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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

by Akihiro Oi September 2005

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Title: DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM Author: Date Submitted: Akihiro Oi 26th September, 2005

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Dr. Ahmad Nafisi Committee Member

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Dr. William Ahlgren Committee Member

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It provides theoretical studies of photovoltaics and modeling techniques using equivalent electric circuits. and the model is transferred into MATLAB. MATLAB simulations perform comparative tests of two popular MPPT algorithms using actual irradiance data. Then.ABSTRACT DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM Akihiro Oi This thesis deals with the design and simulation of a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system. The system employs the maximum power point tracker (MPPT). The results validate that MPPT can significantly increase the efficiency and the performance of PV water pumping system compared to the system without MPPT. MATLAB simulations verify the system and functionality of MPPT. This allows a lower cost system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB. The thesis decides on the output sensing direct control method because it requires fewer sensors. iv . Simulations also make comparisons with the system without MPPT in terms of total energy produced and total volume of water pumped per day. PSpice simulations verify the DC-DC converter design. It employs SIMULINK to model a DC pump motor. The investigation includes discussion of various MPPT algorithms and control methods.

Yat Tam.many thanks for much support the whole way through. James Silva. all other denizens of “EE Grad Lab” and the lab technicians for their support and willingness to help me out during various stages of my project. Nafisi and Dr. John Cadwell. to my parents. His power electronics courses and his dedication to his students gave me the best experience during the program. I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to my other thesis committees.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to first acknowledge my advisor. for his support and advice throughout my graduate program. Ahlgren. Alan Yeung. I would like to thank my colleague and friend. Sajiv Nair. Michael Chong. especially Jenny Ho for her constant encouragement and support during two years of my graduate work. John Carlin. Finally. and my friends . Taufik. for review of this thesis in detail and their important feedback. Dr. Dr. A number of ideas generated from our numerous discussions and his feedback are incorporated in this thesis. thanks to my other good colleagues. who has a career experience in designing photovoltaic systems. Akihiro Oi September 2005 v . my sister. Also. James Sorenson.

............................................ 47 3......... 12 1............................1 The Simplest Model............................................................................................................2 The More Accurate Model..............................................................................................27 3... 31 3.............................3............................................................................6...........................3 DC-DC Converter ....................................2 Direct Control ................5............................................................3 Choice of MPPT Sampling Rate..............................................................2..6 Control of MPPT....................................................................................... 50 Chapter 4 Design and Simulations ......................................................................4 Background and Scope of This Thesis....................4 Mechanism of Load Matching ................................................................................. 48 3...........................3 The Proposed System.......................................................................................3......... 55 4.......................................................6....................... 34 3................ 55 4.............. 4 Chapter 2 Photovoltaic Modules .....................4 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load ........................................................ 5 1..................................... 61 3...... 28 3..........................3 Output Sensing Direct Control .............. 31 2............................................................................... 40 3...........................................................3 MPPT Controller ........................................................................................................3.......................................1 PI Control..........................................55 4......................................1 Component Selection..........................................ix Chapter 1 Introduction ....................................................1 Perturb & Observe Algorithm...........................................................................................................7 Limitations of MPPT ..........................................................................................................1 Topologies .....................2 Cúk and SEPIC Converters ......2 Energy Storage Alternatives ...... 52 4...................................3 Modeling a PV Cell ...................................... 1 1........................................ 56 4................................2 Photovoltaic Cell........................................................................................2 Maximum Power Point Tracker............. viii List of Figures ....................................................................................................................... 5 1.... 25 2................................... 17 2.4 Water Pump ......................................................................1 Introduction............3...5................. 32 3.......................................................................................................3......................... 47 3...6............................5 Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms................................................2.....................................................................................................................10 2..............................3 Comparisons of P&O and incCond Algorithm..........................................................................1 PV Module...................3.............................. 66 vi ..................................5 Modeling a PV Module by MATLAB.....................................2.........................................................2 PSpice Simulations .....3....................2 Incremental Conductance Algorithm..............2 Cúk Converter Design..3................................................................................................................................1 Water Pumping Systems and Photovoltaic Power...................................................2 I-V Characteristics of DC Motors.......................... 38 3............................................................1 1.................................................4 Photovoltaic Module....................Table of Contents List of Tables ............................................................ 10 2........... 59 4........................................................................................ 10 2..................................... 27 3............ 15 3...... 62 4...................... 8 1....... 6 1..............................................................................................................................................................1 Introduction...................... 7 Chapter 3 Maximum Power Point Tracker............................................3........................................6 The I-V Curve and Maximum Power Point.................... 18 2............... 37 3................................................................................................................1 Introduction.............................................3 Basic Operation of Cúk Converter..................... 12 2..................................................... 3 1...... 44 3....

..........1....................................2 MATLAB Simulation Results .........................1.......... 70 Chapter 5 Conclusion.......1 DSP Control ..................... 71 4.......................................4.................................................81 Appendix A......................... Direct-coupled System......................2 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load ............................. 97 A...................................2 Difficulties and Future Research .1.....2 Direct Control Method with incCond Algorithm........................................2 SIMULNK and TI DSP..................... 84 A................3 Concluding Remarks........................... 103 vii ........................................................2 MATLAB Script to Draw PV I-V Curves .....................................................................................5.......................... 86 A..............................................................1................................................1 Direct Control Method with P&O Algorithm.......................................................................................................................................... 75 4..................................... 102 B...........................3 MATLAB Function to Find the MPP ........84 A................................................................7 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load..................................... 90 A................1 Summary ......................1..........................................1.....................................2............................................................5.....................1 MATLAB Functions and Scripts ........................1................ 80 4.....................................................................................................2.1........................... 86 A....................6 System with MPPT vs..... 85 A............................ 88 A............... 78 5...........................1 TMS320F2812 DSP.............................5 MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load..................................................................... 102 B.................................................................................. 84 A......5 MATLAB Script: incCond Algorithm................ 101 A.................................. 100 A...........................6 MATLAB Script for MPPT with Output Sensing Direct Control Method.......................1............1..............................................8 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with Direct-coupled DC Water Pump ............................3 Example ...4 MATLAB Script: P&O Algorithm .............................................................. 102 B.....................78 5......... 73 Bibliography ...............................................102 B............................1 Modeling of DC Water Pump.......1................................................................ 93 A............... 79 5.............................................................................. 100 Appendix B .1 MATLAB Function for Modeling BP SX 150S PV Module................

............. 18 Table 3-1: Load matching with the resistive load (6 ) under the varying irradiance................. 75 Table 4-5: Total volume of water pumped for 12 hours......... 60 Table 4-3: Comparison of the P&O and incCond algorithms on a cloudy day .. 3 Table 2-1: Electrical characteristics data of PV module taken from the datasheet [1]............... 53 Table 4-1: Design specification of the Cúk Converter ............ Windmill [13].....................................List of Tables Table 1-1: PV powered................. vs........ Diesel powered..................................................... 55 Table 4-2: Cúk converter design: comparisons of simulations and calculated results .. 77 viii ....... 65 Table 4-4: Energy production and efficiency of PV module with and without MPPT ...... 53 Table 3-2: Load matching with the resistive load (12 ) under the varying irradiance..................................................

......... 60 Figure 4-3: Transient response when duty cycle is increased 0.............................................................. 18 Figure 2-9: Equivalent circuit used in the MATLAB simulations ..... 22 Figure 2-12: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module at various temperatures................................... 51 Figure 3-21: Flowchart of P&O algorithm for the output sensing direct control method ................ 61 Figure 4-4: Searching the MPP (1KW/m2............................................................................... 46 Figure 3-17: Block diagram of MPPT with the PI compensator ....................................... 27 Figure 3-2: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module and various resistive loads........................................ 11 Figure 2-2: Illustrated side view of solar cell and the conducting current [16]............................................. 48 Figure 3-19: Relationship of the input impedance of Cúk converter and its duty cycle ..... 19 Figure 2-10: Effect of diode ideally factors by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2........................ 64 Figure 4-7: Trace of MPP tracking on a cloudy day (25oC) .......................................... voltage for BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2...................... its duty cycle (1KW/m2............................................ 24 Figure 2-13: Simulated I-V curve of BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2................................ 34 Figure 3-8: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is ON......................... 5 Figure 2-1: Illustration of the p-n junction of PV cell [16]...................... 35 Figure 3-9: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is OFF ................... 40 Figure 3-13: Plot of power vs............ 59 Figure 4-2: PSpice plots of input/output current (above) and voltage (below) ... Spain [2]..................................................... 52 Figure 4-1: Schematic of the Cúk converter with PMDC motor load ........................ 29 Figure 3-4: PV I-V curves with varying irradiance and a DC motor I-V curve .... 62 Figure 4-5: Irradiance data for a sunny and a cloudy day of April in Barcelona........... 48 Figure 3-18: Block diagram of MPPT with the direct control............................ 34 Figure 3-7: Circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter ................ 39 Figure 3-12: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (50oC)................... 38 Figure 3-11: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (25oC)................................ 21 Figure 2-11: Effect of series resistances by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2..............35% at 250ms............... 25oC) ...................................................................... 11 Figure 2-3: PV cell with a load and its simple equivalent circuit [16] ................. 25 Figure 2-14: I-V and P-V relationships of BP SX 150S PV module....................................................... 25oC)........ 16 Figure 2-7: PV cells are connected in series to make up a PV module .... 49 Figure 3-20: Output power of Cúk converter vs................................................ 30 Figure 3-5: PV I-V curves with iso-power lines (dotted) and a DC motor I-V curve .................... 12 Figure 2-4: Diagrams showing a short-circuit and an open-circuit condition [16]............................................................................................................ 25oC) ....................................................................... 41 Figure 3-14: Flowchart of the P&O algorithm .... 15 Figure 2-6: More accurate equivalent circuit of PV cell............ 31 Figure 3-6: Circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter ................ 13 Figure 2-5: I-V plot of ideal PV cell under two different levels of irradiance (25oC)...... 26 Figure 3-1: PV module is directly connected to a (variable) resistive load...................... 65 ix ..... 63 Figure 4-6: Traces of MPP tracking on a sunny day (25oC)..... 17 Figure 2-8: Picture of BP SX 150S PV module [1] .............................. 35 Figure 3-10: The impedance seen by PV is Rin that is adjustable by duty cycle (D). 25oC).......... 25oC)........ 25oC) .... 28 Figure 3-3: Electrical model of permanent magnet DC motor ................................................ 41 Figure 3-15: Erratic behavior of the P&O algorithm under rapidly increasing irradiance..................List of Figures Figure 1-1: Block diagram of the proposed PV water pumping system.... 43 Figure 3-16: Flowchart of the incCond algorithm .................................

........................ 103 x ........ 103 Figure B-2: Plots of the input voltage and the PWM output shown as duty cycle ................... 70 Figure 4-11: Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump performance chart [13]........... 68 Figure 4-9: MPPT simulations with the resistive load (100 to 1000W/m2.................................................... 69 Figure 4-10: Output protection & regulation (100 to 1000W/m2........................ 71 Figure 4-12: SIMULINK model of permanent magnet DC pump motor. 75 Figure 4-17: Flow rates of PV water pumps for a 12-hour period.....................Figure 4-8: MPPT simulation flowchart ..................................................................................... 72 Figure 4-14: SIMULINK plot of Rload ( ).................... 25oC)...................... 73 Figure 4-15: MPPT simulations with the DC pump motor load (20 to 1000W/m2............... 25oC)............................................ 76 Figure A-1: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (P&O algorithm) .......................... 100 Figure A-2: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (incCond algorithm) ................................................ 72 Figure 4-13: SIMULINK DC machine block parameters...... 101 Figure B-1: A simple example of generating PWM from the voltage input ..... 74 Figure 4-16: SIMULINK plot of DC motor I-V curve ............................................................... 25oC) ........

and ensuring food production. it presents MATLAB simulations of the system and makes comparisons with a system without MPPT. Installation of a new transmission line and a transformer to the location is often prohibitively expensive. water sources are spread over many miles of land and power lines are scarce. a power electronic device that significantly increases the system efficiency. 1. a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented. At last. In general. in many rural areas. It will also be the first stage of the purification and desalination plants to produce potable water. It provides theoretical studies of photovoltaics (PV) and its modeling techniques. However. There is a great and urgent need to supply environmentally sound technology for the provision of drinking water. Remote water pumping systems are a key component in meeting this need. as well as for social and economic development and for sustainable development [25].1 billion do not have sufficient drinking water [26]. protecting health. It also investigates in detail the maximum power point tracker (MPPT).Chapter 1 Introduction Water resources are essential for satisfying human needs. according to UN World Water Development Report in 2003. However. energy and the restoration of ecosystems. AC powered system is economic and takes minimum maintenance when AC power is available from the nearby power grid. In this thesis. and 1. it has been estimated that two billion people are affected by water shortages in over forty countries.1 Water Pumping Systems and Photovoltaic Power A water pumping system needs a source of power to operate. Windmills have been installed 1 .

Good examples include large-scale grid-connected wind turbines.53Km) or more from the power line. solar water heating. However. CO2 emissions can be greatly reduced through the application of renewable energy technologies. The use of renewable energy for water pumping systems is. a very attractive proposition. Windmills are a long-established method of using renewable energy. they have some major disadvantages. Today. These systems are portable and easy to install. where grid electricity is not available and where internal-combustion engines are expensive to operate [24].traditionally in such areas. If the water source is 1/3 mile (app. such as: they require frequent site visits for refueling and maintenance. 2 . PV is a favorable economic choice [13]. PV systems are highly reliable and are often chosen because they offer the lowest life-cycle cost. many of them are. Table 1-1 shows the comparisons of different stand-alone type water pumping systems. in particular the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. however they are quickly phasing out from the scene despite success of large-scale grid-tied wind turbines. therefore. The consumption of fossil fuels also has an environmental impact. however. especially for applications requiring less than 10KW. and furthermore diesel fuel is often expensive and not readily available in rural areas of many developing countries. 0. and off-grid stand-alone PV systems [24]. inoperative now due to lack of proper maintenance and age. many stand-alone type water pumping systems use internal combustion engines. which are already cost competitive with fossil fuels in many situations.

dirt problems Fuel often expensive and supply intermittent High maintenance Seasonal disadvantages Difficult find parts thus costly repair Installation is labor intensive and needs special tools Table 1-1: PV powered. therefore stand-alone systems obviously need some sort of backup energy storage which makes them available through the night or bad weather conditions.System Type PV Powered System Diesel (or Gas) Powered System Windmill Advantages Low maintenance Unattended operation Reliable long life No fuel and no fumes Easy to install Low recurrent costs System is modular and closely matched to need Moderate capital costs Easy to install Can be portable Extensive experience available No fuel and no fumes Potentially long-lasting Works well in windy sites Disadvantages Relatively high initial cost Low output in cloudy weather Needs maintenance and replacement Site visits necessary Noise. the battery also has ability to provide surges of current that are much higher than the instantaneous current available from the array. In addition to energy storage. as well as the inherent 3 . photovoltaics are able to produce electricity only when the sunlight is available. vs. Windmill [13] 1. Among many possible storage technologies. fume. Diesel powered. the lead-acid battery continues to be the workhorse of many PV systems because it is relatively inexpensive and widely available.2 Energy Storage Alternatives Needless to say.

experienced PV system designers avoid batteries whenever possible. Batteries also require regular maintenance and will degrade very rapidly if the electrolyte is not topped up and the charge is not maintained. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). they have a number of disadvantages. As shown in Figure 1-1. appropriately sized water reservoirs can meet the requirement of energy storage during the downtime of PV generation.and automatic property controlling the output voltage of the array so that loads receive voltages within their own range of acceptability [16]. but this reduces to typically two to six years in hot climate since high ambient temperature dramatically increases the rate of internal corrosion [24]. While batteries may seem like a good idea. and a DC water pump. 1. The additional cost of reservoir is considerably lower than that incurred by the battery equipped system.3 The Proposed System The experimental water pumping system proposed in this thesis is a stand-alone type without backup batteries. therefore it could be built in the lab in the future. For water pumping systems. The system including the subsystems will be simulated to verify the functionalities. 4 . As a matter of fact. the system is very simple and consists of a single PV module. only about five percent of solar pumping systems employ a battery bank [13]. Battery lifetime in PV systems is typically three to eight years. They reduce the efficiency of the overall system due to power loss during charge and discharge. which is different from one used for automobiles. From all those reasons. The size of the system is intended to be small. The type of lead-acid battery suitable for PV systems is a deep-cycle battery [15]. Typical battery efficiency is around 85% but could go below 75% in hot climate [24]. and it is more expensive and not widely available.

