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CHPATER-II POWER QUALITY STANDARDS AND MONITORING 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.

9 2.10 2.11 2.12 Introduction State of Art on Power Quality Standards and Monitoring Power Quality Terminologies Power Quality Definitions Power Quality Standards Power Quality Monitoring Numerical Examples Summary Review Questions Numerical Problems Computer Simulation Based Problems References

Objectives Terminologies of Power Quality Indices of Power Quality Power Quality Standards Monitoring of Power Quality Power Quality Assessments

2.1 INTRODUCTION There has been exponentially growing interest in power quality in last quarter century, which may be witnessed by published literature in term of research publications, texts, standards, patents etc. Some of the main reasons for this have been due to enhanced sensitivity of equipments, awareness of consumers, increased cost of electricity globally, increased use of solid state controllers in energy intensive equipments with the views of energy conservation, power loss reduction, better utilization of utility assets, environmental pollution such as interference to telecommunication systems, malfunction of protection systems etc. These power quality problems affect the customers in number of ways as economic penalty in terms of power loss, equipment failure, mal-operation, interruption in the process, loss of production, etc. In view of these facts, various terms and definitions are used to quantify the power quality problems in terms of different performance indices. Moreover, there have a number of standards developed by various organizations and institutes which are to be enforced on the customers, manufacturers and utility to maintain the acceptable level of power quality. Apart from these factors, various techniques and instruments are developed to study and monitor the level of power quality pollution and its causes. Many industries are developing number of instruments, recorders, analyzers to measure, record and analyze the data at the site or in the research laboratories. In view of these increasing issues of power quality and awareness of power quality, it is considered relevant to introduce various terminologies, definitions, standards and monitoring systems to quantify and asses the level of threshold of power quality. This chapter deals with state of art on power quality standards and monitoring power quality terminologies, power quality definitions, power quality standards, power quality monitoring, and monitoring equipments, summary, numerical examples, review questions, numerical and computer simulation based problems and references. 2.2 STATE OF ART ON POWER QUALITY STANDARDS AND MONITORING There have been power quality problems and issues since inception of electric power. However, the terminology of power quality is not towed in early days and it has been identified in terms of various other names. In last few decades, it has been become a very common terminology and widely known as power quality. Similarly, several standards have been developed, modified, recommended, enforced depending upon the evolution of technology to maintain and quantify the level of power quality. There has been a long list of standards on various aspects as of power quality such as permissible level of deviations, mitigation, monitoring etc. at present. Some of them are given here; however, it is a continuous process on the development of new standards, modifications in existing ones on various issues such as limits, monitoring, and mitigation devices. There have been several standards such as IEEE-519, IEC-61000 and many others in different countries of the world on the permissible limits in the levels of deviations, distortions in various electrical quantities such as voltages, currents, power factor etc. Moreover, there have several standards on level of power quality in specific equipments such as lighting, variable frequency drives etc. in many countries. Table 2.1 shows a list of some available standards on various issues of power quality at present. 2.3 POWER QUALITY TERMINOLOGIES Since the power quality issues, awareness and mitigation techniques are reported to a level of concern, therefore, various terminologies are defined to quantify power quality problems. For the reference, the following terms and definitions apply which are defined in detail in IEEE Standards [24]. Flicker: Impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus whose luminance or spectral distribution fluctuates with time. Fundamental (component): The component of an order 1 (e.g., 50 Hz, 60 Hz) of the Fourier series of a periodic quantity. Imbalance (voltage or current): The ratio of the negative sequence component to the positive sequence component, usually expressed as a percentage. Syn: unbalance (voltage or current). Impulsive transient: A sudden nonpower frequency change in the steady-state condition of voltage or current that is unidirectional in polarity (primarily either positive or negative). Instantaneous: When used to quantify the duration of a short-duration root-mean-square (rms) variation as a modifier, refers to a time range from 0.5 cycles to 30 cycles of the power frequency. Interharmonic (component): A frequency component of a periodic quantity that is not an integer multiple of the frequency at which the supply system is operating (e.g., 50 Hz, 60 Hz). Long-duration root-mean-square (rms) variation: A variation of the rms value of the voltage or current from the nominal for a time greater than 1 min. The term is usually further described using a modifier indicating the magnitude of a voltage variation (e.g., under voltage, overvoltage, voltage interruption).

Momentary interruption: A type of short-duration root-mean-square (rms) voltage variation where a complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors is for a time period between 0.5 cycles and 3 s. Root-mean-square (rms) variation: A term often used to express a variation in the rms value of a voltage or current measurement from the nominal. See: sag, swell, momentary interruption, temporary interruption, sustained interruption, undervoltage, overvoltage. Short-duration root-mean-square (rms) variation: A variation of the rms value of the voltage or current from the nominal for a time greater than 0.5 cycles of the power frequency but less than or equal to 1 min. When the rms variation is voltage, it can be further described using a modifier indicating the magnitude of a voltage variation (e.g., sag, swell, interruption) and possibly a modifier indicating the duration of the variation (e.g., instantaneous, momentary, temporary). Sustained interruption: A type of long-duration root-mean-square (rms) voltage variation where the complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one of more phase conductors is for a time greater than 1 min. Temporary interruption: A type of short-duration root-mean-square (rms) variation where the complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors is for a time period between 3 s and 1 min. Voltage change: A variation of the root-mean-square (rms) or peak value of a voltage between two consecutive levels sustained for definite but unspecified durations. Voltage fluctuation: A series of voltage changes or a cyclical variation of the voltage envelope. Voltage interruption: The disappearance of the supply voltage on one or more phases. It is usually qualified by an additional term indicating the duration of the interruption (e.g., momentary, temporary, sustained). Waveform distortion: A steady-state deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized by the spectral content of the deviation. For the purposes of standardisation, the following additional terms and definitions are also used [24]. Accuracy: The quality of freedom from mistake or error, that is of conformity to truth or to a rule (As in instrumentation and measurement). The accuracy of an indicated or recorded value is expressed by the ratio of the error of the indicated value to the true value. It is usually expressed in percent. See: accuracy rating of an instrument (As indicated or recorded value). Calibration: The adjustment of a device to have the designed operating characteristics, and the subsequent marking of the positions of the adjusting means, or the making of adjustments necessary to bring operating characteristics into substantial agreement with standardized scales or marking. Comparison of the indication of the instrument under test, or registration of the meter under test, with an appropriate standard (As in metering). Common-mode voltage: The voltage that, at a given location, appears equally and in phase from each signal conductor to ground. Coupling: The association of two or more circuits or systems in such a way that power or signal information may be transferred from one system or circuit to another. Current transformer (CT): An instrument transformer designed for use in the measurement or control of current (As in metering). Dropout: A loss of equipment operation (discrete data signals) due to noise, voltage sags, or interruption. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): A measure of equipment tolerance to external electromagnetic fields. The ability of a device, equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. Electromagnetic disturbance: An electromagnetic phenomenon that may be superimposed on a wanted signal. Any electromagnetic phenomenon that may degrade the performance of a device, a piece of equipment, or a system. Equipment grounding conductor: The conductor used to connect the noncurrent-carrying parts of conduits, raceways, and equipment enclosures to the grounding electrode at the service equipment (main panel) or secondary of a separately derived system. Failure mode: The manner in which failure occurs; generally categorized as electrical, mechanical, thermal, and contamination. Frequency deviation: An increase or decrease in the power frequency from nominal. The duration of a frequency deviation can be from several cycles to several hours. Ground: A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to the earth, or to some conducting body of relatively large extent that serves in place of the earth. High-frequency reference. Grounds are used for establishing and maintaining the potential of the earth (or of the conducting body) or approximately that potential, on conductors connected to it, and for conducting ground currents to and from earth (or the conducting body). 3

