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Retaining Wall Design Example

1/8

**Design a reinforced concrete retaining wall for the following conditions. f'c = 3000 psi fy = 60 ksi
**

HT = 18 ft

surcharge = qs = 400

psf

Fill: φ = 32o Unit wt = 100 pcf

tf wtoe tstem wheel Natural Soil: φ = 32o allowable bearing pressure = 5000psf

Development of Structural Design Equations. In this example, the structural design of the three retaining wall components is performed by hand. Two equations are developed in this section for determining the thickness & reinforcement required to resist the bending moment in the retaining wall components (stem, toe and heel). Equation to calculate effective depth, d: Three basic equations will be used to develop an equation for d.

M u = φM n a⎞ ⎛ M n = As f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ a⎞ ⎛ M u = φAs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ [ Eqn 1] 2⎠ ⎝ C = T , 0.85 f c' a b = As f y As = 0.85 f c' ab fy [ Eqn 2]

strain compatibility :

0.003 ε s + 0.003 a 0.003 = , = β1 a / β1 d d ε s + 0.003

**Assuming β1 = 0.85, εs 0.005 0.00785 0.010
**

a = 0.235, a = 0.235 d d

a/d 0.319 0.235 0.196

**and choosing a value for εs in about the middle of the practical design range,
**

[ Eqn 3]

the top-of-wall elevation is determined by the client. and b = 12in (1-foot-wide strip of wall. tf ≈7% to 10% HT (12" minimum) Tf = 0. 2. in the direction out of the paper). Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 2/8 Substituting Eqn. The area of reinforcement required is calculated from Eqn.71 in d 2 Equation for area of reinforcement.883d = 0. Univ.90 As 60 ksi 0.CE 437/537. 1: M u = φ As f y 0. As.85) 3ksi (12 in )(0.235)(0. Texas) 1. Estimate thickness of base.07 (18' x 12"/') = 15. k M u = 0.883)d 2 M u = 5. The bottom-of-wall elevation is determined by foundation conditions.1" use tf = 16" .85 c ab ⎟ f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ f 2⎠ y ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ And substituting Eqn. HT = 18 feet. Usually. 2 into Eqn.883 d M u = 47. 3 into the above: M u = φ 0. Determine HT.235d b f y ⎜ d − ⎟ fy 2 ⎠ ⎝ 0.883d Inserting the material properties: f'c = 3 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. 1: ⎛ f' ⎞ ⎛ a⎞ M u = φ ⎜ 0.235 d ⎞ ⎛ 0.85 f c' 0.7 ksi As d Design Procedure (after Phil Ferguson.90(0.

9 k − ft 3 2 k in 5. acted on by the horizontal earth pressure. ( assume #8 bars ) 2 in in in d = 15 − 2 − 0.CE 437/537.6)(4310 lb )( ) + (1. 67 16 .0 in ) = 14.3in . Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 3/8 3.9 k − ft (12 use t stem = 15in .31)(100 pcf )(16.31 1 + sin φ 1 + sin( 32 o ) 1 (0. h = 8 – 16 /12 ft h =16. The stem is a vertical cantilever beam. Design stem (tstem.5 = 12.71 in d 2 .67 ft )(1 ft ) = 2070 lb h h M u = ( Earth Pressure LoadFactor)( Pfill )( ) + ( Live LoadFactor)(Psur )( ) 3 2 ft ft 16 .67 ft in in/ft h tf = 16in wtoe tstem wheel ka γ h ka qs calc. 67 M u = (1.8in + 2 in cover + (1. Asstem).71 Mu = d2 k in ) = 5.31 ( 400 psf )(16.6)(2070 lb )( ) = 65. d = 11.67 ft ) 2 (1 ft ) = 4310 lb 2 Pfill = Psur = k a q sur h (1 ft ) = 0.5in 65. d: Pfill = 1 ( k a γ h ) h (1 ft out of page) 2 1 − sin φ 1 − sin( 32 o ) ka = = = 0.8in ft 1 t stem = 11.