MPPT is a power electronic device interconnecting a PV power source and a load.3. Usually. has three BP SX 150S multi-crystalline PV modules. mechanical devices that rotate and/or tilt PV modules in the direction of sun.PV Module [1] DC Water Pump [13] Figure 1-1: Block diagram of the proposed PV water pumping system 1. The size of system selected for the proposed system is 150W. It should not be confused with sun trackers. a typical small-scale desalination plant requires a few thousand watts of power [24]. For example. which is commonly used in small water pumping systems for cattle grazing in rural areas of the United States.2 Maximum Power Point Tracker The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is now prevalent in grid-tied PV power systems and is becoming more popular in stand-alone systems. therefore the proposed system requires only one of them. A detailed discussion about PV and modeling of PV appears in Chapter 2.3. a number of PV modules are combined as an array to meet different energy demands. room 104. 5 . Each module provides a maximum power of 150W [13].1 PV Module There are different sizes of PV module commercially available (typically sized from 60W to 170W). 1. The power electronics lab located in the building 20.

However. the effect of sun tracker is smaller because a larger fraction of solar irradiation is diffuse. the single-axis sun tracker can collect about 40% more energy than a seasonally optimized fixed-axis collector in summer in a dry climate such as Albuquerque. and therefore maximizes the system efficiency. a switch-mode inverter sometimes fills the role of MPPT.maximizes the power output from a PV module or array with varying operating conditions. in this simple system. The two-axis tracker is only a few percent better than the single-axis version. In addition to MPPT. however. A detailed discussion on MPPT appears in Chapter 3. Otherwise. In winter. Washington. 1. For the same reason. than to design an analog circuit to do the same [23]. there is also a higher chance of failure. In a climate with more water vapor in the atmosphere such as Seattle.3 MPPT Controller Analog controllers have traditionally performed control of MPPT. According to the data in reference [15]. It collects 30% more energy in summer.3. x = y × z. the system could also employ a sun tracker. digital controllers are programmable thus capable of implementing advanced algorithm with relative ease. the use of digital controllers is rapidly increasing because they offer several advantages over analog controllers. modification of the design 6 . the sun tracker is not implemented. but the gain is less than 10% in winter. First. it can gain only 20% more energy. but it increases the cost and complexity of system. It is far easier to code the equation. For grid-tied systems. Sun tracking enables the system to meet energy demand with smaller PV modules. New Mexico. Therefore. MPPT is made up with a switch-mode DCDC converter and a controller. Since it is made of moving parts. it is combined with a DC-DC converter that performs the MPPT function.

is much easier with digital controllers. where gains and parameters are consistent and reproducible [23]. therefore. Water pumps are driven by various types of motors. A typical size of system with this type pump is at least 500W or larger. Positive displacement types are used in low-volume pumps [13] and cost-effective. however. the cost and complexity of these systems will be significantly higher. they offer long-term stability. The design and simulations of MPPT in Chapter 4 are done on the premise that it is going to be built with a microcontroller or a DSP. Appendix B provides introduction of Texas Instruments DSP and SIMULINK as an implementation tool. outside the linear operation. As a result. They are also insensitive to component tolerances since they implement algorithm in software. Chapter 3 provides discussions of various control methods. and the algorithm is readily transferable to its implementation.3. AC induction motors are cheaper and widely available worldwide. They are immune to time and temperature drifts because they work in discrete. and it is also less efficient than DC 7 . However.4 Water Pump Two types of pumps are commonly used for PV water pumping applications: positive displacement and centrifugal [19]. They allow reduction of parts count since they can handle various tasks in a single chip. This thesis. which is usually expensive. The system. needs an inverter to convert DC output power from PV to AC power. There is a growing trend among the pump manufacturers to use them with brushless DC motors (BDCM) for higher efficiency and low maintenance [19]. 1. chooses a method of digital control for MPPT. thus they can control multiple devices with a single controller. Centrifugal pumps have relatively high efficiency [19] and are capable of pumping a high volume of water [13]. Many of them are also equipped with multiple A/D converters and PWM generators.

Flow rates up to 17.) [13]. particularly photovoltaics (PV). San Luis Obispo.motor-pump systems [19].000L [13]. and Australia. It operates with a low voltage (12~30V DC). pictured in Figure 1-1. The water pump chosen here for its size and cost is the Kyocera SD 12-30 submersible solar pump. There are only a small number of studies related to PV systems in the past. In the United Sates. A simple model of this water pump is used for simulations in Chapter 4. there were a few senior projects which built PV facilities here in California Polytechnic State University. There is also an aforementioned brushless type. and its power requirement is as little as 35W [13]. and unfortunately. In general. 1. specifically for water delivery in remote locations. Two senior projects. The first attempt to study 8 . The rated maximum power consumption is 150W. Among them. built a simple PV battery charger.700L and 5. DC motors are preferred because they are highly efficient and can be directly coupled with a PV module or array. The typical daily output is between 2. there is a growing interest in PV. a significant number of them in Europe. Brushed types are less expensive and more common although brushes need to be replaced periodically (typically every two years) [19]. Numerous studies have been done in PV systems. but research and development in PV systems is far behind from the aforementioned countries. There have been only two master’s theses written about PV systems in the CSU system.0L/min (4. also here.5GPM) and heads up to 30. California State Universities (CSUs) are no exception. Japan.4 Background and Scope of This Thesis The impetus for this research is to investigate the use of power electronics in renewable energy. It is a diaphragm-type positive displacement pump equipped with a brushed permanent magnet DC motor and designed for use in standalone water delivery systems.0m (100ft. and a few others dealt with a sun tracker.

MPPT was made by Dang [4] of California Polytechnic State University. it provided a rudimentary computer simulation of MPPT with a resistive load. but the functionality of MPPT was not tested. The study was. In order to understand and design MPPT. it is necessary to have a good understanding of the behaviors of PV. It included MPPT in the system. Therefore. nor other hardware implementation. A major assumption made in simulations is the use of an ideal DC-DC converter. Then. There is no textbook that provides comprehensive and detailed explanations about MPPT. The model. beyond a discussion on component selection for the DC-DC converter. Each subsystem in the PV water pumping system is modeled for MATLAB simulations. it will not cover a discussion about actual implementation of DSP or microcontrollers. and it centered round a power system for a miniature satellite. Another was done here by Day [5]. far from comprehensive. Thus. The thesis facilitates it using MATLAB models of PV cell and module. MPPT is one of many applications of power electronics. Pomona. and it is a relatively new and unknown area. The thesis built a small PV module simulator and a buck converter without a controller. that is left as future work. however. however. this thesis investigates it in detail and provides better explanations for students who are interested in this research area. should provide sufficient results for verification of MPPT functionality. The theoretical study was insufficient. Finally. as opposed to a more realistic model that includes losses. and it lacked simulations and experiments to ensure the functionality of MPPT. 9 . This thesis is limited to providing theoretical studies and simulations of PV water pumping system with MPPT. the functionality of MPPT for water pumping systems is verified and validated. The system will not be built in this thesis.

In 1954 the first generation of semiconductor silicon-based PV cells was born. the production of PV cells is following an exponential growth curve since technological advancement of late ‘80s that has started to rapidly improve efficiency and reduce cost.Chapter 2 Photovoltaic Modules 2. those in the conduction band can be continuously swept away from holes toward a metallic contact where 10 .1 Introduction The history of PV dates back to 1839 when a French physicist. Richard Day. however. William Adams. Edmund Becquerel. selenium. Thirty-seven years later British physicist. as shown in Figure 2-1. will soon fall back into holes causing charge carriers to disappear. and adopted in space applications. Today. 2. If a nearby electric field is provided. discovered the first photovoltaic effect when he illuminated a metal electrode in an electrolytic solution [16]. discovered a photovoltaic material. and made solid cells with 1~2% efficiency which were soon widely adopted in the exposure meters of camera [16].2 Photovoltaic Cell Photons of light with energy higher than the band-gap energy of PV material can make electrons in the material break free from atoms that hold them and create hole-electron pairs. These electrons. with efficiency of 6% [3]. with his student. The models are implemented using MATLAB to study PV characteristics and simulate a real PV module. This chapter discusses the fundamentals of PV cells and modeling of a PV cell using an equivalent electrical circuit.

The electric field within the semiconductor itself at the junction between two regions of crystals of different type. When the PV cell delivers power to the load.they will emerge as an electric current. Figure 2-2: Illustrated side view of solar cell and the conducting current [16] 11 . as shown in Figure 2-2. the electrons flow out of the n-side into the connecting wire. Note that conventional current flows in the opposite direction from electrons. called a p-n junction [16]. Figure 2-1: Illustration of the p-n junction of PV cell [16] Showing hole-electron pairs created by photons The PV cell has electrical contacts on its top and bottom to capture the electrons. and back to the p-side where they recombine with holes [16]. through the load.

The same modeling technique is also applicable for modeling a PV module. The method used here is implemented in MATLAB programs for simulations. when there is no connection to the PV cell (open-circuit). the photon generated current is shunted internally by the intrinsic p-n junction diode. Iph = Isc. The current source represents the current generated by photons (often denoted as Iph or IL).3 Modeling a PV Cell The use of equivalent electric circuits makes it possible to model characteristics of a PV cell. as shown in Figure 2-4 (a). The PV module or cell manufacturers usually provide the values of these parameters in their datasheets. Thus.3. Shorting together the terminals of the cell. 12 .2. and its output is constant under constant temperature and constant incident radiation of light. This gives the open circuit voltage (Voc). the photon generated current will follow out of the cell as a short-circuit current (Isc). As shown in Figure 2-4 (b). Figure 2-3: PV cell with a load and its simple equivalent circuit [16] There are two key parameters frequently used to characterize a PV cell. 2.1 The Simplest Model The simplest model of a PV cell is shown as an equivalent circuit below that consists of an ideal current source in parallel with an ideal diode.

and Id is the current shunted through the intrinsic diode.381×10-23 J/K).3) 13 . T is the junction temperature in Kelvin (K). (2. I = I sc − I o (e qV / kT − 1) where: V is the voltage across the PV cell. q is the electron charge (1. (2.602×10-19 C).2) Replacing Id of the equation (2. I = I sc − I d (2. k is the Boltzmann’s constant (1.Figure 2-4: Diagrams showing a short-circuit and an open-circuit condition [16] The output current (I) from the PV cell is found by applying the Kirchoff’s current law (KCL) on the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2-3.2) gives the current-voltage relationship of the PV cell. Vd is the voltage across the diode (V).1) where: Isc is the short-circuit current that is equal to the photon generated current. and I is the output current from the cell.1) by the equation (2. The diode current Id is given by the Shockley’s diode equation: I d = I o (e qVd / kT − 1) where: Io is the reverse saturation current of diode (A).

Isc.5) (2.3). The PV cell output is both limited by the cell current and the cell voltage. to PV cell [15]. 0 = I sc − I o (e qVoc / kT − 1) (2.The reverse saturation current of diode (Io) is constant under the constant temperature and found by setting the open-circuit condition as shown in Figure 2-4 (b). under the standard test condition. is given by: I sc |G = G I sc |Go Go (2. Go=1000W/m2 at the air mass (AM) = 1. which is equal to Isc. G (W/m2). Using the equation (2.7) Figure 2-5 shows that current and voltage relationship (often called as an I-V curve) of an ideal PV cell simulated by MATLAB using the simplest equivalent circuit model.5. It also shows that the cell current is proportional to the irradiance. 14 .5. then the photon generated current at any other irradiance. The discussion of MATLAB simulations will appear in Section 2.6) I sc = I o (e qVoc / kT − 1) Io = sc qVoc / kT I (e − 1) To a very good approximation. is directly proportional to the irradiance. Thus. is known from the datasheet. and it can only produce a power with any combinations of current and voltage on the I-V curve. the intensity of illumination. if the value. let I = 0 (no output current) and solve for Io.4) (2. the photon generated current.

1 0.6 0. These resistive losses are lumped together as a series resister (Rs).2 The More Accurate Model There are a few things that have not been taken into account in the simple model and that will affect the performance of a PV cell in practice.5 Cell Current (A) 3 2. and the value of resistance is multiplied by the number of cells. there is a series of resistance in a current path through the semiconductor material.5 4 3.4 Cell Voltage (V) 0.2 0. It is a loss associated with a small leakage of current through a resistive path in parallel with the intrinsic device [2]. the metal grid. contacts.3 0.5 1 0. a) Series Resistance In a practical PV cell.5 4.7 Half Sun (500W/m2) Full Sun (1000W/m2) Figure 2-5: I-V plot of ideal PV cell under two different levels of irradiance (25oC) 2.3.5 0.5 2 1.5 0 0 0. b) Parallel Resistance This is also called shunt resistance. and current collecting bus [2]. Its effect becomes very conspicuous in a PV module that consists of many series-connected cells. This can be 15 .

8) It is possible to combine the first diode (D1) and the second diode (D2) and rewrite the equation (2.represented by a parallel resister (Rp).8) in the following form. and it will only become noticeable when a number of PV modules are connected in parallel for a larger system. Its effect is much less conspicuous in a PV module compared to the series resistance. Rs + Isc D1 n=1 D2 n=2 Rp V Load Figure 2-6: More accurate equivalent circuit of PV cell Summarizing these effects. 16 . As shown in Figure 2-6.9) where: n is known as the “ideality factor” (“n” is sometimes denoted as “A”) and takes the value between one and two [7]. this can be represented by the second diode (D2) in the equivalent circuit. c) Recombination Recombination in the depletion region of PV cells provides non-ohmic current paths in parallel with the intrinsic PV cell [2] [7]. I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 − V + I ⋅ Rs Rp (2. the current-voltage relationship of PV cell is written as: I = I sc − I o1 e q V + I ⋅ Rs kT −1 − I o2 e q V + I ⋅ Rs 2 kT −1 − V + I ⋅ Rs Rp (2.

5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Voltage (V) 30 35 40 45 3 cells 9 cells 36 cells 72 cells 0.5 1 0. it is called as a module. the current output is the same as the single cell. 5 4.4 Photovoltaic Module A single PV cell produces an output voltage less than 1V. thus a number of PV cells are connected in series to archive a desired output voltage.6V for each cell Figure 2-7: PV cells are connected in series to make up a PV module 17 . Furthermore. about 0. grid-tied systems. A 36-cell module provides a voltage suitable for charging a 12V battery.2. however today many PV systems do not use batteries. When the PV cells are wired together in series.6V for crystallinesilicon (Si) cells. When series-connected cells are placed in a frame. but the voltage output is the sum of each cell voltage.5 Current (A) 3 2.5 4 3.5 2 1. This is because most of PV systems used to have backup batteries. the advent of high efficiency DC-DC converters has alleviated the need for modules with specific voltages. Most of commercially available PV modules with crystalline-Si cells have either 36 or 72 series-connected cells. as shown in Figure 2-7. and similarly a 72-cell module is appropriate for a 24V battery. for example.