Ground loop: A potentially detrimental loop formed when two or more points in an electrical system that are nominally at ground potential are connected by a conducting path such that either or both points are not at the same ground potential. Harmonic: A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. For example, a component, the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency, is called a second harmonic. Harmonic components: The components of the harmonic content expressed in terms of the order and root mean-square (rms) values of the Fourier series terms describing the periodic function. Harmonic content: The function obtained by subtracting the dc and fundamental components from a nonsinusoidal periodic function. The deviation from the sinusoidal form, expressed in terms of the order and magnitude of the Fourier series terms describing the wave. Distortion of a sinusoidal waveform characterized by indication of the magnitude and order of the Fourier series terms describing the wave. Immunity (to a disturbance): The ability of a device, equipment or system to perform without degradation in the presence of an electromagnetic disturbance. Impulse: A pulse that begins and ends within a time so short that it may be regarded mathematically as infinitesimal although the area remains finite. A surge of unidirectional polarity. Isolated equipment ground: An isolated equipment grounding conductor run in the same conduit or raceway as the supply conductors. This conductor may be insulated from the metallic raceway and all ground points throughout its length. It originates at an isolated ground-type receptacle or equipment input terminal block and terminates at the point where neutral and ground are bonded at the power source. Isolation: Separation of one section of a system from undesired influences of other sections. Maximum demand: The largest of a particular type of demand occurring within a specified period. Momentary: When used as a modifier to quantify the duration of a short-duration variation, refers to a time range from 30 cycles to 3 s. Momentary interruption: A type of short-duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors for a time period between 0.5 cycles and 3 s. Noise: Electrical noise is unwanted electrical signals that produce undesirable effects in the circuits of the control systems in which they occur. Nominal voltage: A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 208/120, 480/277, 600). Nonlinear load: A load that draws a nonsinusoidal current wave when supplied by a sinusoidal voltage source. Normal-mode: The voltage that appears differentially between two signal wires and that acts on the circuit in the same manner as the desired signal. Notch: A switching (or other) disturbance of the normal power voltage waveform, lasting less than a half cycle, which is initially of opposite polarity than the waveform and is thus subtracted from the normal waveform in terms of the peak value of the disturbance voltage. This includes complete loss of voltage for up to a half cycle. Oscillatory transient: A sudden, nonpower frequency change in the steady-state condition of voltage or current that includes both positive or negative polarity value. Overvoltage: When used to describe a specific type of long-duration variation, refers to a measured voltage having a value greater than the nominal voltage for a period of time greater than 1 min. Typical values are 1.1 to 1.2 pu. Phase shift: The displacement in time of one waveform relative to another of the same frequency and harmonic content. Potential transformer (PT): An instrument transformer that is intended to have its primary winding connected in shunt with a power-supply circuit, the voltage of which is to be measured or controlled. Power disturbance: Any deviation from the nominal value (or from some selected thresholds based on load tolerance) of the input ac power characteristics. Power quality: The concept of powering and grounding electronic equipment in a manner that is suitable to the operation of that equipment and compatible with the premise wiring system and other connected equipment. Pulse: A wave that departs from a initial level for a limited duration of time and ultimately returns to the original level. Sag: A decrease in root-mean-square (rms) voltage or current for durations of 0.5 cycles to 1 min. Typical values are 0.1 to 0.9 pu.

Shield: A metallic sheath, usually copper or aluminum, applied over the insulation of a conductor or conductors for the purpose of providing means for reducing electrostatic coupling between the conductors so shielded and others which may be susceptible to or which may be generating unwanted (noise) electrostatic fields. Shielding: The process of apply a conductive barrier between a potentially disturbing noise source and electronic circuitry. Shields are used to protect cables (data and power) and electronic circuits. Shielding may be accomplished by the use of metal barriers, enclosures, or wrappings around source circuits and receiving circuits. Sustained: When used to quantify the duration of a voltage interruption, refers to the time frame associated with a long-duration variation (i.e., greater than 1 min). S Sustained interruption: A type of long-duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one of more phase conductors for a time greater than 1 min. Swell: An increase in root-mean-square (rms) voltage or current for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1 min. Typical values are 1.1 pu to 1.8 pu. Temporary interruption: A type of short-duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors for a time period between 3 s and 1 min. Total demand distortion (TDD): The total root-sum-square (rms) harmonic current distortion, in percent of the maximum demand load current (15 or 30 min demand). Point of common coupling (PCC): The point at which the electric utility and the customer interface occurs. Typically this point is the customer side of the utility revenue meter. Total harmonic distortion (THD): (harmonic factor) The ratio of the root-mean-square (rms) of the harmonic content to the rms value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as a percent of the fundamental. Transient: Pertaining to or designating a phenomenon or a quantity which varies between two consecutive steady states during a time interval that is short compared to the time scale of interest. A transient can be a unidirectional impulse of either polarity or a damped oscillatory wave with the first peak occurring in either polarity. Undervoltage: When used to describe a specific type of long-duration variation, refers to a measured voltage having a value less than the nominal voltage for a period of time greater than 1 min. Typical values are 0.8 pu to 0.9 pu. Voltage distortion: Any deviation from the nominal sine wave form of the ac line voltage. Voltage imbalance (unbalance): The ratio of the negative or zero sequence component to the positive sequence component, usually expressed as a percentage in polyphase systems. Voltage regulation: The degree of control or stability of the root-mean-square (rms) voltage at the load. Often specified in relation to other parameters, such as input-voltage changes, load changes, or temperature changes. 2.4 POWER QUALITY DEFINITIONS Power quality is defined in many sources, which give different and sometimes conflicting statements of power quality due to lots of confusion on the meaning of the term power quality. Therefore, its definition has not been universally agreed upon. It is used synonymously with supply reliability, service quality, voltage quality, quality of supply and quality of consumption. Following are the definitions given by IEEE and IEC. The definition of power quality given in the IEEE dictionary, states that Power quality is the concept of powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a matter that is suitable to the operation of that equipment . The International Electrotechnical commission definition of power quality, given in IEC 61000-4-30, states that Characteristics of the electricity at a given point on an electrical system, evaluated against a set of reference technical parameters. Electromagnetic compatibility is a term related to power quality is used with in International Electrotechnical commission (IEC) standard 61000-1-1 states that Electromagnetic compatibility is the ability of an equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. Recently, power quality referred to the ability of the electric utilities to supply electric power without interruption . Power quality is considered of as the combination of current and voltage quality as per many published literature. Voltage quality is concerned with the deviation of actual voltage from the ideal voltage and with equivalent definition for the current quality. Any deviation of voltage and current from the ideal is a power quality disturbance. But in the power system, it is difficult to distinguish between the voltage and current disturbances as any event leads to the different disturbances for the different customers. Therefore, in general, power quality is related to disturbances in voltage, current, frequency and power factor. 2.5 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS

As power quality problems are increased to a level that these are affecting not only to them those are creating them, but others are getting disturbed than it has become matter of concern. In view of these power pollution problems, a number of organizations such IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva), IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, USA), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, British standards (BS), European Norms (EN), Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA) curves, Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) curves, have developed different standards to specify the permissible limits of various performance indices to maintain the level of power quality to an acceptable bench mark and to provide guidelines to the customers, manufactures and utilities on curbing the various events causing the power quality problems. Tables 2.2-2.8 show some important limits on voltages and currents in these standards. Table 2.1 List of some standards on various issues of power quality
STANDARDS IEEE 519-1992 IEEE Standard 1159-1995 IEEE Standard 1100-1999 IEEE Standard 1250-1995 IEEE Standard 1366 IEC 61000-2-2 IEC 61000-2-4 IEC 61000-3-2 IEC 61000-4-15 EN 50160 Description Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment Guide for Service to Equipment Sensitive to Momentary Voltage Disturbances Electric power distribution reliability indices Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public supply systems. Compatibility levels in industrial plants for low-frequency conducted disturbances Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (equipment input current up to and including 16 A per phase). Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications Voltage Characteristics of Public Distribution Systems

Table 2.2 IEEE-519: Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120V-69000V) [21]
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion (in Percent of IL) Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) ISC/IL <20* 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 llh<17 2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.0 17h<23 1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 23h<35 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 35h 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4 TDD% 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above. Current distortions that result in a dc offset, e.g., half-wave converters, are not allowed. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of actual I SC/IL. Where ISC = maximum shortcircuit current at PCC. IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC.

Table 2.3 IEEE-519: Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (>161 kV), Dispersed Generation and Cogeneration [21]
ISC/IL <50 50 <11 2.0 3.0 Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion (in Percent of IL) Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) llh<17 17h<23 23h<35 35h 1.0 0.75 0.3 0.15 1.5 1.15 0.45 0.22 TDD% 2.5 3.75

Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above. Current distortions that result in a dc offset, e.g., half-wave converters, are not allowed. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of actual I SC/IL, where ISC = maximum shortcircuit current at PCC. IL= maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC.

