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E* ® ¬  Q¬G¬ B »R» 2 y \ h { - T1 h-1 or h { T T2 } } } x } 3 h+1 h Insert a node into T 3 so as to increase height of T 3 y \\ } } } x h{ \ T1 h-1 or h { T2 T } 3 h+2 h+1 LeftRotate (T. !# 3A .y) x - y T h { T1 T2 3 } h+1 } h-1 or h Height of tree = h + 2   !#" $'& $ ( 1?"2!?<# 3 A  68%: <>!#" "21 (  " T.

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)!? 3 y x h h-1 T1 h+1 T2 T3 h Deletion of element decreases the height of T1. E* ® ¬  Q¬G¬ B »R»  2 y x h T1 w h+3 h+1 T4 h.1 or h T2 h h-1 or h T3 Double Rotation w - y x h+1 T1 T2 T3 T4  !#"%$'& '( 1#" !?<>3   A698. Left Rotate ( T. violating the AVL property. y) x y T3 h-1 T1 h T2   !#" $'& '( "20" <# 3 R  68%: <>!#" "21 (  2" .:=<>!?"2" 1 (  2" T.1 or h  .)!#3 h .

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).0 "21 3 5+!#"  0 .  /  <>!#" "21 1 0 0 0 .   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼R¼ 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 2 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Black height = 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0  !?" $'& » ( + *..

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<# 3 1   . y) x T1 T3 y Left rotate ( T. !#"   0 .0& EF*O3`2/( S>O“F( @q>`2¹@qK+262§¤C:=@q>KQ*O*L@  >J.0(D@}>`2§@QK+262§¤C:=@q>KQ*O*L@  >J.x@&12.L(9.0(v@ — ™  o— ™  o—  ™  o—   :1EA@Q26KqEJ.0(9.x@9&12.L& EF*f3`2/( S *$./*0r – &12G@Q2'@q>`2 – Kq*O*0s •`&12G@ ¡2¹@q>`2±>`2.0(v@  ™  o—  :)E?@Q2/KQEJ..   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ y x Right rotate ( T.:=<?>?@9*0sn@q>`2¹@QKQ2620U³S>`2/E  ¨tKQ*O*L@}ª ™ S>O“F( ™  o— ™ &1*0<¨ —Pª ( . x) T1 T2  !?" $'& »¼'( 3 < .   <>!?"2" T2 T3 ¤C>`26K+2P..

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1 15 y k 6 x Just inserted k 8 k 6 k+1 10 k 15 y x Uncle is red 10 10 8 Fig. 5 just 9 x inserted Uncle is black Double rotate and change colours 8 x 10  )!#" $& »'( 1#" !?<>3     <#!#"2" 1 (    "2!?" J<41  " T.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ $ This need not be the root k 10 k 8 Fig. 2 Just 9 x inserted Uncle is red 8 15 y x 20 9 15 y 20 Fig. 3 just inserted 10 10 Uncle is right child of root k 10 k Fig. 4 k 8 k-1 15 y just inserted Uncle is black x 6 Right rotate k and change colours 6 x 10 8 k 8 k-1 10 k -1 15 y 9 15 Fig.)!? 3 1 15 .

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2) Recolouring 25 y 20 x 10 8 30 35 28 15 9 ( Fig.   <>!?"2" 1 ( + *.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ 25 20 30 10 8 15 x 9 35 28 y Just inserted ( Fig. 4) Right rotate with recolouring 20 25 10 8 30 15 9 28 35   !#" $'& » $ ( 1#"2! <>3   A!#"   0 .0" ¼ .. .

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.   <#!#"2" 1 ( + *.0" » »+¼ . .   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬   !#" $'& ¼/» ( " 0 " <# 3 R R!#"  0 .

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).0 " 18 19 ..   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ » 7 5 - 2 16 8 12 5 7 19 - 8 12 16 19 Insert(18) 7 5 8 12 v - 2 16 5 7 19 - 8 12 16 18 19 Insert(10) Split v into v and v‘ 7 5 8 - - 2 7 5 16 w v v‘ 12 - 10 8 18 19 12 16 18 19 Split w into w and w‘ and make a new root 10 Old root w 7 5 2 - 16 - 8 - - 5 New root 7 v 8  !?" $'& ¼3( 1#" !?<# 3 A  12 - 10 ¼  v‘ 12 18 19 16 <>!#" "21 ( 6 " *.

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d bUf C CEA b C C b I g \  4 j \ k]l Y \ < j\ l < j\ l g v .qC a'bUmVv g bUmNF4v F.

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g g v Xg (  i |C aWmNv bUf C 6  b F a E U F A m|bUf f g a g C g a C C bUf g b bUf CXg l sf CD Vm aHbUf C v b m 2 A C CEA F`d CA U i C a Q j m 4C b g   C Y g bUf g Q & 4    ( !)6 j .

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C NC  4   _ Z%\ F A b g G v b iEg bUmVF`vaHmVv g v C b Z G_   i ] .

A F Q   Q B d7a $ ` g i2C v i d A F g v g b0mNv   .

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