5V 4. Table 2-1 shows its electrical specification. 2.35A 43.75A 0. but only a voltage parameter (such as the open-circuit voltage) is different and must be divided by the number of cells.015 %/ oC -160 ± 20 mV/ oC -0.05 %/ oC 47 ± 2oC Table 2-1: Electrical characteristics data of PV module taken from the datasheet [1] The strategy of modeling a PV module is no different from modeling a PV cell. The group of modules is called an array. The parameters are the all same.5V 4.5 Modeling a PV Module by MATLAB BP Solar BP SX 150S PV module.065 ± 0. The module is made of 72 multi-crystalline silicon solar cells in series and provides 150W of nominal maximum power [1]. Figure 2-8: Picture of BP SX 150S PV module [1] Electrical Characteristics Maximum Power (Pmax) Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) Current at Pmax (Imp) Open-circuit voltage (Voc) Short-circuit current (Isc) Temperature coefficient of Isc Temperature coefficient of Voc Temperature coefficient of power NOCT 150W 34. is chosen for a MATLAB simulation model. It uses the same PV cell model.5 ± 0. 18 .Also. pictured in Figure 2-8. multiple modules can be wired together in series or parallel to deliver the voltage and current level needed.

and provides fairly accurate results. It uses a single diode with the diode ideality factor (n) set to achieve the best I-V curve match. it also includes temperature effects on the short-circuit current (Isc) and the reverse saturation current of diode (Io). V is the cell voltage = {module voltage} ÷ {# of cells in series}. 19 . letting Rp = in the equation (2. To make a better model.9) gives the equation [27] that describes the current-voltage relationship of the PV cell. Australia.10) where: I is the cell current (the same as the module current). thus the model does not include it. uses the electric model with moderate complexity. Rs + Isc D V Load Figure 2-9: Equivalent circuit used in the MATLAB simulations Since it does not include the effect of parallel resistance (Rp). a diode (D). T is the cell temperature in Kelvin (K). shown in Figure 2-9.The study done by Walker [27] of University of Queensland. I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 (2. The model consists of a current source (Isc). The effect of parallel resistance (Rp) is very small in a single module. and it is shown below. and a series resistance (Rs).

First. thus Isc at a given irradiance (G) is: I sc |G = G I sc |Go Go (2.14) The diode ideality factor (n) is unknown and must be estimated.12) where: Go is the nominal value of irradiance. the value of n=1 (for the ideal diode) is. usually 298K (25oC). Figure 2-10 shows the effect of the varying ideality factor. Tref is the reference temperature of PV cell in Kelvin (K). The short-circuit current (Isc) is proportional to the intensity of irradiance. however. which is normally 1KW/m2. a is the temperature coefficient of Isc in percent change per degree temperature also given in the datasheet.11) where: Isc at Tref is given in the datasheet (measured under irradiance of 1000W/m2). The reverse saturation current of diode (Io) at the reference temperature (Tref) is given by the equation (2. T ⋅ Tref 3 n − q⋅ E g 1 1 − n⋅k T Tref I o |T = I o |Tref ⋅e (2. It takes a value between one and two. 20 .13) The reverse saturation current (Io) is temperature dependant and the Io at a given temperature (T) is calculated by the following equation [27].6) with the diode ideality factor added: Io = sc qVoc / nkT I (e − 1) (2. calculate the short-circuit current (Isc) at a given cell temperature (T): I sc |T = I sc |Tref ⋅ 1 + a(T − Tref ) [ ] (2. used until the more accurate value is estimated later by curve fitting [27].

10) and then rearranging it in terms of Rs. as shown in Figure 2-11.17) 21 . I = I sc − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 V + I ⋅ Rs nkT (2.5 4.16) Rs = − dI − dV nkT q Io ⋅ e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT (2.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5 1 0.5 4 3. The equation for Rs is dI derived by differentiating the equation (2. 25oC) The series resistance (Rs) of the PV module has a large impact on the slope of the I-V curve near the open-circuit voltage (Voc).5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 n=2 n=1 Figure 2-10: Effect of diode ideally factors by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2. hence the value of Rs is calculated by evaluating the slope dV of the I-V curve at the Voc [27].5 2 1.15) q dV + Rs ⋅ dI dI = 0 − I o ⋅ q ⋅e nkT (2.

17) at the open circuit voltage that is V=Voc (also let I=0). It is.1m . 5 4.5 1 0. 25oC) Finally.18) where: dV dI is the slope of the I-V curve at the Voc (use the I-V curve in the datasheet then Voc divide it by the number of cells in series). The calculation using the slope measurement of the I-V curve published on the BP SX 150 datasheet gives a value of the series resistance per cell.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 Rs=0 Rs=5 mOhm Rs=10 mOhm Rs=15 mOhm Figure 2-11: Effect of series resistances by MATLAB simulation (1KW/m2. complex because the solution of current is recursive by inclusion of a series resistance in the 22 .5 4 3.Then.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. however. evaluate the equation (2.5 2 1. Rs = 5. Rs = − dV dI − Voc nkT q Io ⋅ e qVoc nkT (2. it is possible to solve the equation of I-V characteristics (2.10). Voc is the open-circuit voltage of cell (found by dividing Voc in the datasheet by the number of cells in series).

f ( x ) = 0 .10) gives the following function: f ( I ) = I sc − I − I o e q V + I ⋅ Rs nkT −1 = 0 (2.20) Plugging this into the equation (2.19) where: f ′( x ) is the derivative of the function. I sc − I n − I o e I n +1 = I n − −1− Io q V + I n ⋅ Rs nkT −1 (2. After some trials with various diode ideality factors. Please refer to Appendix A. and the output current (I) is computed iteratively. Figure 2-12 shows the plots of I-V characteristics at various module temperatures simulated with the MATLAB model for BP SX 150S PV module. the MATLAB model chooses the value 23 . Although it may be possible to find the answer by simple iterations.model.21) q ⋅ Rs e nkT q V + I n ⋅ Rs nkT The MATLAB function written in this thesis performs the calculation five times iteratively to ensure convergence of the results. and x n +1 is a next value.1 for this MATLAB function.1. The testing result has shown that the value of In usually converges within three iterations and never more than four interactions. Data points superimposed on the plots are taken from the I-V curves published on the manufacturer’s datasheet [1]. the Newton’s method is chosen for rapid convergence of the answer [27]. Rewriting the equation (2. x n is a present value.19) gives a following recursive equation. The Newton’s method is described as: x n +1 = x n − f (xn ) f ′( x n ) (2.

62 that attains the best match with the I-V curve on the datasheet.of n = 1. 750C 250C 0 50 C O 0C Figure 2-12: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module at various temperatures Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2. 25oC) 24 . The figure shows good correspondence between the data points and the simulated I-V curves.

The coordinates of the operating point are the operating voltage and current. voltage plot is overlaid on the I-V plot of the PV module. It is possible to visualize the location of the by fitting the largest possible rectangle inside of the I-V curve. It reveals that the amount of power produced by the PV module varies greatly 25 . and its area equal to the output power which is a product of voltage and current.0W Impp = 4.9W P1 = 150. A PV module can produce the power at a point. anywhere on the I-V curve. called a maximum power point (MPP).5 1 0.75A P3 = 94. 25oC) The power vs. as shown in Figure 2-14.5 4 3.2.35A Maximum Power Point (MPP) P2 = 108. 5 4.6 The I-V Curve and Maximum Power Point Figure 2-13 shows the I-V curve of the BP SX 150S PV module simulated with the MATLAB model.5 0 0 Isc = 4. at which the module operates with the maximum efficiency and produces the maximum output power.5 2 1. called an operating point.2W Vmpp = 34. There is a unique point near the knee of the I-V curve.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5V 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Voc = 43.5V Figure 2-13: Simulated I-V curve of BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2.

8 7 6 Isc Module Current (A) 5 4 3 2 1 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 45 160 Pmax 140 120 Module Output Power (W) Impp MPP Vmpp 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 Voc 40 Figure 2-14: I-V and P-V relationships of BP SX 150S PV module Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2. It is important to operate the system at the MPP of PV module in order to exploit the maximum power from the module.depending on its operating condition. The next chapter will discuss how to do it. 25oC) 26 .

It also discusses the details of some MPPT algorithms and control methods.1 Introduction When a PV module is directly coupled to a load. In general. For example in Figure 3-1.Chapter 3 Maximum Power Point Tracker 3. the impedance of load dictates the operating condition of the PV module. In other words. and limitations of MPPT. matching between the two. a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) can be used to maintain the PV module’s operating point at the MPP. MPPTs can extract more than 97% of the PV power when properly optimized [9]. A PV array is usually oversized to compensate for a low power yield during winter months. and the use of DC-DC converters as a means of MPPT. A study shows that a direct-coupled system utilizes a mere 31% of the PV capacity [11]. This chapter discusses the I-V characteristics of PV modules and loads. + PV V I R Figure 3-1: PV module is directly connected to a (variable) resistive load 27 . thus it is not producing the maximum power. To mitigate this problem. a resistive load has a straight line with a slope of 1/Rload as shown in Figure 3-2. the PV module’s operating point will be at the intersection of its I–V curve and the load line which is the I-V relationship of load. This mismatching between a PV module and a load requires further over-sizing of the PV array and thus increases the overall system cost. this operating point is seldom at the PV module’s MPP.

the DC voltage equation for the armature circuit is: V = I ⋅ Ra + K ⋅ ω where: Ra is the armature resistance.5 4. From the equivalent circuit.2 I-V Characteristics of DC Motors Many PV water pumping systems employ DC motors (instead of AC motors) because they could be directly coupled with PV arrays and make a very simple system. 25oC) 3.5 4 3. When the motor is turning.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. a permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor is preferred in PV systems because it can provide higher starting torque.1) 28 . described as an electric potential (E) proportional to the angular speed ( ) of the rotor.5 1 0. Among different types of DC motors.5 2 1. or a counterelectromotive force. Figure 3-3 shows an electrical model of a PMDC motor.5 0 0 5 10 Slope=1/R R=16 Ohms R=4 Ohms * R=7.93 Ohms * MPP * Increasing R 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-2: I-V curves of BP SX 150S PV module and various resistive loads Simulated with the MATLAB model (1KW/m2. it produces a back emf. (3.

Applying the voltage to start the motor. the current rises rapidly with increasing voltage until the current is sufficient to create enough starting torque to break the motor loose from static friction [16]. therefore the current rises slowly with increasing voltage. where: K is the constant. and is the angular speed of rotor in Ra + PV I V - E=Kw Figure 3-3: Electrical model of permanent magnet DC motor Figure 3-4 shows an example of current-voltage relationship (I-V curve) of a DC motor. it requires as little as 200W/m2 of irradiance to maintain the minimum operation. there is no effect of back emf. Also. For this example. This configuration has a severe disadvantage in efficiency because of a mismatched operating point. Once it starts to run. therefore the starting current builds up linearly with a steep slope of 1/Ra on the I-V plot as shown in Figure 3-4.The back emf is E=K· rad/sec. the water pumping system would not start operating until irradiance reaches at 400W/m2. As mentioned already a simple type of PV water pumping systems uses a direct coupled PV-motor setup. when the motor is operated under the locked condition for 29 . This means that the system cannot utilize a fair amount of morning insolation just because there is insufficient starting torque. At start-up ( =0). Once it starts to run. the back emf takes effect and drops the current. as shown in Figure 3-4.

it may result in shortening of the life of the motor due to input electrical energy converted to heat rather than to mechanical output [15]. The LCB shifts this relationship around and converts into high-current and low-voltage power which satisfies the pump motor characteristics. The MPPT maintains the input voltage and current of LCB at the MPP of PV module.a long time. As shown in Figure 3-5. 1000W/m2 DC Motor I-V Curve Slope = 1/Ra 800W/m2 Current 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 Voltage Figure 3-4: PV I-V curves with varying irradiance and a DC motor I-V curve There is a MPPT specifically called a linear current booster (LCB) that is designed to overcome the above mentioned problem in water pumping systems. the power produced at the MPP is relatively low-current and high-voltage which is opposite of those required by the pump motor. tracing of the iso-power (constant power) line from the MPP reveals that the LCB could start the pump motor with as little as 50W/m2 of irradiance (assuming the LCB can convert the power without loss). For the example in Figure 3-5. 30 .

DC Motor I-V Curve

1000W/m2 MPP 800W/m2 Iso-power line

600W/m2 Current

400W/m2

200W/m2 50W/m2 Voltage

Figure 3-5: PV I-V curves with iso-power lines (dotted) and a DC motor I-V curve

3.3 DC-DC Converter

The heart of MPPT hardware is a switch-mode DC-DC converter. It is widely used in DC power supplies and DC motor drives for the purpose of converting unregulated DC input into a controlled DC output at a desired voltage level [17]. MPPT uses the same converter for a different purpose: regulating the input voltage at the PV MPP and providing loadmatching for the maximum power transfer.

3.3.1 Topologies

There are a number of different topologies for DC-DC converters. categorized into isolated or non-isolated topologies. The isolated topologies use a small-sized high-frequency electrical isolation transformer which provides the benefits of DC isolation between input and output, and step They are

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up or down of output voltage by changing the transformer turns ratio. They are very often used in switch-mode DC power supplies [18]. Popular topologies for a majority of the applications are flyback, half-bridge, and full-bridge [22]. In PV applications, the grid-tied systems often use these types of topologies when electrical isolation is preferred for safety reasons. Non-isolated topologies do not have isolation transformers. They are almost always used in DC motor drives [17]. These topologies are further categorized into three types: step down (buck), step up (boost), and step up & down (buck-boost). The buck topology is used for voltage step-down. In PV applications, the buck type converter is usually used for charging batteries and in LCB for water pumping systems. The boost topology is used for stepping up the voltage. The grid-tied systems use a boost type converter to step up the output voltage to the utility level before the inverter stage. Then, there are topologies able to step up and down the voltage such as: buck-boost, Cúk, and SEPIC (stands for Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter). For PV system with batteries, the MPP of commercial PV module is set above the charging voltage of batteries for most combinations of irradiance and temperature. A buck converter can operate at the MPP under most conditions, but it cannot do so when the MPP goes below the battery charging voltage under a low-irradiance and high-temperature condition. Thus, the additional boost capability can slightly increase the overall efficiency [27].

**3.3.2 Cúk and SEPIC Converters
**

For water pumping systems, the output voltage needs to be stepped down to provide a higher starting current for a pump motor. The buck converter is the simplest topology and easiest to understand and design, however it exhibits the most severe destructive failure mode

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of all configurations [22]. Another disadvantage is that the input current is discontinuous because of the switch located at the input, thus good input filter design is essential. Other topologies capable of voltage step-down are Cúk and SEPIC. Even though their voltage step-up function is optional for LCB application, they have several advantages over the buck converter. They provide capacitive isolation which protects against switch failure (unlike the buck topology) [21]. The input current of the Cúk and SEPIC topologies is continuous, and they can draw a ripple free current from a PV array that is important for efficient MPPT. Figure 3-6 shows a circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter. It is named after its inventor. It can provide the output voltage that is higher or lower than the input voltage. The SEPIC, a derivative of the Cúk converter, is also able to step up and down the voltage. Figure 3-7 shows a circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter. The characteristics of two topologies are very similar. They both use a capacitor as the main energy storage. As a result, the input current is continuous. The circuits have low switching losses and high efficiency [18]. The main difference is that the Cúk converter has a polarity of the output voltage reverse to the input voltage. The input and output of SEPIC converter have the same voltage polarity; therefore the SEPIC topology is sometimes preferred to the Cúk topology. SEPIC maybe also preferred for battery charging systems because the diode placed on the output stage works as a blocking diode preventing an adverse current going to PV source from the battery. The same diode, however, gives the disadvantage of high-ripple output current. On the other hand, the Cúk converter can provide a better output current

characteristic due to the inductor on the output stage. Therefore, the thesis decides on the Cúk converter because of the good input and output current characteristics.