Table 2.4 IEC 61000-3.2: Maximum Permissible Harmonic Current For Class D Equipments (Current Limited to Less Than or Equal to 16A Per Phase) Class D: PC, PC monitors, radio, or TV receivers. Input power P600 W [42]
Harmonic order, h 3 5 7 9 11 Maximum permissible harmonic current per Watt (mA/W) 3.4 1.9 1.0 0.5 0.35 Maximum permissible harmonic current (A) 2.30 1.14 0.77 0.40 0.33

13h39 (odd harmonics only)

3.85/h

0.15-0.15/h

Table 2.5 IEEE-519: Voltage Distortion Limits [21]


Bus Voltage at PCC Individual Voltage Total Voltage Distortion (%) Total Voltage Distortion THD (%) 69 kV and below 3.0 5.0 69.001 kV through 161 kV 1.5 2.5 161.001 kV and above 1.0 1.5 NOTE: High-voltage systems can have up to 2.0% THD where the cause is an HVDC terminal that will attenuate by the time it is tapped for a user.

Table 2.6 IEC 61000-2-2: Voltage distortion limits in Public Low-Voltage Network (Class I) [42]
Odd Harmonics h 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 Vh(pu) 6 5 3.5 3 2 1.5 1 1.5 0.2+12.5/h Even Harmonics h 2 4 6 8 10 12 Vh(pu) 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 Triplen Harmonics h Vh(pu) 3 5 9 1.5 15 0.3 21 0.2

Table 2.7 IEC 61000-2-4: Voltage distortion limits in Industrial Plants (Class -2) [42]
Odd Harmonics h 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 Vh(pu) 6 5 3.5 3 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.2+12.5/h Even Harmonics h 2 4 6 8 10 12 Vh(pu) 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 Triplen Harmonics h Vh(pu) 3 5 9 1.5 15 0.3 21 0.2

TABLE 2.8 IEC 61000-2-4: Voltage distortion limits in Industrial Plants (Class -3) [42]
Odd Harmonics h 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 Vh(pu) 6 5 3.5 3 2 1.5 1 1.5 5(11/h) Even Harmonics h 2 4 6 Vh(pu) 3 1.5 1 Triplen Harmonics h Vh(pu) 3 6 9 2.5 15 2 21 1.75 27 1

2.6 POWER QUALITY MONITORING PQ events are random in nature, which occur arbitrarily. Therefore, monitoring of these PQ phenomena becomes almost essential for critical and sensitive equipments in which a huge loss of revenue is expected by PQ problems. The monitoring system used for assessing PQ events may provide enough data to decide for curing and mitigating the power quality problems provided these recording/measuring instruments are selected properly to record PQ events. There are many standards [24] and texts, which are fully devoted for PQ monitoring. Here only brief introduction is given to justify and awareness of the PQ monitoring. 2.6.1 Objectives of PQ Monitoring PQ monitoring is required to quantify PQ phenomena at a particular location on electric power equipment. In some situations, the objective of the monitoring may be to diagnose incompatibilities between the supply and the consumer loads. In other cases, it is used to evaluate the electrical environment at a particular location for the required machinery or equipment. In some cases, monitoring may be used to predict performance of the load equipment and select power quality mitigating systems. The objectives of PQ monitoring for a particular location need to find the choice of monitoring equipment, the method of collecting data etc. The objective may be as simple as verifying voltage variations at pcc or may be as analysing the harmonic level within a distribution system. The 7

recorded information need only to meet the objectives of the monitoring objectives in order for the monitoring to be successful. The methodology for quantifying monitoring objectives may differ in nature. For example, when PQ monitoring is required to find out shutdown problems in critical equipment, the aim may be to record tolerance events of few types. Preventive and predictive monitoring may require recorded voltages and currents to quantify the existing level of power quality. Measurement of PQ includes both time and frequency domain variables, which may be in the form of over voltages and under voltages, interruptions, sags and swells, surges, spikes, notches, transients, phase imbalance, frequency deviations, and harmonic distortion. PQ monitoring may be provided by the utility, the customers, or any other personal such as energy auditors. Table 2.9 shows some important parameters which can be determined using suitable algorithms from the voltage and current waveforms which are acquired, digitized, and stored in the monitors, memory [21]. Table 2.9 IEEE-519: Parameters which can be determined from acquired voltage and current data [21]
ANSI transformer derating factor Arithmetic sum power factor Arithmetic sum displacement power factor Arithmetic sum volt-amperes Current crest factor Current THD Current THD (rms) Current total interharmonic distortion (TID) Current TID (rms) Current imbalance Displacement power factor Frequency Fund frequency arithmetic sum voltamperes Fund frequency vector sum voltamperes Harmonic power (sum) IEEE 519 current TDD Interharmonic rms current Interharmonic rms voltage Current-time product Negative sequence current Negative sequence voltage Net current Positive sequence current Positive sequence voltage Residual current RMS current RMS current individual harmonics RMS harmonic current (total) RMS voltage RMS voltage individual harmonics Total fund frequency reactive power Transformer K factor True power factor Unsigned harmonic power Vector sum displacement factor Vector sum power factor Vector sum volt-amperes Voltage crest factor Voltage THD Voltage THD (rms) Voltage TID Voltage TID (rms) Voltage telephone interference factor (TIF) Voltage TIF (rms) Voltage imbalance Watt hours Zero sequence current Zero sequence voltage

2.6.2 Justifications for PQ Monitoring There are many reasons and requirements of power quality monitoring. The major reason for monitoring PQ is the financial damages produced by PQ events in critical and sensitive equipments. PQ problems and events may cause malfunctions, damages, process interruptions and other anomalies in the equipments and their operations. PQ monitoring needs resources in terms of equipment, training, education and of course time. There are benefits of PQ monitoring but industry management, plant and production engineers must agree with the investment. The PQ monitoring may be used as a tool for availability of power to the customers. Some of the following aspects may be used to convince users for PQ monitoring. To find out the need for mitigation of PQ problems To schedule preventive and predictive maintenance To ensure the performance of equipment To assess the sensitivity of equipment to PQ disturbances To identify power quality events and problems To reduce the power losses in the process and distribution system To reduce the loss in production and to improve equipment availability These are few points; however, PQ monitoring may be used for up-gradating, modernizing, removal of obsolesce and renovation process. Power quality problems caused by various events and disturbances occurring are specified in terms of different performance indices which are monitored by various instruments. 2.7 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

1. In a square wave, calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (c) total harmonic
distortion %THD. Solution: Given that, a square wave, which has amplitude of I. The rms of fundamental component of square wave is, I1=(22/) I=0.9 times the amplitude of it=0.9 I. The RMS value of a square wave, Irms=amplitude of square wave=I. (a) Crest Factor of a square wave, CF= Peak Value / RMS value of a square wave =I/I=1. (b) Distortion Factor, DF=Fundamental component of a square wave/RMS value of a square wave =I 1/I=0.9. (c) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of square wave = (Irms2-I12)/I1= {I2- (0.9I)2}/(0.9I)=0.4843=48.43%.

2. In a quasi-square wave (120 pulse width), calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (c)
total harmonic distortion %THD. Solution: Given that, a quasi-square wave of (120), let it has amplitude of I. The rms of fundamental component of quasi-square wave is, I 1=(22/)sin(120/2) I={( 6)/ }I times the amplitude of it=0.7794 I. The RMS value of a quasi-square wave, Irms={(2/3)I} =0.8165 I. (a) Crest Factor of quasi-square wave, CF= peak value/RMS value of quasi-square wave=I/(0.8165 I)=1.225. (b) Distortion Factor, DF=Fundamental component of a quasi-square wave/RMS value of a quasi-square wave =I1/I=0.9545. (c) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of quasi-square wave= (Irms2-I12)/I1=0.3122=31.22%%.

3. In a triangular wave, calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (c) total harmonic
distortion %THD. Solution: Given that, a triangular wave, let it has amplitude of I. From Fourier analysis of triangular wave, Amplitude of hth harmonic of triangular wave is, as, Ih=

[{8 / (h ) }(1)
2 h =1

(h-1)/2

sin(h)]/2

= 8I/{(2)(h)2} The rms of fundamental component of triangular wave is, I1=(42/2) I=0. 5737 I. The rms value of a triangular wave, Irms=[{(2/)0(/2)(2x/ ) }2I ={(1/3)}I =0.57735 I. (a) Crest Factor of a triangular wave, CF= peak value/rms value of a triangular wave=I/(0.5774 I)= 3=1.732. (b) Distortion Factor, DF=(Fundamental component/rms value) of a triangular wave=I 1/Irms=0. 573/0.57735 =0.9937. (c) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of triangular wave = (Irms2-I12)/I1=0.11298=11.298%%.

