stored in a barracks, general supply room, inhabited building, or any building heated by stoves or open fires. Safety conductive (non-sparking) shoes will be worn in a magazine containing black powder. No work will be done other than that involved in the actual storage and the removal of spilled grains of black powder. Conductive nonmetallic mats shall be used at location where operations such as repacking black powder are performed. Black powder does not deteriorate in storage if kept dry. Containers of saluting, practice, and smoke-puff charges are stored with tops up. Containers of black powder shall be carefully examined at the time of receipt for weak spots and holes, with special attention to examination for small holes, such as nail punctures, which are not immediately evident. Damaged black powder containers must not be repaired; their contents are transferred to serviceable drums. Condensation may rust the container or corrode the cap. When containers are painted, caps are replaced, or contents are transferred, the following conditions must prevail: (1) The work will be done at least 90 feet from any magazine containing explosives or ammunition. (2) If any black powder is spilled, work will stop until the spillage is carefully taken up and the spot washed with water. The powder taken up will be destroyed by dumping in water and later burning at the explosive burning ground. (3) If tools are required to open a container, only spark-resistant tools will be used. (4) The quantity of powder in the vicinity of operations will be kept to a minimum consistent with safe and efficient operations. (5) Special care will be observed to preserve identity when repainting old containers or transferring the contents to a new container. All the original markings must be transferred to the repainted or new containers. (6) Empty black powder containers may be reused, and may be transported empty provided each container is clean. Empty black powder containers which are not to be reused shall be thoroughly washed out with water and inspected prior to disposition. (7) When sampling or transferring black powder, the containers will be electrically grounded. c. High Explosive Demolition Blocks. These demolition blocks are stable in storage and require only protection from moisture and direct rays of the sun. When handling loose explosives, safety (non-sparking) shoes should be worn. Spark-resistant tools should be used in opening boxes. Material in damaged containers is to be transferred to new boxes at a distance not less than 90 feet from a magazine containing explosives or ammunition. d. Dynamite. (1) Commercial dynamite.
(a) Dynamite is sensitive to heat and shock. It should be stored in fireproof magazines. Spark resistant tools should be used in opening cases. Empty containers that have been used for dynamite will be destroyed by burning. Oily stains of nitroglycerin will be scrubbed up with a mixture of the following solutions: Solution A, Sodium sulfide...9 Parts by weight and water-30 parts by weight. Solution B, Denatured ethyl alcohol...70 parts by weight and acetone-20 parts by weight. Immediately before decontaminating the nitroglycerin, combine the above solutions. If the solutions are mixed and then stored, the potency diminishes in storage. The use of this mixture should be limited to very small quantities such as the oily film that adheres to surfaces after the nitroglycerin has been removed with sponges or absorbed in wood pulp or sawdust. Operators using this solution should wear rubber gloves. (b) Store cases of commercial dynamite initially right side up, so cartridges will lie flat. However, in order to eliminate the possibility of exudation of nitroglycerin from the cartridges of straight dynamite 60 percent or over in strength, it will be necessary to turn the cases, based on average storage temperature, in accordance with the following: Average storage temperature Below 30° F. 30° to 60° F 60° to 75° F Over 75° F. Interval between turnings Do not turn Every 4 months Every 3 months Every 6 weeks
(c) The first turning will result in the cases being bottom side up, with the cartridges still in a horizontal position. Frozen dynamite will not be turned. With the exception of straight dynamite, 60 percent and over in nitroglycerin strength, other types of dynamite ammonia, ammonia-gelatin, and gelatin need not be turned in storage. However, yearly, at the conclusion of the year's warmest season, a representative sample will be selected and the containers examined for evidence of nitroglycerin on the exterior of the cartridge and/or packing materials. (2) Military dynamite. Dynamite, M1, is for general use as medium velocity blasting explosive to replace 60 percent commercial dynamites in military construction, quarrying, and demolition work. Dynamite, M1, is packaged in paraffin-coated cylindrical paper cartridges having a nominal diameter of 1-1/4 inches and nominal length of 8 inches. Dynamite, Ml, unlike commercial dynamite, contains no nitroglycerin and will not freeze in cold nor exude in hot weather. The composition does not absorb or retain moisture. Shipping containers do not require turning in storage. Safety in transportation, storage, and handling is better than that of 60 percent commercial dynamite. e. Bulk Solid Propellant and Separate-Loading Propelling Charges. (1) Propellant should be stored in magazines which are well ventilated and dry. Bulk solid propellant is packed in steel or metal-lined boxes, or in fiber drums, which are stored in accordance with approved ammunition storage drawings. (2) The method of storing propelling charges and bulk propellant in boxes is shown on approved ammunition drawings. When containers of large caliber charges are stored on their sides, provision must be made to prevent the weight of the upper layers crushing the containers in the lower. MM0151 18