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34 . The diode (D) is forward biased. VC 1 = V s + V o (3.2) Assume the capacitor (C1) is large enough and its voltage is ripple free even though it stores and transfer large amount of energy from input to output [17] (this requires a good low ESR capacitor [21]).3 Basic Operation of Cúk Converter The basic operation of Cúk converter in continuous conduction mode is explained here.3. the average inductor voltages are zero. thus by applying Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) around outermost loop of the circuit shown in Figure 3-6 [21]. and the capacitor (C1) is being charged. In steady state.Figure 3-6: Circuit diagram of the basic Cúk converter Figure 3-7: Circuit diagram of the basic SEPIC converter 3. The initial condition is when the input voltage is turned on and switch (SW) is off. The operation of circuit can be divided into two modes.

the following relationship is established [21]. and L2. the following relationship is established [21]. C2.3) Mode 2: When SW turns OFF. Figure 3-8: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is ON The voltage of the capacitor (C1) makes the diode (D) reverse-biased and turned off. − I C1 = I L 2 (3.Mode 1: When SW turns ON. The energy stored in the inductor (L2) is transfer to the load through the loop formed by D. The capacitor (C1) discharge its energy to the load through the loop formed with SW. C2. Thus. the circuit becomes one shown in Figure 3-9. I C 1 = I L1 (3. The inductors are large enough. Figure 3-9: Basic Cúk converter when the switch is OFF The capacitor (C1) is getting charged by the input (Vs) through the inductor (L1). so assume that their currents are ripple free. and Rload. Rload.4) 35 . the circuit becomes one shown in Figure 3-8. Thus.

5 the output is the same as the input. Pin = Pout V s ⋅ I L1 = V o ⋅ I L 2 (3. the average capacitor current is zero.5) (3.10) I L1 Vo = I L 2 Vs Combining the equation (3. and T is the switching period.For periodic operation. the average power supplied by the source must be the same as the average power absorbed by the load [21].4) [21]: [I C 1 SW ON ]⋅ DT + [I C 1 SW OFF ]⋅ (1 − D )T = 0 (3.11) If 0 < D < 0. If D = 0.7) − I L 2 ⋅ DT + I L1 ⋅ (1 − D )T = 0 I L1 D = I L2 1 − D where: D is the duty cycle (0 < D < 1). Thus. the following voltage transfer function is derived [21].3) and (3.10).5 < D < 1 the output is larger than the input.8) (3. from the equation (3. Vo D = Vs 1 − D Its relationship to the duty cycle (D) is: (3.9) (3.7) and (3. Assuming that this is an ideal converter. If 0.6) (3. 36 .5 the output is smaller than the input.

13) where: VMPP and IMPP are the voltage and current at the MPP respectively. The following is an example of load matching using an ideal (loss-less) Cúk converter.16) 37 .11): Vs = 1− D ⋅ Vo D (3. independent and rarely matches in practice.4 Mechanism of Load Matching As described in Section 3.14) and (3. and Io is the output current.15) Is = D ⋅ Io 1− D (3.1. the operating point of PV is dictated by the load (or impedance to be specific). The goal of the MPPT is to match the impedance of load to the optimal impedance of PV. Rload = Vo Io (3. From the equation (3.12) where: Vo is the output voltage. when PV is directly coupled with a load. The impedance of load is described as below.15). These two are. Is V I = L1 = o I o I L 2 Vs From the equation (3.10).14) From the equation (3.3. The optimal load for PV is described as: Ropt = V MPP I MPP (3. (3. however. When the value of Rload matches with that of Ropt. the maximum power transfer from PV to the load will occur.

14) and (3.17) As shown in Figure 3-10. By changing the duty cycle (D). which is the heart of MPPT controller. There are observable voltage shifts where the MPP occurs. There are a number of methods that have been proposed. Figure 3-11 shows a set of PV I–V curves under increasing irradiance at the constant temperature (25oC). the impedance of the load can be anything as long as the duty cycle is adjusted accordingly. Then. Therefore. the impedance seem by PV is the input impedance of the converter (Rin). For example. + PV Figure 3-10: The impedance seen by PV is Rin that is adjustable by duty cycle (D) Rin DC-DC Conv Rload 3. after re-connection. and Figure 3-12 shows the I–V curves at the same irradiance values but with a higher temperature (50oC). One method measures an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of PV module every 30 seconds by disconnecting it from rest of the circuit for a short moment. Therefore.5 Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms The location of the MPP in the I–V plane is not known beforehand and always changes dynamically depending on irradiance and temperature. the input impedance of the converter is: V s (1 − D ) 2 Vo (1 − D ) 2 Rin = = ⋅ = ⋅ Rload Is Io D2 D2 (3. the value of Rin can be matched with that of Ropt. the module voltage is adjusted to 76% 38 . the MPP needs to be located by tracking algorithm.16).From the equation (3.

5 Module Current (A) 3 2. 5 4.5 0 0 5 1000W/m2 Maximum Power Point 750W/m2 500W/m2 250W/m2 50W/m2 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-11: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (25oC) 39 . Model calculations can also predict the location of MPP.of measured Voc which corresponds to the voltage at the MPP [6] (note: the percentage depends on the type of cell used).5 1 0. however in practice it does not work well because it does not take physical variations and aging of module and other effects such as shading into account. thus it is the customary choice for MPPT.5 2 1. Furthermore. Search algorithm using a closed-loop control can achieve higher efficiencies. the Perturb & Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (incCond) methods are studied here. Among different algorithms. The implementation of this open-loop control method is very simple and low-cost although the MPPT efficiencies are relatively low (between 73~91%) [9]. a pyranometer that measures irradiance is quite expensive.5 4 3.

is very popular and the most commonly used in practice because of its simplicity in algorithm and the ease of implementation. Figure 3-13 shows a PV module’s output power curve as a function of voltage (P-V curve).5 0 0 5 1000W/m2 Maximum Power Point 750W/m2 500W/m2 250W/m2 50W/m2 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-12: I-V curves for varying irradiance and a trace of MPPs (50oC) 3. P. then it is supposed that it has moved the operating point closer to the MPP. at the constant irradiance and the constant module temperature. If the P is positive. assuming the PV module is operating at a point which is away from the MPP. Thus. In this algorithm the operating voltage of the PV module is perturbed by a small increment. further voltage perturbations in the same direction should move the operating point toward the MPP.5.5 4.5 Module Current (A) 3 2.5 4 3.5 2 1. If the P is negative.1 Perturb & Observe Algorithm The perturb & observe (P&O) algorithm. also known as the “hill climbing” method. is observed. The most basic form of the P&O algorithm operates as follows. and the resulting change of power.5 1 0. the 40 .

Figure 3-14 shows the flowchart of this algorithm. and the direction of perturbation should be reversed to move back toward the MPP. 25oC) Figure 3-14: Flowchart of the P&O algorithm 41 .operating point has moved away from the MPP. voltage for BP SX 150S PV module (1KW/m2. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 A MPP * * B 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 3-13: Plot of power vs.

F and G. From points A. Instead. Assume that the operating point is initially at the point A and is oscillating around the MPP at the irradiance of 250W/m2. it cannot determine when it has actually reached the MPP. First. Then. again the MPPT will see the positive P and will assume it is moving towards the MPP. In this case the positive P is measured when the operating voltage has been moving toward the left. The cause of this problem can be explained using Figure 3-15 with a set of P-V curves with varying irradiance. 42 .There are some limitations that reduce its MPPT efficiency. If this operating point is perturbing from right to left around the MPP. If the irradiance is still rapidly increasing. it oscillates the operating point around the MPP after each cycle and slightly reduces PV efficiency under the constant irradiance condition [9]. the irradiance increases rapidly to 500W/m2. then the operating point will actually moves from the point A toward the point E (instead of B). This happens because the MPPT can not tell that the positive P is the result of increasing irradiation and simply assumes that it is the result of moving the operating point to closer to the MPP. This situation can occur on partly cloudy days. the MPPT is fooled as if there is a MPP on the left side. the operating point continues to deviate from the actual MPP until the solar radiation change slows or settles down. E. and MPP tracking is most difficult because of the frequent movement of the MPP. The power measurement results in a positive P. continuing to perturb to the left. Second. it has been shown that it can exhibit erratic behavior in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions as a result of moving clouds [11].

A more complex one uses a variable step size of perturbation. this works well under the constant irradiation but ∆V worsens the erratic behavior under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions on partly cloudy 43 . The tradeoffs are a steady state error and a high risk of not detecting a small power change. new = Vref + C ⋅ ∆P [4] [12]. Again. Another way is the addition of a “waiting” function that causes a momentary cessation of perturbations if the direction of the perturbation is reversed several times in a row. indicating that the MPP has been reached [9]. for example: V ref . It works well under the constant irradiation but makes the MPPT slower to respond to changing atmospheric conditions.¢¤¦ 1000W/m2 D ¢£§ ¢¤¥¦ Module Output Power (W) 750W/m2 G F ¢£ § * C ¦ * E 500W/m2 ¦ * A B § 250W/m2 ¥¦ ¡ ¢£ ¢¤¡ ¥¦ ¥§¡ ¨§ ¨©¡ § ©¡ ¡¦ Module Voltage (V) Figure 3-15: Erratic behavior of the P&O algorithm under rapidly increasing irradiance The advent of digital controller made implementation of algorithm easy. The problem of oscillations around the MPP can be solved by the simplest way of making a bypass loop which skips the perturbation when the P is very small which occurs near the MPP. using the slope of PV power as a variable. as a result many variations of the P&O algorithm were proposed to claim improvements.

A modification involving taking a PV power measurement twice at the same voltage solves the problem of not detecting the changing irradiance [9]. Hoshino. Japan.18) (3. dP d (V ⋅ I ) dV dI dI = =I +V = I +V dV dV dV dV dV (3.20) The above equations are written in terms of voltage and current as follows. The slope is the derivative of the PV module’s power with respect to its voltage and has the following relationships with the MPP. and Osakada of Saga University. The tradeoff is that the increased number of sampling slows response times and increases the complexity of algorithm.19) (3. The basic idea is that the slope of P-V curve becomes zero at the MPP. as shown in Figure 3-13. Comparing these two measurements. dP = 0 at MPP dV dP > 0 at the left of MPP dV dP < 0 at the right of MPP dV (3. 3.2 Incremental Conductance Algorithm In 1993 Hussein.21) 44 . the algorithm can determine whether the irradiance is changing and decide how to perturb the operating point. proposed the incremental conductance (incCond) algorithm intending to solve the problem of the P&O algorithm under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions [11]. It is also possible to find a relative location of the operating point to the MPP by looking at the slopes.5. Muta.days because the power change due to irradiance makes the step size too big.

and (3.21) becomes: I +V dI >0 dV (3.22) dI I =− dV V (3.27) represents incremental conductance of the PV module. it is assumed that the operating point is at the right side of the MPP. and the right side of the equations represents its instantaneous conductance. The flowchart shown in Figure 3-16 explains the operation of this algorithm.24) dI I >− dV V (3. the equation (3.27) Note that the left side of the equations (3. dI and dV. If the condition satisfies the inequality (3.21) becomes: I +V dI <0 dV (3. Similarly. (3.25). the equation (3. Then.23). The main check is carried out using the relationships in the equations (3.27). it calculates the incremental changes.If the operating point is at the MPP. It starts with measuring the present values of PV module voltage and current.25). and (3. it is assumed that the operating point is at the left side of the MPP thus must be moved to the right by increasing the module voltage. thus must be moved to the left by decreasing 45 .23) If the operating point is at the left side of the MPP.25) If the operating point is at the right side of the MPP. (3. the equation (3.27).21) becomes: I +V dI =0 dV (3.26) dI I <− dV V (3. if the condition satisfies the inequality (3.23).25). using the present values and previous values of voltage and current.

If the irradiation has increased (condition: dI > 0). the condition satisfies the equation (3. Then. it takes no action. it updates the history by storing the voltage and current data that will be used as previous values in the next cycle. When the operating point reaches at the MPP. the algorithm will decrease the operating voltage. Then. if the irradiation has decreased (condition: dI < 0). it lowers the MPP voltage. and the algorithm bypasses the voltage adjustment. At the end of cycle. it raises the MPP voltage. the algorithm will increase the operating voltage to track the MPP.the module voltage. dI I =− dV V dI I >− dV V Figure 3-16: Flowchart of the incCond algorithm 46 . If the MPPT is still operating at the MPP (condition: dV = 0) and the irradiation has not changed (condition: dI = 0). Another important check included in this algorithm is to detect atmospheric conditions.23). Similarly.

a small margin of error (E) should be allowed. Its task is to minimize error between Vref and the measured voltage by adjusting the duty cycle. Thus. the MPPT takes measurement of PV voltage and current. The PI loop operates with a much faster rate and provides fast response and overall system stability [10] [12].6.6 Control of MPPT As explained in the previous section. for example: dP/dV = ±E. it is a MPPT controller’s task to bring the voltage to a desired level and maintain it. the condition dP/dV = 0 (or dI/dV = -I/V) seldom occurs because of the approximation made in the calculation of dI and dV [11]. there is another control loop that the proportional and integral (PI) controller regulates the input voltage of converter. The PI controller itself can be implemented with analog components. Then. and then tracking algorithm (P&O. Then.1 PI Control As shown in Figure 3-17. The value of E is optimized with exchange between an amount of the steady-sate tracking error and a risk of oscillation of the operating point. incCond. 3. the MPPT algorithm tells a MPPT controller how to move the operating voltage. or variations of two) calculates the reference voltage (Vref) where the PV operating voltage should move next. There are several methods often used for MPPT.In practice. The task of MPPT algorithm is to set Vref only. but it is often done with DSP-based controller [10] because the DSP can handle other tasks such as MPP tracking thus reducing parts count. and it is repeated periodically with a slower rate (typically 1~10 samples per second). 3. 47 .

4. Figure 3-18: Block diagram of MPPT with the direct control 48 .2 Direct Control As shown in Figure 3-18. this control method is simpler and uses only one control loop.Figure 3-17: Block diagram of MPPT with the PI compensator 3.6. The way how to adjust the duty cycle is totally based on the theory of load matching explained in Section 3. and it performs the adjustment of duty cycle within the MPP tracking algorithm.

5 2 Slope=1/R R=16 Ohms R=4 Ohms * R=7.93 Ohms * MPP * Increasing D 1. The tracking algorithm (P&O. incCond.The impedance seen by PV is the input impedance of converter. The typical sampling rate 49 . decreasing D will increase Rin. 5 4.5 1 0.28) where: D is the duty cycle of the Cúk converter.5 4 3. thus the operating voltage moves to the right. thus the PV operating voltage moves to the left. or variations of two) makes the decision how to move the operating voltage. increasing D will decrease the input impedance (Rin). The MPPT algorithm changes the duty cycle.5 Module Current (A) 3 2. As shown in Figure 3-19. the relationship to the load is: V s (1 − D ) 2 Rin = = ⋅ Rload Is D2 (3. then the next sampling of PV voltage and current should be taken after the system reaches the periodic steady state to avoid measuring the transient behavior [9]. Similarly. Using the example of the Cúk converter in Section 3.4.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Increasing Rin Figure 3-19: Relationship of the input impedance of Cúk converter and its duty cycle The time response of the power stage and PV source is relatively slow (10~50msec depending on the type of load) [9].