4. For a trapezoidal wave(90 flat portion), calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (f)
total harmonic distortion %THD. Solution: Given that, a trapezoidal wave (90 flat portion), let it has amplitude of I. From Fourier analysis of trapezoidal wave, amplitude of hth harmonic is, as, Ih=

[{8
h =1

2 / ( h ) 2 }( 1) (h-1)/2sin(h)]/2=82I/{(2)(h)2}

The rms of fundamental component of trapezoidal wave (90 flat portion), is, I1=(8/2) I=0.8105 I. The rms value of a trapezoidal wave, Irms==0.810 I{1+1/9+1/25+1/49+1/81+1/121+1/169+1/225+----}=0.817 I. (a) Crest Factor of a trapezoidal wave, CF= peak value / rms value of a trapezoidal wave =I/(0.817I)= 1.224. (b) Distortion Factor, DF=(Fundamental /rms value) of a trapezoidal wave =I1/ Irms=0. 8105I /0.817I =0.9921. (c) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of trapezoidal wave = (Irms2-I12)/I1=0.1261=12.61%. 5. A three-phase unbalanced supply system has following phase voltages, V a=0.9 0 pu, Vb=1.1 240 pu, Vc=0.95 120 pu. Find the positive, negative and zero sequence components of supply voltages. A three phase unbalanced supply system is having following voltages, V a=0.9 0 pu, Vb=1.1 240 pu, Vc=0.95 120 pu. The zero sequence component of phase a is calculated as, Va0=(Va+Vb+Vc)/3=(0.9-0.55-j0.953-0.475+j0.823)=-0.042-j0.043=0.0601 -133.897 pu. The zero sequence components for phase b and c is As Vao=Vbo=Vco =0.0601 -133.897 pu. The positive sequence component for the phase a is calculated as, Va1==(Va+aVb+a2Vc)/3=(0.9 0+1 120*1.1 240+1 240*0.95 120)/3= =(0.9+1.1+0.95)/3=0.983 0 pu. The positive sequence component for the phases b and c are calculated as, Vb1=a2Va1=1 240*0.983 0=0.983 240 pu. Vc1=aVa1=1 120*0.983 0=0.983 120 pu. The negative sequence component for the phase a is calculated as, Va2=(Va+a2Vb+aVc)/3=(0.9 0+1 240*1.1 240+1 120*0.95 120)/3= =(0.9+1.1+0.95)/3=0.0601 133.897 pu. 9

The negative sequence component for the phases b and c are calculated as, Vb2=aVa2=1 120*0.983 0=0.0601 253.897 pu. Vc2=a2Va2=1 240*0.983 0=0.0601 13.897 pu. 6. A three-phase balanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=1.0 0 pu., Vb=1.0 240 pu., Vc=1.0 120 pu., has unbalanced load currents as, I a= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.35 90 pu. Find (a) the total complex power, (b) the positive sequence components of power, (c) the negative sequence components of power, and (d) the zero sequence components of power. Given a three-phase balanced supply system having phase voltages, Va=1.0 0 pu., Vb=1.0 240 pu., Vc=1.0 120 pu., and unbalanced load currents as, I a= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.35 90 pu., and a=1.0 120, a2=1.0 240. (a) The total complex power=Pabc+Qabc= Va Ia*+ Vb Ib*+ Vc Ic* =1.0 0*0.75 20+ 1.0 240*0.65 -270+1.0 120*0.35 -90 =1.574 3.88 (b) The positive sequence components of power=P1+jQ1= Va1 Ia1*=(1/3){(Va+aVb+a2Vc)(Ia+aIb+a2Ic)*} =(1/3){(1.0 0 +1.0 120 *1.0 240 +1.0 240*1.0 120)(0.75 -20 +1.0 120* 0.65 270 +1.0 240*0.35 90)*} = 1.574 3.88 pu. (c) The negative sequence components of power= =P2+jQ2=Va2 Ia2*=(1/3){(Va+a2Vb+aVc)(Ia+a2Ib+aIc)*} =(1/3){(1.0 0 +1.0 240 *1.0 240 +1.0 120*1.0 120)(0.75 -20 +1.0 240* 0.65 270 +1.0 120*0.35 90)*} = 0.0 pu. (d) The zero sequence components of power P0+jQ0= Va0 Ia0*=(1/3){(Va+Vb+Vc)(Ia+Ib+Ic)*} =(1/3){(1.0 0+1.0 240+1.0 120)(0.75 -20+0.65 270 +0.35 90)*} = 0.0 pu. It means that the total complex power is equal to sum of all three sequence components of powers. Pabc+Qabc= P0+jQ0+ P1+jQ1+P2+jQ2=Va0 Ia0*+ Va1 Ia1*+ Va2 Ia2*=1.574 3.88 pu. It can be observed that the powers of zero sequence components and negative sequence components are zero if ac mains three-phase voltages are balanced even three-phase currents are unbalanced. Similarly the powers of zero sequence components and negative sequence components will be zero if ac mains three-phase voltages are unbalanced even three-phase currents are balanced. A three-phase unbalanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=1.1 0 pu., Vb=1.0 230 pu., Vc=0.9 120 pu., has unbalanced load currents as, I a= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.35 90 pu. . Find (a) the total complex power, (b) the positive sequence components of power, (c) the negative sequence components of power, and (d) the zero sequence components of power. Given a three-phase unbalanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=1.1 0 pu., Vb=1.0 230 pu., Vc=0.9 120 pu., and unbalanced load currents as, I a= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.35 90 pu., and a=1.0 120, a2=1.0 240. (a) The total complex power=Pabc+Qabc= Va Ia*+ Vb Ib*+ Vc Ic* =1.1 0*0.75 20+ 1.0 230*0.65 -270+0.9 120*0.35 -90 = 1.546 0.809 pu. (b) The positive sequence components of power=P1+jQ1= Va1 Ia1*=(1/3){(Va+aVb+a2Vc)(Ia+aIb+a2Ic)*} =(1/3){(1.1 0 +1.0 120 *1.0 230 +1.0 240*0.9 120)(0.75 -20 +1.0 120* 0.65 270 +1.0 240*0.35 90)*} = 1.568 0.55 pu. (c) The negative sequence components of power= =P2+jQ2=Va2 Ia2*=(1/3){(Va+a2Vb+aVc)(Ia+a2Ib+aIc)*} =(1/3){(1.1 0 +1.0 240 *1.0 230 +1.0 120*0.9 120)(0.75 -20 +1.0 240* 0.65 270 +1.0 120*0.35 90)*} = 0.022 174.04 pu. (d) The zero sequence components of power P0+jQ0= Va0 Ia0*=(1/3){(Va+Vb+Vc)(Ia+Ib+Ic)*} =(1/3){(1.1 0+1.0 230+0.9 120)(0.75 -20+0.65 270 +0.35 90)*} = 0.00454 99.96 pu It means that the total complex power is equal to sum of all three sequence components of powers. Pabc+Qabc= P0+jQ0+ P1+jQ1+P2+jQ2=Va0 Ia0*+ Va1 Ia1*+ Va2 Ia2*=1.546 0.809 pu.

7.

10

8.