(3) Containers should be stored so the cover can be readily inspected or removed, to allow containers to be air tested in storage. Threaded sections of spider-lid closures should be inspected and maintained in a serviceable condition. (4) Solid propellant in bulk or in separate-loading charges is packed in airtight containers for storage. It is important that such containers remain airtight until the propellant is used. When damaged or leaking containers are discovered, an examination of the contents shall be made for the nitrous/nitric odor of decomposing propellant. If any such conditions are observed, the propellant shall be segregated or disposed of in accordance with current instructions. Propellants and propelling charges in containers should be stored so that they can be readily inspected. They shall not be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. When a shipment is received, every container is given a visual inspection to see that it is not damaged and that the cover is in good condition and tight. (5) Metal containers for propelling charges are fitted with a test hole and plug in the cover so that they can be tested for air-tightness after the containers have been opened and closed. A pressure of 3 to 5 pounds is used. If no drop in pressure is observed in 10 seconds it may be assumed the container is not leaking. A motor-driven air-compressor will not be taken into a magazine in which explosives or ammunition are stored. If the compressor is driven by a gasoline motor, the motor should be placed no closer than 50 feet to the magazine or to any explosive material. An electrically continuous path to ground shall be maintained between the supply tank and container being tested. The entire system shall be grounded prior to testing. (6) The normal odor in a solid propellant magazine is a faint odor of alcohol-ether. If this odor is strong, it probably indicates a leaky container. Every leaking container will be repaired or the contents transferred to an airtight container. If the contents of any container show evidence of dampness or moisture, it should be segregated and reported. Leaks due to covers or gaskets may be repaired without removing the charge from the container or the container from the magazine, provided care is taken to guard against sparks. Repair of leaks in other parts of the container will be undertaken only after the removal of the charge from the container and the container from the magazine. Containers found unserviceable should have the charge removed and placed into an appropriately marked serviceable container. The empty unserviceable container must be tagged, then it may be left in the stack until time of the shipment or restorage. (7) Personnel engaged in air testing must become familiar with the odor and appearance of decomposing propellant. They should examine each container opened for air test for the characteristic odor. One of the first evidences of dangerous deterioration is the presence of the acrid odor of nitrous/nitric fumes in place of the normally present odor of alcohol-ether. The odor of decomposing propellant is so characteristic that it cannot be mistaken for the normally present odor. (8) Fiber containers of propelling charges are not usually opened unless they are damaged. If damaged, the charge should be transferred to a serviceable container. Fiber containers are not normally repaired. (9) Metal containers may rust. They may be repainted but must be removed from the magazine to do so. Care must be taken to reproduce the original markings whenever containers are repainted or changed. (10) Some fine-grain solid propellants that contain high percentages of nitroglycerin are almost as sensitive as black powder-equal precautions shall be observed. The principal safety 19 MM0151
measure in regard to solid propellants, however, is the careful watch for deterioration. Inspection schedules must be maintained to assure that deterioration will be detected in the early stages. f. Small-Arms Ammunition. (1) Small-arms ammunition except HE, HE-I, and incendiary rounds may be stored in any magazine or warehouse which offers good protection against weather and pilferage. When magazine space is limited, it may be stored in a general warehouse by partitioning or screening off a section for its exclusive use. (2) Small-arms ammunition packed in boxes fitted with airtight metal liners should not have these liners opened until the ammunition is about to be used. When only a part of a box is issued, the remaining ammunition in the box should be protected against unauthorized handling and use by firmly fastening the cover in place. Serviceable ammunition turned in by troops should not be stored in open boxes. It should be repacked for storing and reissued at the first opportunity, provided it can be identified by lot number. For