6. The system response is. slow in general. and the output power of converter is plotted in Figure 3-20. The direct control method can operate stably for applications such as battery equipped systems and water pumping systems. they usually require another set of sensors for the output to detect the over-voltage and over-current condition of load. however. In addition with input sensors. The duty cycle of converter is swept from 0 to 1 with 1% step. This output sensing method measures the power change of PV at the output side of converter and uses the duty cycle as a control variable. The following MATLAB simulation illustrates the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle. In the simulation. however. The aforementioned two methods use input sensing which enables accurate control of module’s operating point. thus it provides robustness against sudden changes of load.is 10~100 samples per second.3 Output Sensing Direct Control This method is a variation of the aforementioned direct control and has the advantage of requiring only two sensors for output voltage and current. Since sampling rates are slow. it is possible to implement with inexpensive microcontrollers [12]. The requirement of four sensors often makes difficult to allow for low cost systems. The sampling rate of PI controller is much faster. 3. BP SX 150S PV module is coupled with the ideal (loss-less) Cúk converter with a resistive load (6 ). 50 .

7 0. its duty cycle (1KW/m2.2 0.9 1 Figure 3-20: Output power of Cúk converter vs. the duty cycle is further perturbed in the same direction. This control method employs the P&O algorithm to locate the MPP. but the idea how it works is the same.1 0. In order to accommodate duty cycle as a control variable. the P&O algorithm used here is a slightly modified version from that previously introduced. 25oC) As shown in the figure. The algorithm perturbs the duty cycle and measure the output power of converter.5 0. Even though it works perfectly in the simulation with the ideal converter. a PV module or array is supposed to be operating at the MPP.3 0. there is a peak of output power when the duty cycle of converter is varied. Figure 3-21 shows the flowchart of algorithm. When the output power of converter is reached at the peak. there is some uncertainly if the peak of output power is corresponding with the MPP in practice with 51 . otherwise the direction will be reversed.4 0.6 Duty Cycle 0.160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.8 0. If the power is increased.

4 is elaborated here to show how the output voltage and current change with varying irradiation. and it does not work with the incCond algorithm. The maximum power transfer occurs when the input impedance of converter matches with the optimal impedance of PV module.7 Limitations of MPPT The main drawback of MPPT is that there is no regulation on output while it is tracking a maximum power point. Rin = Ropt = V MPP I MPP (3. It cannot regulate both input and output at the same time. as described in the equation below.29) 52 .non-ideal converters. this control method only works with the P&O algorithm and its variations. Figure 3-21: Flowchart of P&O algorithm for the output sensing direct control method 3. The example of load matching in Section 3. Also.

9 D 0. Using the equations above.61A 1.7V 22. obtained from the MATLAB simulation model.9W 26.V 12.12A Rload 6 6 6 6 6 Table 3-1: Load matching with the resistive load (6 ) under the varying irradiance Irradiance 1000W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 VMPP 34.552 0.4V 37.465 0.00A 4.290 Io 5. two sets of data are collected for the resistive load of 6 PV Module IMPP 4.The equation (3.9 D 0. MPPT Vo 30.48A 2.444 0.366 MPPT Vo 42.82A 3.0V 26.5V 34.35A 3.8 35.35A 3.1V 18.9W 26. the output voltage of converter is: Vo = D ⋅ Vs 1− D (3.30) From the equation (3.32) PV module data are The calculation results are tabulated in the tables below.7W 56.5.50A Rload 12 12 12 12 12 Table 3-2: Load matching with the resistive load (12 ) under the varying irradiance 53 .16).9W Rin 7.80 12.08A 2.406 0.73A 0.80 12.6V 32.31) From the equation (3. the output current of converter is: Io = 1− D ⋅ Is D (3.9W Rin 7.87A and 12 at the constant module temperature of 25oC.73A 0.70A 2.0V Io 3.61A 1.8W 87.15A 2.18A 1.7V 31.0W 118.361 0.54A 3.9V 18.6V 32.0W 118.1V 33.8 35.48A 2.92 9.92 9.7W 56.9 18.7V Irradiance 1000W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 VMPP 34.45A 3.1V 33.4V 26.1V Pmax 150.1V PV Module IMPP 4.8W 87. D= 1+ 1 Rin Rload (3.9 18.439 0.525 0.87A Pmax 150.8V 32.11).491 0.7V 31.17) for the Cúk converter is solved for duty cycle (D).5V 34.

It is very important to select an appropriate size of load. After due consideration of limitations. Thus. it’s obvious that there is no regulation of the output voltage and current. it simply pumps more water. when the load is limited by its maximum voltage or current. the next chapter will discuss designs and simulations of MPPT and PV water pumping system. It is necessary for PV system engineers to perform economic analysis of different systems and also necessary to seek other methods of efficiency improvement such as the use of a sun tracker. but the system needs to take efficiency loss by DC-DC converter into account. On the other hand. For water pumping system without batteries. The efficiency gain from MPPT is large. it must employ batteries to maintain the voltage constant. 54 . the lack of output regulation is not a predicament as long as they are equipped with water reservoirs to meet the demand of water.From the above results. There is also tradeoff between efficiency and the cost. If the application requires a constant voltage. in reality DC-DC converter used in MPPT is not 100% efficient. The speed of pump motor is proportional to the converter’s output voltage which is relative to irradiation. Of course. Another noteworthy fact is that MPPT stops its original task if the load cannot consume all the power delivered. For the stand-alone system. the grid-tied system can always perform the maximum power point tracking because it can inject the power into the grid as much as produced. the MPPT moves the operating point away from the MPP and sends less power. when the sun shines more. thus it can utilize the full capacity of PV module and array.

PSpice simulations validate the design and choice of the MPPT sampling rate. At last. 4. a Cúk converter is designed based on the specification shown in the table below. After the component selection. MATLAB simulations perform comparative tests of the P&O and incCond algorithm. Here.3. Simulations also verify the functionality of MPPT with a resistive load and then with the DC pump motor load.1 D 0. It discusses Cúk converter design. After component selection. this chapter provides comparisons between the PV water pumping system equipped with MPPT and the directcoupled system without MPPT.1 Introduction This chapter provides the design and simulations of MPPT. the design is simulated in PSpice.3.Chapter 4 Design and Simulations 4.2 Cúk Converter Design The basic operation of Cúk Converter and derivation of the voltage transfer function is explained in Section 3.6 Table 4-1: Design specification of the Cúk Converter 55 . Specification Input Voltage (Vs) Input Current (Is) Output Voltage (Vo) Output Current (Io) Maximum Output Power (Pmax) Switching Frequency (f) Duty Cycle (D) 20-48V 0-5A (< 5% ripple) 12-30V (< 5% ripple) 0-5A (< 5% ripple) 150W 50KHz 0.

1 Component Selection a) Inductor Selection The inductor sizes are decided such that the change in inductor currents is no more than 5% of the average inductor current.3) L1 = Vs ⋅ D (34.05)(5.465) = = 1. The following equation gives the change in ∆i L = Vs ⋅ D L⋅ f (4. D is the duty cycle.0A DC max.2): (4.35) = 0.0) = 0. inductor current [8]. ∆i L 2 = 0.4. (www.hammondmfg. Under this condition. 0.5mH inductor is selected.1) where: Vs is the input voltage.2.5)(0.5) 56 .05 ⋅ I L 2 = (0. the average current (IL1) of the input inductor (L1) is 4.2175 )(50 × 10 3 ) (4.35A.com).05 ⋅ I L1 = (0.475 mH ∆i L1 ⋅ f (0. ∆i L1 = 0. and the ripple current is 5% of IL1. and f is the switching frequency. 1.2175 A Thus. Similarly.05)( 4.4) A commercially available 1.2) Assume that the worst current ripple will occur under the maximum power condition.07 DCR) is available from Hammond Mfg. the value of the output inductor (L2) is calculated as follows. from the equation (4.250 A (4. For example.5mH power coke (5. Solving this for L gives: L= Vs ⋅ D ∆i L ⋅ f (4.

10) The next available size is 0. The average voltage across the capacitor (C1) is.2).3567 µF 8(0. from the equation (3.L2 = Vs ⋅ D (34.465) = = 1.5 = 3.5 + 30 = 64.25)(50 × 10 3 ) (4. The value of the output capacitor (C2) is calculated using the output voltage ripple equation (the same as that of buck converter) [21]. Vc1 = Vs + Vo= 34.05)(1. 57 .0)(0. An aluminum electrolytic capacitor with low ESR type is required.47 F. An aluminum electrolytic capacitor with low ESR type is required.6) To make parts procurement easier. b) Capacitor Selection The design criterion for capacitors is that the ripple voltage across them should be less than 5%.9) C2 = 1− D 8 ⋅ ( ∆v o Vo ) ⋅ L 2 ⋅ f 2 = 1 − 0.5)(0.283mH ∆i L 2 ⋅ f (0.42 µF R ⋅ f ⋅ ∆v c1 (6)(50 × 10 3 )(3. the output can use the same inductor size as one in the input.7) C1 = Vo ⋅ D (30.8) The next commercially available size is 22 F.465 = 0.225V.5 × 10 −3 )(50 × 10 3 ) 2 (4.465) = = 14 .05 × 64. so the maximum ripple voltage is vC1 = 0.5V.0) 2 R= = = 6Ω Po (150) The value of C1 is calculated with the following equation [8]: 2 (4. ∆v o 1− D = Vo 8 ⋅ L2 ⋅ C 2 ⋅ f Solving the above equation for C2 gives: 2 (4. The equivalent load resistance is: Vo (30.225) (4.

The average forward current (IF) of diode is the combination of input and output currents at the SW off.4V. IRF530 (ID=14Amax. the recurrent peak reverse voltage (VRRM) of the diode is the same as the average voltage of capacitor (C1) [18]. thus it is ID = IL1+IL2 = 9. The peak voltage of the switch (SW) [18] is obtained by KVL on the circuit shown in Figure 3-9. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the voltage rating of 62. There are a wide variety of Power-MOSFETs available from various vendors.2A. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the current rating of 12. Adding the 30% of safety factor gives the voltage rating of 83. VSW = Vs − dI L1 dt (4. The peak switch current is the same as the diode.c) Diode Selection Schottky diode should be selected because it has a low forward voltage and very good reverse recovery time (typically 5 to 10ns) [21].2A. VDS=100Vmax) meets the above-mentioned requirements.11) The voltage of SW could go up to 48V by the specification. From Figure 3-8. For example. For example. adding the 30% of safety factor gives the current rating of 12. Thus. VRRM=100Vmax) meets the above-mentioned voltage and current ratings.9V.35A. d) Switch Selection Power-MOSFETs are widely used for low to medium power applications. 58 . Schottky diodes are widely available from numerous vendors. MBR15100 (IF=15Amax. thus VRRM = 64.5V.

respectively. it takes a long time for current to build up. The values of armature resistance and inductance that correspond to the actual DC pump motor are unknown.2. A more detailed discussion of modeling a DC motor appears in Section 4.2 PSpice Simulations PSpice simulations validate the Cúk converter designed in Section 4. Figure 4-1 shows the circuit diagram with the PMDC motor model as a load.47uF E 28Vdc 0 0 V1 = 0 V2 = 1 TR = 10n TF = 10n TD = 0 PW = {D*T} PER = {T} PARAMETERS: f = 50kHz T = {1/f } D = . Ra and La are resistance and inductance of armature winding.4.2. thus they are estimated from other references [2] [20].5.5Vdc Vpwm + + C1 2 22uF 2 1 L2 1.1.2 - Sbreak D1 Dbreak C2 . In the diagram. The converter is running with full load.5mH La 1 2 10mH 1 Ra . and E is the back emf of the motor.1. 59 . Since the load has such a large inductance.5mH S1 Vin 34. The plots show that both input and output currents take nearly 250msec to reach steady state. L1 1.465 Figure 4-1: Schematic of the Cúk converter with PMDC motor load Figure 4-2 shows current and voltage plots of the converter after turning on (t = 0sec).

1% 4.5. It is apparent that the motor load has a very slow response. The output 60 .2% 6. Other current and voltage data are gathered and tabulated below for comparisons with the resistive load and calculated results.5V n/a 30V < 5% Table 4-2: Cúk converter design: comparisons of simulations and calculated results Table 4-2 shows two sets of simulation data for the DC motor load. the same simulation is done with an equivalent resistive load (6 ).1V 9% 3.5V n/a 29.83A 4.6% 4.20A 5.70A 4.18A 5.7% Calculated Results 4.0V 2.35A < 5% 5.9V 29.5V n/a n/a 28.6% 34.4% 34.07A 4.5V 34.84A 4. The transient time is less than 10msec with the resistive load.1% st Iin Iout Vin Vout Average % ripple Average % ripple Average % ripple Average % ripple Resistive Load (6 ) 4. DC Motor 1 Set 2nd Set 4.1% 4.0A 2.0A < 5% 34. The first set is the result of simulation using the components selected in the previous section.5A SEL>> 0A I(L1) 40V I(L2) 30V 20V 10V 0V 0s V(Vin:+) -V(C2:2) Time 50ms 100ms 150ms 200ms 250ms Figure 4-2: PSpice plots of input/output current (above) and voltage (below) For comparisons.

0A I(L1) 35. it is also necessary to adjust the value of back emf (E) because it has to correspond with the change of output voltage.3 Choice of MPPT Sampling Rate MPPT algorithms adjust PV operating point with a small step. a 1 F capacitor (instead of 0. 0.5V 30. For the Cúk converter designed.0V 240ms V(L1:1) 260ms -V(C2:2) 280ms 300ms Time 320ms 340ms 360ms Figure 4-3: Transient response when duty cycle is increased 0.2.47 F) is finally selected.35% change in duty cycle.voltage ripple for the DC motor load is as large as 9% while one for the equivalent resistive load (6 ) is only 2. Thus. and the transient responses of voltage and current are observed. 4.7%.5V corresponds to approximately 0. but it makes overall improvement of performance.0V SEL>> 27. In the same way. The use of “Sw_tOpen” and “Sw_tClose” in the analog miscellaneous library permits switching of one duty cycle to another duty cycle during the simulation.5V or less. in the next simulation.0V I(L2) 32. the size of output capacitor (C2) is increased to the next commercially available size of 1 F.5A 4. 5.35% at 250ms 61 .0A 4. PSpice performs the simulation when the duty cycle is changed. Therefore. It makes the input current ripple slightly worse. The size of step is typically 0.

as shown in Figure 4-4. the sampling rate is 10Hz at most.Figure 4-3 is the result of PSpice simulation. with a PV pump motor. 25oC) The traces of PV operating point are shown in green. and the MPP is the red asterisk 62 . where they take only several milliseconds for the resistive load. First. It is important for MPPT algorithm to take measurements of voltage and current after they reach steady state.1 for MATLAB scripts for this section. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start end 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-4: Searching the MPP (1KW/m2.5 are implemented in MATLAB simulations and tested for their performance. each simulation contains only the PV model and the algorithm in order to isolate any influence from a converter or load. they are verified to locate the MPP correctly under the constant irradiance. discussed in Section 3. 4.3 Comparisons of P&O and incCond Algorithm The two MPPT algorithms. Therefore. It shows both input and output currents take between 80msec and 90msec to go to steady state. Since the purpose is to make comparisons of two algorithms. P&O and incCond. Please refer to Appendix A.