In three-phase ac mains, there is voltage sag at PCC of 10%, 20 % and 30% on three phases for 10, 15 and 20 cycles respectively. Calculate (a) Detroit Edison Sag Score (SS), and (b) voltage sag lost energy index (VSLEI) of this sag event. V1=0.9 pu , V2=0.8 pu , V3=0.7 pu , t1=200 ms , t2=300 ms , t3=400ms

Qualifying sag for Detroit Edison Sag Score has at least one phase equal to or below 0.75 p.u. Detroit Edison Sag Score==0.8 VLSEI= (1-V1)3.14+(1-V1)3.14+(1-V1)3.14 =0.13.14200+0.23.14300+0.33.14400 =0.145+1.916+9.125 =11.186 9. Estimate the K factor rating of a single-phase transformer used to feed a single-phase diode bridge rectifier with constant DC load current. The input current (transformer secondary current) to the rectifier is i(t)=(4Ia/)(sint+1/3sin3t+1/5sin5t+1/7sin5t+1/9sin9t+.) K-factor=I2hh2 where Ih is the fraction of the total rms load current at harmonic h. Ih/I1=1, 0.333, 0.2, 0.143, 0.111, 0.091 (Ih/I1)2=1, 0.111, 0.04, .020, .012, .008 ITrms=(Ih/I1)2=1.092 Ih(pu)=(1/ITrms) (Ih/I1)=0.916, 0.305, 0.183, 0.131,0.102 , 0.083 I2hh2=0.839, 0.837, 0.839, 0.840, 0.837, 0.840 K-factor=5.032 10. Estimate the K factor rating of a three-phase transformer used to feed a three-phase diode bridge rectifier with constant DC load current. The current generated have the following harmonic current iA(t)=(23I/)(cost-(1/5)cos5t+(1/7)cos7t-(1/13)cos13t+(1/17)cos17t-.) K-factor=I2hh2 for h=1 to n Ih/I1=1,0.2,0.143,0.091,0.077,0.059 for h=1,5,7,11,13,17 (Ih/I1)2=1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.008, 0.006, 0.003 ITrms=(Ih/I1)2 =1.076 Ih(pu)=(1/ITrms) (Ih/I1)= 0.929, 0.185, 0.133, 0.085, 0.072, 0.055 I2hh2=0.930, 0.865, 0.867, 0.874, 0.876, 0.874 K-factor = 5.286 11. A single-phase transformer used to feed a single-phase diode bridge rectifier with constant DC load current of 100 A. The transformer has been rated for a winding eddy current loss density of 10% (o.o1pu). Calculate its derating factor. The input current (transformer secondary current) to the rectifier is i(t)=(4Ia/)(sint+1/3sin3t+1/5sin5t+1/7sin5t+1/9sin9t+.) K-factor=I2hh2 for h=1 to n 11 for h=1,3,5,7,9,11.

Ih/I1=1, 0.333, 0.2, 0.143, 0.111, 0.091 for h=1,3,5,7,9,11 (Ih/I1)2=1,0.111,0.04, 0.020, 0.012, 0.008 ITrms=(Ih/I1)2=1.091 hq(q=1.7)= 0, 6.473, 15.426, 27.332, 41.900, 58.943 hq(Ih/I1)2=0, 0.718, 0.617, 0.547, 0.503, 0.472 hq(Ih/I1)2=2.857 The formula as per BS 7821 PART 4 is Factor-K=(1+(e/(e+1))(I1/I)2 hq(Ih/I1)2)

Where h is the harmonic order, q is a constant dependent on the type of winding and frequency, Ih is the magnitude of the h harmonic and I1 is the magnitude of the fundamental current. Factor K=(1+(0.1/(0.1+1))(1/1.091)22.857)=1.104 So the transformer is de-rated to 1/K=90.58%

12. A single-phase fully controlled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.11) is supplied from 220 V, 50 Hz at
the firing angle of thyristors to be =60 . Consider continuous load current of 20A. Compute (a) total harmonic distortion (THD) of ac mains current, (b) distortion index (DIN) of ac mains current, (c) total demand distortion (TDD) of ac mains current, (d) distortion factor, (e) displacement factor, (f) power factor. Given that, Supply rms voltage, Vs = 220 V, Frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, Idc = 20 A, = 600 In single-phase thyristor bridge converter, the waveform of the supply current (I s) is a square wave with the amplitude of dc link current (I dc). Moreover, the rms of fundamental component of square wave is 0.9 times the amplitude of it. Therefore, Is = Idc = 20 A and Is1= 0.9 Idc=18A. (a) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of ac current= (Is2-Is12)/Is1=0.4843=48.43% (b) Distortion index (DIN) of ac mains current=THD/ (1+THD2)=0.435889=43.59% (c) Total demand distortion (TDD) of ac mains current = Total Current Demand Distortion= Calculated harmonic current distortion against the full load (demand) level of the electrical system At the full load TDD(I)=THD(I)= =0.4843=48.43% Therfore, TDD gives us better insight about how big impact of harmonic distortion in our system. For example we could have very high THD but the load of the system is low. In this case the impact on the system is also low. (d) Distortion Factor, DF=1/(1+THD)= Is1/ Is =0.90 (e) Displacement factor, DPF=cos 1= cos= cos600=0.5 (f) Power-Factor, PF=DPF*DF=0.9*0.5=0.45

Fig. E2.11Single-Phase Converter Based Current Fed Type of Nonlinear Load. 13. A single-phase ac voltage controller has a heating load (Resistive Load) of 20 ohms. The input voltage is 220V rms at 50Hz.The delay angle of thyristors is =120 . Feeder conductors have the resistance of order Rs=0.20 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity of this load then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (Isc), (e) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, supply rms voltage, Vs = 220 V, frequency of supply f=50 Hz, R = 20 , Rs=0.20 ohms, = 1200. The total resistance of the circuit is RT=R+2Rs=20.4 ohms. In a single-phase, phase controlled ac controller, the waveform of the supply current (Is) has a value of vs/RT from angle to . Vsm=220 2=311.13 V. (a) The supply rms current, Is=Vsm[{1/(2)}{( -)+sin2/2}]/RT=4.768 A. Active power of the load, PL= Is2R=4.7682*20=454.75 W. 12

(b) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=2*Is2*Rs =2*4.7682*0.20=9.1 W. (c) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a shunt compensator, the current in the ac mains becomes sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I sc=Is1a=PL/ Vs=454.75/220=2.067 A. (d) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=2*Isc2*Rs=2*2.0672*0.2=1.71 W. (e) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=9.1/1.71=5.322. It means that such nonlinear load causes the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 5.322 times. 14. A single-phase ac voltage controller (shown in Fig. E2.6) is used to control the heating of packing element in a food vending machine at a power of 200 W at 20 V fed from single-phase ac mains of 230 V, 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.25 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (Isc), (e) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, Supply rms voltage, Vs = 230 V, Frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, P=200 W, Rs=0.25 ohms. The load resistance, RL= VsL2/P =202/200=2.0 . The rms voltage across the load, VLs=IsRL=20 V. (a) The supply rms current, Is=(P/RL)= VLs/RL =10 A. (b) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=2*Is2*Rs =2*102*0.25=50 W. (c) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a shunt compensator, the current in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a=P/ Vs=200/230=0.87 A. (d) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=2*Is2*Rs=2*0.872*0.25=0.378 W. (e) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=50/0.378 =132.25. It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 132.25 times. 15. A single-phase uncontrolled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.8) has a RE load with R=1.0 ohms, and E=275 V. The input ac voltage is Vs=220 V at 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.05 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) losses in the distribution system. (c) Total harmonic distortion in current. (d) Crest factor of supply current. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (e) ac source rms current (I sc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (g) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, supply voltage, Vs=220V, Vsm=311.13 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, Load R=1, E=275V In single-phase diode bridge converter, with RE load, the current flows from angle () when ac voltage is equal to E and to the angle () at which ac voltage reduces to E. The total resistance of the circuit is RT=2Rs+R=2*0.05+1.0=1.1 ohms. =sin -1(E/Vsm)= sin -1(275/311.13)=62.11, =-=117.89, The conduction angle= =55.78 Is=[{1/(RT2)}{(0.5Vsm+E)( -2)+0.5Vsmsin2-4VsmE cos }]=13.31A Load Average current (Io) is as: Io={1/(RT)}(2Vsmcos +2E -E)=6.76 A Active power drawn from ac mains, P=IsRT+EIo= 194.99+1858.39=2053.39 W Fundamental RMS current from ac mains, Is1=P/Vs=2053.39/220=9.33 A Supply ac peak current, Ipeak=(Vsm-E)/RT=32.85 A (a) RMS supply current (Is) is rms of discontinuous current in the ac mains as: Is=[{1/(RT2)}{(0.5Vsm+E)( -2)+0.5Vsmsin2-4VsmE cos }]=13.31A (b) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=2*Is2*Rs =2*13.312*0.05=17.7156. W (c) Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of ac current= (Is2-Is12)/Is1= (13.312- 9.332)/ 9.33= 1.0174= 101.74%. (d) Crest factor of supply current, CF= peak value / rms value =32.85/9.33=3.52. (e) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a shunt compensator, the current in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a=P/ Vs= Is1=P/Vs=2053.39/220=9.33 A. 13

Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=2*Is2*Rs=2*9.332*0.05=8.705 W. (f) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=35.43/17.41 =2.04. It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 2.04 times. 16. A three-phase fully controlled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.6) feeds power to a load having a resistance of R=10 ohms and very large inductance to result in continuous current with an input from a three-phase supply 415 V, 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. For firing angles of 600, calculate (a) ac source rms current (I s), (b) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (Isc), (e) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, Supply rms voltage, Vs=415/3=239.6 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, Rdc=10 , =600. In three-phase thyristor bridge converter, the waveform of the supply current (I s) is a quasi-square wave with the amplitude of dc link current (Idc). Average output dc voltage, Vdc=(332Vs/) cos=280.125 V The dc link current, Idc=Vdc/Rdc=28.01 A (a) The ac source rms current is as, Is = (2/3)Idc =0.81649Idc=22.87 A (b) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=3*Is2*Rs =3*22.872*0.1=156.94 W. (c) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a shunt compensator, the three-phase currents in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a= Is1 cos={( 6)/ }Idc cos= 28.01 *0.78* cos 60=10.92 A. (d) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=3*Is2*Rs =3*10.922=35.77 W. (e) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=156.94 /35.77 =4.39. It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 4.39 times. 17. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase uncontrolled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.8) has a RE load with R=1.0 ohms, and E=300 V. (shown in Fig. E2.7). Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.05 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (I s), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, Supply voltage, Vs = 415/3 V=239.6 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, R s=0.1 ohms, a singlephase uncontrolled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.8) has a RE load with R=1.0 ohms, and E=300 V. In single-phase diode bridge converter, with RE load, the current flows from angle () when ac voltage is equal to E and to the angle () at which ac voltage reduces to E. The total resistance of the circuit is RT=2Rs+R=2*0.05+1.0=1.1 ohms. =sin -1(E/Vsm)= sin -1{300/(338.85)=62.29, =-=117.70, The conduction angle= =55.41 Is=[{1/(RT2)}{(0.5Vsm+E)( -2)+0.5Vsmsin2-4VsmE cos }]=14.03A Load Average current (Io) is as: Io={1/(RT)}(2Vsmcos +2E -E)=7.22 A Active power drawn from ac mains, P=IsRT+EIo= 216.57+2165.93=2382.49 W Fundamental RMS current from ac mains, Is1=P/Vs=2382.49 /239.6=9.94 A Supply ac peak current, Ipeak=(Vsm-E)/RT=35.32A (a) RMS supply current (Is) is rms of discontinuous current in the ac mains as: Is=[{1/(RT2)}{(0.5Vsm+E)( -2)+0.5Vsmsin2-4VsmE cos }]=14.03A (a) The neutral current (Isn) =[{3/(RT2)}{(0.5Vsm+E)( -2)+0.5Vsmsin2-4VsmE cos }]=24.30A. (since it is a segment of sine wave as 3 times the fundamental frequency phase current). This neutral current is 1.7321 times the phase current. (b) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=3*Is2*Rs+Isn2*Rs=3*14.032*0.05+24.302*0.0.5=59.05 W.

14

(c) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a 4-wire shunt compensator, the three-phase currents in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage and neutral current becomes zero. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, ISC=Is1a =9.94 A. (d) In this case after the compensation, since the three-phase currents in the ac mains are balanced and sinusoidal, therefore, neutral current becomes zero as, Isnc=0.0 A. (e) Losses in distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=3*Is2*Rs+Isn2*Rs=3*9.942*0.05+02*0.05=14.84 W. (f) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=59.05/14.84=3.98. It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 3.98 times. 18. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase thyristor bridge converter drawing equal 15 A constant dc current at 60 firing angle of its thyristors (shown in Fig. E2.7). Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, Supply voltage, Vs = 415/3 V=239.6 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, R s=0.1 ohms, DC link current, Idc = 15A, Firing angle, = 60. In single-phase thyristor bridge converter, the waveform of the supply current (I s) is a square wave with the amplitude of dc link current (Idc). (g) The ac source rms current (Is) = Idc =15 A (h) The neutral current (Isn) =15 A (since it will also be a square wave as 3 times the fundamental frequency). (i) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=3*Is2*Rs+Isn2*Rs=3*152*0.1+152*0.1=90 W. (j) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a 4-wire shunt compensator, the three-phase currents in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage and neutral current becomes zero. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a= Is1 cos=15*0.9* cos 60=6.75A. (k) In this case after the compensation, since the three-phase currents in the ac mains are balanced and sinusoidal, therefore, neutral current becomes zero as, Isnc=0.0 A. (l) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=3*Is2*Rs+Isn2*Rs=3*6.752*0.1+02*0.1=13.67 W. (m) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=90/13.67=6.584 It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 6.584 times. 19. In a three-phase, 4-wire distribution system with line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase ac voltage controller for heating loads (Resistive Load) of 10 ohms. The delay angle of thyristors is =120 (shown in Fig. E2.7). Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, supply phase voltage, V s = 415/3 V=239.6 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, R s=0.1 ohms, a single-phase ac voltage controller for heating loads (Resistive Load) of 10 ohms. The delay angle of thyristors is =120. The total circuit resistance of each phase is as, RT=R+2Rs=10.2 ohms. In a single-phase, phase controlled ac controller, the waveform of the supply current (Is) has a value of vs/RT from angle to . Vsm=239.6 2=338.85 V. (b) ac source rms current, Is=Vsm[{1/(2)}{( -)+sin2/2}]/RT=10.386 A. Active power of the load, PL=3 Is2R=3*10.3862*10=3236.07 W. (c) The neutral current (Isn) =Vsm[{3/(2)}{( -)+sin2/2}]/RT=17.99 A. (since it is a segment of sine wave as 3 times the fundamental frequency phase current). This neutral current is 1.7321 times the phase current. (d) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. 15

PLoss=3*Is2*Rs+Isn2*Rs=3*10.3862*0.1+17.992*0.1=64.72 W. (e) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a 4-wire shunt compensator, the three-phase currents in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage and neutral current becomes zero. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a= PL/ (3*Vs)= 3236.07/(3*239.6)= 4.50A. (f) In this case after the compensation, since the three-phase currents in the ac mains are balanced and sinusoidal, therefore, neutral current becomes zero as, Isnc=0.0 A. (g) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=3*Isc2*Rs+Isnc2*Rs=3*4.502*0.1+02*0.1=6.08 W. (h) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=64.72/6.08 =10.643. It means that such nonlinear loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 10.643 times. 20. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, a single-phase load (connected between phase and neutral) having a 125 A, 0.8 lagging power factor. Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (I s), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. Given that, Supply voltage, Vs = 415/3 V=239.6 V, frequency of the supply f=50 Hz, R s=0.1 ohms, a singlephase load (connected between phase and neutral) having a 125 A, 0.8 lagging power factor. (a) The ac source rms current (Is) = 125 A (b) The neutral current (Isn) =125 A (same as phase current). (c) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLoss=2*Is2*Rs=2*1252*0.1=3125 W. (d) After the compensation, the power factor is corrected to unity of AC mains by a 4-wire shunt compensator, the three-phase currents in the ac mains become sinusoidal in phase with that phase voltage and neutral current becomes zero. In this case, because of loading this current is divided in all three phase of the ac mains. The new supply current is as RMS Fundamental active power component of load current, I SC=Is1a=Is1cos =125*0.8/3=100/3=33.33 A. (e) In this case after the compensation, since the three-phase currents in the ac mains are balanced and sinusoidal, therefore, neutral current becomes zero as, Isnc=0.0 A. (f) Losses in the distribution system are calculated as. PLossc=3*Isc2*Rs =3*33.332*0.1=333.33 W. (g) Ratio of losses without and with compensator is as. PLoss/ PLossc=3125/333.33=9.375. It means that such unbalanced lagging power factor loads cause the increased losses in the distribution system many fold as much as 9.375 times. A three-phase, 22 kW, 415 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load of constant torque. It runs at 4% slip at full load and rated voltage and frequency. If terminal voltage reduces to 360 V, calculate its (a) slip, (b) shaft speed, (c) output power, (d) rotor winding loss as a ratio of rated rotor winding loss at rated voltage. Consider small slip approximation. (a) For a small slip approximation, S (1/V2), The new slip at reduced voltage is as, Sn=0.04(415/360)2= 0.053115=5.3155%. The synchronous speed, Ns is as, Ns=120f/p=120*50/4=1500 rpm. (b) The shaft speed at reduced voltage is as, Nrn=Ns(1-Sn)=1500*(1-0.053115)=1420.27 rpm. (c) The output power at reduced voltage (at constant torque load) is as, Pon=mTm={(1-Sn)/(1-S)}Po={(1-0.053115)/(1-0.04)}*22000=21698.51 W=21.698 kW. (d) Because of constant torque load, T=Pg/ms=(Air gap Power/Synchronous speed), therefore, Pg is constant. So, rotor winding loss at reduced voltage is as, Prwn=SnPg=(Sn/S)Prwr=(0.053115)/(0.04) Prwr=1.328 Prwr. It can be concluded that the decrease in terminal voltage results in an increase of rotor winding losses. However, a decrease in terminal voltage at constant frequency decreases its core loss and magnetising current, which partly offset its effect. 16

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22.