ammunition not identifiable by lot number, see SB 742-1 for issue provision. (3) Boxed small arms ammunition shall not be used as barricades or dividing walls between stacks of other types of ammunition. g. Fixed and Semifixed Ammunition, Grenades, Antipersonnel Mines, and Motor Cartridges. (1) These items may be stored in any magazine with good protection from the weather. Preferably, they should be stored in fireproof or fire-resistant magazines to minimize the danger of fire or explosion. Most of the standard boxes in which this type of ammunition is packed are provided with cleats. Boxes without cleats may be stacked with dunnage to insure free circulation of air. In either case, dunnage must be used to increase stability of the stack. Fixed and semifixed ammunition is usually packed in individual fiber containers, which are then packed in wooden ammunition boxes. If the ammunition is not removed from these sealed containers until used, it should remain in good condition. Serviceable rounds which have been removed from their containers shall be packed in serviceable containers before they are placed in storage. This will protect the round against deterioration and the primer against accidental blows. (2) It is sound policy to mix quantities of different sizes and types in each of several magazines rather than to store only one kind in each magazine. For example, you may have a sufficient quantity of 90mm high explosive rounds to fill one magazine, and enough 90mm HEAT rounds for another. Rather than store all high-explosive rounds in one magazine and all HEAT rounds in another, it is better storage practice to store half of each type in each magazine. Thus, in case of damage to one magazine, there is still a supply of both types of ammunition on hand. h. Separate-loading Projectiles. (1) Separate-loading and unfixed projectiles should be stored in fireproof magazines containing a minimum of flammable materials. Iron or steel dunnage is preferred to wood. For storage in other than igloo-type magazines it should be connected by electrical conductors and grounded. If it is necessary to use wood for dunnage, the amount should be kept to an absolute minimum. (2) Unfuzed projectiles should be fitted with eyebolt lifting plugs. If it is necessary to move a fizzed projectile, it should not be rolled. This will avoid the risk of arming or damaging the fuze. MM0151 20
(3) The rotating band on all projectiles should be protected by grommets or other effective means. Dents or cuts in the band may cause the projectile to function improperly in the weapon. (4) Palletized projectiles will be stacked in accordance with approved drawings. i. Bombs and Warheads. General Purpose (GP) bombs and warheads have comparatively thin walls. They have a tendency to detonate "en mass" if a fire occurs in, or if a heated fragment is projected into the magazine in which they are stored. Safety can be obtained only by eliminating the possibility of fire and strictly enforcing fire prevention practices. Bombs should be stored in a fireproof magazine. When wood is used for dunnage, the amount should be kept to a minimum. For storage in other than approved earth-covered magazines, steel dunnage should be connected (bonded) by electrical connectors and grounded. A ground system separate from the lighting protective system of the magazine should be provided if feasible. Bombs not intended for immediate shipment should be stored as above. Warheads must be stored in their containers right side up. All bombs should be stacked so that the fuze cavity can be easily inspected. Fragmentation and SAP bombs are stored in the same manner as GP bombs. Bomb fuzes and primer-detonators will be stored in a separate magazine. j. Fuzes, Safe and Arming Devices, Primers, Primer-Detonators, Detonators, and Boosters. These components are usually packed in hermetically sealed containers and boxes. Care should be taken in packing to see that they are properly supported in racks or trays and protected against shock and/or rough handling. Even when properly packed, this class of components should be handled with great care. Partly filled boxes will be kept securely closed. Magazines for storage of fuzes should be small to limit the loss of this type of material. The quantity of fuzes, primers, etc., stored in any one magazine should be kept to a minimum consistent with the storage space available. Storage of all on hand of any one type item in a single magazine is to be avoided if possible. k. Pyrotechnics. (1) Pyrotechnics require protection against moisture, dampness, and high temperature. It is recognized that it will be impossible to always provide magazine storage under all circumstances. Pyrotechnic items must be given high priority for the best available protection because of their sensitivity. Dry, well-ventilated magazines of approved fireretardant construction will be used for this storage when available. Except those magazines used solely for storage of Class 1 material or finished boxed pyrotechnic ammunition, magazines should not be provided with interior illumination other than through the use of portable safety battery lamps approved for the location involved. Pyrotechnic material that has been wet can be hazardous to store. Any boxes that show signs of dampness will be removed from the storage site, opened IAW the approved