63 . Irradiance values between two data points are estimated by the cubic interpolation in MATLAB functions. As shown in Figure 4-6. and the second set of data is for a cloudy day in the same month at the same location. MPP tracking is supposed to be easy. 1 Sunny Day Cloudy Day 0.6 0. The data contain the irradiance measurements taken every two minutes for 12 hours.8 Irradiance (KW/m2) 0. the algorithms are tested with actual irradiance data provided by [2]. Spain. Simulations use two sets of data.2 0 0 2 4 6 Hour (h) 8 10 12 Figure 4-5: Irradiance data for a sunny and a cloudy day of April in Barcelona.Next. the first set of data is the measurements of a sunny day in April in Barcelona. the irradiance level changes gradually since there is no influence of cloud.4 0. both algorithms locate and maintain the PV operating point very close to the MPPs (shown in red asterisks) without much difference in their performance. Spain [2] On a sunny day. shown in Figure 4-5.

MPP tracking is supposed to be challenging. the incCond algorithm is supposed to outperform the P&O algorithm under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions [11]. Figure 4-7 shows the trace of PV operating points for (a) P&O algorithm and (b) incCond algorithm. the irradiance level changes rapidly because of passing clouds.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) P&O algorithm 1000W/m 2 160 140 (b) incCond algorithm 1000W/m2 800W/m2 Module Output Power (W) 120 100 80 60 40 800W/m2 600W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 400W/m2 200W/m2 20 0 20 0 200W/m2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-6: Traces of MPP tracking on a sunny day (25oC) On a cloudy day. For both algorithms. Some erratic traces are. A close inspection of Figure 4-7 reveals that the P&O algorithm has slightly larger deviations overall and some erratic behaviors (such as the large deviation pointed by the red arrow). also observable in the plot of the incCond algorithm. In order to make a better comparison. total electric energy produced during a 12-hour period is calculated and tabulated in Table 4-3. 64 . however. Between two algorithms. the deviations of operating points from the MPPs are obvious when compared to the results of a sunny day.

and that could be a reason why the two results are so close.85% incCond Algorithm 479. further optimization of algorithm and varying a testing method may provide different results. The MPP tracking efficiency measured by {Total Energy (simulation)} ÷ {Total Energy (theoretical max)} ×100% is still good in the cloudy condition for both algorithms. and again it is narrowly higher with the incCond algorithm.86% Table 4-3: Comparison of the P&O and incCond algorithms on a cloudy day Total electric energy produced with the incCond algorithm is narrowly larger than that of the P&O algorithm.69Wh 480. The simulation results showed the efficiency of 99. The data may not be providing a truly rapid changing condition.64Wh 480.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 (a) P&O Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 (b) incCond Algorithm 1000W/m 2 1000W/m2 800W/m2 800W/m2 600W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m2 40 20 0 200W/m2 400W/m2 40 20 0 200W/m2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 Figure 4-7: Trace of MPP tracking on a cloudy day (25oC) Total Energy (simulation) Total Energy (theoretical max) Efficiency P&O Algorithm 479. thus they do not record a much higher rate of changes during these intervals. The irradiance data are only available at two-minute intervals. Also. however. The performance difference between the two algorithms.3% for 65 . would not be large. There is a study showing similar results [9].38Wh 99.38Wh 99.

as discussed in Section 3. The selection of the P&O algorithm permits the use of the output sensing direct control method which eliminates the input voltage and current sensors.6. T ) (4. the MPPT control. The simulated system consists of the BP SX 150S PV model.0%. and the P&O algorithm provides satisfactory results even in the cloudy condition.4% for the incCond algorithm. 4. and module temperature (T in oC). for a partly cloudy day. The MATLAB function that models the PV module is the following: I a = bp _ sx150 s (Va .4.5% and 97. The operating point of PV module is located by its relationship to the load resistance (R) as explained in Section 3. G . The simulation results in Section 4.4 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load First.12) The function. therefore. calculates the module current (Ia) for the given module voltage (Va). bp_sx150s. irradiance (G in KW/m2).13) 66 . the ideal Cúk converter. R= Va Ia (4. and the resistive load (6 ). chooses the P&O algorithm and the output sensing direct control method because of the advantage that allows of a simple and low cost system.3. MPPT with a resistive load is implemented in MATLAB simulation and verified.3 have shown that there is no great advantage in using the more complex incCond algorithm. The experimental results showed 96. respectively.the P&O algorithm and 99. The MPPT design.

1 for details. the steady state analysis discussed in Section 3. Therefore.12) gives the operating current (Ia). The following equations describe the input/output relationship of voltage and current.13) gives: Va − R ⋅ f (Va ) = 0 (4.12) are known variables.3 provides sufficient modeling of the Cúk converter.16) where: D is the duty cycle of the Cúk converter. thus it is possible to say that Ia is the function of Va hence Ia = f(Va).15) 1− D ⋅ Is D (4.14) Knowing the value of R enables to solve this equation for the operating voltage (Va). Vo = Io = D ⋅ Vs 1− D (4. For the direct control method.The irradiance (G) and the module temperature (T) for the function (4. and they are used in the MATLAB simulation. each sampling of voltage and current is done at a periodic steady state condition of the converter. back to the equation (4. Placing Va. Substituting this into the equation (4. 67 .3. MATLAB uses fzero function to do so. Please refer Appendix A.

The details can be referred in the MATLAB script listed in the Appendix A. explains the operation of the simulated system. the current and voltage increase linearly with the slope of 1/Rload on the I-V plane. ! ) * ! ! - . Figure 4-9 (d) shows the current and voltage relationship of converter output. Figure 4-9 (c) shows the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle. Since the load is resistive. " # $% & ' ! # ( #! ) *+ )* . 68 .3W/m2 per sample. Figure 4-9 (a) and (b) show that the trace of operating point is staying close to the MPPs during the simulation.The following flowchart. +! ! +" / # 0 1 Figure 4-8: MPPT simulation flowchart The simulation is performed under the linearly increasing irradiance varying from 100W/m2 to 1000W/m2 with a moderate rate of 0.1. shown in Figure 4-8.

25oC) The control algorithm contains two loops. Then.6 Duty Cycle 0. irradiance. In the simulation.1 0.5 3 2. the control algorithm stops operating in MPPT mode and invokes the output protection.5 0.5 800W/m2 600W/m 2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m 2 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0. the 10 For the example shown in Figure 4-10. To protect the load from failure. When the load cannot absorb all the power produced by PV.8 0. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0.9 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure 4-9: MPPT simulations with the resistive load (100 to 1000W/m2. The output protection maintains 69 . it sets when the output voltage goes beyond 30V or 5A for the output current. it regulates the output not to exceed the limit. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 Module Current(A) 3.2 0.5 4 (b) PV Current vs.5 2 1. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.7 0.4 0. During the normal operation. its voltage or/and current will exceed the limit.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Output Power vs. it operates in MPPT mode. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) PV Power vs. as shown in Figure 4-8: the main loop for MPPT and another loop for output protection. during the increasing load exceeds the voltage limit of 30V.3 0.

SIMULINK is chosen for this purpose because it offers a tool called “SimPowerSystems” which facilitates modeling of DC motors with its DC machine tool box. The results are very similar and are shown in Appendix A. Voltage 5 800W/m 2 600W/m 2 end Output Current (A) 4 end 3 400W/m 2 2 200W/m 2 20 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure 4-10: Output protection & regulation (100 to 1000W/m2. replacing the resistive load. DC pump motor is modeled.5 MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load Next. The model is then put into the MATLAB simulation designed in the previous section. 25oC) The input sensing type direct control method. is also implemented with both P&O and incCond algorithm. It also indicates the importance of selecting an appropriate size of load. Figure 4-10 (a) shows that PV is not operating at the MPP and sending the power less than the maximum after the irradiance reaches at a little over 600W/m2.the voltage around 30V. discussed in Section 3. 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 (a) PV Power vs.2.6. 4.2 for reference. 70 . thus it can utilize the full capacity of PV module or array. Voltage 1000W/m 2 6 (b) Output Current vs.

shown in Figure 4-13. as shown in Figure 4-12. They have constant load torque to the pump motors. It has the normal operating voltage of 12 to 30V and the maximum power of 150W. vertical lift and friction converted to vertical lift [13]. Figure 4-11 shows the relationship between flow rate of water and total dynamic head for the Kyocera SD 12-30 solar pump to be modeled. The parameters of DC machine. which is governed by the available driving voltage [19]. the load torque is also constant. the SIMULINK model applies a constant field. Since the water pump is a positive displacement type. thus they are chosen by modification of the default values and estimation from other references [2] [20]. that correspond to the actual pump motor are unknown. for example. and it is expressed by the total dynamic head in terms of its equivalent vertical column of water.5. Figure 4-11: Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump performance chart [13] To model a permanent magnet DC motor.4. The value is selected to draw the maximum power of 150W at the maximum voltage of 30V. 71 .1 Modeling of DC Water Pump The flow rate of water in positive displacement pumps is directly proportional to the speed of the pump motor.

Te.Positive Displacement Pump (Constant Torque) 1. w.1 TL Signal 1 s + A+ F+ m Demux dc AF- 0-30V Ramp Voltage Source DC Machine Apply Constant Field Va. Ia. Then. the change of load resistance (Rload) is observed. The plot data are 72 . P Product + v - Va ? More Info Ia vs Va Divide Rload Figure 4-12: SIMULINK model of permanent magnet DC pump motor Figure 4-13: SIMULINK DC machine block parameters The voltage source applies a 0-30V ramp at the rate of 1V per second. as shown in Figure 4-14.

and MATLAB uses it in the simulations.2 MATLAB Simulation Results The simulation is carried out in a similar manner as that for the resistive load.transferred to MATLAB.5 × 10 −5 ⋅ Vo3 − 8. Rload = 9.5.17) where: Vo is the output voltage of converter.2 (4. Figure 4-14: SIMULINK plot of Rload ( ) 4. Figure 4-15 (c) shows the relationship between the output power of converter and its duty cycle.3W/m2 per sample. 73 . shown below. This equation characterizes the DC pump motor. Figure 4-15 (a) and (b) show that the trace of operating point staying close to the MPPs throughout the simulation. The irradiance is increased linearly from 20W/m2 to 1000W/m2 with the same rate of 0. and the cubic curve fitting tool in MATLAB provides the equation of the curve.37 ⋅ Vo + 0.7 × 10 −3 ⋅ Vo2 + 0.

2 (c) Output Power vs. the back emf takes effect and drops the current.8 0.4 0. The only 74 .5 2 1. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 0. It is similar to the MATLAB version. therefore the current rises slowly with increasing voltage. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 Module Current(A) 3. The y-axis is the armature current of DC motor. Once it starts to run.1 0. It shows that the output current rises rapidly with increasing voltage until the current is sufficient to create enough torque to start the motor.5 800W/m2 600W/m 2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m 2 200W/m 2 1 0.7 0. Figure 4-16 shows the I-V curve produced by the SIMULINK simulation.6 Duty Cycle 0.5 0.5 3 2. therefore it can be concluded that the simple MATLAB model of DC motor used here is valid. 25oC) Figure 4-15 (d) shows the current and voltage relationship of converter output which is equal to the DC motor load. and the x-axis is time (second) that corresponds to the armature voltage (V).160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start (a) PV Power vs. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.5 4 (b) PV Current vs.3 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.9 1 4 3 2 1 start 0 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 Figure 4-15: MPPT simulations with the DC pump motor load (20 to 1000W/m2.5 200W/m2 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 0 160 140 120 Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 start 0 0.

The total electric energy produced during a 12-hour period is calculated and tabulated in Table 4-4.discrepancy is that the MATLAB version shows slow transition between halt to motion because the output is limited by the duty cycle which is set to 10% as the minimum.42% Total Energy (simulation) Total Energy (theoretical max) Efficiency Table 4-4: Energy production and efficiency of PV module with and without MPPT 75 . introduced in Section 4.6 System with MPPT vs. With MPPT 1.060KWh 99. Spain. Figure 4-16: SIMULINK plot of DC motor I-V curve 4.75% Without MPPT 0. Direct-coupled System The PV water pumping system simulated in the previous section is compared with the direct-coupled PV water pumping system without MPPT. The irradiance data used here are the measurements of a sunny day in April in Barcelona.060KWh 54.577KWh 1.3.057KWh 1.

Another set of simulations provides a comparison of the two systems in terms of flow rates and total volume of water pumped. Using the same test condition. When the total dynamic head is 30m. The results show that MPPT can significantly boost the performance. 14 12 Loss-less Converter 90% Efficiency Converter Direct-coupled System 10 Flow Rate (L/min) 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hour 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 4-17: Flow rates of PV water pumps for a 12-hour period Simulated with the irradiance data of a sunny day (total dynamic head = 30m) 76 .7cm3/W·min. it pumps water with the flow rate above. the flow rate of Kyocera SD 12-30 water pump is proportional to the power delivered. the system can increase the overall efficiency by more than 35% compared to the system without MPPT. the flow rate per watt is approximately 86. the flow rates of pump are obtained from the MATLAB simulations and shown in Figure 4-17. As shown in Figure 4-11. On the other hand. Assuming a DC-DC converter has efficiency more than 90%.The result shows that the PV water pumping system without MPPT has poor efficiency because of mismatching between the PV module and the DC pump motor load. therefore as long as the output power is higher than 35W. The minimum power requirement of pump motor is 35W [13]. it shows that the system with MPPT can utilize more than 99% of PV capacity.

302m3 90% Efficiency Converter 4. it can still pump 67% more water than the system without MPPT. it goes idle nearly two hours earlier than the system with MPPT in the afternoon. With MPPT Loss-less Converter 5. 77 . It enables to pump up to 87% more water than the system without MPPT. Similarly.The results show that the direct-coupled PV water pumping system has a severe disadvantage because the pump stays idle for nearly two more hours in the morning while the same system with MPPT is already pumping water. The flow rate of water is also lower throughout the operating period.831m3 Table 4-5: Total volume of water pumped for 12 hours Simulated with the irradiance data of a sunny day (total dynamic head = 30m) The results show that MPPT offers significant performance improvement. The results are tabulated below. The total volume of water pumped for the 12-hour period is also calculated for both systems.719m3 Without MPPT Total Volume of Water Pumped for 12 Hours (simulation) 2. Even if the efficiency of converter is set to 90%.

It models each component and simulates the system using MATLAB. 78 .Chapter 5 Conclusion 5. The incCond algorithm shows narrowly but better performance in terms of efficiency compared to the P&O algorithm under the cloudy weather condition. The results validate that MPPT can significantly increase the efficiency of energy production from PV and the performance of the PV water pumping system compared to the system without MPPT. this thesis adopts the direct control method which employs the P&O algorithm but requires only two sensors for output. This control method offers another benefit of allowing steady-state analysis of the DC-DC converter. Simulations also make comparisons with the system without MPPT in terms of total energy produced and total volume of water pumped a day. It performs simulations of the whole system and verifies functionality and benefits of MPPT. and then the model is transferred into MATLAB. However. it could be difficult to justify the use of incCond algorithm for small low-cost systems since it requires four sensors. Even a small improvement of efficiency could bring large savings if the system is large. The result shows that the PV model using the equivalent circuit in moderate complexity provides good matching with the real PV module. Simulations use SimPowerSystems in SIMULINK to model a DC pump motor. as opposed to the more complex state-space averaging method. Simulations perform comparative tests for the two MPPT algorithms using actual irradiance data in the two different weather conditions. In order to develop a simple low-cost system.1 Summary This study presents a simple but efficient photovoltaic water pumping system. because it performs sampling of voltage and current at the periodic steady state.