A three-phase, 22 kW, 415 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load of constant torque. It runs at 4% slip at full load and rated voltage and frequency. If terminal voltage increases to 440 V, calculate its (a) slip, (b) shaft speed, (c) output power, (d) rotor winding loss as a ratio of rated rotor winding loss at rated voltage. Consider small slip approximation. (a) For a small slip approximation, S (1/V2), The new slip at increased voltage is as, Sn=0.04(415/440)2= 0.03558=3.558%. The synchronous speed, Ns is as, Ns=120f/p=120*50/4=1500 rpm. (b) The shaft speed at increased voltage is as, Nrn=Ns(1-Sn)=1500*(1-0.03558)=1446.62 rpm. (c) The output power at increased voltage (at constant torque load) is as, Pon=mTm={(1-Sn)/(1-S)}Po={(1-0.03558)/(1-0.04)}*22000=22101.21 W=22.101 kW. (d) Because of constant torque load, T=Pg/ms=(Air gap Power/Synchronous speed), therefore, Pg is constant. So, rotor winding loss at increased voltage is as, Prwn=SnPg=(Sn/S)Prwr=(0.03558)/(0.04) Prwr=0.8895 Prwr. It can be concluded that the increased in terminal voltage results in a decrease of rotor winding loss. However, an increase in terminal voltage at constant frequency increases its core loss and magnetising current, which partly offset its effect.

23. A three-phase, 3.7 kW, 1420 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R 1=5.39 , R2=5.72 , X1=X2=8.22 , Rm=2100 , Xm=192 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and balanced rated voltage. If it has applied line voltages as 440 V 0, 415 V 120, 400 V -120, in three phases, calculate (d) positive sequence voltage, (e) negative sequence voltage, (f) zero sequence supply voltage, Synchronous speed for 50 Hz supply nearest to 1420 rpm is 1500 rpm. Slip s==0.053 Equivalent load resistance per phase=(R2/K2)(1/s-1) =5.72(18.867-1) = 102.199 So the total effective impedance per phase= (5.39+j8.22)+(5.72+j8.22)+(102.199+j0) =113.309+j16.44=114.495 8.255 Counter balancing rotor current =415/( 114.495 8.255) =3.625 -8.255 Magnetising component of no load current per phase=-j(415/192)= -j2.161 Energy current of the no load current=415/2100=0.197 No load current I0=0.197-j2.161=2.170 -84.791 Stator current per phase I1=3.625 -8.255+2.17 -84.791=3.784-j2.681=4.638 -35.318 Stator line current= 3 I1=1.732x 4.638=8.033A (b) Rotor copper loss= 3*3.6252*5.72=225.493 W Stator core loss = 3*4152/2100=246.036 W Stator copper loss = 3*4.6382*5.39=347.833 W (c ) Input power at the rated voltage and speed =3V1I1cos=3*415*4.638*cos(-35.318)=4711.583 W. A three phase unbalanced supply system is having following voltages, 440 V 0, 415 V 120, 400 V -120, and in per unit as base voltage 440 V , Va=1 0 pu, Vb=0.943 240 pu, Vc=0.909 120 pu. (d) The positive sequence component for the phase a is calculated as, Va1==(Va+aVb+a2Vc)/3=(1 0+1 120*0.943 240+1 240*0.909 120)/3= = 0.0265 -21.697 pu. The positive sequence component for the phases b and c are calculated as, Vb1=a2Va1=1 240*0.0265 -21.697= 0.943 -141.697 pu. Vc1=aVa1=1 120*0.0265 -21.697=0.943 98.303 pu. (e) The negative sequence component for the phase a is calculated as, Va2=(Va+a2Vb+aVc)/3=(1 0+1 240*0.943 240+1 120*0.909 120)/3= =2.852 0 pu. 17

The negative sequence component for the phases b and c are calculated as, Vb2=aVa2=1 120*2.852 0 =2.852 120 pu. Vc2=a2Va2=1 240*2.852 0 =2.852 240 pu. (f) The zero sequence component of phase a,b,c is calculated as, Va0==Vbo=Vco = (Va+Vb+Vc)/3= 0.0265 21.697 24. A three-phase, 3.7 kW, 1420 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R 1=5.39 , R2=5.72 , X1=X2=8.22 , Rm=2100 , Xm=192 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. At 440 V, 50 Hz, it has R m=2000 , Xm=172 . Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and 440 V, 50 Hz. Synchronous speed for 50 Hz supply nearest to 1420 rpm is 1500 rpm. Slip s==0.053 For a small slip approximation, S (1/V2), The new slip at reduced voltage is as, Sn=0.053(415/440)2= 0.04715=4.715%. Equivalent load resistance per phase=(R2/K2)(1/s-1) =5.72(21.209-1) = 115.595 So the total effective impedance per phase= (5.39+j8.22)+(5.72+j8.22)+(115.595+j0) =126.705+j16.44=127.767 7.393 Counter balancing rotor current= 440/( 127.767 7.393)= 3.443 -7.393 Magnetising component of no load current per phase= -j(440/172)= -j2.558A Energy current of the no load current=440/2000=0.22A No load current=0.22-j2.558=2.567 -85.084 (a) Stator current per phase I1=3.443 -7.393+2.567 -85.084=3.634-j3.001=4.713 -39.55 Stator line current= 3 I1=1.732x 4.713=8.163A (b) Rotor copper loss= 3*3.4432*5.72=203.419 W Stator core loss = 3*4402/2000=290.4 W Stator copper loss = 3*4.7132*5.39=359.174 W (c) Input power=3V1I1cos=3*415*4.713*cos(-39.55)=4524.391 W 25. A three-phase, 3.7 kW, 1420 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R 1=5.39 , R2=5.72 , X1=X2=8.22 , Rm=2100 , Xm=240 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. At 360 V, 50 Hz, it has R m=2200 , Xm=172 . Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and 360 V, 50 Hz. Synchronous speed for 50 Hz supply nearest to 1420 rpm is 1500 rpm. Slip s=(1/1500)(1500-1420) =0.053 For a small slip approximation, S (1/V2), The new slip at reduced voltage is as, Sn=0.053(415/360)2= 0.070431=7.0431%. Equivalent load resistance per phase=(R2/K2)(1/s-1) =5.72(14.198-1) = 75.494 So the total effective impedance per phase= (5.39+j8.22)+(5.72+j8.22)+(75.494+j0) =86.604+j16.44=88.151 10.748 Counter balancing rotor current= 360/( 88.151 10.748)= 4.084 -10.748 Magnetising component of no load current per phase=-j(360/172)= -j2.093 Energy current of the no load current=360/2200=0.164 No load current=0.164-j2.093=2.099 -85.519 (a) Stator current per phase I1=4.084 -10.748+2.099 -85.519=4.176-j2.854=5.058 -34.349 Stator line current= 3 I1=1.732x 5.058=8.76A (b) 18