SOP, and if the pyrotechnic material is wet, it shall be properly destroyed. Pyrotechnics should be handled with care even when properly packed. Certain kinds of pyrotechnic material deteriorate with age, and may have an expiration date on the containers. Care should be taken to observe the directions for disposal of this material at the time indicated. Loose pyrotechnic tracer composition, flare composition, and similar mixtures that have spilled from broken containers should be carefully cleaned up by knowledgeable personnel and covered completely with SAE 10 (E0-10) engine oil. Then take the material to the explosives burning ground for destruction. (2) Loaded assemblies shall not be stored in operating buildings except for the minimum quantities necessary to supply the operations. Measures will be taken to insure that the service supply is not exposed to an incident which may occur during an assembly operation. 21 MM0151
1. Rockets and Rocket Motors. (1) Whenever practicable, rockets and rocket motors that are in a propulsive state should be stored nose down. Small rockets and missiles may be stored in standard earth-covered magazines without regard to direction in which they are pointed, except that they will not be pointed toward the door of the magazine. If not in a propulsive state, any rocket, rocket motor, or missile may be stored in any magazine without regard to the direction in which they are pointed. (2) In aboveground magazines where nose-down storage is not practicable, items (in a propulsive state) shall be pointed in the direction which offers the least exposure to personnel and property in the event of fire or explosion. (3) Rockets should be stored in a dry cool magazine, out of the direct rays of the sun. They should not be stored in locations where temperatures exceed 120 degrees F. Prolonged exposure of rocket ammunition to either high or low temperatures may increase the normal rate of deterioration or render the motors more susceptible to ignition if handled improperly. (4) Since rocket motors are normally ignited by electrical means, care must be exercised to protect rockets from being ignited by stray electrical currents. (5) Because rockets are self-propelled, the safety requirements for their storage are more stringent than for any other type of ammunition. Rockets stored in other than earth-covered magazines should be stored on the side of an ammunition storage area rather than between other types of magazines, and as far as practicable from other types of ammunition. Each stack of rockets containing the motor element will consist of single rows per tier; smaller caliber rockets must have barricades facing the front of the rockets to insure that, if the motors are ignited, the rockets will strike a strong artificial or natural barrier of not less than 3 feet of sand or earth. Large caliber free flight rockets must be stored on well drained land, stacked on dunnage (at least 6 inches above ground level) and covered by tarpaulins with sufficient room for adequate ventilation between the tarpaulins and the stack. 4. Inert Ammunition. Dummy or inert ammunition should not be stored in magazines with live or practice ammunition if other storage space is available. If it is necessary to store inert ammunition with live or practice ammunition, it will be segregated and identified clearly. 5. Chemical Munitions. Chemical agents include lethal, riot control, incapacitating agents, smoke producing agents, incendiaries, and pyrotechnic compounds related to the dissemination of these agents. Chemical munitions include a variety of items, the effects of which depend primarily upon the chemical agent with which they are filled rather than explosion or fragmentation, even though they may contain explosive elements or pyrotechnic materials to activate them. a. Chemical Agents. For purposes of storing and handling, chemical agents have been divided into groups, as defined below, based on the action of the agent, the degree and type of hazard, and the type of protection required. (1) Chemical Group A shall include highly toxic liquid agents, which in either liquid or vapor form, may be absorbed through the respiratory tract, the skin, or the eyes (e.g., nerve agent, mustard). Exposure to Chemical Group A agents may cause death or serious damage to body functions, depending on the degree of exposure. Protection from these agents requires that full coverage, impermeable protective clothing and protective mask be worn. MM0151 22
(2) Chemical Group B (e.g., Phosgene, CN, CN-DM, BZ, CS, HC, etc.) shall include chemical agents (gaseous, liquids, or solids) which are toxic or incapacitating by inhalation, ingestion or percutaneous absorption. A suitable protective mask is required for the protection of personnel against inhalation of vapors, particles, or smoke from burning agents. Since these agents will cause varying degrees of skin irritation, approved types of protective clothing (such as coveralls, protective masks, gloves, etc.) shall be provided and worn. This group consists of choking agents, blood agents, riot control agents, and screening smokes. (3) Chemical Group C shall include materials which are spontaneously combustible (WP and PWP) and for which special fire fighting techniques and materials are required. Personnel protection will be of the type that will provide