SimPowerSystems provide components to build electric circuits in SIMULINK and allow including such losses. Also. Building the whole system in SIMULINK. It may involve implementation of: a DSP or a microcontroller. uncertain because the parameters are only estimates. At the initial phase of simulation design. a Cúk converter.5.2 Difficulties and Future Research Correct modeling of the DC-DC converter and DC water pump is an important area of study. If tests could be run on the real water pump motor or an equivalent sized motor to determine reasonable entries to SIMULINK block parameters. and various difficulties remain in the current study. The accuracy of model is. and resistive losses in inductors and capacitors. 79 . could open avenues of study such as stability analysis of system and implementations of more advanced control methods. a driving circuit for PowerMOSFET. however. a method of supplying power to the controller. The model used for simulations of DC water pump gives results within a reasonable range. simply increasing the size of system and using a larger motor (5hp or above) could allow for better results in SUMILINK. and a water level sensor that detects when the water reservoir reaches full. Physical implementation of the system remains for future research. this could lead to more accurate simulation runs. however. A more realistic model of the DC-DC converter would involve a diode loss. signal conditioning circuits for A/D converters. a switching loss in a Power-MOSFET. It may also involve performance analysis on the actual system and comparisons with simulations. though many PV water pumps rarely use such large motors. attempts to build a Cúk converter in SIMULINK faced unsolvable difficulties.

3 Concluding Remarks Issues of energy and global warming are some of the biggest challenges for humanity in the 21st century. and creating no pollution or green house gases during the power generation. using no moving parts. the author wishes that this thesis serves the interests of other students who are interested in power electronics for PV applications and provides encouragement towards more advanced senior project or master’s thesis research. taking control of the world’s supply of oil is one of the most important national agenda for United Sates. Energy is so important for everyone. renewable energy resources are ubiquitous around the world. Together with decreasing PV module costs and increasing efficiency. consuming no fossil fuels. Especially. the sun. PV has a powerful attraction because it produces electric energy from a free inexhaustible source. PV is getting more pervasive than ever. 80 .5. In contrast. Finally. and in fact. The world is getting divided into two groups: the countries that have access to oil and natural gas resources and those that do not.

Introduction to Power Electronics Prentice Hall Inc. No. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Mario S. Fuller.. L.150W Multi-crystalline Photovoltaic Module Datasheet. & Wernher Swiegers “Integrated Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Converter” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Kostas Kalaitzakis.. California Polytechnic State University. S. Muta. California Polytechnic State University. Using PSpice John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2004 Enslin.. Voulgaris “Development of a Microcontroller-Based. 2002 Chapin. No. Hoshino. 1990 Day. T. page 676-677 Dang. Jongrong Lin & Chihming Shen “Implementation of a DSPControlled Photovoltaic System with Peak Power Tracking” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. page 47-62 Hua. Solar Cells. and System Applications Prentice Hall Inc. page 59-64 Koutroulis. 6 December 1997.. & M. P. Vol. Thuy Lam A Digitally-controlled Power Tracker Master’s Thesis. No. San Luis Obispo. Transmission and Distribution – v. Christopher Alan The Design of an Efficient. Technology. I. Snyman. 1982 Hart. Murray Hill. January 2001. page 46-54 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] 81 . 142 January 1995.. 1996 Hohm. Elegant. 44. Pomona. Martin A. 16. 1 February 1998. Chihchiang. Daniel W. Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Control System” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Operating Principles. & G. E. & M. 45. K. John H. 1. Daniël B.Bibliography [1] [2] [3] BP Solar BP SX150 . C. Volume 25. Wolf. Efichios. Osakada “Maximum Photovoltaic Power Tracking: an Algorithm for Rapidly Changing Atmospheric Conditions” IEE Proceedings – Generation. 2001 Castañer. and Cubic Pico-Satellite Electronics System Master’s Thesis. M. Ropp “Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications November 2002.. Nicholas C. page 769-773 Green. May 1954. Pearson. New Jersey “A New Silicon p-n Junction Photocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electrical Power” Journal of Applied Physics. Vol. H. page 99-107 Hussein. Inc. D. Issue 5. D. Vol. Luis & Santiago Silvestre Modelling Photovoltaic Systems.

Embedded Target for the TI TMS320C2000™ DSP Platform For Use with Real-Time Workshop® User’s Guide Version 1 2005 (downloaded from www. Power Electronics . San Luis Obispo. August 2005) UNESCO The UN World Water Development Report.kyocerasolar. Reverse-Osmosis Desalination of Seawater Powered by Photovoltaics Without Batteries Doctoral Thesis. 2004 Taufik EE527 Switching Power Supply Design . Muhammad H. Undeland. 2004 Rashid. Issue 12 December 1998. Marry A. A. R.ti. Solar Water Pump Applications Guide 2001 (downloaded from www. Muhammad H. M.com) Messenger. 2001 Sharaf A. Gilbert M. Volume 22.Lecture Note Cal Poly State University.com/) Thompson.Lecture Note Cal Poly State University. page 1091 . Devices.1098 Taufik EE410 Power Electronics I . Abdulla Ismail.unesco.[13] [14] Kyocera Solar Inc. Editor-in-Chief Power Electronics Handbook Academic Press. Abu-Azab “A Photovoltaic Utilization System with Bang-Bang Self-Adjusting Maximum Energy Tracking Controller” International Journal of Energy Research. Loughborough University. Robbins Power Electronics – Converters.Circuits.org/water/wwap/wwdr/. Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems John Wiley & Sons Ltd. August 2005) (viewed on [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] 82 . 2004 Mohan. June 2004 (downloaded from dspvillage. 2003 www. San Luis Obispo. and Applications 3rd Edition Pearson Education. 2004 Texas Instruments “Converting Analog Controllers to Smart Controllers with TMS320C2000 DSPs” Application Report.com) MathWorks Inc. I. Applications..org/dpdl/water/ . El-Khatib & S. Roger & Jerry Ventre Photovoltaic Systems Engineering 2nd Edition CRC Press.mathworks.unep. 2003 Rashid. 2003 UNEP “Water Policy and Strategy” (viewed on www. and Design 3rd Edition John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2003 Masters.

“Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model” Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. 2000 83 . Brisbane. Geoff R. AUPEC ‘00.[27] Walker.

% 1 (ideal diode) < n < 2 Eg = 1. Vc = Va / Ns. 1.1 MATLAB Function for Modeling BP SX 150S PV Module This MATLAB function (bp_sx150s.42 (GaAs). % Define b = Eg * q/(n*k). % Temperature coefficient of Isc (0. % Voc (open circuit voltage per cell) @ temp TrK Isc_TrK = 4. % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp TrK Vt_TrK = n * k * TrK / q. % Isc (short circuit current per cell) @ temp TrK a = 0.TaC) % function bp_sx150s. vector or scalar % In: Va = Module operating voltage (V).1 MATLAB Functions and Scripts A. 72 cells) TrK = 298.1. q = 1. % Reference temperature (25C) in Kelvin Voc_TrK = 43.m) is to simulate the current-voltage relationship of BP SX 150S PV module and used in simulations throughout of this thesis. % Module temperature in Kelvin % Cell voltage % Calculate short-circuit current for TaK Isc = Isc_TrK * (1 + (a * (TaK .12.75.381e-23. % Boltzmann’s constant % Electron charge % Following constants are taken from the datasheet of PV module and % curve fitting of I-V character (Use data for 1000W/m^2) n = 1.5 (CdTe).65e-3. % Calculate photon generated current @ given irradiance Iph = G * Isc.62.T) % % Out: Ia = Module operating current (A). 1.Appendix A A.75 (amorphous Si) Ns = 72. 1.5 /Ns.065%/C) % Define variables TaK = 273 + TaC. function Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. 84 . % Band gap energy.TrK))). vector or scalar % G = Irradiance (1G = 1000 W/m^2).m models the BP SX 150S PV module % calculates module current under given voltage. % Diode ideality factor (n). irradiance and temperature % Ia = bp_sx150s(Va.G. % 1. scalar % TaC = Module temperature in deg C. % # of series connected cells (BP SX150s.G.12eV (Si). scalar % % Written by Akihiro Oi 7/01/2005 % Revised 7/18/2005 %///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define constants k = 1.602e-19.

End A.f(Ia1)/f'(Ia1) Ia=zeros(size(Vc)). The listing of those MATBAB scripts is omitted./ Vt_Ta) -1)).(Iph .b = Eg * q /(n * k). Ir = Ir_TrK * (TaK / TrK)^(3/n) * exp(-b * (1 / TaK -1 / TrK)).. 200).Ia . % Define constant G = 1.* Rs) . % Calculate series resistance per cell (Rs = 5./ (-1 . 75C) % % Akihiro Oi July 18. % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp Ta Vt_Ta = n * k * TaK / q. Other plots showing PV characteristics are done in similar ways using MATLAB. 25C. .Ir . % Take dV/dI @ Voc from I-V curve of datasheet Xv = Ir_TrK / Vt_TrK * exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK). % Functions to plot figure hold on for TaC=0:25:75 Va = linspace (0.1../ Vt_Ta)).2 MATLAB Script to Draw PV I-V Curves The following simple MATLAB script is used for Figure 2-12 to draw the I-V characteristics of various module temperatures.dVdI_Voc . 50C. G./ Vt_Ta) .0/Ns.* Rs) .Script file to draw i-v curves of pv module % with variable temp (0C. % Ia = Iph . 2005 %/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. Ia = Ia .1/Xv.m . Ia) end title('BP SX 150S Photovoltaic Module I-V Curve') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current (A)') 85 . % Initialize Ia with zeros % Perform 5 iterations for j=1:5. TaC).Ir * (exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) % f(Ia) = Iph .* ( exp((Vc + Ia . plot(Va.Ir * (Rs . % Calculate reverse saturation current for given temperature Ir_TrK = Isc_TrK / (exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK) -1). 48-TaC/8.Ir * ( exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) = 0 % Solve for Ia by Newton's method: Ia2 = Ia1 .Ia . % plot_iv_temp.* exp((Vc + Ia . Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Rs = .1mOhm) dVdI_Voc = -1.

axis([0 50 0 5]) gtext('0C') gtext('25C') gtext('50C') gtext('75C') hold off

**A.1.3 MATLAB Function to Find the MPP
**

This simple MATLAB function is to find the power, voltage, and current at the MPP of BP SX 150S PV module under the given irradiance and module temperature.

function [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC) % find_mpp: function to find a maximum power point of pv module % [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC) % in: G (irradiance, KW/m^2), TaC (temp, deg C) % out: Pa_max (maximum power), Imp, Vmp % % Akihiro Oi July 27, 2005 %//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define variables and initialize Va = 12; Pa_max = 0; % Start process while Va < 48-TaC/8 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); Pa_new = Ia * Va; if Pa_new > Pa_max Pa_max = Pa_new; Imp = Ia; Vmp = Va; end Va = Va + .005; end

**A.1.4 MATLAB Script: P&O Algorithm
**

This MATLAB script is to test the P&O algorithm under the sunny weather condition in Section 4.3. Other testing in this section is done in a similar way, and listing of testing code is omitted.

% poTest2: Script file to test the P&O MPPT Algorithm % Testing with slowly changing irradiance %

86

% Akihiro Oi June 29, 2005 % Revised on August 31, 2005 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% clear; % Define constants % Cell temperature (deg C) TaC = 25; C = 0.5; % Step size for ref voltage change (V) % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0.028; % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) % PV voltage Va = 26.0; Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); % PV current Pa = Va * Ia; % PV output power % New reference voltage Vref_new = Va + C; % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []; Pa_array = []; % Load irradiance data load irrad; x = irrad(:,1)'; y = irrad(:,2)'; xi = 147.4e+3:190.6e+3; yi = interp1(x,y,xi,'cubic'); % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation

% Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43.2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample); % Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new; Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new,G,TaC); % Calculate new Pa Pa_new = Va_new * Ia_new; deltaPa = Pa_new - Pa; % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPa > 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new + C; % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new - C; % Decrease Vref end elseif deltaPa < 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new - C; % Decrease Vref else Vref_new = Va_new + C; %Increase Vref end else Vref_new = Va_new; % No change end % Update history Va = Va_new; Pa = Pa_new; % Store data in arrays for plot

87

Va_array = [Va_array Va]; Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa]; end % Plot result figure plot (Va_array, Pa_array, 'g') % Overlay with P-I curves and MPP Va = linspace (0, 45, 200); hold on for G=.2:.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va, G, TaC); Pa = Ia.*Va; plot(Va, Pa) [Pa_max, Imp, Vmp] = find_mpp(G, TaC); plot(Vmp, Pa_max, 'r*') end title('P&O Algorithm') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) %gtext('1000W/m^2') %gtext('800W/m^2') %gtext('600W/m^2') %gtext('400W/m^2') %gtext('200W/m^2') hold off

**A.1.5 MATLAB Script: incCond Algorithm
**

This MATLAB script is to test the incCond algorithm under the cloudy weather condition in Section 4.3. Other tests in this section are done in a similar way, and the listing of testing code is omitted.

% incCondTest1: Script file to test incCond MPPT Algorithm % Testing with rapidly changing insolation % % Akihiro Oi June 29, 2005 % Revised on August 31, 2005 %/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear; % Define constants TaC = 25; % Cell temperature (deg C) C = 0.5; % Step size for ref voltage change (V) E = 0.002; % Maximum dI/dV error % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0.045; % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) Va = 27.2; % PV voltage Ia = bp_sx150s(Va,G,TaC); % PV current Pa = Va * Ia; % PV output power

88

% Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new. x = irrad7d(:. % incCond Algorithm starts here if deltaVa == 0 if deltaIa == 0 Vref_new = Va_new.C. % Update history Va = Va_new.Ia. Pmax_array =[].xi. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new . deltaIa = Ia_new . end % % % % % Irradiance data of a cloudy day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation 89 . Pa = Va_new * Ia_new. xi = 332. Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new. % Calculate incremental voltage and current deltaVa = Va_new .2)'. yi = interp1(x. Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max].G. % Decrease Vref end else if abs(deltaIa/deltaVa + Ia_new/Va_new) <= E Vref_new = Va_new.'cubic'). Ia = Ia_new.TaC). y = irrad7d(:.2e+3 % Read irrad value G = yi(Sample).C.Vref_new = Va + C. % Decrease Vref end end end % Calculate theoretical max [Pa_max. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.8e+3: 376e+3. Pa_array = []. % Store data in arrays for plot Va_array = [Va_array Va]. TaC). Imp. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new . % Load irradiance data load irrad7d. % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43. % No change elseif deltaIa > 0 Vref_new = Va_new + C. % No change else if deltaIa/deltaVa > -Ia_new/Va_new + E Vref_new = Va_new + C.Va. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa].1)'. % New reference voltage % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = [].y.

% Total electric energy: theoretical and actual Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) D = . % Duty Cycle.1. % Step size for Duty Cycle change (.1 Min. D(k+1). % Cell temperature (deg C) Rload = 6. Imp. O. plot(Va. % Plot result figure plot (Va_array.6 MATLAB Script for MPPT with Output Sensing Direct Control Method This MATLAB script is to test the output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm in Section 4.0035.35%) % Define variables with initial conditions G = . (0. hold on for G=. Pa) [Pa_max.2:.1 Min. Pa_max. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Pa = Ia. Pact = sum(Pa_array)/3600. 200). 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. 'r*') end title('incCond Method') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) %gtext('1000W/m^2') %gtext('800W/m^2') %gtext('600W/m^2') %gtext('400W/m^2') %gtext('200W/m^2') hold off A. D(k-1). plot(Vmp. (0. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0.6 Max) D_k_1 = . Pa(k-1) 90 . Pa_array. Va(k-1) Pa_k_1 = 0. % Duty Cycle.22.1.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. % PV output power.6 Max) Va_k_1 = 0. O. TaC). TaC).4. 45.*Va. % Resistive Load (Ohms) deltaD = . % PV voltage.22. G. The load is a resistive load (6 ) % po_dutyCycle2Test2: % Script file to test output sensing direct control method % P&O MPPT Algorithm is used % % Written by Akihiro Oi: June 23. % Define constants TaC = 25. 2005 % Revised: September 8.