Use a key to force sliding failure to occur in the soil (soil-to-soil has higher friction angle than soil-to-concrete). Neglect soil resistance in front of the wall.31 × 100 pcf )(18 ft ) 2 (1 ft ) = 5020 lb 2 = (0.5in ).7 ksi As d 65.79 use #8 @ 6 in 4. Choose Heel Width. As = 1.67 ft )( W found lb wheel ft 12 in + 15in 1 ft (1 ft ) = 2810 lb in 2 12 ) 16 15 = (150 pcf )( ft )( wheel + ft + 3 ft )(1 ft ) = 200 plf wheel + 850 12 12 Fsliding = Pfill + Psur Pfill = Psur 1 (0. Fresist = Fsliding FS FS = Factor of Safety = 1. wheel Select wheel to prevent sliding.67 ft )( wheel )(1 ft ) = 1670 Wstem = (150 pcf )(16. 2 ft bar in 1.7 ksi As (12.31 × 400 psf )(18 ft )(1 ft ) = 2230 lb Fsliding = 5020 lb + 2230 lb = 7250 lb .5 for sliding set Fresist = WT (tan φnatural soil ) tan φnatural soil = tan(32 o ) = 0.79 in 2 in 2 in in bar 12 = 7.33 in 2 ft As of one #8 bar = 0.13 .9 k − ft (12 in ) = 47.33 ft of wall 0.62 WT = W fill + Wstem + W found 15in 18 ft 12in Fresist = (Vertical Force)(coefficient of friction) tf = 16in W fill = (100 pcf )(16. As: M u = 47.CE 437/537. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 4/8 calc.

75 ft + W found ( ) 2 = (1. OK M over 50.62 ft use wheel = 7.875 ft − M = 50.81k )(3.20klf × 7.2 k − ft 12in 18 ft M resist = W fill ( M resist 7. σ v at end of toe = WT = W fill + Wstem WT M L + .125 ft ) + 2.5 ft + 0.5 ft + − 5.75 ft L ft = = 1 .5 lb 7250lb = 3660lb + 1870 wheel .2 k − ft = = 2. = = 1.53k 2.42 ft .875 ft ) 12. 0. 68 .85k )(5.2 k − ft 7.96 ft .5 ft 5. ∴ e < . assume wtoe = 3 ft 2 12 1. Check Overturning.0 = FSover .35 k = 17.875 ft ) + W found (0) 2 2 − 12.81k ( 2.5 1. M over = P fill ( M over 18 ft 18 ft ) + Psur ( ) 3 2 = 5.25 ft ) = 29.CE 437/537.5 ft 15 + ft + 3 ft ).5' 11.25 ft ) + Wstem (7.69 k M = M over − W fill (5.02 k (6 ft ) + 2.67 klf × 7.23k (9 ft ) = 50.2 k − ft M resist 124. OK k WT 6 6 6 17.35k tf = 16in M resist = 124.5 ft )(8 ft ) + ( 2.53k ( 2. equation is valid only if e < bL bL2 6 6 + W found WT = 12.9 k − ft Check that e < L/6: e= m 29.45 k + 2. wheel = 7.69 .62) ⎦ 7250lb = ⎣ 1.81k + 2.47 > 2.25 ft + Wstem (3 ft + ) 2 3' 15" 7.5 ft 1.2 k − ft 6.9 k − ft L 11.625 ft ) + (0. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 5/8 ⎡ lb lb lb lb ⎤ ⎢1670 ft wheel + 2810 + 200 ft wheel + 850 ⎥(0. Check Bearing.