protection against fire and heat. Toxic fumes are a minimal hazard. (4) Chemical Group D consists of signaling smokes and incendiary material (e.g., TH, IM, NP, PTI) for which conventional fire fighting methods except use of water may be used. Protection from inhalation of smoke from burning incendiary mixtures is required. b. Chemical Munitions. The same group designation as is used for agents shall be used for chemical munitions. The chemical and storage compatibility groups of the munition item shall be the same as that of the chemical agent contained within the item. c. Storage Requirements. The fencing and security requirements for any structure or storage area must meet the criteria outlined in AR 50-6 and AR 190-11. (1) Bulk containers of GB and VX agents and agent-filled items assembled with explosives and/or propellants shall be stored in earth-covered magazines or other structures which could be expected to offer a degree of protection and containment in the event of an accident. (2) Bulk one-ton containers of mustard (H series) agents may be stored out of doors on steel dunnage if they are properly secured and if measures have been taken to prevent theft of agent. The detailed procedures required for securing containers and preventing theft of agent are available from AMCSS. (3) Incendiary and pyrotechnic munitions (including riot control items designed for thermal dissemination) - Smoke grenades, riot control grenades, and incendiary items shall be stored in structures appropriate to their explosive classification as determined in Chapter 5 of TM 9-1300-206. (4) Unassembled rounds -Projectiles, bombs, or other items filled with agents, but not assembled with explosives or initiating components, shall be stored in approved type magazines. (5) Table 4-2 of TM 9-1300-206 (see Figure 11, page 15) provides storage information and shipping classifications. For additional information, see TM 3-250. d. General Requirements. (1) Chemical munitions or agents shall not be stored in magazines with floors which are made of wood or other porous material in which agent may be absorbed, making decontamination difficult. 23 MM0151
(2) Lightning protection - Magazines and open areas used for storage of chemical munitions shall be equipped with lightning protection. Lightning protection need not be provided for outdoor storage of ton containers. (3) Bulk containers of H series agents, which are stored outdoors, shall be positioned on steel rails or steel dunnage supported by wooden railroad crossties or steel plates. The containers will be positioned over crushed stone, gravel, or porous earth surfaces to minimize atmosphere contamination in the event of leakage. (4) Storage arrangement - The storage arrangement for munitions shall be such that munitions may be easily inspected and single items or storage units may be removed easily. e. Outdoor Storage Requirements. When it is necessary to temporarily store chemical Group B and C munitions outdoors, prior approval must be obtained from the major command on a case by case basis. The munitions should be covered with tarpaulins to protect them from the direct rays of the sun and from exposure to the elements except where the container itself affords reasonable protection. Munitions will be stacked to permit free circulation of air. Covering tarpaulins should be supported in a manner to permit free flow of air under the tarpaulins. Chemical Groups A and D will not be stored out of doors, except as stated in paragraph 5.c above. f. Magazine Storage Requirements. Magazines containing chemical group A or B items with explosive bursters require intermagazine separation based on net explosive weight. Bulk Chemical Group A and B agents and class 6.1 (agent-filled, not containing explosives) require a minimum separation distance of 50 feet between each storage magazine, building, or storage pad. g. Handling of Unserviceable Items. (1) Reporting of leaking or unserviceable items. Leaking or damaged chemical items shall be reported immediately to the supervisor of the storage area. The supervisor will initiate procedures to process the material toward disposition or correction, and accomplish appropriate reporting procedures. (2) Processing of unserviceable items. When damaged, leaking or otherwise unserviceable items are discovered, they shall be marked immediately for identification. These items will be removed from the storage area promptly, if practicable. If immediate disposition is not practicable, then leaking munitions should be contained and segregated in a structure or area reserved for storage of such defective items. (3) Disposal. Chemical agents in bulk form and munitions containing agents, with or without explosives, will not be disposed of by burial or dumping into waterways. Production equipment, munitions, and other items which have been contaminated with chemical warfare agents will not be disposed of or released for sale as scrap until they have been thoroughly decontaminated and certified as being free of agents and/or explosives. h. Personal Protective Equipment. (1) Protective masks. Each individual who is involved in operations with chemical items shall be properly fitted with a protective mask, which will be assigned to him and for which he will be held responsible. MM0151 24