Po_k_1.Vo_k_1 = 0. Vo_array = []. % Increase duty cycle else D_k = D_k . % Take 3600 samples for Sample = 1:3600 % Read present value of duty cycle D_k = D. % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage. Va_k = fzero (f. % Set minimum duty cycle elseif D_k > . % Calculate input impedance of ideal Cúk converter (Rin) Rin = (1-D_k)^2/D_k^2 * Rload.1) % '2%' margin added if deltaPo >= 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . Po_k_1 = 0.1 D = . Po(k-1) % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. % Measure the outputs for ideal Cúk converter Vo_k = D_k/(1-D_k) * Va_k. and power f = @(x) x . Io_array = [].deltaD.6 D = . % Decrease duty cycle end end elseif (Vo_k > 30) | (Io_k > 5) D = D_k.TaC). deltaPo = Po_k . Pa_array = []. % Output voltage and current protection (30V/5A Max) if (Vo_k > 30. Io_k_1 = 0. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD.deltaD. Io(k-1) % Output power of Cúk converter. % Output voltage of Cúk converter. % Set maximum duty cycle else % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPo > 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD.TaC). Io_k = (1-D_k)/D_k * Ia_k.1. 45]). % Increase duty cycle 91 . current. % No change elseif D_k < . Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k. Vo(k-1) % Output current of Cúk converter. % Calculate new Po and deltaPo Po_k = Vo_k * Io_k. D_array = [].6) | (Io_k > 5. Po_array = []. Ia_array = []. % Increase duty cycle end else if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD.G. [0.G.6.Rin*bp_sx150s(x. Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k.

Vmp] = find_mpp(G.0003. Pa_k_1 = Pa_k. Pa) [Pa_max.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. G. Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k]. TaC). Io_array = [Io_array Io_k]. 200). Ia_k_1 = Ia_k. Vo_k_1 = Vo_k. Imp.deltaD. % Increase duty cycle end else D = D_k. TaC). % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k]. Po_k_1 = Po_k. Pa = Ia. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. Pa_max. Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. 45. D_array = [D_array D_k]. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k]. 'r*') end title('(a) PV Power vs. % No change end end % Update history Va_k_1 = Va_k. D_k_1 = D_k. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) 92 . Pa_array. plot(Va. % Decrease duty cycle end elseif deltaPo < 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k .deltaD. Io_k_1 = Io_k. % Increase insolation until G=1 if (Sample > 20) & (G < 1) G = G + . hold on for G=.*Va.2:. Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k]. plot(Vmp. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. end % Goto next sample end % Functions to plot figure(1) plot (Va_array.else D = D_k .

TaC). TaC). G. Po_array. It uses the output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm. Ia) [Pa_max.2:. 200).2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Ia_array. 93 . Imp./ Rload. 'b') title('(c) Output Power vs. Io_array. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Imp.plot (Va_array. plot (Vo.') hold on Vo = linspace (0. 35. Duty Cycle') xlabel('Duty Cycle') ylabel('Output Power (W)') axis([0 1 0 160]) figure(4) plot (Vo_array. % po_dutyCycleTest4: % Output sensing direct control method with the P&O algorithm % (With variable load mimics DC pump motor) % Irradiance data on a sunny day % % Written by Akihiro Oi: September 6. Io = Vo . Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (D_array.1. 2005 % Revised: September 9. plot(Vmp. 'g. 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=. Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 35 0 6]) hold off A.7 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with DC Pump Motor Load This MATLAB script is to test MPPT functionality with the DC pump motor as a load introduced in Section 4.5. It also calculates total energy output and total volume of water pump for a 12-hour period. plot(Va. Io) title('(d) Output Current vs.

Va(k-1) Va_k_1 = 0. Io_array = [].6 Max) D_k_1 = .TaC). Pa_k_1 = 0. Io(k-1) Po_k_1 = 0. % Duty Cycle. %Pmax_array =[]. 45]). and power f = @(x) x . Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k. D = .6e+3.'cubic'). Io_k = (1-D_k)/D_k * Ia_k. Ia_array = []. Va_k = fzero (f. % Output voltage and current protection (30V/5A Max) 94 .10. O. Po_array = [].10.y. % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage. deltaD = .2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample).2. [0. % Initial load (armature resistance of DC motor) (Ohms) % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) G = 0. % Output current of Cúk converter.1 Min. Io_k_1 = 0. y = irrad(:.1 Min. % Duty Cycle. current.1)'. Pa(k-1) % Output voltage of Cúk converter. D(k-1). % Load irradiance data load irrad.2)'. deltaPo = Po_k . x = irrad(:. % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. % Calculate new Po and deltaPo Po_k = Vo_k * Io_k. Vo(k-1) Vo_k_1 = 0.35%) % Define variables with initial conditions Rload = . % Calculate input impedance of ideal Cúk converter (Rin) Rin = (1-D_k)^2/D_k^2 * Rload. Po(k-1) % Volume of water pumped per sample Volume = 0.xi. % Read present value of duty cycle D_k = D.Rin*bp_sx150s(x. D_array = []. D(k+1). yi = interp1(x. Rload_array = [].4e+3:190. Pa_array = []. % Step size for Duty Cycle change (. (0.G. % PV output power. O. % Output power of Cúk converter. % Measure the outputs for ideal Cúk converter Vo_k = D_k/(1-D_k) * Va_k.028. Volume_array =[].6 Max) % PV voltage. xi = 147. Vo_array = [].% Define constants % Cell temperature (deg C) TaC = 25. % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43.TaC).G. Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k.Po_k_1. (0.0035.

6 D = . % Calculate theoretical max %[Pa_max. 95 . Po_k_1 = Po_k. % Decrease duty cycle end elseif deltaPo < 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k]. TaC). % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. Io_array = [Io_array Io_k]. Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k].deltaD.1) % '2%' margin added if deltaPo >= 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k . % Calculate volume water pumped (90% efficiency converter) if (. % Set maximum duty cycle else % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPo > 0 if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD.deltaD. Pa_k_1 = Pa_k. % Decrease duty cycle else D = D_k + deltaD. Io_k_1 = Io_k. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.if (Vo_k > 30.1.1 D = . Imp.9*Po_k). % Increase duty cycle end else if D_k > D_k_1 D = D_k + deltaD.6. % Increase duty cycle else D_k = D_k . % Increase duty cycle end else D = D_k. D_k_1 = D_k. Ia_k_1 = Ia_k. % Set minimum duty cycle elseif D_k > . % No change end end % Update history Va_k_1 = Va_k.9*Po_k) > 35 Volume = 13/(60*150)*(.deltaD. Vo_k_1 = Vo_k. % Volume of water pumped (L/sec) else Volume =0. end % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k]. % Decrease duty cycle end end elseif (Vo_k > 30) | (Io_k > 5) D = D_k.6) | (Io_k > 5. % Increase duty cycle else D = D_k . Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k].deltaD. % No change elseif D_k < .

45.5e-005*Vo_k^3 .2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. G. TaC). % Variable load that mimics DC motor if (Sample > 160) Rload = 9. Po_array. TaC). G. plot(Va. Imp. 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs.2. Imp. hold on for G=. 'b') 96 . Pact = sum(Po_array)/3600.Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. %Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max]. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. 'r*') end title('(a) PV Power vs. TaC).2:. Rload_array = [Rload_array Rload]. Pa_array. Volume_array = [Volume_array Volume].37*Vo_k + 0. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=. Ia_array.*Va. % Volume of water pumped (L/day) TotalVolume = sum(Volume_array). plot(Va.0087*Vo_k^2 + 0. Pa) [Pa_max. Pa_max. end % Goto next sample end % Total electric energy (Wh): theoretical and actual %Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (D_array. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) plot (Va_array. TaC).2:.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Imp. plot(Vmp. plot(Vmp. % Functions to plot figure(1) plot (Va_array.0. D_array = [D_array D_k]. Pa = Ia. 200). Ia) [Pa_max.

/3600. Io_array = [].2e+3. % Cell temperature (deg C) % Define variables with initial conditions Rload = . 97 . VolumeMin) xlabel('Hour') ylabel('Flow Rate (L/min)') axis([0 12 0 14]) A.6. sample = 1:43. 2005 %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear. Rload_array = []. Pmax_array =[].028. Vo_array = []. 2005 % Revised: September 9. Po_array = []. % Initial load (armature resistance of DC motor)(Ohms) G = 0.8 MATLAB Script for MPPT Simulations with Direct-coupled DC Water Pump This MATLAB script is to make comparative tests with PV water pumping system which employs direct-coupling between PV and the pump motor in Section 4. Pa_array = []. Ia_array = []. 'g. % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. Hour=sample. Io_array.') title('(d) Output Current vs.title('(c) Output Power vs. plot(Hour. Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 30 0 6]) figure(5) hold on VolumeMin = Volume_array.1. Duty Cycle') xlabel('Duty Cycle') ylabel('Output Power (W)') axis([0 1 0 160]) figure(4) plot (Vo_array. The script also calculates total energy output and total volume of water pump for a 12-hour period.*60. % Define constants TaC = 25. Volume_array =[].2. % directCoupledSystem: % DC pump motor is direct-coupled with PV module % (Variable load mimics DC pump motor) % * Testing on a sunny day % % Written by Akihiro Oi: September 6.

Io_k = Ia_k. Vo_array = [Vo_array Vo_k]. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Pact = sum(Po_array)/3600.37*Vo_k + 0. Imp. Ia_array = [Ia_array Ia_k].% Load irradiance data load irrad.5e-005*Vo_k^3 . % Locate the operating point of PV module and % calculate its voltage.TaC).2)'.2e+3 % Read irradiance value G = yi(Sample). TaC). y = irrad(:.0087*Vo_k^2 + 0. % Calculate volume water pumped if Po_k >= 35 Volume = 13/(60*150)*Po_k.2.1)'. xi = 147. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa_k]. end % Goto next sample end % Total electric energy (Wh): theoretical and actual Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600.TaC).6e+3. Pa_k = Va_k * Ia_k.xi. Po_array = [Po_array Po_k]. % Volume of water pumped (L/day) TotalVolume = sum(Volume_array). Ia_k = bp_sx150s(Va_k. % Measure the outputs Vo_k = Va_k. Po_k = Pa_k. % Volume of water pumped (L/sec) else Volume = 0. x = irrad(:. % Calculate theoretical max [Pa_max.y.Rload*bp_sx150s(x. % Variable load that mimics DC motor if (Sample > 160) Rload = 9. current.'cubic'). % % % % % Irradiance data of a sunny day Read time data (second) Read irradiance data Set points for interpolation Do cubic interpolation % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:43. Io_array = [Io_array Io_k]. [0. Rload_array = [Rload_array Rload].4e+3:190. end % Store data in arrays for plots Va_array = [Va_array Va_k].G.G. and power f = @(x) x . 45]). Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max]. yi = interp1(x. Va_k = fzero (f. Volume_array = [Volume_array Volume].0. % Functions to plot 98 .

Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Imp. VolumeMin) xlabel('Hour') ylabel('Flow Rate (L/min)') axis([0 12 0 14]) 99 . Imp. Io_array. Ia) [Pa_max. 45. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. plot(Va. sample = 1:43. Imp. Pa_array. 'g.2e+3. TaC). G. hold on for G=. Pa = Ia. plot(Hour. TaC). TaC). plot(Va. Voltage') xlabel('Output Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Current (A)') axis([0 35 0 6]) figure(4) hold on VolumeMin = Volume_array.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. 'r*') end title('(a)Direct-coupled System') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Output Power (W)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off figure(2) plot (Va_array. 'g') % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. plot(Vmp./3600. 200). 'r*') end title('(b) PV Current vs. Ia_array.2:. TaC).figure(1) plot (Va_array. Pa_max.2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Hour=sample. Pa) [Pa_max. plot(Vmp. 'g') % Overlay with I-V curves and MPP hold on for G=.*60.2:.*Va.') title('(c) Output Current vs. G. Voltage') xlabel('Module Voltage (V)') ylabel('Module Current(A)') axis([0 50 0 5]) hold off figure(3) plot (Vo_array.

2 MPPT Simulations with Resistive Load The direct control method (input sensing type). Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0 0.3 0.9 1 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure A-1: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (P&O algorithm) 100 . is implemented with both P&O algorithm and incCond algorithm.4 0. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.5 2 1.6. discussed in Section 3. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 800W/m2 600W/m2 400W/m 2 400W/m2 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Module Power vs.5 0.5 (b) PV Current vs.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 600W/m 2 800W/m2 Module Current(A) (a) PV Power vs. The results are very similar to one in Section 4.2.7 0.1 0.4.A.5 3 2.2.6 Duty Cycle 0.8 0.2 0.5 4 3.1 Direct Control Method with P&O Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0. A. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.

8 0.2.4 0.5 3 2.A.5 400W/m2 600W/m2 800W/m2 (b) PV Current vs.5 4 3. Voltage 5 end Output Current (A) 4 3 Load Line start 1 2 start 0 0 0. Duty Cycle end 6 (d) Output Current vs.5 2 1.5 0 0 5 10 15 200W/m2 start 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 600W/m 2 800W/m2 Module Current(A) (a) PV Power vs.2 0.9 1 0 5 10 15 20 Output Voltage (V) 25 30 35 Figure A-2: MPPT Simulations with the direct control method (incCond algorithm) 101 .2 Direct Control Method with incCond Algorithm 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 200W/m 2 20 0 start 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Module Voltage (V) 35 40 45 50 1 0.6 Duty Cycle 0.3 0.7 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 5 4.5 0.1 0. Voltage 1000W/m 2 end 400W/m 2 160 140 120 Module Output Power (W) 100 80 60 40 20 0 (c) Module Power vs.

B. The tool allows designing a control system in SIMULINK and generates C code for TI DSP from a SIMULIK model [14].Appendix B B. MATLAB Version 7 (Release 14) includes this tool. TMS320F2812 is one of DSPs in the TMS320C28x fixed-point DSP family designed for control applications.1 TMS320F2812 DSP TI (dspvillage. B. and it is very challenging in the beginning. thus it enables to control multiple devices with a single DSP. room 104. Please refer to [14] for more details. It has 16 channels of high resolution12-bit A/D converters.2 SIMULNK and TI DSP It takes a long process to learn implementation of DSP. This appendix provides introduction of this DSP and the SIMULNK tool for implementation of DSP. 102 . It has the 32-bit digital controller core and offers 150MIPS of performance which enables implementation of more complex algorithms and DC motor drives including control of brushless motors. has a DSP Starter Kit (DSK) for Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320F2812 DSP.com) provides a wide range of DSPs for different applications.ti.1 DSP Control The power electronics lab located in the building 20.1.1. MathWorks offers a tool called “Embedded Target for the TI TMS320C2000 DSP Platform” which facilitates implementation of DSP by integrating SIMULINK and MATLAB with TI eZdsp DSP development kit [14].

Figure B-2 shows the input voltage (0.39V) is input to the A/D converter. The PWM generator is also emulated.1. C28x ADC C28x ADC 12. C28x PWM. and F2812 eZdsp. a gain. The analog voltage (0. a control law comes in the place of gain block.3 Example The following SIMULINK block diagram presents a simple example of implementing control system in SIMULINK using the Blockset for TI DSP. As shown in Figure B-1. the system consists of the following blocks: C28x ADC.39 Analog Voltage Pulse Width Control PWM Emulation Subsystem Duty Cycle (%) Info Figure B-1: A simple example of generating PWM from the voltage input Figure B-2: Plots of the input voltage and the PWM output shown as duty cycle 103 . Gain1 W1 C28x PWM C28x PWM F2812 eZdsp 0. It could be SIMULINK blocks or an embedded MATLAB function. Another set of block diagram located below is to emulate this system. In practice. and the gain is included in the sub-block.B.39V) and the PWM output shown as duty cycle (10%).

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