Rotor copper loss= 3*4.0842*5.72=286.212 W Stator core loss = 3*3602/2200=176.727 W Stator copper loss = 3*5.0582*5.39=413.683 W (c ) Input power at 360 V =3V1I1cos=3*360*5.058*cos(-34.349)=4510.04 W SUMMARY Because of increased awareness of power quality and its associated problems, standardization, assessment, monitoring, and mitigation have become almost essential for manufacturers, customers, utilities and researchers. In view of these power quality issues, a number of organizations such IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva), IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, USA) have published different standards to specify the permissible limits of various power quality indices to limit the level of power quality to an acceptable bench mark and to provide guidelines to the customers, manufactures and utilities on curbing the various events causing the power quality problems. Similarly, a number of instruments for monitoring and assessing the power quality indices are developed by many manufactures in different names as power quality analyzers, monitors, meters etc. for both assessing at customer sites, utility premises, and manufacturing stages of various electrical equipments. Because of direct or indirect penalty and loss of revenue, power quality mitigation is not only at retrofit eleven, but many manufactures have started introducing their equipment. This exhaustive exposure of these standards, definitions, monitoring and assessment of power quality will be beneficial to the designers, users, manufacturers and research engineers dealing power quality improvement. 2.9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. REVIEW QUESTIONS What is the power quality monitoring? What are power quality standards? What is the total harmonic distortion factor (THD)? What is the total demand distortion factor (TDD)? What is the point of common coupling (PCC)? What is the distortion factor (DF)? What is the displacement factor (DPF)? What is the power factor (PF) in presence of harmonics in ac voltage and ac current? What is the crest factor (CF)? What is the quality factor (Q)? What is the active power (P) in presence of harmonics in ac voltage and ac current? What is the fundamental reactive power (Q1) in presence of harmonics in ac voltage and ac current? What is the unbalance factor (UF)? What is the telephone influence factor (TIF)? What is the C-message weight? What is the distortion index (DIN)? What is the flicker factor (F)? What is the harmonic spectrum? What is the power analyzer? What is the power monitor? What is the power scope? What is the spectrum analyzer? What is the IEC flicker meter? What is the negative sequence voltage and how does it affect the different loads? In a three-phase unbalanced load, the instantaneous negative and positive sequence currents can be extracted?

2.10 NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

1. 2. 3. 4.

In a quasi-square wave (150 pulse width), calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (c) total harmonic distortion %THD. In a trapezoidal wave (60 flat portion), calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (f) total harmonic distortion %THD. In a trapezoidal wave (120 flat portion), calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (f) total harmonic distortion %THD. In a rising saw-tooth wave, calculate (a) crest factor, CF, (b) distortion factor, DF, and (f) total harmonic distortion %THD.

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A three-phase unbalanced supply system has following phase voltages, Va=1.0 20 pu, Vb=1.0 220 pu, Vc=1.0 110 pu. Find the positive, negative and zero sequence components of supply voltages. A three-phase unbalanced supply system has following phase voltages, Va=0.92 0 pu, Vb=1.05 240 pu, Vc=0.96 120 pu. Find the positive, negative and zero sequence components of supply voltages. A three-phase balanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=0.90 0 pu., Vb=0.90 240 pu., Vc=0.90 120 pu., has unbalanced load currents as, Ia= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.45 90 pu. Find (a) the total complex power, (b) the positive sequence components of power, (c) the negative sequence components of power, and (d) the zero sequence components of power. A three-phase balanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=0.90 0 pu., Vb=1.1 240 pu., Vc=0.95 120 pu., has unbalanced load currents as, Ia= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.65 270 pu., and Ic=0.35 90 pu. Find (a) the total complex power, (b) the positive sequence components of power, (c) the negative sequence components of power, and (d) the zero sequence components of power. A three-phase unbalanced supply system having phase voltages, V a=1.1 0 pu., Vb=1.0 230 pu., Vc=0.9 120 pu., has unbalanced load currents as, I a= 0.75 -20 pu., Ib= 0.75 260 pu., and Ic=0.75 140 pu. Find (a) the total complex power, (b) the positive sequence components of power, (c) the negative sequence components of power, and (d) the zero sequence components of power. In three-phase ac mains, there is voltage sag at PCC of 15%, 25 % and 20% on three phases for 15, 25 and 30 cycles respectively. Calculate (a) Detroit Edison Sag Score (SS), and (b) voltage sag lost energy index (VSLEI) of this sag event. Estimate the K factor rating of a single-phase transformer used to feed a single-phase ac voltage controller with resistive load at its thyristors firing angle at 90. Estimate the K factor rating of a three-phase transformer used to feed a three-phase 12-pulse diode bridge rectifier with constant DC load current. A single-phase transformer used to feed a single-phase diode bridge rectifier with constant DC load current of 50 A. The transformer has been rated for a winding eddy current loss density of 15% (o.o15 pu). Calculate its derating factor. A single-phase ac voltage controller is used to control the heating load in a food vending machine at a power of 500 W at 50 V fed from single-phase ac mains of 230 V, 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.2 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (Isc), (e) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. A single-phase uncontrolled bridge converter has a RE load with R=1.0 ohms, and E=285 V. The input ac voltage is Vs=230 V at 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.05 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (I s), (b) losses in the distribution system. (c) Total harmonic distortion in current. (d) Crest factor of supply current. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (e) ac source rms current (Isc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (g) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. A three-phase fully controlled bridge converter feeds power to a load having a resistance of R=5 ohms and very large inductance to result in continuous current with an input from a three-phase supply 415 V, 50 Hz. Feeder conductors have the resistance of order 0.125 ohms each. For firing angles of 300, calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase uncontrolled bridge converter (shown in Fig. E2.8) has a RE load with R=0.9 ohms, and E=290 V. Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.05 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (I s), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase thyristor bridge 20

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converter drawing equal 20 A constant dc current at 30 firing angle of its thyristors . Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. In a three-phase, 4-wire distribution system with line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, three single-phase loads (connected between phases and neutral) having a single-phase ac voltage controller for heating loads (Resistive Load) of 5 ohms. The delay angle of thyristors is =130 . Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (I sc), (e) neutral current (Isnc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. In a three-phase, line voltage of 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-wire distribution system, a single-phase load (connected between phase and neutral) having a 75 A, 0.85 lagging power factor. Feeders and neutral conductor have the resistance of order 0.1 ohms each. Calculate (a) ac source rms current (Is), (b) neutral current (Isn), (c) losses in the distribution system. If an ideal 4-wire shunt compensator is used to compensate power factor to unity in each phase then, calculate (d) ac source rms current (Isc), (e) neutral current (I snc), (f) losses in the distribution system, (f) ratio of losses in distribution system without and with compensator. A three-phase, 37 kW, 415 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load of constant torque. It runs at 3.5% slip at full load and rated voltage and frequency. If terminal voltage reduces to 360 V, calculate its (a) slip, (b) shaft speed, (c) output power, (d) rotor winding loss as a ratio of rated rotor winding loss at rated voltage. Consider small slip approximation. A three-phase, 37 kW, 415 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load of constant torque. It runs at 3.5% slip at full load and rated voltage and frequency. If terminal voltage increases to 440 V, calculate its (a) slip, (b) shaft speed, (c) output power, (d) rotor winding loss as a ratio of rated rotor winding loss at rated voltage. Consider small slip approximation. A three-phase, 10 kW, 1440 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R1=3.55 , R2=3.72 , X1=X2=5.22 , Rm=1500 , Xm=120 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and balanced rated voltage. If it has applied line voltages as 440 V 0, 415 V 120, 400 V -120, in three phases, calculate (d) positive sequence voltage, (e) negative sequence voltage, (f) positive sequence supply current, (g) negative sequence supply current, (h) losses, , (i) input power at rated speed. A three-phase, 10 kW, 1440 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R1=3.55 , R2=3.72 , X1=X2=5.22 , Rm=1500 , Xm=120 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. At 440 V, 50 Hz, it has R m=1450 , Xm=100 . Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and 440 V, 50 Hz. A three-phase, 10 kW, 1440 rpm, delta connected squirrel cage induction motor is used to drive a compressor load. It has its per phase equivalent circuit parameters referred to stator: R 1=3.55 , R2=3.72 , X1=X2=5.22 , Rm=1500 , Xm=120 at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. at rated voltage and frequency of 415 V, 50 Hz. At 360 V, 50 Hz, it has R m=1600 , Xm=150 . Calculate its (a) supply current, (b) losses, (c) input power at rated speed and 360 V, 50 Hz.

2.11 COMPUTER SIMULATION BASED PROBLEMS 2.12 REFERENCES


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