(2) Protective clothing and equipment. Personal protective equipment such as impermeable protective clothing, self contained breathing apparatus, coveralls, gloves, aprons, boots, etc., will be issued according to the needs established by the SOPs for individual operations or for emergencies. (3) Storage and inspection of protective equipment. Personal protective equipment shall be placed at a location which will permit immediate access for use. A list showing the quantity and type of equipment required to be on hand shall be posted at this location. Centrally located protective equipment shall be inspected prior to and after each use, and on a regularly scheduled basis thereafter. Equipment that becomes unserviceable shall be replaced promptly. i. First Aid. Appropriate first aid and decontamination equipment shall be readily available at each work site. Each employee shall be instructed in the use of this equipment. For further information on first aid measures, refer to FM 21-11 and FM 21-40. j. Change Houses. Change houses and showering facilities, either stationary or mobile, shall be provided at the work area. Personnel shall be required to wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling chemical munitions, particularly before eating. k. Disposition of Defective Munitions. Destruction of chemical agents will be accomplished in accordance with requirements outlined in regulations for the specific type of agent involved. As a matter of policy, open pit burning of lethal or incapacitating chemical agent or agent-filled munitions in any quantity is prohibited. Further information on methods for destroying large quantities of chemical agents and munitions shall be obtained, through channels, from the Commander, US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command, ATTN: AMSMC-MAS-C, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD 21010-5423. l. Packing, Marking, and Shipping. Chemical agents, munitions, and components shall be packed, marked, and prepared for shipment in accordance with current drawings and specifications for the item involved. In addition, all applicable DOT regulations governing the shipment of chemical agents and munitions shall be observed. m. Specific Storage Procedures. Due to the unique characteristics of chemical munitions, separate storage is required for each of the four chemical groups A, B, C, and D to preclude mixing with each other or with other dissimilar materials. Each group of chemical munitions require different personal protective equipment. (1) By now, you should have a good understanding of chemical munitions and the hazards involved in storage. Chemical munitions have not been deployed since World War II. Currently the Army's stockpile of chemical munitions are stored at various distribution depots. Over the years since World War II, there has been a demilitarization program to reduce to the nation's inventory of chemical munitions. Increased technology has produced new weapons and the end of the Cold War provides an avenue for total destruction of all chemical stocks. (2) In order to destroy chemical stocks, the Army must build chemical incinerators at key locations. Public concern has caused the Army's program for destruction to come under attack. Some states have enacted restrictive legislation that could prevent or delay construction of incinerators. The prevention or delaying tactics will only increase the cost of maintaining the stockpile. 6. Unserviceable Ammunition. Unserviceable ammunition comes from normal deterioration and from defects inherent in manufacture. Improper storage, handling, or transporting can also cause 25 MM0151
ammunition to become unserviceable. Shipments of ammunition received from other supply installations should be inspected for unserviceable items. When it is not possible to inspect unit turnins at the time of receipt, they should be stored in a segregated area for later inspection. Ammunition handlers must be trained to recognize indications of unserviceability and report them for inspection. a. Ammunition in a hazardous condition shall be segregated both for safety reasons and to minimize rehandling. Suspended stocks of ammunition will be clearly marked, and both lotlocation and magazine data cards posted to preclude issue. b. Hazardous ammunition items must not be stored with serviceable ammunition. Suspect and hazardous ammunition shall be segregated and stored separately from serviceable ammunition. c. Unserviceable ammunition should be reported to the supporting Materiel Management Center (MMC) for disposition instructions. The Ammunition Condition Report (DA Form 2415) is used for this purpose. Ammunition that has been abandoned by using units is treated as unserviceable until it has been inspected, and determined to be safe to handle. Hazardous ammunition should be reported through proper channels to the installation commander, so that orders can be issued to dispose of the ammunition. The commanding officer will report the action taken to the next higher headquarters. 7. In this lesson we covered ammunition storage requirements, ammunition storage area safety, and the actual storage of specific types of ammunition. You have now completed the lesson. Now it is time for a Practice Exercise to use the knowledge you gained from the lesson. Once you complete the Practice Exercise satisfactorily, proceed to the subcourse Examination.