7 ksi As (21.5 in in 81.9 in for shear.0in for flexure ft in M u = 5.5 ft in wu L2 2.6 k φVc = (0. 21.75) 2 3000 psi (12 in ) d . Heel Design.0 k − ft 2 2 k 2 d in in k 81. 2 Reinforcement in heel: M u = 47.88klf (7.2(100 pcf )(16. Max.07in 2 ft in 2 0. Flexure: W = Wheel + W fill + Wsur W = 1.71 d 2 .5 ft ) = 21.7 ksi As d use t heel = 21. load on heel is due to the weight of heel + fill + surcharge as the wall tries to tip over.600lb = (0. 1 t heel = 21.0 k − ft (12 ) = 5.CE 437/537.2(150 pcf )( + 1. ft in 2 1.67 ft )(1 ft ) Vu Mu wu 16 7.79 bar (12 in ) = 8. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 29.88 Mu = klf 16 ft )(1 ft ) 12 + 1. d = 21.83 in .75) 2 3000 psi (12 in ) d setVu = φVc .69 k (1 )(11.80 ksf < 5.88 klf (7.0 k − ft (12 ) = 47.75 ft ) 2 6 6/8 σv = 17.9 k − ft 1 ft (1 )(11.5 ft ) 2 = = 81. controls Shear controls the thickness of the heel.9 in ). As = 1.5 ft ) = 2.07 ft use #8 @ 8" . d = 13.9 in + 2 in cover + in = 24.71 Shear: Vu = wu (7.75) 2 f c' bw d = (0.0 ksf = allowable bearing capacity.75 ) ft ft + = 2. OK 7.4 in (assume #8 bar ).6( 400 plf ) W = 2.

74 ksf 11.82 ksf A B C σ vC = 2.00 ksf )(3 ft )(1 ft )( 3 ft ) = 19. d = 6.71 d for shear: Assume theel = ttoe = 21.74 ksf − 0.6(0.5in for flexure ft in M u = 5. d for flexure controls .24 ksf ft 12 11.74 ksf + 4.0k − ft + (1 ft )(11.82 ksf + 4.74 ksf − 1.5' M u = 1.5" – 3"cover-1/2"=18" σ vcritical sec tion = 0.6 (Wsur ) σv = Wu = 1.78ksf σ vB = 0.c.125 ft ) + 2.53k + 2.25' 7. Earth Pressure at Tip of Toe: Wu Mu ± bL 1 2 bL 6 Wu = 1.75 Vu = 1 18 ( 4.71 d 2 .2(Wsoil × 2.2 k − ft ) − 1.0k − ft [ ] σv = σ vA 32.82 ksf (8.96ksf = 0.CE 437/537.78 + 1.2 12.74 ksf − 0.81k (1 ft ) = 45.7 k .4 ksf )(18 ft )(1 ft ) = 32.6(50.6 M over − 1.75 ft ) = 3. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 7/8 8.82 ksf + 4.8k − ft (12 ) = 5.75 ft d for flexure: M u = (3.24 ksf )(3 ft − ft )(1 ft ) = 6.53k ( 2.750lb > Vu .2(W fill + Wstem + W found ) + 1.0 ft ) 3' 1.2(12.82 ksf 18 (8. OK .75 ft ) 1 (1 ft )(11.8k − ft 2 2 3 k 2 d in in k 19.7 k 45.75 ft ) 2 6 ksf = 2.125 ft + Wstem × 1.5in Critical section for shear occurs at "d" from face of stem.74 ksf )(3 ft )(1 ft )( 3 ft 1 2 ) + (1.35k ) + 1.81k + 2.74 k 2 12 φVc = (.75)2 3000 psi (12in )(18in ) = 17. neglible change) M u = 1. (did not recalc foundation wt b.75 ft + ft ) = 4. Toe Design. d = 21.96ksf = 4.

7 ksi As d 19. say #4 ft in 2 0.28 in 2 ft in 2 bar (12 in ) = 33in .28 ft use #4 @ 8" 0. try smaller bars .79 in ) = 47.20 in 2 bar (12 in ) = 8.CE 437/537.28 ft .7 ksi As (18in ).8k − ft (12 0. As = 0.6in ft in 2 0. Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 8/8 Reinforcement in toe: M u = 47.

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