LESSON PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Situation: You have been tasked with determining requirements for the storage of various types of ammunition. 1. What type of storage magazine is the best and safest type of storage facility? A. B. C. D. Aboveground magazine. Outdoor storage. Earth-covered magazine. Primer or fuze magazine.
2. Which of the following is required to be installed on diesel and gasoline powered vehicles operating closer than 25 feet to a structure or magazine? A. B. C. D. Fire hazard marker. Safety lights. Heat producing equipment. Spark arresters.
3. As a minimum, how many feet wide must fire breaks be around aboveground magazines? A. B. C. D. 25. 50. 75. 100.
4. As a guide to firefighters, ammunition is divided into how many fire divisions? A. B. C. D. Four. Three. Two. One.
5. When the average storage temperature is above 75 degrees Fahrenheit, how often should stored commercial dynamite be turned? A. B. C. D. Every 6 weeks. Every 3 months. Every 4 months. Every 5 months. 27 MM0151
6. What does symbol number 1 in Figure 8 indicate? A. B. C. D. H-Type mustard agents. Lewsite. G-Type nerve agents. VX nerve agent.
7. How often should the magazine's lightning protection system be visually inspected? A. B. C. D. Every seven months. Every fourteen months. Every two years. Every three years. At which of the following
8. Most planographs are drawings of the magazine's floor space. increments is the floor space measured? A. B. C. D. 6 feet. 5 feet. 4 feet. 3 feet.
9. How often should fire drills be conducted within an ammunition storage area? A. B. C. D. Annually. Biweekly. Semi-annually. Biennial.
10. Which of the following chemical munitions do not require lightning protection when stored outside? A. B. C. D. Chemical Group D. WP and PWP. GB and VX agents. Ton containers.
11. Chemical Group C contains what type items? A. B. C. D. Signaling smokes and incendiaries. Toxic liquid agents. Toxic solid agents. Spontaneously combustible material.
12. Which of the following is the appropriate storage criteria for suspect and hazardous ammunition? A. B. C. D. MM0151 Should be stored with priority issue ammunition. Shall be segregated and stored separately from serviceable ammunition. Shall be segregated and stored with serviceable ammunition. Should be destroyed immediately and followup report provided to higher headquarters. 28
13. Which of the following should rocket motors be protected from? A. B. C. D. Stray electrical currents. Hazard markers. Free flight rockets. Low temperature.
LESSON PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. 2. Correct Answer and Feedback C. Earth-covered magazine. Earth-covered magazines are the best and safest type of storage facility (page 2, para 1a). D. Spark arresters. Diesel and gasoline powered vehicles operating closer than 25' to a structure or magazine will be equipped with properly installed spark arresters (page 9, para 2b(5)). B. 50. Firebreaks will be at least 50' wide, free of flammable material, and maintained around aboveground magazines and storage pads (page 9, para 2b(3)). A. Four. As a guide to firefighters, ammunition and explosives are divided into four classes (page 10, para 3). A. Every 6 weeks. Above 75° F, turn commercial dynamite every 6 weeks (page 18, para 3d(1)(b)). C. G-Type nerve agents (page 12, Figure 8). A. Every seven months. Lightning protection system will be visually inspected every seven (7) months (page 16, para 5c(1)). B. 5 feet. Measured in increments of five feet (page 7, Figure 6). C. Semi-annually. Fire drills involving all personnel should be held semi-annually (page 10, para 2d). D. Ton containers. Lightning protection need not be provided for outdoor storage of ton containers (page 24, para 5d(2)). D. Spontaneously combustible items. Chemical Group C shall include materials which are spontaneously combustible ... (page 23, para 5.a(3)) B. Shall be segregated and stored separately form serviceable ammunition. Suspect and hazardous ammunition shall be segregated and stored separately form serviceable ammunition (page 26, para 6.b). A. Stray electrical currents. ...care must be exercised to protect rockets from being ignited by stray electrical currents. (page 22, para 3.1.(4)). 30
5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10.
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